PMID(sorted ascending)
fhip and fts proteins are critical for dynein-mediated transport of early endosomes in aspergillus.the minus end-directed microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein transports various cellular cargoes, including early endosomes, but how dynein binds to its cargo remains unclear. recently fungal hook homologues were found to link dynein to early endosomes for their transport. here we identified fhipa in aspergillus nidulans as a key player for hooka (a. nidulans hook) function via a genome-wide screen for mutants defective in early-endosome distribution. the human homologue of fhipa, fhip, is a prot ...201424870033
role of moand1-mediated nuclear positioning in morphogenesis and pathogenicity in the rice blast fungus, magnaporthe cause disease on host plants, many phytopathogenic fungi undergo morphological transitions including development of reproductive structures as well as specialized infection structures called appressoria. such morphological transitions display distinct nuclear dynamics. here we report the developmental requirement of moand1-mediated nuclear positioning for pathogenesis of the rice blast fungus, magnaporthe oryzae. the moand1 gene encodes a protein that shows high similarity to num1 in saccharo ...201424875422
interdependence of the actin and the microtubule cytoskeleton during fungal growth.cell polarization is a theme in biology conserved from bacteria to man. one of the most extremely polarized cells in nature is the hyphae of filamentous fungi. a continuous flow of secretion vesicles from the hyphal cell body to the tip is essential for cell wall and membrane extension. microtubules (mts) and actin, along with their corresponding motor proteins, are involved in the secretion process. therefore, the arrangement of the cytoskeleton is a crucial step to establish and maintain polar ...201424879477
cytotoxic and antifungal activities of melleolide antibiotics follow dissimilar structure-activity relationships.the fungal genus armillaria is unique in that it is the only natural source of melleolide antibiotics, i.e., protoilludene alcohols esterified with orsellinic acid or its derivatives. this class of natural products is known to exert antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects. here, we present a refined relationship between the structure and the antimicrobial activity of the melleolides. using both agar diffusion and broth dilution assays, we identified the δ(2,4)-double bond of the protoilludene moiety ...201424906293
the histone acetyltransferase gcne (gcn5) plays a central role in the regulation of aspergillus asexual development.acetylation of histones is a key regulatory mechanism of gene expression in eukaryotes. gcne is an acetyltransferase of aspergillus nidulans involved in the acetylation of histone h3 at lysine 9 and lysine 14. previous works have demonstrated that deletion of gcne results in defects in primary and secondary metabolism. here we unveil the role of gcne in development and show that a ∆gcne mutant strain has minor growth defects but is impaired in normal conidiophore development. no signs of conidia ...201424907261
"stop ne(c)king around": how interactomics contributes to functionally characterize nek family kinases.aside from polo and aurora, a third but less studied kinase family involved in mitosis regulation is the never in mitosis-gene a (nima)-related kinases (neks). the founding member of this family is the sole member nima of aspergillus nidulans, which is crucial for the initiation of mitosis in that organism. all 11 human neks have been functionally assigned to one of the three core functions established for this family in mammals: (1) centrioles/mitosis; (2) primary ciliary function/ciliopathies; ...201424921005
novel telomere-anchored pcr approach for studying sexual stage telomeres in aspergillus nidulans.telomere length varies between germline and somatic cells of the same organism, leading to the hypothesis that telomeres are lengthened during meiosis. however, little is known about the meiotic telomere length in many organisms. in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, the telomere lengths in hyphae and asexual spores are invariant. no study using existing techniques has determined the telomere length of the sexual ascospores due to the relatively low abundance of pure meiotic cells in a ...201424927411
bem46 shows eisosomal localization and association with tryptophan-derived auxin pathway in neurospora crassa.bem46 proteins are evolutionarily conserved, but their functions remain elusive. we reported previously that the bem46 protein in neurospora crassa is targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (er) and is essential for ascospore germination. in the present study, we established a bem46 knockout strain of n. crassa. this δbem46 mutant exhibited a level of ascospore germination lower than that of the wild type but much higher than those of the previously characterized bem46-overexpressing and rna inte ...201424928924
aspergillus nidulans pmts form heterodimers in all pairwise combinations.eukaryotic protein o-mannosyltransferases (pmts) are divided into three subfamilies (pmt1, pmt2, and pmt4) and activity of pmts in yeasts and animals requires assembly into complexes. in saccharomyces cerevisiae, pmt1 and pmt2 form a heteromeric complex and pmt 4 forms a homomeric complex. the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans has three pmts: pmta (subfamily 2), pmtb (subfamily 1), and pmtc (subfamily 4). in this study we show that a. nidulans pmts form heteromeric complexes in all possibl ...201424936400
chitinase but n-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase production correlates to the biomass decline in penicillium and aspergillus species.hydrolytic enzyme production is typical of the autolysis in filamentous fungi; however, less attention has been given to the physiological role of the enzymes. here, the aim was to investigate the possible relation of the chitinolytic enzymes to the changes in the biomass in some filamentous fungi of high importance for pharmaceutical or food industry. in penicillium and aspergillus filamentous fungi, which showed different characteristics in submerged cultures, the growth and biomass decline ra ...201424939682
maturation of late golgi cisternae into rabe(rab11) exocytic post-golgi carriers visualized in vivo.the mechanism(s) by which proteins traverse and exit the golgi are incompletely understood. using aspergillus nidulans hyphae, we show that late golgi cisternae undergo changes in composition to gradually lose golgi identity while acquiring post-golgi rabe(rab11) identity. this behavior of late golgi cisternae is consistent with the cisternal maturation model. post-golgi rabe(rab11) carriers travel to, and accumulate at, the apex, indicating that fusion is rate limiting for exocytosis. these car ...201424943841
an aspergillus nidulans β-mannanase with high transglycosylation capacity revealed through comparative studies within glycosidase family 5.β-mannanases are involved in the conversion and modification of mannan-based saccharides. using a retaining mechanism, they can, in addition to hydrolysis, also potentially perform transglycosylation reactions, synthesizing new glyco-conjugates. transglycosylation has been reported for β-mannanases in gh5 and gh113. however, although they share the same fold and catalytic mechanism, there may be differences in the enzymes' ability to perform transglycosylation. three gh5 β-mannanases from asperg ...201424950755
f-box protein rcya controls turnover of the kinesin-7 motor kipa in aspergillus nidulans.fungal filamentous growth depends on continuous membrane insertion at the tip, the delivery of membrane-bound positional markers, and the secretion of enzymes for cell wall biosynthesis. this is achieved through exocytosis. at the same time, polarized growth requires membrane and protein recycling through endocytosis. endocytic vesicles are thought to enter the protein degradation pathway or recycle their content to the cell surface. in saccharomyces cerevisiae, the rcy1 f-box protein is involve ...201424951440
genetics of polyketide metabolism in aspergillus nidulans.secondary metabolites are small molecules that show large structural diversity and a broad range of bioactivities. some metabolites are attractive as drugs or pigments while others act as harmful mycotoxins. filamentous fungi have the capacity to produce a wide array of secondary metabolites including polyketides. the majority of genes required for production of these metabolites are mostly organized in gene clusters, which often are silent or barely expressed under laboratory conditions, making ...201224957370
genome-scale analysis of the high-efficient protein secretion system of aspergillus oryzae.the koji mold, aspergillus oryzae is widely used for the production of industrial enzymes due to its particularly high protein secretion capacity and ability to perform post-translational modifications. however, systemic analysis of its secretion system is lacking, generally due to the poorly annotated proteome.201424961398
modelling and mutational analysis of aspergillus nidulans urea, a member of the subfamily of urea/h⁺ transporters in fungi and plants.we present the first account of the structure-function relationships of a protein of the subfamily of urea/h(+) membrane transporters of fungi and plants, using aspergillus nidulans urea as a study model. based on the crystal structures of the vibrio parahaemolyticus sodium/galactose symporter (vsglt) and of the nucleobase-cation-symport-1 benzylhydantoin transporter from microbacterium liquefaciens (mhp1), we constructed a three-dimensional model of urea which, combined with site-directed and c ...201424966243
purine utilization proteins in the eurotiales: cellular compartmentalization, phylogenetic conservation and divergence.the purine utilization pathway has been thoroughly characterized in aspergillus nidulans. we establish here the subcellular distribution of seven key intracellular enzymes, xanthine dehydrogenase (hxa), urate oxidase (uaz), 5-hydroxy-isourate hydrolase (uax), 2-oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy ureido imidazoline decarboxylase (uaw), allantoinase (alx), allantoicase (aax), ureidoglycolate lyase (ugla), and the fungal-specific α-ketoglutarate fe(ii)-dependent dioxygenase (xana). hxa, alx, aax, uaw and xana ...201424970358
alternaria alternata transcription factor cmra controls melanization and spore development.melanin is a black pigment widely distributed across the kingdoms, from bacterial to human. the filamentous fungus alternaria alternata is a typical 'black fungus', which produces melanin in its hyphal and especially its asexual spore cell walls. its biosynthesis follows the dihydroxynaphthalene (dhn) pathway with 1,8-dhn as an intermediate. two genes, encoding a polyketide synthase (pksa) and a 1,3,8-trihydroxynaphthalene (thn) reductase (brm2), along with a putative transcription factor, cmra, ...201424972701
the observation of plca mutation and localization in aspergillus know the function of the plca gene, which encodes a putative phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase c, in a model filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, it was disrupted thorough homologous recombination and examined. the germination rate of δplca was reduced by approximately 65% and germination of δplca at a lower temperature (25°c) was much slower than germination under normal conditions (37°c), suggesting the plca is responsible for cold-sensitivity. the hyphal growth of δplca was sligh ...201424972808
identification of the augmin complex in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.augmin is a protein complex that binds to spindle microtubules (mts), recruits the potent mt nucleator, γ-tubulin, and thereby promotes the centrosome-independent mt generation within mitotic and meiotic spindles. augmin is essential for acentrosomal spindle assembly, which is commonly observed during mitosis in plants and meiosis in female animals. in many animal somatic cells that possess centrosomes, the centrosome- and augmin-dependent mechanisms work cooperatively for efficient spindle asse ...201425003582
photo-convertible tagging for localization and dynamic analyses of low-expression proteins in filamentous fluorescent proteins (pcfps) undergo a dramatic change in their excitation and emission spectra upon irradiation at specific wavelengths, thus rendering a different color. dendra2 is a commercially available pcfp used to track the redistribution of proteins within cellular compartments, their life-time or interactions. before photo-conversion dendra2 exhibits green fluorescence, which becomes red after irradiation with either uv or blue lights. multiple studies including dendra ...201425014896
the putative stress sensor protein mtla is required for conidia formation, cell wall stress tolerance, and cell wall integrity in aspergillus nidulans.the mid2-like protein mtla is a putative sensor of the cell wall integrity (cwi) signaling pathway in aspergillus nidulans. an mtla-egfp fusion protein was localized at the cell surface and septa. the mtla disruptant (∆mtla) showed radial colony growth similar to the wild-type (wt) strain, but showed reduced conidia formation. the ∆mtla mutant showed growth deficiency in the presence of inhibitors of cell wall synthesis. moreover, mtla disruption resulted in a reduction in the glucan and chitin ...201425036689
improvement of aspergillus nidulans penicillin production by targeting acva to peroxisomes.aspergillus nidulans is able to synthesize penicillin and serves as a model to study the regulation of its biosynthesis. only three enzymes are required to form the beta lactam ring tripeptide, which is comprised of l-cysteine, l-valine and l-aminoadipic acid. whereas two enzymes, acva and ipna localize to the cytoplasm, aata resides in peroxisomes. here, we tested a novel strategy to improve penicillin production, namely the change of the residence of the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis. w ...201425043338
elucidating how the saprophytic fungus aspergillus nidulans uses the plant polyester suberin as carbon source.lipid polymers in plant cell walls, such as cutin and suberin, build recalcitrant hydrophobic protective barriers. their degradation is of foremost importance for both plant pathogenic and saprophytic fungi. regardless of numerous reports on fungal degradation of emulsified fatty acids or cutin, and on fungi-plant interactions, the pathways involved in the degradation and utilisation of suberin remain largely overlooked. as a structural component of the plant cell wall, suberin isolation, in gen ...201425043916
genome mining and functional genomics for siderophore production in aspergillus niger.iron is an essential metal for many organisms, but the biologically relevant form of iron is scarce because of rapid oxidation resulting in low solubility. simultaneously, excessive accumulation of iron is toxic. consequently, iron uptake is a highly controlled process. in most fungal species, siderophores play a central role in iron handling. siderophores are small iron-specific chelators that can be secreted to scavenge environmental iron or bind intracellular iron with high affinity. a second ...201425062661
germination of aspergillus niger conidia is triggered by nitrogen compounds related to l-amino acids.conidial germination is fundamentally important to the growth and dissemination of most fungi. it has been previously shown (k. hayer, m. stratford, and d. b. archer, appl. environ. microbiol. 79:6924-6931, 2013,, using sugar analogs, that germination is a 2-stage process involving triggering of germination and then nutrient uptake for hyphal outgrowth. in the present study, we tested this 2-stage germination process using a series of nitrogen-containing c ...201425063657
similar is not the same: differences in the function of the (hemi-)cellulolytic regulator xlnr (xlr1/xyr1) in filamentous fungi.the transcriptional activator xlnr (xlr1/xyr1) is a major regulator in fungal xylan and cellulose degradation as well as in the utilization of d-xylose via the pentose catabolic pathway. xlnr homologs are commonly found in filamentous ascomycetes and often assumed to have the same function in different fungi. however, a comparison of the saprobe aspergillus niger and the plant pathogen magnaporthe oryzae showed different phenotypes for deletion strains of xlnr. in this study wild type and xlnr/x ...201425064064
sporadic distribution of prion-forming ability of sup35p from yeasts and fungi.sup35p of saccharomyces cerevisiae can form the [psi+] prion, an infectious amyloid in which the protein is largely inactive. the part of sup35p that forms the amyloid is the region normally involved in control of mrna turnover. the formation of [psi+] by sup35p's from other yeasts has been interpreted to imply that the prion-forming ability of sup35p is conserved in evolution, and thus of survival/fitness/evolutionary value to these organisms. we surveyed a larger number of yeast and fungal spe ...201425081567
high-yield recombinant xylanase production by aspergillus nidulans under pyridoxine limitation.the present study investigated the limitation of pyridoxine on an aspergillus nidulans culture that produces xylanase b (xynb) as a client enzyme and was unable to synthesize pyridoxine. this technique was used to limit cell growth and divert substrate to product formation for a surface grown culture that could be used in trickle bed reactors. it was observed that growth was limited when pyridoxine was absent, while enzyme production was unaffected. enzyme production was 1,026 u after 480 h of c ...201425085742
genome organization and assessment of high copy number and increased expression of pectinolytic genes from penicillium griseoroseum: a potential heterologous system for protein production.the fungus penicillium griseoroseum has the potential for application on an industrial scale as a host for the production of homologous and heterologous proteins, mainly because it does not produce some mycotoxins or secrete proteases under the growth conditions for pectinase production. however, for the fungus to be used effectively as an expression heterologous system, an understanding of the organization of its genome, as well as the mechanisms of gene expression and protein production, is re ...201425099254
restraint of the g2/m transition by the sr/rrm family mrna shuttling binding protein snxahrb1 in aspergillus nidulans.control of the eukaryotic g2/m transition by cdc2/cyclinb is tightly regulated by protein-protein interactions, protein phosphorylations, and nuclear localization of cdc2/cyclinb. we previously reported a screen, in aspergillus nidulans, for extragenic suppressors of nimx2(cdc2) that resulted in the identification of the cold-sensitive snxa1 mutation. we demonstrate here that snxa1 suppresses defects in regulators of the cdk1 mitotic induction pathway, including nimx2(cdc) (2), nime6(cyclinb), a ...201425104516
the phosphoproteome of aspergillus nidulans reveals functional association with cellular processes involved in morphology and secretion.we describe the first phosphoproteome of the model filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. phosphopeptides were enriched using titanium dioxide, separated using a convenient ultra-long reverse phase gradient, and identified using a "high-high" strategy (high mass accuracy on the parent and fragment ions) with higher-energy collisional dissociation. using this approach 1801 phosphosites, from 1637 unique phosphopeptides, were identified. functional classification revealed phosphoproteins were ov ...201425116090
putative pmra and pmca are important for normal growth, morphogenesis and cell wall integrity, but not for viability in aspergillus nidulans.p-type ca(2+)-transporting atpases are ca(2+) pumps, extruding cytosolic ca(2+) to the extracellular environment or the intracellular ca(2+) store lumens. in budding yeast, pmr1 (plasma membrane atpase related), and pmc1 (plasma membrane calcium-atpase) cannot be deleted simultaneously for it to survive in standard medium. here, we deleted two putative ca(2+) pumps, designated anpmra and anpmca, from aspergillus nidulans, and obtained the mutants δanpmra and δanpmca, respectively. then, using δa ...201425118249
eucast testing of isavuconazole susceptibility in aspergillus: comparison of results for inoculum standardization using conidium counting versus optical density.the eucast e.def9.1 standard recommends standardization of the inoculum concentration by conidium counting using a hemocytometer rather than a spectrophotometer. in this study, we investigated whether the choice of these methods influenced isavuconazole mics. a blinded collection of 30 molecularly characterized azole-resistant isolates and 10 wild-type aspergillus fumigatus isolates was shared with four different laboratories. additionally, each laboratory selected approximately 100 a. fumigatus ...201425136005
metabolism of d-galactose is dispensable for the induction of the beta-galactosidase (bgad) and lactose permease (lacpa) genes in aspergillus this study, we analyze the expression of the aspergillus nidulans bgad-lacpa gene couple (encoding an intracellular beta-galactosidase and a lactose permease) in the presence of d-galactose. this monosaccharide can be catabolized via alternative, independent pathways in this model organism. the inductive capabilities of intermediates of the two alternative routes of d-galactose utilization were addressed in loss-of-function mutants defective in a defined step in one of the two pathways. in a ...201425145606
protein kinase c overexpression suppresses calcineurin-associated defects in aspergillus nidulans and is involved in mitochondrial filamentous fungi, intracellular signaling pathways which are mediated by changing calcium levels and/or by activated protein kinase c (pkc), control fungal adaptation to external stimuli. a rise in intracellular ca2+ levels activates calcineurin subunit a (cnaa), which regulates cellular calcium homeostasis among other processes. pkc is primarily involved in maintaining cell wall integrity (cwi) in response to different environmental stresses. cross-talk between the ca2+ and pkc-mediated pat ...201425153325
a dually located multi-hmg-box protein of aspergillus nidulans has a crucial role in conidial and ascospore hmg-box proteins of aspergillus nidulans have been identified in the genomic databases. three of these have the characteristics of non-specific dna-binding proteins. one of these, an1267 (hmbb), comprises one canonical hmg-box in its c-terminus and upstream of the canonical box two structurally related boxes, to be called shadow-hmg-boxes. this protein defines, together with the podospora anserina mthmg1, a clade of proteins present in the pezizomycotina, with orthologues in some of the ta ...201425156107
hydroxamate production as a high affinity iron acquisition mechanism in paracoccidioides spp.iron is a micronutrient required by almost all living organisms, including fungi. although this metal is abundant, its bioavailability is low either in aerobic environments or within mammalian hosts. as a consequence, pathogenic microorganisms evolved high affinity iron acquisition mechanisms which include the production and uptake of siderophores. here we investigated the utilization of these molecules by species of the paracoccidioides genus, the causative agents of a systemic mycosis. it was ...201425157575
expression of aspergillus nidulans phy gene in nicotiana benthamiana produces active phytase with broad specificities.a full-length phytase gene (phy) of aspergillus nidulans was amplified from the cdna library by polymerase chain reaction (pcr), and it was introduced into a bacterial expression vector, pet-28a. the recombinant protein (rphy-e, 56 kda) was overexpressed in the insoluble fraction of escherichia coli culture, purified by ni-nta resin under denaturing conditions and injected into rats as an immunogen. to express a. nidulans phytase in a plant, the full-length of phy was cloned into a plant express ...201425192284
an isoprenylation and palmitoylation motif promotes intraluminal vesicle delivery of proteins in cells from distant species.the c-terminal ends of small gtpases contain hypervariable sequences which may be posttranslationally modified by defined lipid moieties. the diverse structural motifs generated direct proteins towards specific cellular membranes or organelles. however, knowledge on the factors that determine these selective associations is limited. here we show, using advanced microscopy, that the isoprenylation and palmitoylation motif of human rhob (-cincckvl) targets chimeric proteins to intraluminal vesicle ...201425207810
conserved and distinct functions of the “stunted” (stua)-homolog ust1 during cell differentiation in the corn smut fungus ustilago maydis.ustilago maydis, causal agent of corn smut, can proliferate saprobically in a yeast form but its infectious filamentous form is an obligate parasite. previously, we showed that ust1, the first apses (asm1p, phd1p, sok2p, efg1p, and stuap) transcription factor functionally characterized in the phylum basidiomycota, controlled morphogenesis and virulence in this species. here, we further analyzed ust1 function using multiple experimental approaches and determined that i) ust1 activity was able to ...201525208341
the role of +tips in directional tip expansion.aspergillus nidulans is an ideal model to study nuclear migration and intracellular transport by dynein and kinesin owing to its long neuron-like hyphae, conserved transport mechanisms, and powerful genetics. in this organism, as in other filamentous fungi, microtubules have been implicated in patterning cell shape through polarized tip growth - the hallmark mode of growth that generates the elongated hyphae. exactly how microtubules regulate tip growth is incompletely understood and remains a f ...201425213368
microtubule plus end-tracking proteins play critical roles in directional growth of hyphae by regulating the dynamics of cytoplasmic microtubules in aspergillus nidulans.cytoplasmic microtubules (mts) serve as a rate-limiting factor for hyphal tip growth in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. we hypothesized that this function depended on the mt plus end-tracking proteins (+tips) including the eb1 family protein eba that decorated the mt plus ends undergoing polymerization. the ebaδ mutation reduced colony growth and the mutant hyphae appeared in an undulating pattern instead of exhibiting unidirectional growth in the control. these phenotypes were enha ...201425213466
flow cytometry of microencapsulated colonies for genetics analysis of filamentous fungi.the analysis of filamentous fungi by flow cytometry has been impossible to date due to their filamentous nature and size. in this work, we have developed a method that combines single-spore microencapsulation and large-particle flow cytometry as a powerful alternative for the genetic analysis of filamentous fungi. individual spores were embedded in monodisperse alginate microparticles and incubated in the appropriate conditions. growth could be monitored by light or fluorescent microscopy and co ...201425239104
development of rflp-pcr method for the identification of medically important aspergillus species using single restriction enzyme this study we attempted to modify the pcr-rflp method using restriction enzyme mwoi for the identification of medically important aspergillus species. our subjects included nine standard aspergillus species and 205 aspergillus isolates of approved hospital acquired infections and hospital indoor sources. first of all, aspergillus isolates were identified in the level of species by using morphologic method. a twenty four hours culture was performed for each isolates to harvest aspergillus myce ...201425242934
the vip1 inositol polyphosphate kinase family regulates polarized growth and modulates the microtubule cytoskeleton in fungi.microtubules (mts) are pivotal for numerous eukaryotic processes ranging from cellular morphogenesis, chromosome segregation to intracellular transport. execution of these tasks requires intricate regulation of mt dynamics. here, we identify a new regulator of the schizosaccharomyces pombe mt cytoskeleton: asp1, a member of the highly conserved vip1 inositol polyphosphate kinase family. inositol pyrophosphates generated by asp1 modulate mt dynamic parameters independent of the central +tip eb1 a ...201425254656
production of 5,8-dihydroxy-9(z)-octadecenoic acid from oleic acid by whole recombinant cells of aspergillus nidulans expressing diol synthase.the optimal conditions for the production of 5,8-dihydroxy-9(z)-octadecenoic acid (5,8-dihome) from oleic acid by whole recombinant escherichia coli cells expressing diol synthase from aspergillus nidulans were 40 °c, ph 7.5, 10 % (v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide, 35 g cells l(-1), and 12 g oleic acid l(-1) at 250 rpm in a 250 ml baffled flask. under these conditions, whole recombinant cells produced 5.2 g 5,8-dihome l(-1) together with 1 g l(-1) of the intermediate 8-hydroperoxy-9(z)-octadecenoic acid ...201525257582
penicillium antifungal protein (paf) is involved in the apoptotic and autophagic processes of the producer penicillium chrysogenum.paf, which is produced by the filamentous fungus pencicillium chrysogenum, is a small antifungal protein, triggering ros-mediated apoptotic cell death in aspergillus nidulans. in this work, we provide information on the function of paf in the host p. chrysogenum considering that carbon-starving cultures of the δpaf mutant strain showed significantly reduced apoptosis rates in comparison to the wild-type (wt) strain. moreover, the addition of paf to the δpaf strain resulted in a twofold increase ...201425261948
first reported case of aspergillus nidulans eumycetoma in a sporotrichoid distribution.mycetomas are chronic subcutaneous infections caused by either fungi (eumycetomas) or bacteria (actinomycetomas). eumycetoma is commonly seen in tropical and subtropical climates, usually in males working in occupations prone to trauma. aspergillus spp. are an uncommon cause of mycetomas.201525267555
fgflbd regulates hyphal differentiation required for sexual and asexual reproduction in the ascomycete fungus fusarium graminearum.fusarium graminearum is a filamentous fungal plant pathogen that infects major cereal crops. the fungus produces both sexual and asexual spores in order to endure unfavorable environmental conditions and increase their numbers and distribution across plants. in a model filamentous fungus, aspergillus nidulans, early induction of conidiogenesis is orchestrated by the fluffy genes. the objectives of this study were to characterize fluffy gene homologs involved in conidiogenesis and their mechanism ...201425277408
protein phosphatase 2a (pp2a) regulatory subunits para and paba orchestrate septation and conidiation and are essential for pp2a activity in aspergillus nidulans.protein phosphatase 2a (pp2a) is a major intracellular protein phosphatase that regulates multiple aspects of cell growth and metabolism. different activities of pp2a and subcellular localization are determined by its regulatory subunits. here we identified and characterized the functions of two protein phosphatase regulatory subunit homologs, para and paba, in aspergillus nidulans. our results demonstrate that para localizes to the septum site and that deletion of para causes hyperseptation, wh ...201425280816
the aspergillus nidulans signalling mucin msba regulates starvation responses, adhesion and affects cellulase secretion in response to environmental the heterogeneous semi-solid environment naturally occupied by lignocellulolytic fungi the majority of nutrients are locked away as insoluble plant biomass. hence, lignocellulolytic fungi must actively search for, and attach to, a desirable source of nutrients. during growth on lignocellulose a period of carbon deprivation provokes carbon catabolite derepression and scavenging hydrolase secretion. subsequently, starvation and/or contact sensing was hypothesized to play a role in lignocellulos ...201425294314
understanding transporter specificity and the discrete appearance of channel-like gating domains in transporters.transporters are ubiquitous proteins mediating the translocation of solutes across cell membranes, a biological process involved in nutrition, signaling, neurotransmission, cell communication and drug uptake or efflux. similarly to enzymes, most transporters have a single substrate binding-site and thus their activity follows michaelis-menten kinetics. substrate binding elicits a series of structural changes, which produce a transporter conformer open toward the side opposite to the one from whe ...201425309439
mutations in proteins of the conserved oligomeric golgi complex affect polarity, cell wall structure, and glycosylation in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.we have described two aspergillus nidulans gene mutations, designated podb1 (polarity defective) and swop1 (swollen cell), which cause temperature-sensitive defects during polarization. mutant strains also displayed unevenness and abnormal thickness of cell walls. un-polarized or poorly-polarized mutant cells were capable of establishing normal polarity after a shift to a permissive temperature, and mutant hyphae shifted from permissive to restrictive temperature show wall and polarity abnormali ...201425312861
neurospora crassa female development requires the pacc and other signal transduction pathways, transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, cell-to-cell fusion, and autophagy.using a screening protocol we have identified 68 genes that are required for female development in the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa. we find that we can divide these genes into five general groups: 1) genes encoding components of the pacc signal transduction pathway, 2) other signal transduction pathway genes, including genes from the three n. crassa map kinase pathways, 3) transcriptional factor genes, 4) autophagy genes, and 5) other miscellaneous genes. complementation and rip studies ...201425333968
gene homozygosis and mitotic recombination induced by camptothecin and irinotecan in aspergillus nidulans diploid cells.mitotic recombination is a process involved in carcinogenesis which can lead to genetic loss through the loss of heterozygosity. the recombinogenic potentials of two anticancer drugs topoisomerase i inhibitors, camptothecin (cpt) and irinotecan (cpt-11), were evaluated in the present study. the homozygotization assay, which assess the induction of mitotic recombination and gene homozygosis, as well as the heterozygous a757//ut448 diploid strain of aspergillus nidulans were employed. the three no ...201425337669
protein kinase c regulates the expression of cell wall-related genes in rlma-dependent and independent manners in aspergillus nidulans.a protein kinase c of aspergillus nidulans, pkca, is required for cell wall integrity (cwi) and is considered a major component of the regulating pathway. to investigate whether pkca regulates the transcription of cell wall-related genes, we constructed strains expressing pkca(r429a) that encodes an activated form of pkca. the mrna levels of most chitin synthase genes and an α-glucan synthase gene, agsb, were increased when pkca(r429a) expression was induced. these mrna increases were not observ ...201525345444
characterization of the mutagenic spectrum of 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-nqo) in aspergillus nidulans by whole genome sequencing.4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-nqo) is a highly carcinogenic chemical that induces mutations in bacteria, fungi, and animals through the formation of bulky purine adducts. 4-nqo has been used as a mutagen for genetic screens and in both the study of dna damage and dna repair. in the model eukaryote aspergillus nidulans, 4-nqo-based genetic screens have been used to study diverse processes, including gene regulation, mitosis, metabolism, organelle transport, and septation. early work during the 1970 ...201425352541
transcriptional regulation of fksa, a β-1,3-glucan synthase gene, by the apses protein stua during aspergillus nidulans development.the temporal and spatial regulation of β-1,3-glucan synthesis plays an important role in morphogenesis during fungal growth and development. northern blot analysis showed that the transcription of fksa, the gene encoding β-1,3-glucan synthase in aspergillus nidulans, was cell-cycle-dependent and increased steadily over the duration of the vegetative period, but its overall expression during the asexual and sexual stages was fairly constant up until the time of transcription cessation. in an a. n ...201425359270
flug affects secretion in colonies of aspergillus niger.colonies of aspergillus niger are characterized by zonal heterogeneity in growth, sporulation, gene expression and secretion. for instance, the glucoamylase gene glaa is more highly expressed at the periphery of colonies when compared to the center. as a consequence, its encoded protein glaa is mainly secreted at the outer part of the colony. here, multiple copies of amyr were introduced in a. niger. most transformants over-expressing this regulatory gene of amylolytic genes still displayed hete ...201525370014
aspergillus fumigatus and related species.the genus aspergillus contains etiologic agents of aspergillosis. the clinical manifestations of the disease range from allergic reaction to invasive pulmonary infection. among the pathogenic aspergilli, aspergillus fumigatus is most ubiquitous in the environment and is the major cause of the disease, followed by aspergillus flavus, aspergillus niger, aspergillus terreus, aspergillus nidulans, and several species in the section fumigati that morphologically resemble a. fumigatus. patients that a ...201425377144
the velvet a orthologue vel1 of trichoderma reesei regulates fungal development and is essential for cellulase gene expression.trichoderma reesei is the industrial producer of cellulases and hemicellulases for biorefinery processes. their expression is obligatorily dependent on the function of the protein methyltransferase lae1. the aspergillus nidulans orthologue of lae1--laea--is part of the velvet protein complex consisting of laea, vea and velb that regulates secondary metabolism and sexual as well as asexual reproduction. here we have therefore investigated the function of vel1, the t. reesei orthologue of a. nidul ...201425386652
the aspergillus nidulans metz gene encodes a transcription factor involved in regulation of sulfur metabolism in this fungus and other aspergillus nidulans, expression of sulfur metabolism genes is activated by the metr transcription factor containing a basic region and leucine zipper domain (bzip). here we identified and characterized metz, a new transcriptional regulator in a. nidulans and other eurotiales. it contains a bzip domain similar to the corresponding region in metr and this similarity suggests that metz could potentially complement the metr deficiency. the metr and metz genes are interrupted by unusually long in ...201525391366
structural and functional conservation of fungal mata and human sry sex-determining determination in animals and fungi is regulated by specific sex-determining genes. the aspergillus nidulans mating type gene mata and the human sry (sex-determining region y) encode proteins containing a single hmg (high-mobility group) domain. analysis of the amino-acid sequence of mata and sry transcription factors revealed significant structural similarity. the human sry protein is able to functionally replace mata and drives the sexual cycle in the fungus a. nidulans. functional studies ...201425399555
heterologous expression of gaeumannomyces graminis lipoxygenase in aspergillus nidulans.aspergillus sp. contain ppo genes coding for ppo enzymes that produce oxylipins from polyunsaturated fatty acids. these oxylipins function as signal molecules in sporulation and influence the asexual to sexual ratio of aspergillus sp. fungi like aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus niger contain just ppo genes where the human pathogenic aspergillus flavus and aspergillus fumigatus contain ppo genes as well as lipoxygenases. lipoxygenases catalyze the synthesis of oxylipins and are hypothesized t ...201425401068
genetic transformation of knufia petricola a95 - a model organism for biofilm-material interactions.we established a protoplast-based system to transfer dna to knufia petricola strain a95, a melanised rock-inhabiting microcolonial fungus that is also a component of a model sub-aerial biofilm (sab) system. to test whether the desiccation resistant, highly melanised cell walls would hinder protoplast formation, we treated a melanin-minus mutant of a95 as well as the type-strain with a variety of cell-degrading enzymes. of the different enzymes tested, lysing enzymes from trichoderma harzianum we ...201425401079
illumina identification of rsra, a conserved c2h2 transcription factor coordinating the napa mediated oxidative stress signaling pathway in aspergillus.chemical mutagenesis screens are useful to identify mutants involved in biological processes of interest. identifying the mutation from such screens, however, often fails when using methodologies involving transformation of the mutant to wild type phenotype with dna libraries.201425416206
the aspergillus nidulans zn(ii)2cys6 transcription factor an5673/rhar mediates l-rhamnose utilization and the production of α-l-rhamnosidases.various plant-derived substrates contain l-rhamnose that can be assimilated by many fungi and its liberation is catalyzed by α-l-rhamnosidases. initial data obtained in our laboratory focussing on two aspergillus nidulans α-l-rhamnosidase genes (rhaa and rhae) showed α-l-rhamnosidase production to be tightly controlled at the level of transcription by the carbon source available. whilst induction is effected by l-rhamnose, unlike many other glycosyl hydrolase genes repression by glucose and othe ...201425416526
spatial regulation of the spindle assembly checkpoint and anaphase-promoting complex in aspergillus nidulans.the spindle assembly checkpoint (sac) plays a critical role in preventing mitotic errors by inhibiting anaphase until all kinetochores are correctly attached to spindle microtubules. in spite of the economic and medical importance of filamentous fungi, relatively little is known about the behavior of sac proteins in these organisms. in our efforts to understand the role of γ-tubulin in cell cycle regulation, we have created functional fluorescent protein fusions of four sac proteins in aspergill ...201525417844
conditional inactivation of aspergillus nidulans sara(sar1) uncovers the morphogenetic potential of regulating endoplasmic reticulum (er) the genetic model aspergillus nidulans, hyphal growth is exquisitely dependent on exocytic traffic. following mutagenic pcr and gene replacement, we characterized thermosensitive mutations in sara(sar1) encoding a key regulator of endoplasmic reticulum (er) exit. six sara(ts) alleles permitting relatively normal growth at 30°c prevented it at 42°c. this growth phenotype correlated with markedly reduced sara levels at high temperature, suggesting that these alleles cause temperature-dependent ...201525425159
trpac1, a ph response transcription regulator, is involved in cellulase gene expression in trichoderma reesei.fungi grow over a relatively wide ph range and adapt to extracellular ph through a genetic regulatory system mediated by a key component pacc, which is a ph transcription regulator. the cellulase production of the filamentous fungi trichoderma reesei is sensitive to ambient ph. to investigate the connection between cellulase expression regulation and ambient ph, an ortholog of aspergillus nidulans pacc, trpac1, was identified and functionally characterized using a target gene deletion strategy. ...201425442944
gbf/gea mutant with a single substitution sustains fungal growth in the absence of big/sec7.golgi arf1-guanine nucleotide exchange factors (gefs) belong to two subfamilies: gbf/gea and big/sec7. both are conserved across eukaryotes, but the physiological role of each is not well understood. aspergillus nidulans has a single member of the early golgi gbf/gea-subfamily, geaa, and the late golgi big/sec7-subfamily, hypb. both geaa and hypb are essential. hypb5 conditionally blocks secretion. we sought extragenic hypb5 suppressors and obtained geaa1. geaa1 results in tyr1022cys within a co ...201425451223
kinesin-3 in the basidiomycete ustilago maydis transports organelles along the entire microtubule array.the molecular motor kinesin-3 transports early endosomes along microtubules in filamentous fungi. it was reported that kinesin-3 from the ascomycete fungi aspergillus nidulans and neurospora crassa use a subset of post-translationally modified and more stable microtubules. here, i show that kinesin-3 from the basidiomycete ustilago maydis moves along all hyphal microtubules. this difference is likely due to variation in cell cycle control and associated organization of the microtubule array.201525459534
liaison alcaline: pals entice non-endosomal escrts to the plasma membrane for ph signaling.the alkaline ph-responsive pal/rim signal transduction pathway mediating regulation of gene expression by ambient ph has been extensively studied in aspergillus nidulans and saccharomyces cerevisiae. in a. nidulans, palh, pali, palf, palc, pala and palb are required for the proteolytic activation of the executing transcription factor pacc. although necessary, pal proteins are insufficient to transmit the signal, which additionally requires escrt-i, ii and vps20 with snf7 in escrt-iii. although t ...201425460796
the old 3-oxoadipate pathway revisited: new insights in the catabolism of aromatics in the saprophytic fungus aspergillus nidulans.aspergilli play major roles in the natural turnover of elements, especially through the decomposition of plant litter, but the end catabolism of lignin aromatic hydrocarbons remains largely unresolved. the 3-oxoadipate pathway of their degradation combines the catechol and the protocatechuate branches, each using a set of specific genes. however, annotation for most of these genes is lacking or attributed to poorly- or un-characterised families. aspergillus nidulans can utilise as sole carbon/en ...201525479309
crystallization and preliminary x-ray crystallographic analysis of ribosome assembly factors: the rpf2-rrs1 complex.rpf2 and rrs1 are essential proteins for ribosome biogenesis. these proteins form a complex (the rpf2-subcomplex) with 5s rrna and two ribosomal proteins (l5 and l11). this complex is recruited to the ribosome precursor (the 90s pre-ribosome). this recruitment is necessary for the maturation of 25s rrna. genetic depletion of rpf2 and rrs1 results in accumulation of the 25s rrna precursor. in this study, rpf2 and rrs1 from aspergillus nidulans were co-overexpressed in escherichia coli, purified a ...201425484219
identification and structural elucidation of ergotryptamine, a new ergot alkaloid produced by genetically modified aspergillus nidulans and natural isolates of epichloë species.ergot alkaloid pathway reconstruction in aspergillus nidulans is an approach used to better understand the biosynthesis of these mycotoxins. an engineered strain named a. nidulans wfc (expressing ergot alkaloid synthesis genes dmaw, easf, and easc) produced the established intermediate n-methyl-4-dimethylallyltryptophan, as well as an uncharacterized ergot alkaloid. we investigated the chemical structure of the new metabolite and its role in the ergot alkaloid pathway. mass spectrometry, labelin ...201525491167
nitrogen regulation of fungal secondary metabolism in fungi.fungi occupy diverse environments where they are constantly challenged by stressors such as extreme ph, temperature, uv exposure, and nutrient deprivation. nitrogen is an essential requirement for growth, and the ability to metabolize a wide variety of nitrogen sources enables fungi to colonize different environmental niches and survive nutrient limitations. favored nitrogen sources, particularly ammonium and glutamine, are used preferentially, while the expression of genes required for the use ...201425506342
γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (ggta) of aspergillus nidulans is not necessary for bulk degradation of glutathione.aspergillus nidulans exhibited high γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γgt) activity in both carbon-starved and carbon-limited cultures. glucose repressed, but casein peptone increased γgt production. null mutation of crea did not influence γgt formation, but the functional meab was necessary for the γgt induction. deletion of the an10444 gene (ggta) completely eliminated the γgt activity, and the mrna levels of ggta showed strong correlation with the observed γgt activities. while ggta does not contain ...201525519188
erratum to: a novel thermophilic endo-β-1,4-mannanase from aspergillus nidulans xz3: functional roles of carbohydrate-binding module and thr/ser-rich linker region. 201525520174
standardization of functional reporter and antibiotic resistance cassettes to facilitate the genetic engineering of filamentous fungi.the unique physiological properties of fungi are useful for a myriad of applications, which could greatly benefit from increased control of native pathways and introduction of recombinant genes. however, fungal genetic engineering is still limited in scope and accessibility, largely due to lack of standardization. to help standardize the genetic engineering of filamentous fungi, we created biobricks of commonly used antibiotic resistance genes, neomycin phosphotransferase (nptii) and hygromycin ...201425524098
pdbrla, pdabaa and pdweta control distinct stages of conidiogenesis in penicillium digitatum.penicillium digitatum is one of the most important citrus postharvest pathogens worldwide. reproduction of massive asexual spores is the primary factor contributing to the epidemic of citrus green mold. to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying conidiogenesis in p. digitatum, we functionally characterized the aspergillus nidulans orthologs of brla, abaa and weta. we showed that deletion of pdbrla completely blocked formation of conidiophores, whereas deletion of pdabaa led to the formati ...201525530311
redox metabolites signal polymicrobial biofilm development via the napa oxidative stress cascade in aspergillus.filamentous fungi and bacteria form mixed-species biofilms in nature and diverse clinical contexts. they secrete a wealth of redox-active small molecule secondary metabolites, which are traditionally viewed as toxins that inhibit growth of competing microbes.201525532893
the apses family proteins in fungi: characterizations, evolution and functions.the apses protein family belongs to transcriptional factors of the basic helix-loop-helix (bhlh) class, the originally described members (apses: asm1p, phd1p, sok2p, efg1p and stuap) are used to designate this group of proteins, and they have been identified as key regulators of fungal development and other biological processes. apses proteins share a highly conserved dna-binding domain (apses domain) of about 100 amino acids, whose central domain is predicted to form a typical bhlh structure. b ...201525534868
divergent targets of aspergillus fumigatus acuk and acum transcription factors during growth in vitro versus invasive aspergillus nidulans, the acuk and acum transcription factors form a complex that regulates gluconeogenesis. in aspergillus fumigatus, acum governs gluconeogenesis and iron acquisition in vitro and virulence in immunosuppressed mice. however, the function of acuk was previously unknown. through in vitro studies, we found that a. fumigatus δacuk single and δacuk δacum double mutants had impaired gluconeogenesis and iron acquisition, similar to the δacum mutant. also, the δacuk, δacum, and δacu ...201525534941
nup2 requires a highly divergent partner, nupa, to fulfill functions at nuclear pore complexes and the mitotic chromatin region.chromatin and nuclear pore complexes (npcs) undergo dramatic changes during mitosis, which in vertebrates and aspergillus nidulans involves movement of nup2 from npcs to the chromatin region to fulfill unknown functions. this transition is shown to require the cdk1 mitotic kinase and be promoted prematurely by ectopic expression of the nima kinase. nup2 localizes with a copurifying partner termed nupa, a highly divergent yet essential npc protein. nupa and nup2 locate throughout the chromatin re ...201525540430
preparative separation of echinocandin b from aspergillus nidulans broth using macroporous resin adsorption chromatography.echinocandin b (ecb), an echinocandin type of lipopeptide antibiotic produced by aspergillus nidulans, is a precursor for the synthesis of novel anti-fungal drug - anidulafungin. in this work, a separation strategy involving one-step macroporous resin adsorption chromatography was established for ecb purification from aspergillus nidulans cctcc m 2010275 fermentation broth. among nine macroporous resin adsorbents tested, the non-polar resin hp-20 had the best adsorption and desorption performanc ...201525541471
neurospora crassa asm-1 complements the conidiation defect in a stua mutant of aspergillus nidulans.aspergillus nidulans stua and neurospora crassa asm-1 are orthologous apses (asm-1, phd1, sok2, efg1, stua) transcription factors conserved across a diverse group of fungi. stua and asm-1 have roles in asexual (conidiation) and sexual (ascospore formation) development in both organisms. to address the hypothesis that the last common ancestor of these diverse fungi regulated conidiation with similar genes, asm-1 was introduced into the stua1 mutant of a. nidulans. expression of asm-1 complemented ...201525550299
calcium signaling mediates antifungal activity of triazole drugs in the aspergilli.azoles are widely applied and largely effective as antifungals; however, the increasing prevalence of clinically resistant isolates has yet to be matched by approaches to improve the efficacy of antimicrobial therapy. in this study, using the model fungus aspergillus nidulans and one of the most common human pathogen aspergillus fumigatus as research materials, we present the evidence that calcium signaling is involved in the azole-antifungals-induced stress-response reactions. in normal media, ...201525554700
characterization of npga, a 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase of aspergillus nidulans, and evidence of its involvement in fungal growth and formation of conidia and cleistothecia for development.the null pigmentation mutant (npga1) in aspergillus nidulans results in a phenotype with colorless organs, decreased branching growth, delayed of asexual spore development, and aberrant cell wall structure. the npga gene was isolated from a. nidulans to investigate these pleiomorphic phenomena of npga1 mutant. sequencing analysis of the complementing gene indicated that it contained a 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase (pptase) superfamily domain. enzymatic assay of the pptase, encoded by the np ...201525557478
conserved and varied dinucleotide sequences in the genomes of three aspergillus species.both guanine-cytosine content and nucleosome occupancy are higher in exons than in introns. in this study, the association between the frequencies of the dinucleotide sequences and the nucleosome occupancy of the exons and introns of the genes of aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus nidulans, and aspergillus oryzae was studied. the frequency of the dinucleotide sequences aa (tt), at, and ta in the introns was more than that in the exons. in addition, the frequency of these sequences in the regions ...201425564023
increased production of free fatty acids in aspergillus oryzae by disruption of a predicted acyl-coa synthetase gene.fatty acids are attractive molecules as source materials for the production of biodiesel fuel. previously, we attained a 2.4-fold increase in fatty acid production by increasing the expression of fatty acid synthesis-related genes in aspergillus oryzae. in this study, we achieved an additional increase in the production of fatty acids by disrupting a predicted acyl-coa synthetase gene in a. oryzae. the a. oryzae genome is predicted to encode six acyl-coa synthetase genes and disruption of ao0900 ...201525564035
riboflavin level manipulates the successive developmental sequences in aspergillus nidulans.auxotrophic markers are useful in fungal genetic analysis. among the auxotrophic markers, ribob2 is one of the most commonly used markers in many laboratory strains. however, ribob2 mutants in aspergillus nidulans confer self-sterility and thus are unable to form hybrid cleistothecia by outcross when both parent strains harbor ribob2 auxotrophic marker under the standard protocol. to assess the role of riboflavin during the different developmental stages of a. nidulans, the limited concentration ...201525567479
the aspergillus nidulans proline permease as a model for understanding the factors determining substrate binding and specificity of fungal amino acid transporters.amino acid uptake in fungi is mediated by general and specialized members of the yeast amino acid transporter (yat) family, a branch of the amino acid polyamine organocation (apc) transporter superfamily. prnb, a highly specific l-proline transporter, only weakly recognizes other put4p substrates, its saccharomyces cerevisiae orthologue. taking advantage of the high sequence similarity between the two transporters, we combined molecular modeling, induced fit docking, genetic, and biochemical app ...201525572393
deciphering the combinatorial dna-binding code of the ccaat-binding complex and the iron-regulatory basic region leucine zipper (bzip) transcription factor hapx.the heterotrimeric ccaat-binding complex (cbc) is evolutionarily conserved in eukaryotic organisms, including fungi, plants, and mammals. the cbc consists of three subunits, which are named in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans hapb, hapc, and hape. hapx, a fourth cbc subunit, was identified exclusively in fungi, except for saccharomyces cerevisiae and the closely related saccharomycotina species. the cbc-hapx complex acts as the master regulator of iron homeostasis. hapx belongs to the ...201525589790
gene homozygosis and mitotic recombination induced by camptothecin and irinotecan in aspergillus nidulans diploid cells.mitotic recombination is a process involved in carcinogenesis which can lead to genetic loss through the loss of heterozygosity. the recombinogenic potentials of two anticancer drugs topoisomerase i inhibitors, camptothecin (cpt) and irinotecan (cpt-11), were evaluated in the present study. the homozygotization assay, which assess the induction of mitotic recombination and gene homozygosis, as well as the heterozygous a757//ut448 diploid strain of aspergillus nidulans were employed. the three no ...201425590709
dissecting the function of the different chitin synthases in vegetative growth and sexual development in neurospora crassa.chitin, one of the most important carbohydrates of the fungal cell wall, is synthesized by chitin synthases (chs). seven sequences encoding chss have been identified in the genome of neurospora crassa. previously, chs-1, -3 and -6 were found at the spitzenkörper(spk) core and developing septa. we investigated the functional importance of each chs in growth and development of n. crassa. the cellular distribution of each chs tagged with fluorescent proteins and the impact of corresponding gene del ...201525596036
in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of biomodified lignin from acacia nilotica wood.the antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of biomodified alkali lignin extracted from a deciduous plant acacia nilotica, was evaluated in vitro. the extracted alkali lignin was subjected to microbial biotransformation by ligninolytic fungus aspergillus flavus and emericella nidulans. these modifications were done under varying concentration of carbon to nitrogen sources. the structural feature of the lignin samples were compared by ftir, functional group analysis and (13)c solid state nmr. all l ...201525600985
(1→3)-α-d-glucans from aspergillus spp.: structural characterization and biological study on their carboxymethylated derivatives.alkali-soluble polysaccharides (asps) were isolated from the cell wall of four aspergillus species (a. fumigatus, a. nidulans, a. niger, and a. wentii). the chemical and spectroscopic investigations (immunofluorescent labelling, composition analysis, methylation analysis, ftir, and 1h nmr) indicated that the asps were polymers composed almost exclusively of (1→3)-linked α-d-glucose. after carboxymethylation (cm), the activity of (1→3)-α-d-glucans on three human cell lines (hsf, hela, and jurkat) ...201525601326
role of lammer kinase in cell wall biogenesis during vegetative growth of aspergillus nidulans.depending on the acquisition of developmental competence, the expression of genes for β-1,3-glucan synthase and chitin synthase was affected in different ways by aspergillus nidulans lammer kinase. lammer kinase deletion, δlkha, led to decrease in β-1,3-glucan, but increase in chitin content. the δlkha strain was also resistant to nikkomycin z.201425606019
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