PMID(sorted ascending)
proof-of-principle for sers imaging of aspergillus nidulans hyphae using in vivo synthesis of gold nanoparticles.high spatial resolution methods to assess the physiology of growing cells should permit analysis of fungal biochemical composition. whole colony methods cannot capture the details of physiology and organism-environment interaction, in part because the structure, function and composition of fungal hyphae vary within individual cells depending on their distance from the growing apex. surface enhanced raman scattering (sers) can provide chemical information on materials that are in close contact wi ...201222900260
dna minor groove sensing and widening by the ccaat-binding complex.the ccaat box is a frequent element of eukaryotic promoters, and its specific recognition by the conserved heterotrimeric ccaat-binding complex (cbc) constitutes a key step in promoter organization and regulation of transcription. here, we report the crystal structures of the cbc from aspergillus nidulans in the absence and in complex with double-stranded dna at 1.8 å resolution. the histone-like subunits hapc and hape induce nucleosome-like dna bending by interacting with the sugar-phosphate ba ...201222902862
deletion of the aspergillus flavus orthologue of a. nidulans flug reduces conidiation and promotes production of sclerotia but does not abolish aflatoxin biosynthesis.the flug gene is a member of a family of genes required for conidiation and sterigmatocystin production in aspergillus nidulans. we examined the role of the aspergillus flavus flug orthologue in asexual development and aflatoxin biosynthesis. deletion of flug in a. flavus yielded strains with an approximately 3-fold reduction in conidiation but a 30-fold increase in sclerotial formation when grown on potato dextrose agar in the dark. the concurrent developmental changes suggest that a. flavus fl ...201222904054
comparative genome analysis between aspergillus oryzae strains reveals close relationship between sites of mutation localization and regions of highly divergent genes among aspergillus species.aspergillus oryzae has been utilized for over 1000 years in japan for the production of various traditional foods, and a large number of a. oryzae strains have been isolated and/or selected for the effective fermentation of food ingredients. characteristics of genetic alterations among the strains used are of particular interest in studies of a. oryzae. here, we have sequenced the whole genome of an industrial fungal isolate, a. oryzae rib326, by using a next-generation sequencing system and com ...201222912434
γ-tubulin plays a key role in inactivating apc/c(cdh1) at the g(1)-s boundary.a γ-tubulin mutation in aspergillus nidulans, mipa-d159, causes failure of inactivation of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (apc/c) in interphase, resulting in failure of cyclin b (cb) accumulation and removal of nuclei from the cell cycle. we have investigated the role of cdha, the a. nidulans homologue of the apc/c activator protein cdh1, in γ-tubulin-dependent inactivation of the apc/c. cdha was not essential, but it targeted cb for destruction in g(1), and apc/c(cdha) had to be inact ...201222927465
ambient ph controls glycogen levels by regulating glycogen synthase gene expression in neurospora crassa. new insights into the ph signaling pathway.glycogen is a polysaccharide widely distributed in microorganisms and animal cells and its metabolism is under intricate regulation. its accumulation in a specific situation results from the balance between glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase activities that control synthesis and degradation, respectively. these enzymes are highly regulated at transcriptional and post-translational levels. the existence of a dna motif for the aspergillus nidulans ph responsive transcription factor pacc ...201222952943
invasive fungal infection in chronic granulomatous disease: insights into pathogenesis and management.invasive fungal infections (ifis) remain a major cause of death in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (cgd). we discuss the new insights into the pathogenesis, diagnosis, prevention, and management of invasive fungal infections in patients with cgd.201222964947
modeling, substrate docking, and mutational analysis identify residues essential for the function and specificity of a eukaryotic purine-cytosine ncs1 transporter.the recent elucidation of crystal structures of a bacterial member of the ncs1 family, the mhp1 benzyl-hydantoin permease from microbacterium liquefaciens, allowed us to construct and validate a three-dimensional model of the aspergillus nidulans purine-cytosine/h(+) fcyb symporter. the model consists of 12 transmembrane α-helical, segments (tmss) and cytoplasmic n- and c-tails. a distinct core of 10 tmss is made of two intertwined inverted repeats (tms1-5 and tms6-10) that are followed by two a ...201222969088
characterization of the velvet regulators in aspergillus fumigatus.fungal development and secondary metabolism is intimately associated via activities of the fungi-specific velvet family proteins. here we characterize the four velvet regulators in the opportunistic human pathogen aspergillus fumigatus. the deletion of afuvosa, afuvea and afuvelb causes hyperactive asexual development (conidiation) and precocious and elevated accumulation of afubrla during developmental progression. moreover, the absence of afuvosa, afuvea or afuvelb results in the abundant form ...201222970834
phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase, as a suppressor of the seph mutation in aspergillus nidulans, is required for the proper timing of septation.timely cytokinesis/septation is essential for hyphal growth and conidiation in aspergillus nidulans. genetic analyses have identified that a. nidulans has components of the septum initiation network (sin) pathway; one of these, seph, is a key player for early events during cytokinesis. however, little is known about how the seph kinase cascade is regulated by other components. here, we demonstrate that the phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase family acts antagonistically against the sin so th ...201222994198
high abundance of serine/threonine-rich regions predicted to be hyper-o-glycosylated in the secretory proteins coded by eight fungal genomes.o-glycosylation of secretory proteins has been found to be an important factor in fungal biology and virulence. it consists in the addition of short glycosidic chains to ser or thr residues in the protein backbone via o-glycosidic bonds. secretory proteins in fungi frequently display ser/thr rich regions that could be sites of extensive o-glycosylation. we have analyzed in silico the complete sets of putatively secretory proteins coded by eight fungal genomes (botrytis cinerea, magnaporthe grise ...201222994653
breaking the silence: protein stabilization uncovers silenced biosynthetic gene clusters in the fungus aspergillus nidulans.the genomes of filamentous fungi comprise numerous putative gene clusters coding for the biosynthesis of chemically and structurally diverse secondary metabolites (sms), which are rarely expressed under laboratory conditions. previous approaches to activate these genes were based primarily on artificially targeting the cellular protein synthesis apparatus. here, we applied an alternative approach of genetically impairing the protein degradation apparatus of the model fungus aspergillus nidulans ...201223001671
the putative guanine nucleotide exchange factor rica mediates upstream signaling for growth and development in aspergillus.heterotrimeric g proteins (g proteins) govern growth, development, and secondary metabolism in various fungi. here, we characterized rica, which encodes a putative gdp/gtp exchange factor for g proteins in the model fungus aspergillus nidulans and the opportunistic human pathogen aspergillus fumigatus. in both species, rica mrna accumulates during vegetative growth and early developmental phases, but it is not present in spores. the deletion of rica results in severely impaired colony growth and ...201223002107
nosa, a transcription factor important in aspergillus fumigatus stress and developmental response, rescues the germination defect of a laea deletion.aspergillus fumigatus is an increasingly serious pathogen of immunocompromised patients, causing the often fatal disease invasive aspergillosis (ia). one a. fumigatus virulence determinant of ia is laea, a conserved virulence factor in pathogenic fungi. to further understand the role of laea in ia, the expression profile of δlaea was compared to wild type, and several transcription factors were found significantly misregulated by laea loss. one of the transcription factors up-regulated over 4-fo ...201223022264
the role, interaction and regulation of the velvet regulator velb in aspergillus nidulans.the multifunctional regulator velb physically interacts with other velvet regulators and the resulting complexes govern development and secondary metabolism in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. here, we further characterize velb's role in governing asexual development and conidiogenesis in a. nidulans. in asexual spore formation, velb deletion strains show reduced number of conidia, and decreased and delayed mrna accumulation of the key asexual regulatory genes brla, abaa, and vosa. o ...201223049895
galx regulates the d-galactose oxido-reductive pathway in aspergillus niger.galactose catabolism in aspergillus nidulans is regulated by at least two regulators, galr and galx. in aspergillus niger only galx is present, and its role in d-galactose catabolism in this fungus was investigated. phenotypic and gene expression analysis of a wild type and a galx disruptant revealed that galx regulates the d-galactose oxido-reductive pathway, but not the leloir pathway in a. niger.201223063944
the chemical identification and analysis of aspergillus nidulans secondary metabolites.filamentous fungi have long been recognized to be a rich source of secondary metabolites with potential medicinal applications. the recent genomic sequencing of several aspergillus species has revealed that many secondary metabolite gene clusters are apparently silent under standard laboratory conditions. several successful approaches have been utilized to upregulate these genes and unearth the corresponding natural products. a straightforward, reliable method to purify and characterize new meta ...201223065610
tools for manipulation of secondary metabolism pathways: rapid promoter replacements and gene deletions in aspergillus nidulans.targeted gene deletions and promoter replacements are proving to be a valuable tool for awakening and analyzing silent secondary metabolism gene clusters in aspergillus nidulans and, as molecular genetic methods for manipulating the genomes of other fungi are developed, they will likely be as valuable in those organisms. here we describe procedures for constructing dna fragments by pcr that can be used to replace genes or promoters quickly and on a large scale. we also describe transformation pr ...201223065614
multi-copy genetic screen in aspergillus nidulans.with the completion of genomes of various aspergillus species, large-scale genome-wide expression studies can be carried out. genomics, however, is more powerful and efficient when combined with genetics. a multi-copy-based gain-of-function screen is a complementary method to loss-of-function genetic screen and can identify novel genes that may not be easily identifiable through loss-of-function-type screens. particularly, gain-of-function genetic screens would identify novel activators or repre ...201223065617
identification of protein complexes from filamentous fungi with tandem affinity purification.fungal molecular biology has benefited from the enormous advances in understanding protein-protein interactions in prokaryotic or eukaryotic organisms of the past decade. tandem affinity purification (tap) allows the enrichment of native protein complexes from cell extracts under mild conditions. we codon-optimized tags and established tap, previously not applicable to filamentous fungi, for the model organism aspergillus nidulans. we could identify by this method the trimeric velvet complex vel ...201223065618
investigation of in vivo protein interactions in aspergillus spores.understanding in vivo protein-protein interactions is critical to dissect precise functions of the regulatory proteins of fungal secondary metabolites. as many fungi differentially produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites during their lifecycle, it is important to understand the cell-type specific regulation of secondary metabolism. however, due to the difficulty of sample preparation of biologically active proteins in fungal spores, protein-protein interaction studies have been generall ...201223065622
putative calcium channels ccha and mida play the important roles in conidiation, hyphal polarity and cell wall components in aspergillus nidulans.although the high affinity ca(2+) channel, cch1, and its subunit mid1 have been investigated and evaluated in yeast and some of filamentous fungi, little is known about the function of their homologs in the aspergilli. here, we have functionally characterized the yeast homologs, ccha and mida, in aspergillus nidulans using conditional and null deletion mutants. ccha and mida not only have functional benefits of fast growth, which is consistent with cch1 and mid1 in yeast, but also have unique an ...201223071589
enhanced enzymatic cellulose degradation by cellobiohydrolases via product removal.product inhibition by cellobiose decreases the rate of enzymatic cellulose degradation. the optimal reaction conditions for two emericella (aspergillus) nidulans-derived cellobiohydrolases i and ii produced in pichia pastoris were identified as cbhi: 52 °c, ph 4.5-6.5, and cbhii: 46 °c, ph 4.8. the optimum in a mixture of the two was 50 °c, ph 4.9. an almost fourfold increase in enzymatic hydrolysis yield was achieved with intermittent product removal of cellobiose with membrane filtration (2 kd ...201323076365
aspergillus nidulans galactofuranose biosynthesis affects antifungal drug sensitivity.the cell wall is essential for fungal survival in natural environments. many fungal wall carbohydrates are absent from humans, so they are a promising source of antifungal drug targets. galactofuranose (galf) is a sugar that decorates certain carbohydrates and lipids. it comprises about 5% of the aspergillus fumigatus cell wall, and may play a role in systemic aspergillosis. we are studying aspergillus wall formation in the tractable model system, a. nidulans. previously we showed single-gene de ...201223078837
a pericentrin-related protein homolog in aspergillus nidulans plays important roles in nucleus positioning and cell polarity by affecting microtubule organization.pericentrin is a large coiled-coil protein in mammalian centrosomes that serves as a multifunctional scaffold for anchoring numerous proteins. recent studies have linked numerous human disorders with mutated or elevated levels of pericentrin, suggesting unrecognized contributions of pericentrin-related proteins to the development of these disorders. in this study, we characterized anpcpa, a putative homolog of pericentrin-related protein in the model filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, and ...201223087372
genetic analysis of the arabidopsis protein kinases map3kε1 and map3kε2 indicates roles in cell expansion and embryo development.map3kε1 and map3kε2 are a pair of arabidopsis thaliana genes that encode protein kinases related to cdc7p from saccharomyces cerevisiae. we have previously shown that the map3kε1;map3kε2 double-mutant combination causes pollen lethality. in this study, we have used an ethanol-inducible promoter construct to rescue this lethal phenotype and create map3kε1(-/-);map3kε2(-/-) double-mutant plants in order to examine the function of these genes in the sporophyte. these rescued double-mutant plants ca ...201223087695
genetic control of asexual sporulation in filamentous fungi.asexual sporulation (conidiation) in the ascomycetous filamentous fungi involves the formation of conidia, formed on specialized structures called conidiophores. conidiation in filamentous fungi involves many common themes including spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression, specialized cellular differentiation, intra-/inter-cellular communications, and response to environmental factors. the commencement, progression and completion of conidiation are regulated by multiple positive and n ...201223092920
biodiversity of epilithic cyanobacteria from freshwater streams of kakoijana reserve forest, assam, india.the biodiversity of epilithic cyanobacteria from one of the unexplored habitats of freshwater streams of kakoijana reserve forest of assam, india was estimated. this paper lists a total of 29 species representing 18 genera of 12 families and 4 orders as per recent system of classification. morphological descriptions, common habitats and distribution pattern were described for each species identified that were represented systematically. of these 29 species, 11 were unicellular, 9 non-heterocytou ...200723100670
development and characterization of nickel accumulating mutants of aspergillus nidulans.stable mutants of aspergillus nidulans, resistant to 1 mm ni were developed by step-by-step repeated culturing of the fungus on the medium containing increasing concentrations of nickel chloride. characterization of mutants could differentiate them into two categories ni(r) i and ni(r) ii. each category of mutants exhibited alterations in growth, conidial germination and melanin secretion both in ni-free and ni-containing media. ni(r) ii mutants were little slow in growth with sparse mycelia and ...200723100672
mechanism to combat cobalt toxicity in cobalt resistant mutants of aspergillus nidulans.characteristics of fungal species tolerant to high levels of metals in natural environment can be amplified by isolation and selection of resistant mutants. step-by-step culturing led to identification of highly stable co-resistant (co(r)) mutants of a. nidulans. based on two distinct morphological features, co-resistant mutants were categorized as co(r)i and co(r)ii. the two mutants varied in their growth behavior and colony morphology that were reflected in supplemented as well as unsupplement ...200723100687
meab-dependent nutrition sensing regulates autolysis in carbon starved aspergillus nidulans cultures.carbon starvation induced autolysis is an active process of self-digestion and is under complex regulation in aspergillus nidulans. in this study we investigated how autolysis depends on the composition of the culture medium, especially on the presence of yeast extract. we demonstrated that the rate of autolytic cell wall degradation as well as the extracellular chitinase and proteinase productions significantly decreased in the presence of this nutrient. the effect of yeast extract on carbon st ...201023100816
evidence that two pcl-like cyclins control cdk9 activity during cell differentiation in aspergillus nidulans asexual development.cyclin-dependent protein kinases (cdks) are usually involved in cell cycle regulation. however, cdk9 is an exception and promotes rna synthesis through phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal domain (ctd) of the largest subunit of rna polymerase ii (rnapii). the ctd is comprised of repeating heptapeptides, in which serine residues at positions 2, 5, and 7 are of crucial importance. ser5 phosphorylation causes transcription initiation and promoter escape. however, rnapii pauses 20 to 50 bp downst ...201323104571
aspergillus oxylipin signaling and quorum sensing pathways depend on g protein-coupled receptors.oxylipins regulate aspergillus development and mycotoxin production and are also involved in aspergillus quorum sensing mechanisms. despite extensive knowledge of how these oxylipins are synthesized and what processes they regulate, nothing is known about how these signals are detected and transmitted by the fungus. g protein-coupled receptors (gpcr) have been speculated to be involved as they are known oxylipin receptors in mammals, and many putative gpcrs have been identified in the aspergilli ...201223105976
molecular genetic characterization of a cluster in a. terreus for biosynthesis of the meroterpenoid terretonin.meroterpenoids are natural products produced from polyketide and terpenoid precursors. a gene targeting system for a. terreus nih2624 was developed, and a gene cluster for terretonin biosynthesis was characterized. the intermediates and shunt products were isolated from the mutant strains, and a pathway for terretonin biosynthesis is proposed. analysis of two meroterpenoid pathways corresponding to terretonin in a. terreus and austinol in a. nidulans reveals that they are closely related evoluti ...201223116177
intracellular trehalase activity is required for development, germination and heat-stress resistance of aspergillus niger conidia.the disaccharide trehalose is known as a stress protectant in several kinds of organisms, including fungi, where it is a major carbohydrate in resting structures, e.g. asexual conidia. the gene encoding the enzyme responsible for degradation of intracellular trehalose, treb, was deleted and the phenotype was analyzed in terms of morphology, trehalose content during conidial outgrowth and stress tolerance. the mutant conidiophores produced fewer and less viable spores, and during early stages of ...201323116628
antifungal activity of extracellular hydrolases produced by autolysing aspergillus nidulans cultures.carbon-starving aspergillus nidulans cultures produce high activities of versatile hydrolytic enzymes and, among these, chib endochitinase and enga β-1,3-endoglucanase showed significant antifungal activity against various fungal species. double deletion of enga and chib diminished the antifungal activity of the fermentation broths and increased conidiogenesis and long-term viability of a. nidulans, but decreased the growth rate on culture media containing weak carbon sources. production of chib ...201223124755
soil metaproteomics - comparative evaluation of protein extraction protocols.metaproteomics and its potential applications are very promising to study microbial activity in environmental samples and to obtain a deeper understanding of microbial interactions. however, due to the complexity of soil samples the exhaustive extraction of proteins is a major challenge. we compared soil protein extraction protocols in terms of their protein extraction efficiency for two different soil types. four different protein extraction procedures were applied based on (a) sds extraction w ...201223125465
microtubule-based transport in filamentous fungi.defects in microtubule-based transport are implicated in many neuropathologies. the filamentous fungi aspergillus nidulans and ustilago maydis are valuable models for studying transport owing to their yeast-like genetic and biochemical tractability and metazoan-like dependence on microtubule-based transport for cellular trafficking. in these organisms the role of microtubules in nuclear positioning is well studied, but recent work has expanded the range of cargos to include endosomes, messenger ...201223127389
improvement of gene targeting in aspergillus nidulans with excess non-homologous fragments.efficiency of gene targeting was increased more than 10-fold when an excess molar ratio of non-homologous fragments was added in the transformation of aspergillus nidulans. in the targeted transformants, integration of such fragments into the host chromosome was a rare event. hence, our approach proved practical in terms of producing successful targeting events without disturbing the host chromosomes.201223132572
cell cycle regulation by the nek family of protein kinases.genetic screens for cell division cycle mutants in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans led to the discovery of never-in-mitosis a (nima), a serine/threonine kinase that is required for mitotic entry. since that discovery, nima-related kinases, or neks, have been identified in most eukaryotes, including humans where eleven genetically distinct proteins named nek1 to nek11 are expressed. although there is no evidence that human neks are essential for mitotic entry, it is clear that several ...201223132929
in vitro interactions of amantadine hydrochloride, r-(-)-deprenyl hydrochloride and valproic acid sodium salt with antifungal agents against filamentous fungal species causing central nervous system infection.the mortality rates of fungal infections that affect the central nervous system are high in consequence of the absence of effective antifungal drugs with good penetration across the blood-brain barrier and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. in the present work in vitro antifungal activities of three good penetrating non-antifungal drugs (amantadine hydrochloride, r-(-)-deprenyl hydrochloride, valproic acid sodium salt) and their combinations with three antifungal agents (amphotericin b, itra ...201223134606
analysis of the structure and conformational states of dewa gives insight into the assembly of the fungal hydrophobins.the hydrophobin dewa from the fungus aspergillus nidulans is a highly surface-active protein that spontaneously self-assembles into amphipathic monolayers at hydrophobic:hydrophilic interfaces. these monolayers are composed of fibrils that are a form of functional amyloid. while there has been significant interest in the use of dewa for a variety of surface coatings and as an emulsifier in biotechnological applications, little is understood about the structure of the protein or the mechanism of ...201323137797
involvement of bcvea and bcvelb in regulating conidiation, pigmentation and virulence in botrytis cinerea.the heterotrimeric velvet complex vea/velb/laea is involved in the regulation of diverse cellular processes in aspergillus nidulans. in this work, we investigated functions of two velvet-like genes bcvea and bcvelb in botrytis cinerea. morphological characterization of bcvea and bcvelb deletion mutants showed that the deletion of bcvea and bcvelb led to increased conidiation and melanin biosynthesis. bcvea and bcvelb deletion mutants also showed increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. pathoge ...201323147398
new insights into the biosynthesis of prenylated xanthones: xptb from aspergillus nidulans catalyses an o-prenylation of xanthones.gene-inactivation experiments have indicated that the putative prenyltransferase xptb from aspergillus nidulans was likely to be responsible for the prenylation of 1,7-dihydroxy-6-methyl-8-hydroxymethylxanthone. recently, it was suggested that this enzyme might also accept as substrate the benzophenone arugosin h, which is assumed to be a precursor of prenylated xanthones. in this study, five benzophenones and ten xanthones were incubated with purified recombinant xptb in the presence of dimethy ...201223150454
bzip transcription factors affecting secondary metabolism, sexual development and stress responses in aspergillus nidulans.the eukaryotic basic leucine zipper (bzip) transcription factors play critical roles in the organismal response to the environment. recently, a novel yap-like bzip, restorer of secondary metabolism a (rsma), was found in a suppressor screen of an aspergillus nidulans secondary metabolism (sm) mutant in which overexpression of rsma was found to partially remediate loss of sm in velvet complex mutants. the velvet complex is a conserved fungal transcriptional heteromer that couples sm with sexual d ...201323154967
transcriptome changes initiated by carbon starvation in aspergillus nidulans.carbon starvation is a common stress for micro-organisms both in nature and in industry. the carbon starvation stress response (cssr) involves the regulation of several important processes including programmed cell death and reproduction of fungi, secondary metabolite production and extracellular hydrolase formation. to gain insight into the physiological events of cssr, dna microarray analyses supplemented with real-time rt-pcr (rrt-pcr) experiments on 99 selected genes were performed. these da ...201323154970
current understanding of hog-mapk pathway in aspergillus fumigatus.aspergillus fumigatus is an important opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes lethal systemic invasive aspergillosis. it must be able to adapt to stress in the microenvironment during host invasion and systemic spread. the high-osmolarity glycerol (hog) mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) signaling pathway is a key element that controls adaptation to environmental stress. it plays a critical role in the virulence of several fungal pathogens. in this review, we summarize the current knowled ...201323161019
saga complex components and acetate repression in aspergillus nidulans.alongside the well-established carbon catabolite repression by glucose and other sugars, acetate causes repression in aspergillus nidulans. mutations in crea, encoding the transcriptional repressor involved in glucose repression, also affect acetate repression, but mutations in creb or crec, encoding components of a deubiquitination system, do not. to understand the effects of acetate, we used a mutational screen that was similar to screens that uncovered mutations in crea, creb, and crec, excep ...201223173087
morphological changes induced by class iii chitin synthase gene silencing could enhance penicillin production of penicillium chrysogenum.chitin synthases catalyze the formation of β-(1,4)-glycosidic bonds between n-acetylglucosamine residues to form the unbranched polysaccharide chitin, which is the major component of cell walls in most filamentous fungi. several studies have shown that chitin synthases are structurally and functionally divergent and play crucial roles in the growth and morphogenesis of the genus aspergillus although little research on this topic has been done in penicillium chrysogenum. we used blast to find the ...201323179625
multivariate phenotypic divergence due to the fixation of beneficial mutations in experimentally evolved lineages of a filamentous fungus.the potential for evolutionary change is limited by the availability of genetic variation. mutations are the ultimate source of new alleles, yet there have been few experimental investigations of the role of novel mutations in multivariate phenotypic evolution. here, we evaluated the degree of multivariate phenotypic divergence observed in a long-term evolution experiment whereby replicate lineages of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans were derived from a single genotype and allowed to ...201223185601
investigation of the antimicrobial effect of neosartorya fischeri antifungal protein (nfap) after heterologous expression in aspergillus nidulans.neosartorya fischeri antifungal protein (nfap) is a β-defensin-like peptide produced by the n. fischeri nrrl 181 isolate. in this study, we investigated the manifestation of the antimicrobial effect of nfap via heterologous expression of the nfap gene in an nfap-sensitive fungus, aspergillus nidulans. heterologous expression of the nfap gene was carried out in a. nidulans cs2902 using a pama1-based autonomous replicative vector construct. the effect of the produced nfap on the germination of a. ...201323197172
proteome-based profiling of hypercellulase-producing strains developed through interspecific protoplast fusion between aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus tubingensis.thirty heterokaryons, formed by protoplast fusion of aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus tubingensis, were selected on the basis of their ability to grow on 2-deoxyglucose (0.2 %, w/v) and intermediate spore color. these heterokaryons were studied for cellulase production using shake flask and solid substrate cultures at 40 °c. fusants 51 and 28 exhibited appreciably higher levels of endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, β-glucosidase, and fpase activities when compared with parental strains. emplo ...201323197346
involvement of protein kinase c in the suppression of apoptosis and in polarity establishment in aspergillus nidulans under conditions of heat stress.the pkca gene, which encodes a protein kinase c (pkc) in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, is essential for its viability. however, little is known about its functions. to address this issue, we constructed and characterized temperature-sensitive mutants of pkca. the conidia of these mutants swelled slightly and exhibited apoptotic phenotypes at 42°c. the apoptotic phenotypes were suppressed by an osmotic stabilizer. under these conditions, the conidia swelled extensively and did not ...201223209763
identification of a novel site in the tail of dynein heavy chain important for dynein function in vivo.the minus end-directed microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein is responsible for the intracellular movements of many organelles, including nuclei and endosomes. the dynein heavy chain contains a c-terminal motor domain and an n-terminal tail domain. the tail binds other dynein subunits and the cargo-interacting dynactin complex but is dispensable for movement of single dynein molecules in vitro. here, we identified a mutation in the aspergillus nidulans heavy chain tail domain, nuda(f208v), which ...201323212922
characterization of a tannase from emericella nidulans immobilized on ionic and covalent supports for propyl gallate synthesis.the extracellular tannase from emericela nidulans was immobilized on different ionic and covalent supports. the derivatives obtained using deae-sepharose and q-sepharose were thermally stable from 60 to 75 °c, with a half life (t50) >24 h at 80 °c at ph 5.0. the glyoxyl-agarose and amino-glyoxyl derivatives showed a thermal stability which was lower than that observed for ionic supports. however, when the stability to ph was considered, the derivatives obtained from covalent supports were more s ...201323242498
modelling colony population growth in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.filamentous fungi are ubiquitous in nature and have high societal significance, being both major (food-borne) pathogens and important industrial organisms in the production of antibiotics and enzymes. in addition, fungi are important model organisms for fundamental research, such as studies in genetics and evolutionary biology. however, mechanistic models for population growth that would help understand fungal biology and fundamental processes are almost entirely missing. here we present such a ...201323246716
accurate prediction of secondary metabolite gene clusters in filamentous fungi.biosynthetic pathways of secondary metabolites from fungi are currently subject to an intense effort to elucidate the genetic basis for these compounds due to their large potential within pharmaceutics and synthetic biochemistry. the preferred method is methodical gene deletions to identify supporting enzymes for key synthases one cluster at a time. in this study, we design and apply a dna expression array for aspergillus nidulans in combination with legacy data to form a comprehensive gene expr ...201323248299
amdsym, a new dominant recyclable marker cassette for saccharomyces cerevisiae.despite the large collection of selectable marker genes available for saccharomyces cerevisiae, marker availability can still present a hurdle when dozens of genetic manipulations are required. recyclable markers, counterselectable cassettes that can be removed from the targeted genome after use, are therefore valuable assets in ambitious metabolic engineering programs. in the present work, the new recyclable dominant marker cassette amdsym, formed by the ashbya gossypii tef2 promoter and termin ...201323253382
transcriptional changes in the transition from vegetative cells to asexual development in the model fungus aspergillus nidulans.morphogenesis encompasses programmed changes in gene expression that lead to the development of specialized cell types. in the model fungus aspergillus nidulans, asexual development involves the formation of characteristic cell types, collectively known as the conidiophore. with the aim of determining the transcriptional changes that occur upon induction of asexual development, we have applied massive mrna sequencing to compare the expression pattern of 19-h-old submerged vegetative cells (hypha ...201223264642
agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of penicillium expansum pe-12 and its application in molecular breeding.lipase produced by penicillium expansum is widely used in laundry detergent and leather industry; however, the absence of an efficient transformation technology sets a major obstacle for further enhancement of its lipase productivity through advanced gene engineering. in this work, agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (atmt) was investigated for p. expansum pe-12 transformation, using hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph) as a selectable marker gene. as a result, we revealed that the ...201223265791
sudden atelectasis and respiratory failure in a neutropenic patient: atypical presentation of pseudomembranous necrotizing bronchial aspergillosis.pseudomembranous necrotizing bronchial aspergillosis (pnba) is a rare form of invasive aspergillosis with a very poor prognosis. the symptoms are non-specific, and the necrotizing plugs cause airway obstruction. atelectasis and respiratory failure can be the initial manifestations. recently, we treated an immunocompromised patient with pnba, who presented with a sudden onset of atelectasis and acute respiratory failure. there were no preceding signs except for a mild cough and one febrile episod ...201223269890
characterization of the major woronin body protein hexa of the human pathogenic mold aspergillus filamentous fungi, the septal pore controls the exchange between neighbouring hyphal compartments. woronin bodies are fungal-specific organelles that plug the pore in case of physical damage. the hex protein is their major and essential component. hex proteins of different size are predicted in the data base for pathogenic and non-pathogenic aspergillus species. however, using specific monoclonal antibodies, we identified 2 dominant hexa protein species of 20 and 25kda in a. fumigatus, a. ter ...201323332467
two rare cases of central nervous system opportunistic mycoses.this article presents two cases of opportunistic mycoses (oms) of the central nervous system (cns) caused by cryptococcus neoformans and aspergillus nidulans, respectively. the patients were hospitalised in local hospitals between 2009 and 2011 because of unspecific symptoms (fever, headache, and/or weight lost). duration of symptoms varied from 4 days to over 2 weeks. the patients were treated with antibiotics and symptomatically. om was not suspected in any of them. the patients became critica ...201223334046
evaluation of strategies to improve the production of alkaline protease prta from aspergillus nidulans.aspergillus nidulans produces several proteases. the prta gene encodes a major protease, and two approaches were explored to achieve the overproduction of this enzyme. molecular cloning of the mature form of this enzyme in pichia pastoris resulted in the production of an inactive form. in addition, the presence of this enzyme was toxic for the host and resulted in cell lysis. the modification of the culture medium constituents resulted in a 6.4-fold increase in enzyme production. the main effect ...201323334783
regulation of cellulolytic genes by mcma, the srf-mads box protein in aspergillus nidulans.cellobiose triggers the production of two endoglucanases, egla and eglb, in aspergillus nidulans. the cellulose responsive element (cere) cis-element that is essential for induction has been identified on the egla promoter, but transcription factors that bind to cere have not yet been identified. cere contained a consensus sequence cc(a/t)6gg for binding of the srf-type mads box proteins. introduction of a missense mutation into mcma, encoding for the sole srf-mads protein in a. nidulans, caused ...201323337500
novel sexual-cycle-specific gene silencing in aspergillus nidulans.we report a novel sexual-cycle-specific gene-silencing system in the genetic model aspergillus nidulans. duplication of the mating type mata(hmg) gene in this haploid organism triggers mat-induced silencing (matis) of both endogenous and transgenic mata genes, eliminates function of the encoded sry structural ortholog, and results in formation of barren fruiting bodies. matis is spatiotemporally restricted to the prezygotic stage of the sexual cycle and does not interfere with vegetative growth, ...201323341415
secondary metabolism and development is mediated by llmf control of vea subcellular localization in aspergillus nidulans.secondary metabolism and development are linked in aspergillus through the conserved regulatory velvet complex composed of vea, velb, and laea. the founding member of the velvet complex, vea, shuttles between the cytoplasm and nucleus in response to alterations in light. here we describe a new interaction partner of vea identified through a reverse genetics screen looking for laea-like methyltransferases in aspergillus nidulans. one of the putative laea-like methyltransferases identified, llmf, ...201323341778
overproduction of polygalacturonase by penicillium griseoroseum recombinant strains and functional analysis by targeted disruption of the pgg2 gene.inactivation of the pgg2 gene, a polygalacturonase-encoding gene from penicillium griseoroseum, reduced the total activity of polygalacturonase (pg) by 90 % in wild-type p. griseoroseum, which indicates that the pgg2 gene is the major gene responsible for pg production in this species. to increase pg production, the coding region of the pgg2 gene was cloned under the control of the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) promoter and the terminator region of the tryptophan synthase (trpc) ...201323354503
invasive pulmonary aspergillosis due to emericella nidulans var. echinulata, successfully cured by voriconazole and micafungin.a 78-year-old male who was undergoing prolonged glucocorticoid treatment experienced cough and expectoration for 2 weeks. galactomannan antigen analysis and a chest computed tomography (ct) scan suggested a diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. dna sequencing indicated that emericella nidulans var. echinulata was the causative agent. a combination of voriconazole and micafungin successfully treated the illness.201323363828
functional analysis of the α-1,3-glucan synthase genes agsa and agsb in aspergillus nidulans: agsb is the major α-1,3-glucan synthase in this fungus.although α-1,3-glucan is one of the major cell wall polysaccharides in filamentous fungi, the physiological roles of α-1,3-glucan remain unclear. the model fungus aspergillus nidulans possesses two α-1,3-glucan synthase (ags) genes, agsa and agsb. for functional analysis of these genes, we constructed several mutant strains in a. nidulans: agsa disruption, agsb disruption, and double-disruption strains. we also constructed several cagsb strains in which agsb expression was controlled by the indu ...201323365684
engineering fungal nonreducing polyketide synthase by heterologous expression and domain swapping.we reannotated the a. niger nr-pks gene, e_gw1_19.204, and its downstream r domain gene, est_gwplus_c_190476, as a single gene which we named dtba. heterologous expression of dtba in a. nidulans demonstrated that dtba protein produces two polyketides, 2,4-dihydroxy-3,5,6-trimethylbenzaldehyde (1) and 6-ethyl-2,4-dihydroxy-3,5-dimethylbenzaldehyde (2). generation of dtbaδr+te chimeric pkss by swapping the dtba r domain with the ausa (austinol biosynthesis) or anid_06448 te domain enabled the prod ...201323368695
sr-like rna-binding protein slr1 affects candida albicans filamentation and virulence.candida albicans causes both mucosal and disseminated infections, and its capacity to grow as both yeast and hyphae is a key virulence factor. hyphal formation is a type of polarized growth, and members of the sr (serine-arginine) family of rna-binding proteins influence polarized growth of both saccharomyces cerevisiae and aspergillus nidulans. therefore, we investigated whether sr-like proteins affect filamentous growth and virulence of c. albicans. blast searches with s. cerevisiae sr-like pr ...201323381995
light inhibits spore germination through phytochrome in aspergillus nidulans.aspergillus nidulans responds to light in several aspects. the balance between sexual and asexual development as well as the amount of secondary metabolites produced is controlled by light. here, we show that germination is largely delayed by blue (450 nm), red (700 nm), and far-red light (740 nm). the largest effect was observed with far-red light. whereas 60 % of the conidia produced a germ tube after 20 h in the dark, less than 5 % of the conidia germinated under far-red light conditions. bec ...201323385948
functional analyses of trichoderma reesei lae1 reveal conserved and contrasting roles of this regulator.the putative methyltransferase laea is a global regulator that affects the expression of multiple secondary metabolite gene clusters in several fungi, and it can modify heterochromatin structure in aspergillus nidulans. we have recently shown that the laea ortholog of trichoderma reesei (lae1), a fungus that is an industrial producer of cellulase and hemicellulase enzymes, regulates the expression of cellulases and polysaccharide hydrolases. to learn more about the function of lae1 in t. reesei, ...201323390613
myosin motor-like domain of class vi chitin synthase csmb of aspergillus nidulans is not functionally equivalent to that of class v chitin synthase csma.chitin is a major cell wall component of many filamentous fungi. among the eight chitin synthase genes of aspergillus nidulans, csma and csmb encode a myosin motor-like domain (mmd) and a chitin synthase domain (csd) at their n- and c-termini respectively. in our previous reports, we suggested that csma and csmb play compensatory roles essential for polarized hyphal growth although their functions do not completely overlap, and that their mmds are essential for their functions. in the present st ...201323391938
eisosome distribution and localization in the meiotic progeny of aspergillus the model filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, pila and pilb, two homologues of the saccharomyces cerevisiae eisosome proteins pil1/lsp1, and surg, a strict orthologue of sur7, are assembled and form tightly packed structures in conidiospores. as a. nidulans differs in its reproduction pattern from the saccharomycotina in that it has the ability to reproduce through two different types of spores, conidiospores and ascospores, the products of the asexual and the sexual cycle respectively, ...201323395641
control of multicellular development by the physically interacting deneddylases den1/dena and cop9 signalosome.deneddylases remove the ubiquitin-like protein nedd8 from modified proteins. an increased deneddylase activity has been associated with various human cancers. in contrast, we show here that a mutant strain of the model fungus aspergillus nidulans deficient in two deneddylases is viable but can only grow as a filament and is highly impaired for multicellular development. the den1/dena and the cop9 signalosome (csn) deneddylases physically interact in a. nidulans as well as in human cells, and csn ...201323408908
reconstitution of the early steps of gliotoxin biosynthesis in aspergillus nidulans reveals the role of the monooxygenase glic.the gliotoxin, a member of the epipolythiodioxopiperazine (etp), has received considerable attention from the scientific community for its wide range of biological activity. despite the identification of gliotoxin cluster, however, the sequence of steps in the gliotoxin biosynthesis has remained elusive. as an alternative to the gene knock-out and biochemical approaches used so far, here we report using a heterologous expression approach to determine the sequence of the early steps of gliotoxin ...201323434416
partial reconstruction of the ergot alkaloid pathway by heterologous gene expression in aspergillus nidulans.ergot alkaloids are pharmaceutically and agriculturally important secondary metabolites produced by several species of fungi. ergot alkaloid pathways vary among different fungal lineages, but the pathway intermediate chanoclavine-i is evolutionarily conserved among ergot alkaloid producers. at least four genes, dmaw, easf, ease, and easc, are necessary for pathway steps prior to chanoclavine-i; however, the sufficiency of these genes for chanoclavine-i synthesis has not been established. a fragm ...201323435153
pseudo-constitutivity of nitrate-responsive genes in nitrate reductase fungi, transcriptional activation of genes involved in no3(-) assimilation requires the presence of an inducer (nitrate or nitrite) and low intracellular concentrations of the pathway products ammonium or glutamine. in aspergillus nidulans, the two transcription factors nira and area act synergistically to mediate nitrate/nitrite induction and nitrogen metabolite derepression, respectively. in all studied fungi and in plants, mutants lacking nitrate reductase (nr) activity express nitrate-met ...201323454548
improved polyhydroxybutyrate production by saccharomyces cerevisiae through the use of the phosphoketolase pathway.the metabolic pathways of the central carbon metabolism in saccharomyces cerevisiae are well studied and consequently s. cerevisiae has been widely evaluated as a cell factory for many industrial biological products. in this study, we investigated the effect of engineering the supply of precursor, acetyl-coa, and cofactor, nadph, on the biosynthesis of the bacterial biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (phb), in s. cerevisiae. supply of acetyl-coa was engineered by over-expression of genes from the et ...201323456608
modelling the activation of alkaline ph response transcription factor pacc in aspergillus nidulans: involvement of a negative feedback loop.alkaline ph adaptation represents an important environmental stress response in aspergillus nidulans. it is mediated by the pal signalling pathway and the pacc transcription factor. although studied extensively experimentally, the activation mechanism of pacc has not been quantified, and it is not clear how this activation is regulated. here, by constructing mathematical models, we first show that the pattern of pacc activation observed in previously published experiments cannot be explained bas ...201323458440
arabidopsis and brachypodium distachyon transgenic plants expressing aspergillus nidulans acetylesterases have decreased degree of polysaccharide acetylation and increased resistance to pathogens.the plant cell wall has many significant structural and physiological roles, but the contributions of the various components to these roles remain unclear. modification of cell wall properties can affect key agronomic traits such as disease resistance and plant growth. the plant cell wall is composed of diverse polysaccharides often decorated with methyl, acetyl, and feruloyl groups linked to the sugar subunits. in this study, we examined the effect of perturbing cell wall acetylation by making ...201323463782
functional characterization of aspergillus nidulans ypka, a homologue of the mammalian kinase sgk.the serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated protein kinase (sgk) is an agc kinase involved in signal cascades regulated by glucocorticoid hormones and serum in mammals. the saccharomyces cerevisiae ypk1 and ypk2 genes were identified as sgk homologues and ypk1 was shown to regulate the balance of sphingolipids between the inner and outer plasma membrane. this investigation characterized the aspergillus nidulans ypk1 homologue, ypka, representing the first filamentous fungal ypk1 homologue. two condi ...201323472095
aspergillus nidulans translationally controlled tumor protein has a role in the balance between asexual and sexual differentiation and normal hyphal branching.translationally controlled tumor protein (tctp) is a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed protein present in all eukaryotes. cellular functions of tctp include growth promoting, allergic response and responses to various cellular stresses, but the functions in filamentous fungi have not been reported. in this report, we characterized an aspergillus nidulans tctp (tcpa) with high similarity to tctp. the level of tcpa mrna was relatively high, both during vegetative growth stage and at earl ...201323480775
chloroquine modulates the fungal immune response in phagocytic cells from patients with chronic granulomatous disease.invasive aspergillosis is a major threat to patients with chronic granulomatous disease (cgd). fungal pathogenesis is the result of a diminished antifungal capacity and dysregulated inflammation. a deficient nadph-oxidase complex results in defective phagolysosomal alkalization. to investigate the contribution of defective ph regulation in phagocytes among patients with cgd during fungal pathogenesis, we evaluated the effect of the acidotropic, antimalarial drug chloroquine (cq) on the antifunga ...201323482646
effect of cell wall integrity stress and rlma transcription factor on asexual development and autolysis in aspergillus nidulans.the cell wall integrity (cwi) signaling pathway is responsible for cell wall remodeling and reinforcement upon cell wall stress, which is proposed to be universal in fungal cultures. in aspergillus nidulans, both the deletion of rlma encoding the rlma transcription factor in cwi signaling and low concentrations of the cell wall polymer intercalating agent congo red caused significant physiological changes. the gene deletion mutant δrlma strain showed decreased cwi and oxidative stress resistance ...201323485399
the arrestin-like protein arta is essential for ubiquitination and endocytosis of the uapa transporter in response to both broad-range and specific signals.we investigated the role of all arrestin-like proteins of aspergillus nidulans in respect to growth, morphology, sensitivity to drugs and specifically for the endocytosis and turnover of the uric acid-xanthine transporter uapa. a single arrestin-like protein, arta, is essential for hula(rsp) (5) -dependent ubiquitination and endocytosis of uapa in response to ammonium or substrates. mutational analysis showed that residues 545-563 of the uapa c-terminal region are required for efficient uapa end ...201323490137
functional analysis of the aspergillus nidulans kinome.the filamentous fungi are an ecologically important group of organisms which also have important industrial applications but devastating effects as pathogens and agents of food spoilage. protein kinases have been implicated in the regulation of virtually all biological processes but how they regulate filamentous fungal specific processes is not understood. the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans has long been utilized as a powerful molecular genetic system and recent technical advances have ...201323505451
currency notes and coins as a possible source of transmitting fungal pathogens of man and plants.currency (notes and coins) handling by people during transaction is one of the most mobile objects within the community, which has a potential of transmitting pathogens. a survey carried out recently in nanded city (maharashtra) revealed heavy contamination of currency notes and coins by important fungal pathogens of plants and man, i.e. aspergillus niger (60.37%), a. flavus (3.98%), a.nidulans (0.2%), penicillium citrinum (17.80%), alternaria tenuis (0.20%), curvularia pallescens (0.20%), clado ...201123505834
lammer kinase lkha plays multiple roles in the vegetative growth and asexual and sexual development of aspergillus nidulans.lammer kinase plays pivotal roles in various physiological processes in eukaryotes; however, its function in filamentous fungi is not known. we performed molecular studies on the function of the aspergillus nidulans lammer kinase, lkha, and report its involvement in multiple developmental processes. the gene for lkha was highly expressed during reproductive organ development, such as that of conidiophores and cleistothecia. during vegetative growth, the patterns of germ tube emergence and hyphal ...201323516554
a novel automethylation reaction in the aspergillus nidulans laea protein generates s-methylmethionine.the filamentous fungi in the genus aspergillus are opportunistic plant and animal pathogens that can adapt to their environment by producing various secondary metabolites, including lovastatin, penicillin, and aflatoxin. the synthesis of these small molecules is dependent on gene clusters that are globally regulated by the laea protein. null mutants of laea in all pathogenic fungi examined to date show decreased virulence coupled with reduced secondary metabolism. although the amino acid sequenc ...201323532849
light regulation on growth, development, and secondary metabolism of marine-derived filamentous fungi.effects of different light conditions on development, growth, and secondary metabolism of three marine-derived filamentous fungi were investigated. darkness irritated sexual development of aspergillus glaucus hb1-19, while white, red, and blue lights improved its asexual behavior. the red and blue lights improved asexual stroma formation of xylaria sp. (no. 2508), but the darkness and white light inhibited it. differently, development of halorosellinia sp. (no. 1403) turned out to be insensitive ...201323546832
water recycle as a must: decolorization of textile wastewaters by plant-associated fungi.textile dye effluents are among the most problematic pollutants because of their toxicity on several organisms and ecosystems. low cost and ecocompatible bioremediation processes offer a promising alternative to the conventional and aspecific physico-chemical procedures adopted so far. here, microorganisms resident on three real textile dyeing effluent were isolated, characterized, and tested for their decolorizing performances. although able to survive on these real textile-dyeing wastewaters, ...201423553673
genome-wide analysis of the zn(ii)₂cys₆ zinc cluster-encoding gene family in aspergillus flavus.proteins with a zn(ii)₂cys₆ domain, cys-x₂-cys-x₆-cys-x₅₋₁₂-cys-x₂-cys-x₆₋₉-cys (hereafter, referred to as the c6 domain), form a subclass of zinc finger proteins found exclusively in fungi and yeast. genome sequence databases of saccharomyces cerevisiae and candida albicans have provided an overview of this family of genes. annotation of this gene family in most fungal genomes is still far from perfect and refined bioinformatic algorithms are urgently needed. aspergillus flavus is a saprophytic ...201323563886
vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess due to aspergillus nidulans resulting in spinal cord compression: case report and literature review.vertebral osteomyelitis caused by aspergillus nidulans is rare and usually affects immunocompromised patients. this report presents a case of thoracic vertebral osteomyelitis with epidural abscesses due to a. nidulans in a 40-year-old immunocompetent female who presented with back pain, numbness and weakness of both lower limbs. magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated osteomyelitis involving the thoracic (t)1-t3 vertebral bodies with epidural abscesses, resulting in spinal compression. the patie ...201323569017
molecular analysis and anticancer properties of two identified isolates, fusarium solani and emericella nidulans isolated from wady el-natron soil in egypt against caco-2 (atcc) cell characterize, identify and investigate the anticancer properties of two new soil fungal isolates, emericella nidulans and fusarium solani isolated from wady el-natron in egypt against colon cancer caco-2 (atcc) cell line.201223569862
functional analysis of abp1p-interacting proteins involved in endocytosis of the mcc component in aspergillus oryzae.we have investigated the functions of three endocytosis-related proteins in the filamentous fungus aspergillus oryzae. yeast two-hybrid screening using the endocytic marker protein aoabp1 (a.oryzae homolog of saccharomyces cerevisiae abp1p) as a bait identified four interacting proteins named aip (aoabp1 interacting proteins). in mature hyphae, egfp (enhanced green fluorescent protein) fused to aips colocalized with aoabp1 at the hyphal tip region and the plasma membrane, suggesting that aips fu ...201323597630
detection of unknown toxic mycotoxins inaspergillus nidulans using a structure-activity approach.mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of filamentous fungi that can cause various acute and chronic toxic effects in humans. previous work by büngeret al. exhibited that the cytotoxicityof aspergillus nidulans, one of the most frequent toxigenic moulds in composting plants, could not be explained by its content of identified mycotoxins. the presence of additional mycotoxins or other toxic prinpiples was assumed, which may be detected by a structure-activity hplc-diode array detector m ...200623605709
comprehensive annotation of secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes and gene clusters of aspergillus nidulans, a. fumigatus, a. niger and a. oryzae.secondary metabolite production, a hallmark of filamentous fungi, is an expanding area of research for the aspergilli. these compounds are potent chemicals, ranging from deadly toxins to therapeutic antibiotics to potential anti-cancer drugs. the genome sequences for multiple aspergilli have been determined, and provide a wealth of predictive information about secondary metabolite production. sequence analysis and gene overexpression strategies have enabled the discovery of novel secondary metab ...201323617571
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