PMID(sorted ascending)
aspernidine a and b, prenylated isoindolinone alkaloids from the model fungus aspergillus nidulans. 201020661238
the gata-type transcriptional activator gat1 regulates nitrogen uptake and metabolism in the human pathogen cryptococcus neoformans.nitrogen uptake and metabolism are essential to microbial growth. gat1 belongs to a conserved family of zinc finger containing transcriptional regulators known as gata-factors. these factors activate the transcription of nitrogen catabolite repression (ncr) sensitive genes when preferred nitrogen sources are absent or limiting. cryptococcus neoformans gat1 is an ortholog to the aspergillus nidulans area and candida albicans gat1 genes. in an attempt to define the function of this transcriptional ...201120673806
the l279p mutation of nuclear distribution gene c (nudc) influences its chaperone activity and lissencephaly protein 1 (lis1) stability.lis1, a gene mutated in classical lissencephaly, plays essential roles in cytoplasmic dynein regulation, mitosis and cell migration. however, the regulation of lis1 (lissencephaly protein 1) protein remains largely unknown. genetic studies in aspergillus nidulans have uncovered that the nud (nuclear distribution) pathway is involved in the regulation of cytoplasmic dynein complex and a temperature-sensitive mutation in the nudc gene (l146p) greatly reduces the protein levels of nudf, an aspergil ...201020675372
a comparative study of activity and apparent inhibition of fungal β-glucosidases.β-glucosidases (bgs) from aspergillus fumigates, aspergillus niger, aspergillus oryzae, chaetomium globosum, emericella nidulans, magnaporthe grisea, neurospora crassa, and penicillium brasilianum were purified to homogeneity, and analyzed by isothermal titration calorimetry with respect to their hydrolytic activity and its sensitivity to glucose (product) using cellobiose as substrate. global non-linear regression of several reactions, with or without added glucose, to a product inhibition equa ...201020677177
gamma-tubulin regulates the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome during interphase.a cold-sensitive gamma-tubulin allele of aspergillus nidulans, mipad159, causes defects in mitotic and cell cycle regulation at restrictive temperatures that are apparently independent of microtubule nucleation defects. time-lapse microscopy of fluorescently tagged mitotic regulatory proteins reveals that cyclin b, cyclin-dependent kinase 1, and the ancdc14 phosphatase fail to accumulate in a subset of nuclei at restrictive temperatures. these nuclei are permanently removed from the cell cycle, ...201020679430
aspergillus nidulans alpha-galactosidase of glycoside hydrolase family 36 catalyses the formation of alpha-galacto-oligosaccharides by transglycosylation.the alpha-galactosidase from aspergillus nidulans (aglc) belongs to a phylogenetic cluster containing eukaryotic alpha-galactosidases and alpha-galacto-oligosaccharide synthases of glycoside hydrolase family 36 (gh36). the recombinant aglc, produced in high yield (0.65 g.l(-1) culture) as his-tag fusion in escherichia coli, catalysed efficient transglycosylation with alpha-(1-->6) regioselectivity from 40 mm 4-nitrophenol alpha-d-galactopyranoside, melibiose or raffinose, resulting in a 37-74% y ...201020681989
evolutionary genetics: desperate times call for more sex.a new study has found that strains of the fungus aspergillus nidulans produce more of their spores sexually in environments where they are less fit, resembling a hypothesized transitional stage in the evolution of sex.201020692611
eisosome organization in the filamentous ascomycete aspergillus nidulans.eisosomes are subcortical organelles implicated in endocytosis and have hitherto been described only in saccharomyces cerevisiae. they comprise two homologue proteins, pil1 and lsp1, which colocalize with the transmembrane protein sur7. these proteins are universally conserved in the ascomycetes. we identify in aspergillus nidulans (and in all members of the subphylum pezizomycotina) two homologues of pil1/lsp1, pila and pilb, originating from a duplication independent from that extant in the su ...201020693301
endocytic machinery protein slab is dispensable for polarity establishment but necessary for polarity maintenance in hyphal tip cells of aspergillus nidulans.the aspergillus nidulans endocytic internalization protein slab is essential, in agreement with the key role in apical extension attributed to endocytosis. we constructed, by gene replacement, a nitrate-inducible, ammonium-repressible slab1 allele for conditional slab expression. video microscopy showed that repressed slab1 cells are able to establish but unable to maintain a stable polarity axis, arresting growth with budding-yeast-like morphology shortly after initially normal germ tube emerge ...201020693304
inadvertent gene silencing of argininosuccinate synthase (bcass1) in botrytis cinerea by the plob1 vector system.for several years, researchers working on the plant pathogen botrytis cinerea and a number of other related fungi have routinely used the plob1 vector system, based on hygromycin resistance, under the control of the aspergillus nidulans olic promoter and what was reported to be the beta-tubulin (tuba) terminator. recently, it has been demonstrated that this vector contains a 446-bp portion of the b. cinerea argininosuccinate synthase gene (bcass1) rather than the tuba terminator. as argininosucc ...201020696000
characterization of the aspergillus nidulans biotin biosynthetic gene cluster and use of the bioda gene as a new transformation marker.the genes involved in the biosynthesis of biotin were identified in the hyphal fungus aspergillus nidulans through homology searches and complementation of escherichia coli biotin-auxotrophic mutants. whereas the 7,8-diaminopelargonic acid synthase and dethiobiotin synthetase are encoded by distinct genes in bacteria and the yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae, both activities are performed in a. nidulans by a single enzyme, encoded by the bifunctional gene bioda. such a bifunctional bioda gene is a ...201120713166
the human ku autoantigen shares amino acid sequence homology with fungal, but not bacterial and viral, proteins.context: molecular mimicry between autoantigens and microbial antigens is a possible triggering mechanism of autoimmunity. human ku is a dna-associated autoantigen targeted by autoantibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and related disorders; available data are consistent with a role of molecular mimicry in the pathogenesis of anti-ku autoimmunity, but no research exist on this topic. objective: we aimed to define the most probable microbial triggers of anti-ku autoimmunity via ...201120718578
telomere position effect is regulated by heterochromatin-associated proteins and nkua in aspergillus nidulans.gene-silencing mechanisms are being shown to be associated with an increasing number of fungal developmental processes. telomere position effect (tpe) is a eukaryotic phenomenon resulting in gene repression in areas immediately adjacent to telomere caps. here, tpe is shown to regulate expression of transgenes on the left arm of chromosome iii and the right arm of chromosome vi in aspergillus nidulans. phenotypes found to be associated with transgene repression included reduction in radial growth ...201020724388
the bzip transcription factor meab mediates nitrogen metabolite repression at specific fusarium fujikuroi, bikaverin (bik) biosynthesis is subject to repression by nitrogen. unlike most genes subject to nitrogen metabolite repression, it has been shown that transcription of bik biosynthetic genes is not area dependent. searching for additional transcription factors that may be involved in nitrogen regulation, we cloned and characterized the orthologue of aspergillus nidulans meab, which encodes a bzip transcription factor. two transcripts are derived from f. fujikuroi meab: the ...201020729292
repercussion of a deficiency in mitochondrial ß-oxidation on the carbon flux of short-chain fatty acids to the peroxisomal ß-oxidation cycle in aspergillus nidulans.the fungus aspergillus nidulans contains both a mitochondrial and peroxisomal ß-oxidation pathway. this work was aimed at studying the influence of mutations in the foxa gene, encoding a peroxisomal multifunctional protein, or in the scda/echa genes, encoding a mitochondrial short-chain dehydrogenase and an enoyl-coa hydratase, respectively, on the carbon flux to the peroxisomal ß-oxidation pathway. a. nidulans transformed with a peroxisomal polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) synthase produced pha from ...201020736083
comparison of transcriptional and translational changes caused by long-term menadione exposure in aspergillus nidulans.under long-term oxidative stress caused by menadione sodium bisulfite, genome-wide transcriptional and proteome-wide translational changes were compared in aspergillus nidulans vegetative cells. the comparison of proteomic and dna microarray expression data demonstrated that global gene expression changes recorded with either flip-flop or dendrimer cdna labeling techniques supported proteome changes moderately with 40% and 34% coincidence coefficients, respectively. enzyme levels in the glycolyt ...201120797444
cross-talk between light and glucose regulation controls toxin production and morphogenesis in aspergillus nidulans.light is a major environmental stimulus that has a broad effect on organisms, triggering a cellular response that results in an optimal adaptation enhancing fitness and survival. in fungi, light affects growth, and causes diverse morphological changes such as those leading to reproduction. light can also affect fungal metabolism, including the biosynthesis of natural products. in this study we show that in aspergillus nidulans the effect of light on the production of the sterigmatocystin (st) to ...201020816830
characterization of the developmental regulator flbe in aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillus nidulans.several upstream developmental activators control asexual development (conidiation) in aspergillus. in this study, we characterize one of such activators called flbe in aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillus nidulans. the predicted flbe protein is composed of 222 and 201 aa in a. fumigatus and a. nidulans, respectively. while flbe is transiently expressed during early phase of growth in a. nidulans, it is somewhat constitutively expressed during the lifecycle of a. fumigatus. the deletion of flbe ...201020817115
analysis of intact and dissected fungal polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthetase in vitro and in saccharomyces cerevisiae.the widely found fungal iterative pks-nrps hybrid megasynthetases are highly programmed biosynthetic machines involved in the synthesis of 3-acyltetramic acids and related natural products. in vitro analysis of iterative pks-nrps has been hampered by the difficulties associated with obtaining pure and functional forms of these large enzymes (>400 kda). we successfully expressed aspergillus nidulans aspyridone synthetase (apda) from an engineered saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. the complete func ...201020828130
screening for antifungal peptides and their modes of action in aspergillus nidulans.many short cationic peptides have been identified as potent antimicrobial agents, but their modes of action are not well understood. peptide synthesis on cellulose membranes has resulted in the generation of peptide libraries, while high-throughput assays have been developed to test their antibacterial activities. in this paper a microtiter plate-based screening method for fungi has been developed and used to test nine antibacterial peptides against the model fungus aspergillus nidulans. microsc ...201020833782
mitotic recombination: a genotoxic effect of the antidepressant citalopram in aspergillus nidulans.this report evaluates the potential of the antidepressant drug citalopram to induce homozygotization of genes previously present in a heterozygous condition, by homologous recombination. in order to address this question, a heterozygous diploid strain of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans and the homozygotization assay were utilized. non-cytotoxic concentrations of citalopram (50, 75 and 100 μmol/l) showed a strong recombinogenic effect in a. nidulans, inducing homozygosis of the diploi ...201020851831
aspergillus fumigatus flbb encodes two basic leucine zipper domain (bzip) proteins required for proper asexual development and gliotoxin production.the opportunistic human pathogen aspergillus fumigatus reproduces asexually by forming a massive number of mitospores called conidia. in this study, we characterize the upstream developmental regulator a. fumigatus flbb (afuflbb). northern blotting and cdna analyses reveal that afuflbb produces two transcripts predicted to encode two basic leucine zipper domain (bzip) polypeptides, afuflbbβ (420 amino acids [aa]) and afuflbbα (390 aa). the deletion of afuflbb results in delayed/reduced sporulati ...201020852021
quantification of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers induced by uvb radiation in conidia of the fungi aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus nidulans, metarhizium acridum and metarhizium robertsii.conidia are responsible for reproduction, dispersal, environmental persistence and host infection of many fungal species. one of the main environmental factors that can kill and/or damage conidia is solar uv radiation. cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (cpd) are the major dna photoproducts induced by uvb. we examined the conidial germination kinetics and the occurrence of cpd in dna of conidia exposed to different doses of uvb radiation. conidia of aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus nidulans and met ...201020860693
the microtubule plus-end localization of aspergillus dynein is important for dynein-early-endosome interaction but not for dynein atpase activation.cytoplasmic dynein in filamentous fungi accumulates at microtubule plus-ends near the hyphal tip, which is important for minus-end-directed transport of early endosomes. it was hypothesized that dynein is switched on at the plus-end by cargo association. here, we show in aspergillus nidulans that kinesin-1-dependent plus-end localization is not a prerequisite for dynein atpase activation. first, the walker a and walker b mutations in the dynein heavy chain aaa1 domain implicated in blocking diff ...201020876661
global gene expression analysis of aspergillus nidulans reveals metabolic shift and transcription suppression under hypoxia.hypoxia imposes a challenge upon most filamentous fungi that require oxygen for proliferation. here, we used whole genome dna microarrays to investigate global transcriptional changes in aspergillus nidulans gene expression after exposure to hypoxia followed by normoxia. aeration affected the expression of 2,864 genes (27% of the total number of genes in the fungus), of which 50% were either induced or repressed under hypoxic conditions. up-regulated genes included those for glycolysis, ethanol ...201020878186
hypertonic conditions trigger transient plasmolysis, growth arrest and blockage of transporter endocytosis in aspergillus nidulans and saccharomyces using aspergillus nidulans strains expressing functional gfp-tagged transporters under hypertonic conditions, we noticed the rapid appearance of cortical, relatively static, fluorescent patches (0.5-2.3 μm). these patches do not correspond to transporter microdomains as they co-localize with other plasma membrane-associated molecules, such as the pleckstrin homology (ph) domain and the ssoa t-snare, or the lipophilic markers fm4-64 and filipin. in addition, they do not show characteristics of ...201020919858
fungal development and the cop9 signalosome.the conserved cop9 signalosome (csn) multiprotein complex is located at the interface between cellular signaling, protein modification, life span and the development of multicellular organisms. csn is required for light-controlled responses in filamentous fungi. this includes the circadian rhythm of neurospora crassa or the repression of sexual development by light in aspergillus nidulans. in contrast to plants and animals, csn is not essential for fungal viability. therefore fungi are suitable ...201020934903
suppressor mutagenesis identifies a velvet complex remediator of aspergillus nidulans secondary metabolism.fungal secondary metabolites (sm) are bioactive compounds that are important in fungal ecology and, moreover, both harmful and useful in human endeavors (e.g., as toxins and pharmaceuticals). recently a nuclear heterocomplex termed the velvet complex, characterized in the model ascomycete aspergillus nidulans, was found to be critical for sm production. deletion of two members of the velvet complex, laea and vea, results in near loss of sm and defective sexual spore production in a. nidulans and ...201020935144
hapx-mediated adaption to iron starvation is crucial for virulence of aspergillus fumigatus.iron is essential for a wide range of cellular processes. here we show that the bzip-type regulator hapx is indispensable for the transcriptional remodeling required for adaption to iron starvation in the opportunistic fungal pathogen aspergillus fumigatus. hapx represses iron-dependent and mitochondrial-localized activities including respiration, tca cycle, amino acid metabolism, iron-sulfur-cluster and heme biosynthesis. in agreement with the impact on mitochondrial metabolism, hapx-deficiency ...201020941352
fungal tyrosine betaine, a novel secondary metabolite from conidia of entomopathogenic metarhizium spp. fungi.fungi, including the entomopathogenic deuteromycete metarhizium anisopliae, produce a wide diversity of secondary metabolites that either can be secreted or stored in specific developmental structures, e.g., conidia. some secondary metabolites, such as pigments, polyols and mycosporines, are associated with pathogenicity and/or fungal tolerance to several stress-inducing environmental factors, including temperature and solar radiation extremes. extracts of m. anisopliae var. anisopliae (strain e ...201020943158
functional characterization of a new member of the cdk9 family in aspergillus nidulans.cdk9-like kinases in complex with t-type cyclins are essential components of the eukaryotic transcription elongation machinery. the full spectrum of cdk9/cyclin t targets, as well as the specific consequences of phosphorylations, is still largely undefined. we identify and characterize here a cdk9 kinase (ptka) in the filamentous ascomycete aspergillus nidulans. deletion of ptka had a lethal effect in later stages of vegetative growth and completely impeded asexual development. overexpression of ...201020952582
activation of a silent fungal polyketide biosynthesis pathway through regulatory cross talk with a cryptic nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene cluster.filamentous fungi produce numerous natural products that constitute a consistent source of potential drug leads, yet it seems that the majority of natural products are overlooked since most biosynthesis gene clusters are silent under standard cultivation conditions. screening secondary metabolite genes of the model fungus aspergillus nidulans, we noted a silent gene cluster on chromosome ii comprising two nonribosomal peptide synthetase (nrps) genes, inpa and inpb, flanked by a regulatory gene t ...201020952652
novel mutations reveal two important regions in aspergillus nidulans transcriptional activator metr.expression of the sulfur assimilation pathway in aspergillus nidulans is under control of sulfur metabolite repression, which is composed of scon genes encoding subunits of ubiquitin ligase and the metr gene coding for a transcriptional activator. in this paper we report three dominant suppressors of methionine requirement isolated from a metb3 diploid strain. all three mutations lead to the substitution of phenylalanine 48 by serine or leucine in the conserved n-terminal region of the metr prot ...201020955810
pectin lyase production by recombinant penicillium griseoroseum strain 105.recombinant penicillium griseoroseum strain 105 overproduces an extracellular pectin lyase (pl) under the transcriptional control of the strong gpda promoter of aspergillus nidulans. our aim was to evaluate pl production by recombinant p. griseoroseum strain 105 in submerged fermentation system bioreactors biofloiii and biofloiv using 2 or 10 l working volumes under different growth conditions and to analyze the production of cellulase, polygalacturonase, pectin methylesterase, and protease. pl ...201020962906
transcriptome analysis of nitrate assimilation in aspergillus nidulans reveals connections to nitric oxide metabolism.nitrate is a dominant form of inorganic nitrogen (n) in soils and can be efficiently assimilated by bacteria, fungi and plants. we studied here the transcriptome of the short-term nitrate response using assimilating and non-assimilating strains of the model ascomycete aspergillus nidulans. among the 72 genes positively responding to nitrate, only 18 genes carry binding sites for the pathway-specific activator nira. forty-five genes were repressed by nitrate metabolism. because nira(-) strains ar ...201020969648
microbiological analysis of a mummy from the archeological museum in this paper we report the results of the microbiological analysis of the samples taken from the mummy from the collection of the archaeological museum in zagreb, croatia. samples were taken from specific places such as oral, orbital, abdominal cavity and bandages surrounding the mummy, and analyzed in department of microbiology and hospital infections in university hospital "dubrava" in zagreb and in national reference laboratory for systemic mycoses of croatian national institute of public he ...201020977065
an ortholog of fara of aspergillus nidulans is implicated in the transcriptional activation of genes involved in fatty acid utilization in the yeast yarrowia lipolytica.the yeast yarrowia lipolytica effectively utilizes hydrophobic substrates such as fatty acids and n-alkanes. to identify a gene(s) regulating fatty acid utilization in y. lipolytica, we first studied homologous genes to oaf1 and pip2 of saccharomyces cerevisiae, but their disruption did not change growth on oleic acid at all. we next characterized a y. lipolytica gene, por1 (primary oleate regulator 1), an ortholog of fara encoding a transcriptional activator that regulates fatty acid utilizatio ...201020977884
in vitro susceptibility testing of aspergillus spp. against voriconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, amphotericin b and caspofungin.during recent years, the incidence of serious infections caused by opportunistic fungi has increased dramatically due to alterations of the immune status of patients with hematological diseases, malignant tumors, transplantations and so forth. unfortunately, the wide use of triazole antifungal agents to treat these infections has lead to the emergence of aspergillus spp. resistant to triazoles. the present study was to assess the in vitro activities of five antifungal agents (voriconazole, itrac ...201021034656
aspergillus nidulans asexual development: making the most of cellular modules.asexual development in aspergillus nidulans begins in superficial hyphae as the programmed emergence of successive pseudohyphal modules, collectively known as the conidiophore, and is completed by a layer of specialized cells (phialides) giving rise to chains of aerial spores. a discrete number of regulatory factors present in hyphae play different stage-specific roles in pseudohyphal modules, depending on their cellular localization and protein-protein interactions. their multiple roles include ...201021035346
the cop9 signalosome mediates transcriptional and metabolic response to hormones, oxidative stress protection and cell wall rearrangement during fungal development.the cop9 signalosome complex (csn) is a crucial regulator of ubiquitin ligases. defects in csn result in embryonic impairment and death in higher eukaryotes, whereas the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans survives without csn, but is unable to complete sexual development. we investigated overall impact of csn activity on a. nidulans cells by combined transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analysis. absence of csn5/csne affects transcription of at least 15% of genes during development, inclu ...201021062371
type 2c protein phosphatases in fungi.type 2c ser/thr phosphatases are a remarkable class of protein phosphatases, which are conserved in eukaryotes and involved in a large variety of functional processes. unlike in other ser/thr phosphatases, the catalytic polypeptide is not usually associated with regulatory subunits, and functional specificity is achieved by encoding multiple isoforms. for fungi, most information comes from the study of type 2c protein phosphatase (pp2c) enzymes in saccharomyces cerevisiae, where seven pp2c-encod ...201021076010
human leukocytes kill aspergillus nidulans by reactive oxygen species-independent mechanisms.invasive aspergillosis is a major threat for patients suffering from chronic granulomatous disease (cgd). although aspergillus fumigatus is the most commonly encountered aspergillus species, the presence of a. nidulans appears to be disproportionately high in cgd patients. the purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of the nadph oxidase and the resulting reactive oxygen species (ros) in host defense against fungi and to clarify their relationship toward a. nidulans. murine cgd a ...201021078850
penicillium marneffei actin expression during phase transition, oxidative stress, and macrophage infection.penicillium marneffei is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that exhibits thermally regulated dimorphism. at 25°c, this fungus grows vegetatively as mycelia, but at 37°c or upon invasion of a host, a fission yeast form is established. yet, despite increased numbers of molecular studies involving this fungus, the role of p. marneffei stress response-related proteins is not well characterized. actin is one of the proteins that have been proposed to play a role not only in cell transition, but also i ...201021088905
conserved components, but distinct mechanisms for the placement and assembly of the cell division machinery in unicellular and filamentous ascomycetes.cytokinesis is essential for cell proliferation, yet its molecular description is challenging, because >100 conserved proteins must be spatially and temporally co-ordinated. despite the high importance of a tight co-ordination of cytokinesis with chromosome and organelle segregation, the mechanism for determining the cell division plane is one of the least conserved aspects of cytokinesis in eukaryotic cells. budding and fission yeast have developed fundamentally distinct mechanisms to ensure pr ...201021091496
involvement of the aspergillus nidulans protein kinase c with farnesol tolerance is related to the unfolded protein response.previously, we demonstrated that the aspergillus nidulans calc2 mutation in protein kinase c pkca was able to confer tolerance to farnesol (foh), an isoprenoid that has been shown to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis. here, we investigate in more detail the role played by a. nidulans pkca in foh tolerance. we demonstrate that pkca overexpression during foh exposure causes increased cell death. foh is also able to activate several markers of endoplasmic reticulum (er) stress and the unfo ...201021091509
homologue expression of a β-xylosidase from native aspergillus niger.xylan constitutes the second most abundant source of renewable organic carbon on earth and is located in the cell walls of hardwood and softwood plants in the form of hemicellulose. based on its availability, there is a growing interest in production of xylanolytic enzymes for industrial applications. β-1,4-xylan xylosidase (ec hydrolyses from the nonreducing end of xylooligosaccharides arising from endo-1,4-β-xylanase activity. this work reports the partial characterization of a purif ...201021116681
recruitment of the inhibitor cand1 to the cullin substrate adaptor site mediates interaction to the neddylation site.cand1 inhibits cullin ring ubiquitin ligases by binding unneddylated cullins. the cand1 n-terminus blocks the cullin neddylation site, whereas the c-terminus inhibits cullin adaptor interaction. these cand1 binding sites can be separated into two functional polypeptides which bind sequentially. c-terminal cand1 can directly bind to unneddylated cullins in the nucleus without blocking the neddylation site. the smaller n-terminal cand1 cannot bind to the cullin neddylation region without c-termina ...201021119001
hapx positively and negatively regulates the transcriptional response to iron deprivation in cryptococcus neoformans.the fungal pathogen cryptococcus neoformans is a major cause of illness in immunocompromised individuals such as aids patients. the ability of the fungus to acquire nutrients during proliferation in host tissue and the ability to elaborate a polysaccharide capsule are critical determinants of disease outcome. we previously showed that the gata factor, cir1, is a major regulator both of the iron uptake functions needed for growth in host tissue and the key virulence factors such as capsule, melan ...201021124817
the aspergillus nidulans nuca(endog) homologue is not involved in cell death.upon apoptosis induction, translocation of mammalian mitochondrial endonuclease g (endog) to the nucleus coincides with large-scale dna fragmentation. here, we describe for the first time a homologue of endog in filamentous fungi by investigating if the aspergillus nidulans homologue of the endog gene, named nuca(endog), is being activated during farnesol-induced cell death. our results suggest that nuca is not involved in cell death, but it plays a role in the dna-damaging response in a. nidula ...201021131437
survey and analysis of simple sequence repeats in the laccaria bicolor genome, with development of microsatellite is becoming clear that simple sequence repeats (ssrs) play a significant role in fungal genome organization, and they are a large source of genetic markers for population genetics and meiotic maps. we identified ssrs in the laccaria bicolor genome by in silico survey and analyzed their distribution in the different genomic regions. we also compared the abundance and distribution of ssrs in l. bicolor with those of the following fungal genomes: phanerochaete chrysosporium, coprinopsis cinerea, ...201021132299
presence of a mannoprotein, mnpap, in the hyphal cell wall of aspergillus nidulans.the presence of a mannoprotein, mnpap, in the hyphal cell wall of aspergillus nidulans was examined by immunogold electron microscopy using a mnpa-null mutant as a negative control. the hyphal cell wall of wild type consisted of two layers-an electron-dense smooth outer layer and an electron-translucent inner layer-while the hyphal cell wall of the mnpa-null mutant had an electron-dense irregular outer layer together with the electron-translucent inner layer. in wild type, mnpap was present thro ...200421148828
increased conidiation associated with progression along the sterigmatocystin biosynthetic pathway.the aspergillus nidulans sterigmatocystin (st) gene cluster contains both regulatory (aflr) and biosynthetic genes (stc genes) required for st production. a total of 26 genes are in the cluster, 13 of which have been assigned a known function in the biosynthetic pathway. this complex secondary pathway represents a physiological cost to the fungus. we tested the amount of asexual spore production using a series of isogenic lines of a. nidulans, differing only in a mutation in aflr (resulting in a ...200421148941
laea control of velvet family regulatory proteins for light-dependent development and fungal cell-type specificity.vea is the founding member of the velvet superfamily of fungal regulatory proteins. this protein is involved in light response and coordinates sexual reproduction and secondary metabolism in aspergillus nidulans. in the dark, vea bridges velb and laea to form the velb-vea-laea (velvet) complex. the vea-like protein velb is another developmental regulator, and laea has been known as global regulator of secondary metabolism. in this study, we show that velb forms a second light-regulated developme ...201021152013
mapping woronin body position in aspergillus nidulans.the positions of all woronin bodies in five germlings of aspergillus nidulans prepared by plunge freezing and freeze substitution were determined by transmission electron microscopy. as expected, woronin bodies were found near septa. high numbers of morphologically identical organelles were also found in apical regions. to verify that these organelles were authentic woronin bodies, we used antibodies raised against the neurospora crassa woronin body matrix protein hex1. anti-hex1 antibodies labe ...200221156495
a set of aspartyl protease-deficient strains for improved expression of heterologous proteins in kluyveromyces lactis.secretion of recombinant proteins is a common strategy for heterologous protein expression using the yeast kluyveromyces lactis. however, a common problem is degradation of a target recombinant protein by secretory pathway aspartyl proteases. in this study, we identified five putative pfam00026 aspartyl proteases encoded by the k. lactis genome. a set of selectable marker-free protease deletion mutants was constructed in the prototrophic k. lactis gg799 industrial expression strain background us ...201021166768
adaptative and developmental responses to stress in aspergillus nidulan.development in the ascomycete a. nidulans is principally determined by environmental signals. adaptability to oxidative stimuli can derive in changes of growth patterns and /or the activation of sexual or asexual reproductive cycles but this model fungus might also respond to high osmotic or salt concentrations, the redox state, the availability and quantity of carbon or nitrogen sources and the degree or quality of illumination. since each cell within the colony follows a single morphogenetic p ...201021190514
horizontal transfer of a large and highly toxic secondary metabolic gene cluster between fungi.genes involved in intermediary and secondary metabolism in fungi are frequently physically linked or clustered. for example, in aspergillus nidulans the entire pathway for the production of sterigmatocystin (st), a highly toxic secondary metabolite and a precursor to the aflatoxins (af), is located in a ∼54 kb, 23 gene cluster. we discovered that a complete st gene cluster in podospora anserina was horizontally transferred from aspergillus. phylogenetic analysis shows that most podospora cluster ...201021194949
functional characterization of rho gtpases in aspergillus niger uncovers conserved and diverged roles of rho proteins within filamentous fungi.rho gtpases are signalling molecules regulating morphology and multiple cellular functions including metabolism and vesicular trafficking. to understand the connection between polarized growth and secretion in the industrial model organism aspergillus niger, we investigated the function of all rho family members in this organism. we identified six rho gtpases in its genome and used loss-of-function studies to dissect their functions. while rhoa is crucial for polarity establishment and viability ...201121205013
crystallization and preliminary x-ray crystallographic analysis of the nmra-like ddb_g0286605 protein from the social amoeba dictyostelium discoideum.the ddb_g0286605 gene product from dictyostelium discoideum, an nmra-like protein that belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family, has been crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 295 k. a 1.64 å resolution data set was collected using synchrotron radiation. the ddb_g0286605 protein crystals belonged to space group p2(1), with unit-cell parameters a=67.598, b=54.935, c=84.219 å, β = 109.620°. assuming the presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit, the so ...201021206034
enzymatic synthesis of β-xylosyl-oligosaccharides by transxylosylation using two β-xylosidases of glycoside hydrolase family 3 from aspergillus nidulans fgsc a4.two β-xylosidases of glycoside hydrolase family 3 (gh 3) from aspergillus nidulans fgsc a4, bxla and bxlb were produced recombinantly in pichia pastoris and secreted to the culture supernatants in yields of 16 and 118 mg/l, respectively. bxla showed about sixfold higher catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/k(m)) than bxlb towards para-nitrophenyl β-d-xylopyranoside (pnpx) and β-1,4-xylo-oligosaccharides (degree of polymerisation 2-6). for both enzymes k(cat)/k(m) decreased with increasing β-1,4-xylo-oli ...201021215963
acon-3, the neurospora crassa ortholog of the developmental modifier, meda, complements the conidiation defect of the aspergillus nidulans mutant.aspergillus nidulans and neurospora crassa are ascomycetes that produce asexual spores through morphologically distinct processes. meda, a protein with unknown function, is required for normal asexual and sexual development in a. nidulans. we determined that the n. crassa ortholog of meda is acon-3, a gene required for early conidiophore development and female fertility. to test hypotheses about the evolutionary origins of asexual development in distinct fungal lineages it is important to unders ...201121220038
simple identification of vea1 mutation in aspergillus nidulans.the vea gene plays an important role in development of a homothallic filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. the vea1 phenotype can be difficult to distinguish from the wild-type vea. despite the importance of the vea allele, no efficient identification method has been reported besides dna sequencing. here, we present simple physiological and molecular biological ways to distinguish between the vea wild-type and vea1 allele. the novel approaches, which involve incubation in the presence of oxal ...201021221952
characterization of aspergillus nidulans rabc/rab6.the aspergillus nidulans golgi is not stacked. early and late golgi equivalents (ges) are intermingled but can be resolved by epifluorescence microscopy. rabc, the aspergillus ortholog of mammalian rab6, is present across the golgi, preferentially associated with early ges near the tip and with late ges in tip-distal regions. rabc? mutants, showing markedly impaired apical extension, have conspicuously fragmented, brefeldin a-insensitive early and late ges, indicating that the golgi network orga ...201121226815
roles of the his-asp phosphorelay signal transduction system in controlling cell growth and development in aspergillus nidulans.the his-asp phosphorelay signal transduction system has been identified in most organisms, including bacteria, yeasts, fungi, and plants, except for animals. this system is important in adaptation to stress, control of cell growth, and induction of development in response to environmental changes. on the basis of genomic information, it has been found that aspergillus nidulans, a model species of fungi, includes 15 histidine kinases (hks), one histidine-containing phosphotransmitter protein (hpt ...201121228462
characterization of the conserved phosphorylation site in the aspergillus nidulans response regulator srra.ssk1- and skn7-type response regulators are widely conserved in fungal his-asp phosphorelay (two-component) signaling systems. srra, a skn7-type rr of aspergillus nidulans, is implicated not only in oxidative stress responses but also in osmotic adaptation, conidia production (asexual development), inhibition by fungicides, and cell wall stress resistance. here, we characterized srra, focusing on the role of the conserved aspartate residue in the receiver domain, which is essential for phosphore ...201121229249
adaptative and developmental responses to stress in aspergillus nidulan.development in the ascomycete a. nidulans is principally determined by environmental signals. adaptability to oxidative stimuli can derive in changes of growth patterns and /or the activation of sexual or asexual reproductive cycles but this model fungus might also respond to high osmotic or salt concentrations, the redox state, the availability and quantity of carbon or nitrogen sources and the degree or quality of illumination. since each cell within the colony follows a single morphogenetic p ...201021235506
homologous overexpression of xylanase in fusarium oxysporum increases ethanol productivity during consolidated bioprocessing (cbp) of an effort to increase ethanol productivity during the consolidated bioprocessing (cbp) of lignocellulosics by fusarium oxysporum, we attempted the constitutive homologous overexpression of one of the key process enzymes, namely an endo-xylanase. the endo-β-1,4-xylanase 2 gene was incorporated into the f. oxysporum genome under the regulation of the gpda promoter of aspergillus nidulans. the transformation was effected through agrobacterium tumefaciens and resulted in 12 transformants, two of ...201121237221
maximal release of highly bifidogenic soluble dietary fibers from industrial potato pulp by minimal enzymatic treatment.potato pulp is a poorly utilized, high-volume co-processing product resulting from industrial potato starch manufacturing. potato pulp mainly consists of the tuber plant cell wall material and is particularly rich in pectin, notably galactan branched rhamnogalacturonan i type pectin which has previously been shown to exhibit promising properties as dietary fiber. the objective of this study was to solubilize dietary fibers from potato pulp by a one-step minimal treatment procedure and evaluate t ...201121253720
phg/psilbaγ vector system for efficient gene silencing in homobasidiomycetes: optimization of ihprna - triggering in the mycorrhizal fungus laccaria bicolor.psilbaγ silencing vector was constructed for efficient rna silencing triggering in the model mycorrhizal fungus laccaria bicolor. this cloning vector carries the agaricus bisporus gpdii promoter, two multiple cloning sites separated by a l. bicolor nitrate reductase intron and the aspergillus nidulans trpc terminator. psilbaγ allows an easy oriented two-step pcr cloning of hairpin sequences to be expressed in basidiomycetes. with one further cloning step into phg, a pcambia1300-based binary vect ...201021255319
effect of endoxylanase and a-l-arabinofuranosidase supplementation on the enzymatic hydrolysis of steam exploded wheat straw.the cost and hydrolytic efficiency of enzymes are major factors that restrict the commercialization of the bioethanol production process from lignocellulosic biomass. hemicellulases and other accessory enzymes are becoming crucial to increase enzymatic hydrolysis (eh) yields at low cellulase dosages. the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of two recombinant hemicellulolytic enzymes on the eh of steam pretreated wheat straw. pretreatments at two severity conditions were performed and the ...201121262567
independent duplications of a-amylase in different strains of aspergillus oryzae.aspergillus oryzae is a filamentous fungus that has arisen through the ancient domestication of aspergillus flavus for making traditional oriental foods and beverages. in the many centuries a. oryzae has been used for fermenting the starch in rice to simple sugars, it has undergone selection for increased secretion of starch-degrading enzymes. in particular, all a. oryzae strains investigated thus far have two or more copies of a gene encoding a-amylase, whereas a. flavus has only one. here we i ...201121277379
the cytoskeletal protein ndel1 regulates dynamin 2 gtpase activity.cytoskeleton dynamics, membranes trafficking and positioning are essential for the proper functioning of any mammalian cell. the identification of the molecules and mechanisms that allow these cellular processes to interface is vital for understanding cell behaviors. ndel1, the mammalian homolog of the aspergillus nidulans nude, organizes the cytoskeleton and regulates molecular motors, thereby impacting on the positioning of membranes. hypothetically, ndel1 can act in concert with enzymes contr ...201121283621
role of carnitine acetyltransferases in acetyl coenzyme a metabolism in aspergillus nidulans.the flow of carbon metabolites between cellular compartments is an essential feature of fungal metabolism. during growth on ethanol, acetate, or fatty acids, acetyl units must enter the mitochondrion for metabolism via the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and acetyl coenzyme a (acetyl-coa) in the cytoplasm is essential for the biosynthetic reactions and for protein acetylation. acetyl-coa is produced in the cytoplasm by acetyl-coa synthetase during growth on acetate and ethanol while ß-oxidation of fat ...201121296915
the paf gene product modulates asexual development in penicillium chrysogenum.penicillium chrysogenum secretes a low molecular weight, cationic and cysteine-rich protein (paf). it has growth inhibitory activity against the model organism aspergillus nidulans and numerous zoo- and phytopathogenic fungi but shows only minimal conditional antifungal activity against the producing organism itself. in this study we provide evidence for an additional function of paf which is distinct from the antifungal activity against putative ecologically concurrent microorganisms. our data ...201121298690
aspergillus nidulans transcription factor atfa interacts with the mapk saka to regulate general stress responses, development and spore functions.fungi utilize a phosphorelay system coupled to a map kinase module for sensing and processing environmental signals. in aspergillus nidulans, response regulator sska transmits osmotic and oxidative stress signals to the stress mapk (sapk) saka. using a genetic approach together with gfp tagging and molecular bifluorescence we show that saka and atf/creb transcription factor atfa define a general stress-signalling pathway that plays differential roles in oxidative stress responses during growth a ...201121320182
human nek6 is a monomeric mostly globular kinase with an unfolded short n-terminal domain.the nima-related kinases (neks) are widespread among eukaryotes. in mammalians they represent an evolutionarily conserved family of 11 serine/threonine kinases, with 40-45% amino acid sequence identity to the aspergillus nidulans mitotic regulator nima within their catalytic domains. neks have cell cycle-related functions and were recently described as related to pathologies, particularly cancer, consisting in potential chemotherapeutic targets. human nek6, -7 and -9 are involved in the control ...201121320329
simultaneous detection and identification of aspergillus and mucorales species in tissues collected from patients with fungal rhinosinusitis.rapid detection and differentiation of aspergillus and mucorales species in fungal rhinosinusitis diagnosis are desirable, since the clinical management and prognosis associated with the two taxa are fundamentally different. we describe an assay based on a combination of broad-range pcr amplification and reverse line blot hybridization (pcr/rlb) to detect and differentiate the pathogens causing fungal rhinosinusitis, which include five aspergillus species (a. fumigatus, a. flavus, a. niger, a. t ...201121325541
gene knockdown by ihprna-triggering in the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete fungus laccaria bicolor.ectomycorrhiza (ecm) is a mutualistic association between fungi and the roots of the vast majority of trees. these include numerous ecologically and economically relevant species and the participating fungal symbionts are predominantly filamentous basidiomycetes. in natural ecosystems the plant nutrient uptake from soil takes place via the extraradical mycelia of these ecm mycosimbionts as a trade for plant photosyntates. the symbiotic phase in the life cycle of ecm basidiomycetes is the dikaryo ...201021326837
onsite bio-detoxification of steam-exploded corn stover for cellulosic ethanol the process of ethanol production from steam-exploded corn stover (secs), a cellulose-degradation strain of aspergillus nidulans (flz10) was investigated whether it could remove the inhibitors released from steam exploded pretreatment , and thereby be used for biological detoxification on saccharomycescerevisiae. the results showed that flz10 removed 75.2% formic acid, 53.6% acetic acid, and 100% hydroxymethyl furfural (5-hmf) and furfural from the hydrolysate washed from secs after 72h culti ...201121334878
quantifying the importance of galactofuranose in aspergillus nidulans hyphal wall surface organization by atomic force microscopy.the fungal wall mediates cell-environment interactions. galactofuranose (galf), the five-member ring form of galactose, has a relatively low abundance in aspergillus walls yet is important for fungal growth and fitness. aspergillus nidulans strains deleted for galf biosynthesis enzymes ugea (udp-glucose-4-epimerase) and ugma (udp-galactopyranose mutase) lacked immunolocalizable galf, had growth and sporulation defects, and had abnormal wall architecture. we used atomic force microscopy and force ...201121335527
[recent advances in the study of amorpha-4,11-diene synthase and its metabolic engineering].amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ads) can convert farnesyl pyrophosphate (fpp) to amorpha-4, 11-diene, a precursor of artemisinin. ads plays an important role in the biosynthesis of artemisinin. this review summarizes the molecular biology and metabolic engineering study of ads in recent years. the genomic dna and its cdna sequences of amorpha-4, 11-diene synthase were cloned from artemisia annua l. the cdna encoding amorpha-4, 11-diene synthase contains a 1 641 bp open reading frame coding for 546 ...200921351463
genome-based deletion analysis reveals the prenyl xanthone biosynthesis pathway in aspergillus nidulans.xanthones are a class of molecules that bind to a number of drug targets and possess a myriad of biological properties. an understanding of xanthone biosynthesis at the genetic level should facilitate engineering of second-generation molecules and increasing production of first-generation compounds. the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans has been found to produce two prenylated xanthones, shamixanthone and emericellin, and we report the discovery of two more, variecoxanthone a and epishamix ...201121351751
influence of substrate dideuteration on the reaction of the bifunctional heme enzyme psi factor producing oxygenase a (ppoa).ppoa is a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the dioxygenation of unsaturated c18 fatty acids. the products of this reaction are termed psi factors and have been shown to play a crucial role in conferring a balance between sexual and asexual spore development as well as production of secondary metabolites in the fungus aspergillus nidulans. studies on the reaction mechanism revealed that ppoa uses two different heme domains to catalyze two subsequent reactions. initially, the fatty acid substrat ...201121365732
[screening and application of phosphate-dissolving microorganism suitable for corn production].to obtain phosphate-dissolving strains which can be suitable for corn production.201021365915
restoration of anti-aspergillus defense by neutrophil extracellular traps in human chronic granulomatous disease after gene therapy is calprotectin-dependent.aspergillus spp infection is a potentially lethal disease in patients with neutropenia or impaired neutrophil function. we showed previously that aspergillus hyphae, too large for neutrophil phagocytosis, are inhibited by reactive oxygen species-dependent neutrophil extracellular trap (net) formation. this process is defective in chronic granulomatous disease (cgd) because of impaired phagocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (nadph) oxidase function.201121376380
fluorinated substrates result in variable leakage of a reaction intermediate during catalysis by dehydroquinate synthase.incubation of (3s)-3-fluoro-3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate with dehydroquinate (dhq) synthase from three phylogenetically distinct sources resulted in the production of (6s)-6-fluorodhq and its epimer 1-epi-(6s)-6-fluorodhq. the differences in the product ratios of the reactions catalysed by each enzyme imply that 1-epi-(6s)-6-fluorodhq formation occurs by an unusual partial leakage of a reaction intermediate from the enzyme.201121387027
the aspergillus nidulans cenp-e kinesin motor kipa interacts with the fungal homologue of the centromere-associated protein cenp-h at the kinetochore.chromosome segregation is an essential process for nuclear and cell division. the microtubule cytoskeleton, molecular motors and protein complexes at the microtubule plus ends and at kinetochores play crucial roles in the segregation process. here we identified kata (kipatarget protein, homologue of cenp-h) as a kinesin-7 (kipa, homologue of human cenp-e) interacting protein in aspergillus nidulans. kata located at the kinetochore during the whole cell cycle and colocalized with kipa and partial ...201121392133
agrobacterium tumefasciens-mediated transformation of the aquatic fungus blastocladiella emersonii.agrobacterium tumefaciens is widely used for plant dna transformation and more recently, has also been used to transform yeast, filamentous fungi and even human cells. using this technique, we developed the first transformation protocol for the saprobic aquatic fungus blastocladiella emersonii, a blastocladiomycete localized at the base of fungal phylogenetic tree, which has been shown as a promising and interesting model of study of cellular function and differentiation. we constructed binary t ...201121396477
versatile enzyme expression and characterization system for aspergillus nidulans, with the penicillium brevicompactum polyketide synthase gene from the mycophenolic acid gene cluster as a test case.assigning functions to newly discovered genes constitutes one of the major challenges en route to fully exploiting the data becoming available from the genome sequencing initiatives. heterologous expression in an appropriate host is central in functional genomics studies. in this context, filamentous fungi offer many advantages over bacterial and yeast systems. to facilitate the use of filamentous fungi in functional genomics, we present a versatile cloning system that allows a gene of interest ...201121398493
how protein kinases co-ordinate mitosis in animal cells.mitosis is associated with profound changes in cell physiology and a spectacular surge in protein phosphorylation. to accomplish these, a remarkably large portion of the kinome is involved in the process. in the present review, we will focus on classic mitotic kinases, such as cyclin-dependent kinases, polo-like kinases and aurora kinases, as well as more recently characterized players such as nima (never in mitosis in aspergillus nidulans)-related kinases, greatwall and haspin. together, these ...201121406064
completing the purine utilisation pathway of aspergillus nidulans.we have previously identified by classical genetics and biochemistry, all the genes of aspergillus nidulans predicted to be involved in purine utilisation, together with cognate regulatory genes and one gene encoding a novel xanthine hydroxylation activity. in this article we complete the description of the purine utilisation pathway with the identification of the two genes (uax and uaw) encoding the enzymes catalysing the conversion of the product of urate oxidation by urate oxidase, 5-hydroxyi ...201121419234
wild-type mic distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for caspofungin and aspergillus spp. for the clsi broth microdilution method (m38-a2 document).clinical breakpoints have not been established for mold testing. epidemiologic cutoff values (ecvs) are available for six aspergillus spp. and the triazoles, but not for caspofungin. wild-type (wt) minimal effective concentration (mec) distributions (organisms in a species-drug combination with no acquired resistance mechanisms) were defined in order to establish ecvs for six aspergillus spp. and caspofungin. the number of available isolates was as follows: 1,691 a. fumigatus, 432 a. flavus, 192 ...201121422219
elucidation of functional markers from aspergillus nidulans developmental regulator flbb and their phylogenetic distribution.aspergillus nidulans is a filamentous fungus widely used as a model for biotechnological and clinical research. it is also used as a platform for the study of basic eukaryotic developmental processes. previous studies identified and partially characterized a set of proteins controlling cellular transformations in this ascomycete. among these proteins, the bzip type transcription factor flbb is a key regulator of reproduction, stress responses and cell-death. our aim here was the prediction, thro ...201121423749
peritonitis due to aspergillus nidulans and its effective treatment with voriconazole: the first case report. 201121427255
nmr structure of the c-terminal domain of a tyrosyl-trna synthetase that functions in group i intron splicing.the mitochondrial tyrosyl-trna synthetases (mt tyrrss) of pezizomycotina fungi are bifunctional proteins that aminoacylate mitochondrial trna(tyr) and are structure-stabilizing splicing cofactors for group i introns. studies with the neurospora crassa synthetase (cyt-18 protein) showed that splicing activity is dependent upon pezizomycotina-specific structural adaptations that form a distinct group i intron-binding site in the n-terminal catalytic domain. although cyt-18's c-terminal domain also ...201121438536
recruitment of class i hydrophobins to the air:water interface initiates a multi-step process of functional amyloid formation.class i fungal hydrophobins form amphipathic monolayers composed of amyloid rodlets. this is a remarkable case of functional amyloid formation in that a hydrophobic:hydrophilic interface is required to trigger the self-assembly of the proteins. the mechanism of rodlet formation and the role of the interface in this process have not been well understood. here, we have studied the effect of a range of additives, including ionic liquids, alcohols, and detergents, on rodlet formation by two class i ...201121454575
induction of cell wall thickening by the antifungal compound dihydromaltophilin disrupts fungal growth and is mediated by sphingolipid biosynthesis.dihydromaltophilin (heat-stable antifungal factor [hsaf]) is an antifungal metabolite produced in lysobacter enzymogenes biocontrol strain c3. this compound induces cell wall thickening in aspergillus nidulans. here we show that the cell wall thickening is a general response to hsaf in diverse fungal species. in the a. nidulans model, the thickened cell wall negatively affects hyphal growth. growth of hsaf-pre-treated hyphae failed to resume at hyphal tips with thick cell wall and the actin cabl ...200921462551
biosorption of as(iii) ions from aqueous solution using dry, heat-treated and naoh-treated aspergillus nidulans.the biosorption of as(iii) ions on dry, heat-treated and naoh-treated aspergillus nidulans in aqueous solutions was studied. the effect ofph (2-6), temperature (25, 30, 35, 45 degrees c), and initial concentration (250-700 mg l(-1)) of as(iii) ions were investigated in a batch system. the maximum biosorption rate of as(iii) ions on the tested biosorbent were obtained at ph 4 and 35 degrees c in about 240 min. the maximum biosorption capacities of dry, heat-treated and naoh-treated fungal biomass ...201121473283
glutathione reductase/glutathione is responsible for cytotoxic elemental sulfur tolerance via polysulfide shuttle in fungi.fungi that can reduce elemental sulfur to sulfide are widely distributed, but the mechanism and physiological significance of the reaction have been poorly characterized. here, we purified elemental sulfur-reductase (sr) and cloned its gene from the elemental sulfur-reducing fungus fusarium oxysporum. we found that nadph-glutathione reductase (gr) reduces elemental sulfur via glutathione as an intermediate. a loss-of-function mutant of the sr/gr gene generated less sulfide from elemental sulfur ...201121474441
purification and characterization of antifungal δ-dodecalactone from lactobacillus plantarum af1 isolated from kimchi.the aim of this study was to purify and identify an antifungal compound from lactobacillus plantarum af1, which was isolated from kimchi. the antifungal compound was purified by solid-phase extraction and recycling preparative high-performance liquid chromatography, and its structure was elucidated by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc-ms). the active compound from l. plantarum af1 was confirmed to be δ-dodecalactone (molecular weight, 198.3) by comparison of its gas chromatographic ...201121477483
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