PMID(sorted ascending)
protoplast isolation from cultured lichen usnea ghattensis, their fusion with protoplasts of aspergillus nidulans, fusant regeneration and production of usnic acid.protoplasts isolated from the mycobiont of a cultured lichen usnea ghattensis were fused with protoplasts of the fungus aspergillus nidulans in order to increase the growth rate of the cultured lichen mycobiont in vitro. the maximum protoplast yield (102 x 10(4)/g fresh cell mass) was reached in citrate buffer with 50 mmol/l 2-sulfanylethanol ('2-mercaptoethanol') containing 0.1 % novozym after 1.5 h at ph 5 and <or=25 degrees c. the increase in the concentration of the above effectors or the ad ...200919937214
a novel motif in fungal class 1 histone deacetylases is essential for growth and development of aspergillus.acetylation of the n-terminal tails of core histones is an important regulatory mechanism in eukaryotic organisms. in filamentous fungi, little is known about the enzymes that modify histone tails. however, it is increasingly evident that histone deacetylases and histone acetyltransferases are critical factors for the regulation of genes involved in fungal pathogenicity, stress response, and production of secondary metabolites such as antibiotics or fungal toxins. here, we show that depletion of ...201019940017
using a new gpi-anchored-protein identification system to mine the protein databases of aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus nidulans, and aspergillus oryzae.computational approaches provide valuable information to start experimental surveys identifying glycosylphosphatidylinositol (gpi)-anchored proteins in protein sequence databases. we developed a new sequence-based identification system that uses an optimized classifier based on a support vector machine (svm) algorithm to recognize appropriate cooh-terminal sequences and uses a classifier implementing a simple majority voting strategy to recognize appropriate nh2-terminal sequences. the svm class ...200919940384
septins aspa and aspc are important for normal development and limit the emergence of new growth foci in the multicellular fungus aspergillus nidulans.septins are cytoskeletal proteins found in fungi, animals, and microsporidia, where they form multiseptin complexes that act as scaffolds recruiting and organizing other proteins to ensure normal cell division and development. here we characterize the septins aspa and aspc in the multicellular, filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. mutants with deletions of aspa, aspc, or both aspa and aspc show early and increased germ tube and branch emergence, abnormal septation, and disorganized conidioph ...201019949047
the properties of adaptive walks in evolving populations of fungus.the rarity of beneficial mutations has frustrated efforts to develop a quantitative theory of adaptation. recent models of adaptive walks, the sequential substitution of beneficial mutations by selection, make two compelling predictions: adaptive walks should be short, and fitness increases should become exponentially smaller as successive mutations fix. we estimated the number and fitness effects of beneficial mutations in each of 118 replicate lineages of aspergillus nidulans evolving for appr ...200919956798
erl1, a novel era-like gtpase from magnaporthe oryzae, is required for full root virulence and is conserved in the mutualistic symbiont glomus intraradices.comparative analyses of genome sequences from several plant-infecting fungi have shown conservation and expansion of protein families with plant disease-related functions. here, we show that this hypothesis can be extended to mutualistic symbiotic fungi. we have identified a gene encoding an era (escherichia coli ras)-like gtpase in the rice blast fungus magnaporthe oryzae and found that it is orthologous to the mature amino terminal part of the gin1 protein from the arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) ...201019958140
the ccaat-binding complex coordinates the oxidative stress response in eukaryotes.the heterotrimeric ccaat-binding complex is evolutionary conserved in eukaryotic organisms. the corresponding aspergillus nidulans ccaat-binding factor (ancf) consists of the subunits hapb, hapc and hape. all of the three subunits are necessary for dna binding. here, we demonstrate that ancf senses the redox status of the cell via oxidative modification of thiol groups within the histone fold motif of hapc. mutational and in vitro interaction analyses revealed that two of these cysteine residues ...201019965775
transport-dependent endocytosis and turnover of a uric acid-xanthine this work we unmask a novel downregulation mechanism of the uric acid/xanthine transporter uapa, the prototype member of the ubiquitous nucleobase-ascorbate transporter family, directly related to its function. in the presence of substrates, uapa is endocytosed, sorted into the multivesicular body pathway and degraded in vacuoles. substrate-induced endocytosis, unlike ammonium-induced turnover, is absolutely dependent on uapa activity and several lines of evidence showed that the signal for i ...201020002879
formate-nitrite transporters: optimisation of expression, purification and analysis of prokaryotic and eukaryotic representatives.the formate-nitrite transporter family is composed of integral membrane proteins that possess six to eight alpha-helical transmembrane domains. genes encoding these proteins are observed widely in prokaryotic genomes as well as certain groups of lower eukaryotes. thus far, no structural information is available for this transporter family. towards this aim, and to provide protein for biophysical studies, overexpression of a prokaryotic (tpnirc, from the hyperthermophilic archaebacterium thermofi ...201020006708
caspofungin etest endpoint for aspergillus isolates shows poor agreement with the reference minimum effective concentration.the clinical and laboratory standards institute (clsi) m38-a2 reference broth microdilution (bmd) method for the antifungal susceptibility testing of filamentous fungi now includes guidelines for testing echinocandin activity using the minimum effective concentration (mec) as the endpoint measurement. in this study, we compared the caspofungin etest mic on rpmi agar and mueller-hinton agar (supplemented with glucose and methylene blue [mgm]) to the bmd mec for 345 clinical aspergillus isolates, ...201020007389
the crystal structure of an lll-configured depsipeptide substrate analogue bound to isopenicillin n synthase.isopenicillin n synthase (ipns) is a non-heme iron(ii) oxidase, which catalyses the biosynthesis of isopenicillin n (ipn) from the tripeptide delta-l-alpha-aminoadipoyl-l-cysteinyl-d-valine (lld-acv) in a remarkable oxidative bicyclisation reaction. the natural substrate for ipns is the lld-configured tripeptide. lll-acv is not turned over by the enzyme, but inhibits turnover of the lld-tripeptide. the mechanism by which this inhibition takes place is not fully understood. recent studies have em ...201020024142
selection to sequence: opportunities in fungal genomics. 200920025617
a cryptic role of a glycolytic-gluconeogenic enzyme (aldolase) in amino acid transporter turnover in aspergillus aspergillus nidulans the fbaa1013 mutation results in reduced or total loss of growth on glycolytic and gluconeogenic carbon sources, respectively. it also negatively affects growth on several amino acids (including l-proline, l-glutamate or l-aspartate) that the fungus can use as nitrogen source on glycolytic carbon sources. complementation of the fbaa1013 mutation using an a. nidulans genomic library resulted in cloning of the fbaa gene, which encodes a putative fructose 1,6-biphosphate ald ...201020026236
localization and function of calmodulin in live-cells of aspergillus nidulans.calmodulin (cam) is a small, eukaryotic protein that reversibly binds ca(2+). study of cam localization in genetically tractable organisms has yielded many insights into cam function. here, we described the dynamic localization of aspergillus nidulans cam (ancam) in live-cells by using recombination strains with homologous, single cross-over insertions at the target gene which placed the gfp fused copy under the inducible alca promoter and the rfp-cam integration under the native cam promoter. w ...201020034586
modelling the survival of escherichia coli o157:h7 on raw portioned tomatoes, inoculated with aspergillus fumigatus and emericella nidulans.the metabiotic interactions occurring among two fungi (aspergillus fumigatus and emericella nidulans) and escherichia coli o157:h7 on raw portioned tomatoes were studied. tomatoes, preinoculated with the moulds and inoculated with the pathogen, were packaged in air and stored at 4, 8 and 12( composite function)c for 9 days; pathogen cell number and ph were monitored throughout the storage and the data were modeled using three different equations (geeraerd, weibull, and modified weibull), to asse ...200920037729
aoxa is a major peroxisomal long chain fatty acyl-coa oxidase required for beta-oxidation in a. nidulans.filamentous fungi can use a variety of fatty acids (fa) as sole carbon and energy sources. aspergillus nidulans has been shown to possess both peroxisomal and mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathways. in these studies, the major peroxisomal long chain fatty acyl coenzyme a oxidase aoxa was identified. aoxa was shown to be localised to peroxisomes and deletion of the aoxa gene leads to reduced growth on long chain fa, but not on short chain fa. aoxa is predicted to be part of the same peroxisomal be ...201020043225
parp is involved in replicative aging in neurospora crassa.modification of proteins by the addition of poly(adp-ribose) is carried out by poly(adp-ribose) polymerases (parps). parps have been implicated in a wide range of biological processes in eukaryotes, but no universal function has been established. a study of the aspergillus nidulans parp ortholog (prpa) revealed that the protein is essential and involved in dna repair, reminiscent of findings using mammalian systems. we found that a neurospora parp orthologue (npo) is dispensable for cell surviva ...201020045739
reduced expression of the o-mannosyltransferase 2 (afpmt2) leads to deficient cell wall and abnormal polarity in aspergillus fumigatus.protein o-mannosyltransferases (pmts) initiate o-mannosylation of secretory proteins, which are of fundamental importance in eukaryotes. the human fungal pathogen aspergillus fumigatus possesses three genes encoding for pmts, namely, afpmt1, afpmt2 and afpmt4. we have previously shown that lack of afpmt1 leads to a temperature-sensitive phenotype featured with severe defects in hyphal growth, conidiation, cell wall integrity and morphology at elevated temperatures. in this study, a conditional m ...201020053626
regulation of ustilago maydis dimorphism, sporulation, and pathogenic development by a transcription factor with a highly conserved apses ustilago maydis, the causal agent of corn smut, the morphological transition from yeast to filamentous growth is inextricably linked to pathogenicity; budding haploid cells are saprobic and, upon mating of compatible strains, the fungus converts to dikaryotic filamentous growth and obligate parasitism. the filamentous dikaryon proliferates in the host plant, inducing tumor formation and undergoing additional morphological changes that eventually result in the production of melanized diploid t ...201020064064
reaction coordinate of isopenicillin n synthase: oxidase versus oxygenase activity.isopenicillin n synthase (ipns) can have both oxidase and oxygenase activity depending on the substrate. for the native substrate, acv, oxidase activity exists; however, for the substrate analogue acov, which lacks an amide nitrogen, ipns exhibits oxygenase activity. the potential energy surfaces for the o-o bond elongation and cleavage were calculated for three different reactions: homolytic cleavage via traditional fenton chemistry, heterolytic cleavage, and nucleophilic attack. these surfaces ...201020078029
identification of possible targets of the aspergillus fumigatus crz1 homologue, crza.calcineurin, a serine/threonine-specific protein phosphatase, plays an important role in the control of cell morphology and virulence in fungi. calcineurin regulates localization and activity of a transcription factor called crz1. recently, we characterize aspergillus fumigatus crz1 homologue, afcrza. here, we investigate which pathways are influenced by a. fumigatus afcrza during a short pulse of calcium by comparatively determining the transcriptional profile of a. fumigatus wild type and delt ...201020078882
mechanism of de novo branched-chain amino acid synthesis as an alternative electron sink in hypoxic aspergillus nidulans cells.although branched-chain amino acids are synthesized as building blocks of proteins, we found that the fungus aspergillus nidulans excretes them into the culture medium under hypoxia. the transcription of predicted genes for synthesizing branched-chain amino acids was upregulated by hypoxia. a knockout strain of the gene encoding the large subunit of acetohydroxy acid synthase (ahas), which catalyzes the initial reaction of the synthesis, required branched-chain amino acids for growth and excrete ...201020081005
design, synthesis and biological evaluation of carboxy analogues of arginine methyltransferase inhibitor 1 (ami-1).here we report the synthesis of a number of compounds structurally related to arginine methyltransferase inhibitor 1 (ami-1). the structural alterations that we made included: 1) the substitution of the sulfonic groups with the bioisosteric carboxylic groups; 2) the replacement of the ureidic function with a bis-amidic moiety; 3) the introduction of a n-containing basic moiety; and 4) the positional isomerization of the aminohydroxynaphthoic moiety. we have assessed the biological activity of th ...201020091730
the transposon impala is activated by low temperatures: use of a controlled transposition system to identify genes critical for viability of aspergillus fumigatus.genes that are essential for viability represent potential targets for the development of anti-infective agents. however, relatively few have been determined in the filamentous fungal pathogen aspergillus fumigatus. a novel solution employing parasexual genetics coupled with transposon mutagenesis using the fusarium oxysporum transposon impala had previously enabled the identification of 20 essential genes from a. fumigatus; however, further use of this system required a better understanding of ...201020097738
lipoperoxidation affects ochratoxin a biosynthesis in aspergillus ochraceus and its interaction with wheat aspergillus nidulans, aspergillus flavus, and aspergillus parasiticus, lipoperoxidative signalling is crucial for the regulation of mycotoxin biosynthesis, conidiogenesis, and sclerotia formation. resveratrol, which is a lipoxygenase (lox) and cyclooxygenase inhibitor, downmodulates the biosynthesis of ochratoxin a (ota) in aspergillus ochraceus. in the genome of a. ochraceus, a lox-like sequence (aoloxa; national center for biotechnology information (ncbi) accession number: dq087531) for a l ...201020101489
molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of two beta-n-acetylhexosaminidase homologs of coccidioides posadasii.two full-length cdnas were isolated from coccidioides posadasii that encode two deduced proteins (cphex1 and cphex2) with homology to the glycosyl hydrolase 20 family of beta-n-acetylhexosaminidases. cphex1 consists of 595 amino acids, has a predicted molecular mass of 68 kda and shares the highest identity with the n-acetylhexosaminidase (naga) of aspergillus nidulans, while cphex2 consists of 603 amino acids, has a predicted molecular mass of 68.5 kda and shares the highest identity with nag1 ...201020109094
photodynamic inactivation of conidia of the fungi metarhizium anisopliae and aspergillus nidulans with methylene blue and toluidine blue.antimicrobial photodynamic treatment (pdt) is a promising method that can be used to control localized mycoses or kill fungi in the environment. a major objective of the current study was to compare the conidial photosensitization of two fungal species (metarhizium anisopliae and aspergillus nidulans) with methylene blue (mb) and toluidine blue (tbo) under different incubation and light conditions. parameters examined were media, photosensitizer (ps) concentration and light source. pdt with mb a ...201020113427
inhibition of histone deacetylase causes reduction of appressorium formation in the rice blast fungus magnaporthe modifications (ptms) are important for cellular functions. the regulation of histone acetyltransferases (hats) and histone deacetylases (hdacs) is one of important ptms for epigenetic control, protein activity and protein stability. the regulation of acetylation of the n-terminal histone tails of core histone affects gene expression. two class i hdac genes and two class ii hdac genes have been identified in the magnaporthe oryzae genome. treatment with rpd3/hda1 family (classi ...200920118613
bioinspired deposition of tio2 thin films induced by hydrophobins.the deposition of ceramic thin films from aqueous solutions at low temperature using biopolymers as templates has attracted much attention due to economic and environmental benefits. titanium dioxide is one of the most attractive functional materials and shows a wide range of applications across vastly different areas because of its unique chemical, optical, and electrical properties. in the present work, we deposited smooth, nanocrystalline titania thin films by an aqueous deposition method on ...201020121159
atfa bzip-type transcription factor regulates oxidative and osmotic stress responses in aspergillus nidulans.the aim of the study was to demonstrate that the bzip-type transcription factor atfa regulates different types of stress responses in aspergillus nidulans similarly to atf1, the orthologous 'all-purpose' transcription factor of schizosaccharomyces pombe. heterologous expression of atfa in a s. pombe deltaatf1 mutant restored the osmotic stress tolerance of fission yeast in surface cultures to the same level as recorded in complementation studies with the atf1 gene, and a partial complementation ...201020131067
heterochromatic marks are associated with the repression of secondary metabolism clusters in aspergillus nidulans.fungal secondary metabolites are important bioactive compounds but the conditions leading to expression of most of the putative secondary metabolism (sm) genes predicted by fungal genomics are unknown. here we describe a novel mechanism involved in sm-gene regulation based on the finding that, in aspergillus nidulans, mutants lacking components involved in heterochromatin formation show de-repression of genes involved in biosynthesis of sterigmatocystin (st), penicillin and terrequinone a. durin ...201020132440
the concerted action of bzip and cmyb transcription factors flbb and flbd induces brla expression and asexual development in aspergillus nidulans.fungi are capable of generating diverse cell types through developmental processes that stem from hyphae, acting as pluripotent cells. the formation of mitospores on emergence of hyphae to the air involves the participation of transcription factors, which co-ordinate the genesis of new cell types, eventually leading to spore formation. in this investigation, we show that bzip transcription factor flbb, which has been attributed to participate in transducing the aerial stimulus signal, activates ...201020132447
characterization of the aspergillus nidulans monodictyphenone gene cluster.deletion of ccla, a component of the compass complex of aspergillus nidulans, results in the production of monodictyphenone and emodin derivatives. through a set of targeted deletions in a ccla deletion strain, we have identified the genes required for monodictyphenone and emodin analog biosynthesis. identification of an intermediate, endocrocin, from an mdphdelta strain suggests that mdph might encode a decarboxylase. furthermore, by replacing the promoter of mdpa (a putative aflj homolog) and ...201020139316
genotoxic activity of eucalyptus globulus essential oil in aspergillus nidulans diploid cells.eucalyptus globulus essential oil was evaluated for its genotoxic potential using a somatic segregation assay and a diploid strain of the fungus aspergillus nidulans, heterozygous for nutritional and conidia color markers. the main compounds of the current essential oil sample were eucalyptol (49.0 %), alpha-pinene (8.9), beta-pinene (1.5), globulol (6.9), alpha-eudesmol (1.12), spathulenol (1.42), gamma-cadinene (1.45), trans-beta-elemenone (1.23) and aromandendrene (2.3), totaling 74 % of oil. ...201020140715
asperfuranone from aspergillus nidulans inhibits proliferation of human non-small cell lung cancer a549 cells via blocking cell cycle progression and inducing apoptosis.asperfuranone, a novel compound of genomic mining in aspergillus nidulans, was investigated for its anti-proliferative activity in human non-small cell lung cancer a549 cells. to identity the anti-cancer mechanism of asperfuranone, we assayed its effect on apoptosis, cell cycle distribution, and levels of p53, p21 waf1/cip1, fas/apo-1 receptor and fas ligand. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that the g0/g1 phase arrest might be due to p53-dependent induction of p21 waf1/cip1. an enhancem ...201020148857
the conserved and divergent roles of carbonic anhydrases in the filamentous fungi aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillus nidulans.carbon dioxide (co(2)) and its hydration product bicarbonate (hco(3)(-)) are essential molecules in various physiological processes of all living organisms. the reversible interconversion between co(2) and hco(3)(-) is in equilibrium. this reaction is slow without catalyst, but can be rapidly facilitated by zn(2+)-metalloenzymes named carbonic anhydrases (cas). to gain an insight into the function of multiple clades of fungal ca, we chose to investigate the filamentous fungi aspergillus fumigatu ...201020149101
overexpression of bacterial ethylene-forming enzyme gene in trichoderma reesei enhanced the production of order to efficiently utilize natural cellulose materials to produce ethylene, three expression vectors containing the ethylene-forming enzyme (efe) gene from pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea were constructed. the target gene was respectively controlled by different promoters: cbh i promoter from trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolases i gene, gpd promoter from aspergillus nidulans glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene and pgk i promoter from t. reesei 3-phosphoglycerate kinase i gene. ...201020150979
expression and purification of a functional uric acid-xanthine transporter (uapa).the nucleobase-ascorbate transporters (nats) family includes carriers with fundamental functions in uptake of key cellular metabolites, such as uric acid or vitamin c. the best studied example of a nat transporter is the uric acid-xanthine permease (uapa) from the model ascomycete aspergillus nidulans. detailed genetic and biochemical analyses have revealed much about the mechanism of action of this protein; however, the difficulties associated with handling eukaryotic membrane proteins have lim ...201020153431
evaluation of performance and community dynamics of microorganisms during treatment of distillery spent wash in a three stage bioreactor.the ability of emericella nidulans var. lata, neurospora intermedia and bacillus sp. to treat distillery spent wash in a three stage bioreactor was investigated. process parameters were optimized in shake flask cultures with the individual strains before treatment of the effluent in a 15-l bioreactor. treatment was first carried out by the fungi followed by bacteria. the treated effluent showed significant reduction in color (82%) and cod (93%) after 30 h. metabolites formed after degradation of ...201020156685
antimicrobial, wound healing and antioxidant activities of anthocephalus cadamba.anthocephalus cadamba (roxb.) miq. syn a. chinensis (lamk) a. rich (rubiaceae) is ethnomedicinally widely used in the form of paste by tribe in western ghats for treating skin diseases. in this context, antimicrobial potential of a. cadamba against a wide range of microorganisms was studied. to validate the ethnotherapeutic claims of the plant in skin diseases, wound healing activity was studied, besides antioxidant activity to understand the mechanism of wound healing. the alchoholic and aqueou ...200720161916
metabolic and developmental effects resulting from deletion of the cita gene encoding citrate synthase in aspergillus nidulans.citrate synthase is a central activity in carbon metabolism. it is required for the tricarboxylic acid (tca) cycle, respiration, and the glyoxylate cycle. in saccharomyces cerevisiae and arabidopsis thaliana, there are mitochondrial and peroxisomal isoforms encoded by separate genes, while in aspergillus nidulans, a single gene, cita, encodes a protein with predicted mitochondrial and peroxisomal targeting sequences (pts). deletion of cita results in poor growth on glucose but not on derepressin ...201020173036
molecular genetic analysis of the orsellinic acid/f9775 gene cluster of aspergillus nidulans.f-9775a and f-9775b are cathepsin k inhibitors that arise from a chromatin remodelling deletant strain of aspergillus nidulans. a polyketide synthase gene has been determined to be responsible for their formation and for the simpler, archetypical polyketide orsellinic acid. we have discovered simple culture conditions that result in the production of the three compounds, and this facilitates analysis of the genes responsible for their synthesis. we have now analysed the f9775/orsellinic acid gen ...201020174687
regulation of septum formation by the bud3-rho4 gtpase module in aspergillus nidulans.the ability of fungi to generate polarized cells with a variety of shapes likely reflects precise temporal and spatial control over the formation of polarity axes. the bud site selection system of saccharomyces cerevisiae represents the best-understood example of such a morphogenetic regulatory system. however, the extent to which this system is conserved in the highly polarized filamentous fungi remains unknown. here, we describe the functional characterization and localization of the aspergill ...201020176976
dynamic elements at both cytoplasmically and extracellularly facing sides of the uapa transporter selectively control the accessibility of substrates to their translocation the uapa uric acid-xanthine permease of aspergillus nidulans, subtle interactions between key residues of the putative substrate binding pocket, located in the tms8-tms9 loop (where tms is transmembrane segment), and a specificity filter, implicating residues in tms12 and the tms1-tms2 loop, are critical for function and specificity. by using a strain lacking all transporters involved in adenine uptake (deltaazga deltafcyb deltauapc) and carrying a mutation that partially inactivates the uapa ...201020188741
mitotic crossing-over induced by two commercial herbicides in diploid strains of the fungus aspergillus nidulans.some herbicides are suspected of promoting teratogenic, carcinogenic and mutagenic events. detection of induced mitotic crossing-over has proven to be an indirect way of testing the carcinogenic properties of suspicious substances, because mitotic crossing-over is involved in the multistep process of carcinogenesis. we examined mitotic crossing-over induced by two commercial herbicides (diuron and trifluralin) in diploid strains of aspergillus nidulans based on the homozygotization index. low do ...201020198578
proteome analysis of fungal and bacterial involvement in leaf litter decomposition.fungi and bacteria are key players in the decomposition of leaf litter, but their individual contributions to the process and their interactions are still poorly known. we combined semi-quantitative proteome analyses (1-d page-lc-ms/ms) with qualitative and quantitative analyses of extracellular degradative enzyme activities to unravel the respective roles of a fungus and a bacterium during litter decomposition. two model organisms, a mesophilic gram-negative bacterium (pectobacterium carotovoru ...201020198641
aspergillus nidulans udp-glucose-4-epimerase ugea has multiple roles in wall architecture, hyphal morphogenesis, and asexual development.aspergillus nidulans udp-glucose-4-epimerase ugea interconverts udp-glucose and udp-galactose and participates in galactose metabolism. the sugar moiety of udp-galactose is predominantly found as galactopyranose (galp, the six-membered ring form), which is the substrate for udp-galactopyranose mutase (encoded by ugma) to generate udp-galactofuranose (galf, the five-membered ring form) that is found in fungal walls. in a. fumigatus, galf residues appear to be important for virulence. the a. nidul ...201020211750
involvement of transposon-like elements in penicillin gene cluster regulation.subtelomeric secondary metabolite (sm) gene clusters are frequently surrounded by dna repeats and transposon-like elements. the aspergillus nidulans penicillin cluster, 30kb from the telomere of chromosome vi, is bordered by such elements. deletions of penicillin telomere proximal and distal border regions resulted in decreased penicillin production. a 3.7kb distal region called pbia, consisting of the putative transposable element dna-2, was examined further where its replacement by a pyrg mark ...201020219692
effect of light on growth, intracellular and extracellular pigment production by five pigment-producing filamentous fungi in synthetic medium.the competence of the living creatures to sense and respond to light is well known. the effect of darkness and different color light quality on biomass, extracellular and intracellular pigment yield of five potent pigment producers monascus purpureus, isaria farinosa, emericella nidulans, fusarium verticillioides and penicillium purpurogenum, with different color shades such as red, pink, reddish brown and yellow, were investigated. incubation in total darkness increased the biomass, extracellul ...201020226375
distinct roles for caf1, ccr4, edc3 and cuta in the co-ordination of transcript deadenylation, decapping and p-body formation in aspergillus nidulans.transcript degradation is a key step in gene regulation. in eukaryotes, mrna decay is generally initiated by removal of the poly(a) tail mediated by the ccr4-caf1-not complex. deadenylated transcripts are then rapidly degraded, primarily via the decapping-dependent pathway. components of this pathway can be localized into highly dynamic cytoplasmic foci, the mrna processing (p)-bodies. we have undertaken confocal fluorescence microscopy to monitor p-bodies in aspergillus nidulans. as in other or ...201020233300
deletion of the ring-finger peroxin 2 gene in aspergillus nidulans does not affect meiotic development.peroxins are required for protein import into peroxisomes as well as for peroxisome biogenesis and proliferation. loss-of-function mutations in genes for the ring-finger peroxins pex2, pex10 and pex12 lead to a specific block in meiosis in the ascomycete podospora anserina. however, loss of protein import into peroxisomes does not result in this meiotic defect. therefore, it has been suggested that these peroxins have a specific function required for meiosis. to determine whether this role is co ...201020236327
some aspects of penicillin production by aspergillus nidulans. 194720264542
penicillin production by the aspergillus nidulans group. 194720264543
novel insights into the functional role of three protein arginine methyltransferases in aspergillus nidulans.protein arginine methylation has been implicated in different cellular processes including transcriptional regulation by the modification of histone proteins. here we demonstrate significant in vitro activities and multifaceted specificities of aspergillus protein arginine methyltransferases (prmts) and we provide evidence for a role of protein methylation in mechanisms of oxidative stress response. we have isolated all three aspergillus prmts from fungal extracts and could assign significant hi ...201020338257
interaction of the aspergillus nidulans microtubule-organizing center (mtoc) component apsb with gamma-tubulin and evidence for a role of a subclass of peroxisomes in the formation of septal mtocs.peroxisomes are a diverse class of organelles involved in different physiological processes in eukaryotic cells. although proteins imported into peroxisomes carry a peroxisomal targeting sequence at the c terminus (pts1) or an alternative one close to the n terminus (pts2), the protein content of peroxisomes varies drastically. here we suggest a new class of peroxisomes involved in microtubule (mt) formation. eukaryotic cells assemble mts from distinct points in the cell. in the fungus aspergill ...201020348383
aspergillus nidulans contains six possible fatty acyl-coa synthetases with faab being the major synthetase for fatty acid degradation.aspergillus nidulans can use a variety of fatty acids as sole carbon and energy sources via its peroxisomal and mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathways. prior to channelling the fatty acids into beta-oxidation, they need to be activated to their acyl-coa derivates. analysis of the genome sequence identified a number of possible fatty acyl-coa synthetases (fata, fatb, fatc, fatd, faaa and faab). faab was found to be the major long-chain synthetase for fatty acid degradation. faab was shown to local ...201020354844
a septin from the filamentous fungus a. nidulans induces atypical pseudohyphae in the budding yeast s. cerevisiae.septins, novel cytoskeletal proteins, form rings at the bases of emerging round buds in yeasts and at the bases of emerging elongated hyphal initials in filamentous fungi.201020360845
gdp-mannose transporter paralogues play distinct roles in polarized growth of aspergillus nidulans.gdp-mannose transporters (gmt) carry gdp-mannose nucleotide sugars from the cytosol across the golgi apparatus membrane for use as substrates in protein glycosylation in plants, animals and fungi. genomes of some fungal species, such as the yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae, contain only one gene encoding a gmt, while others, including aspergillus nidulans, contain two (gmta and gmtb). we previously showed that cell wall integrity and normal hyphal morphogenesis in a. nidulans depend upon the funct ...201020361498
characterization of aspergillus nidulans didb did2, a non-essential component of the multivesicular body pathway.escrt-iii heteropolymers mediate membrane protein cargo sorting into multivesicular endosomes for subsequent vacuolar degradation. we studied the localization of largely uncharacterized aspergillus nidulans escrt-iii using its key structural component vps32 and the 'associated' component didb(did2). vps32-gfp localizes to motile early endosomes as reported, but predominates in aggregates often associated with vacuoles due to inability to dissociate from endosomes. didb(did)(2) regulating vps4 (t ...201020362686
single-step affinity purification for fungal proteomics.a single-step protein affinity purification protocol using aspergillus nidulans is described. detailed protocols for cell breakage, affinity purification, and depending on the application, methods for protein release from affinity beads are provided. examples defining the utility of the approaches, which should be widely applicable, are included.201020363899
receptor-independent ambient ph signaling by ubiquitin attachment to fungal arrestin-like palf.the seven-transmembrane receptor palh and its coupled, positive-acting arrestin-like protein palf are key components of a molecular sensor that in aspergillus nidulans and other ascomycete fungi mediates activation of an intracellular signaling cascade by alkaline ambient ph. palf is ubiquitinated in an alkaline ph- and palh-dependent manner. we show here that palf assists the plasma membrane localization of palh and that palf overexpression slightly hypersensitizes the pathway to alkaline ph bu ...201020368671
the choc gene encoding a putative phospholipid methyltransferase is essential for growth and development in aspergillus nidulans.phosphatidylcholines (pcs) are a class of major cell membrane phospholipids that participate in many physiological processes. three genes, choa, chob and choc, have been proposed to function in the endogenous biosynthesis of pc in aspergillus nidulans. in this study, we characterize the choc gene encoding a putative highly conserved phospholipid methyltransferase. the previously reported choc3 mutant allele results from a mutation leading to the e177k amino acid substitution. the transcript of c ...201020379720
[guideline based treatment of invasive aspergillosis].invasive fungus infections caused by aspergillus spp. occur most frequently in immunocompromised patients. a high infection-associated death rate of up to and over 50% is attributed even today to these fungi. the disease in humans is caused mainly by aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus and aspergillus niger. other species, for example, aspergillus terreus or aspergillus nidulans are quantitatively less prevalent. evidence based treatment of invasive aspergillosis has become safer and more ...201020433655
fungal secondary metabolites - strategies to activate silent gene clusters.filamentous fungi produce a multitude of low molecular weight bioactive compounds. the increasing number of fungal genome sequences impressively demonstrated that their biosynthetic potential is far from being exploited. in fungi, the genes required for the biosynthesis of a secondary metabolite are clustered. many of these bioinformatically newly discovered secondary metabolism gene clusters are silent under standard laboratory conditions. consequently, no product can be found. this review summ ...201120433937
differential expression of cita gene encoding the mitochondrial citrate synthase of aspergillus nidulans in response to developmental status and carbon an extension of our previous studies on the mitochondrial citrate synthase of aspergillus nidulans and cloning of its coding gene (cita), we analyzed differential expression of cita in response to the progress of development and change of carbon source. the cdna consisted of 1,700 nucleotides and was predicted to encode a 474-amino acid protein. by comparing the cdna sequence with the corresponding genomic sequence, we confirmed that cita gene contains 7 introns and that its transcription sta ...201020437151
predicting the chemical composition and structure of aspergillus nidulans hyphal wall surface by atomic force fungi, cell wall plays an important role in growth and development. major macromolecular constituents of the aspergilli cell wall are glucan, chitin, and protein. we examined the chemical composition and structure of the aspergillus nidulans hyphal wall surface by an atomic force microscope (afm). to determine the composition of the cell wall surface, the adhesion forces of commercially available beta-glucan, chitin, and various proteins were compared to those of corresponding fractions prepa ...201020437158
analysis of a novel calcium auxotrophy in aspergillus aspergillus nidulans a combination of null mutations in hala, encoding a protein kinase, and slta, encoding a zinc-finger transcription factor having no yeast homologues, results in an elevated calcium requirement ('calcium auxotrophy') without impairing net calcium uptake. slta(-) (+/-hala(-)) mutations result in hypertrophy of the vacuolar system. in hala(-)slta(-) (and slta(-)) strains, transcript levels for pmca and pmcb, encoding vacuolar ca(2+)-atpase homologues, are highly elevated, su ...201020438880
in vitro susceptibility testing in aspergillus species: an update.aspergillus species are the most common causes of invasive mold infections in immunocompromised patients. the introduction of new antifungal agents and recent reports of resistance emerging during treatment of aspergillus infections have highlighted the need for in vitro susceptibility testing. various testing procedures have been proposed, including macro- and micro-dilution, disk diffusion, etest (ab biodisk, sweden) and other commercial tests. although aspergillus species are generally suscep ...201020441550
development of rapid and specific molecular discrimination methods for pathogenic emericella species.aspergillosis is an important mycosis caused primarily by aspergillus fumigatus and its relatives. the genus emericella is a teleomorph related to the aspergillus section nidulantes. the typical anamorphic stage species in this genus is aspergillus nidulans, which is sometimes a significant agent in chronic granulomatous disease (cgd) patients. the mortality rate of osteomyelitis in cgd patients due to a. nidulans ( e. nidulans ) is very high compared to that due to a. fumigatus. moreover, two e ...201020467199
high-throughput screening of dna binding sites for transcription factor amyr from aspergillus nidulans using dna beads display system.we established a high-throughput screening method for the dna binding sequence of a eukaryotic transcription factor by using the bead display system with emulsion pcr and flow cytometry and applied it for identifying a eukaryotic transcriptional activator amyr, which is known to regulate amylolytic gene expression in aspergillus species. segmented parts of the binding site of amyr were randomized to make a dna library on beads, onto which male-tagged amyr protein and fluorescent anti-male tag an ...201020471587
core promoters of the penicillin biosynthesis genes and quantitative rt-pcr analysis of these genes in high and low production strain of penicillium chrysogenum.the transcription start points of the penicillin biosynthesis genes from penicillium chrysogenum were mapped using the primer extension method. for each of the three genes consensus sequences of the core promoter elements were identified, supporting the notion that the basal transcription of these genes is mediated separately. interestingly, transcription start of the pcbc gene is located within the potential inr element with no tata box-like sequence being found at expected position. this is in ...201020490754
the fps1p aquaglyceroporin facilitates the use of small aliphatic amides as a nitrogen source by amidase-expressing yeasts.saccharomyces cerevisiae acquires a resistance to high, toxic levels of acetic acid by destabilizing fps1p, the plasma membrane aquaglyceroporin through which this acid - in its undissociated state - enters the cell. in this study, fps1p loss was shown to confer resistances to acetic acid, acrolein and allyl alcohol, not just in s. cerevisiae but also in the osmotolerant spoilage yeast zygosaccharomyces rouxii. however, in z. rouxii, the loss of fps1p severely compromised the use of acetamide an ...201020491941
atp-citrate lyase is required for production of cytosolic acetyl coenzyme a and development in aspergillus nidulans.acetyl coenzyme a (coa) is a central metabolite in carbon and energy metabolism and in the biosynthesis of cellular molecules. a source of cytoplasmic acetyl-coa is essential for the production of fatty acids and sterols and for protein acetylation, including histone acetylation in the nucleus. in saccharomyces cerevisiae and candida albicans acetyl-coa is produced from acetate by cytoplasmic acetyl-coa synthetase, while in plants and animals acetyl-coa is derived from citrate via atp-citrate ly ...201020495057
gene silencing of transgenes inserted in the aspergillus nidulans alcm and/or alcs loci.while carrying out a systematic disruption of the genes of unknown function in the alc gene cluster from the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, we observed a strong diminution of the transcription of markers inserted in the alcs gene. this was found to be the case for the two markers tested, nada (from a. nidulans) and pyrg (from a. fumigatus) involved in purine utilization and uracil/uridine biosynthetic pathway, respectively. the same phenomenon was also observed with insertion of the na ...201020495807
nek1 silencing slows down dna repair and blocks dna damage-induced cell cycle arrest.never in mitosis a (nima)-related kinases (nek) are evolutionarily conserved proteins structurally related to the aspergillus nidulans mitotic regulator nima. nek1 is one of the 11 isoforms of the neks identified in mammals. different lines of evidence suggest the participation of nek1 in response to dna damage, which is also supported by the interaction of this kinase with proteins involved in dna repair pathways and cell cycle regulation. in this report, we show that cells with nek1 knockdown ...201020501547
the transcription repressor nmra is subject to proteolysis by three aspergillus nidulans proteases.the role of specific cleavage of transcription repressor proteins by proteases and how this may be related to the emerging theme of dinucleotides as cellular signaling molecules is poorly characterized. the transcription repressor nmra of aspergillus nidulans discriminates between oxidized and reduced dinucleotides, however, dinucleotide binding has no effect on its interaction with the zinc finger in the transcription activator area. protease activity in a. nidulans was assayed using nmra as th ...201020506376
a defect in nir1, a nira-like transcription factor, confers morphological abnormalities and loss of pathogenicity in colletotrichum acutatum.summary a non-pathogenic mutant of colletotrichum acutatum, designated ca5, exhibited epiphytic hyphal growth and did not cause lesions on strawberry plants but grew necrotrophically when inoculated directly onto wounded stolons. in the absence of an external nitrogen source, the mutant exhibited extended germ-tube growth prior to appressorium formation. the deduced product of the impaired gene (nir1) is similar to nira, an aspergillus nidulans transcriptional regulator of nitrogen metabolism. i ...200620507451
an activating mutation of the sclerotinia sclerotiorum pac1 gene increases oxalic acid production at low ph but decreases virulence.summary the production of oxalic acid by sclerotinia sclerotiorum is regulated by the ambient ph environment. this regulation and that of a few investigated ph-responsive genes is mediated in part by the zinc finger transcription factor encoded by pac1, an orthologue of the aspergillus nidulans pacc gene. we manipulated the pac1 sequence by site-directed mutagenesis to create a dominant activating pac1(c) mutation and introduced this allele into a pac1 loss-of-function (deltapac1) strain. consis ...200720507525
the mode of reproduction in natural populations of ascomycetous fungus, emericella nidulans, from israel.the mode of reproduction of the soil ascomycetous fungus emericella nidulans of israeli populations was studied using 15 microsatellite (simple sequence repeats or ssr) trinucleotide markers. the study was performed in three canyons: two located in the northern part of israel (mount carmel and western upper galilee) and one in the southern negev desert. in each canyon, e. nidulans strains were isolated from the opposite slopes and (in the desert canyon) the valley bottom. testing the reproductiv ...201020515512
role of phospholipase c and protein kinase c in aspergillus nidulans during growth on pectin or glucose: effects on germination and duplication cycle.the effects of plc and pkc inhibitors on aspergillus nidulans depend on the carbon source. plc inhibitors spm and c48/80 delayed the first nuclear division in cultures growing on glucose, but stimulated it in media supplemented with pectin. less intense were these effects on the mutant transformed with plc-a gene rupture (ap27). neomycin also delayed the germination in cultures growing on glucose or pectin; however, on glucose, the nuclear division was inhibited whereas in pectin it was stimulat ...201020526834
aspergillus rabb rab5 integrates acquisition of degradative identity with the long distance movement of early endosomes.aspergillus nidulans early endosomes display characteristic long-distance bidirectional motility. simultaneous dual-channel acquisition showed that the two rab5 paralogues rabb and raba colocalize in these early endosomes and also in larger, immotile mature endosomes. however, rabb-gtp is the sole recruiter to endosomes of vps34 pi3k (phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase) and the phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate [pi(3)p] effector anvps19 and rabb delta, leading to thermosensitivity prevents multivesicu ...201020534811
antifungal activity of eugenol against penicillium, aspergillus, and fusarium species.the antifungal activity of eugenol in a model system against aspergilli (aspergillus niger, aspergillus terreus, and emericella nidulans), penicilli (penicillium expansum, penicillium glabrum, and penicillium italicum), and fusaria (fusarium oxysporum and fusarium avenaceum) was investigated. minimum detection time (time to attain a colony diameter of 1 cm) and the kinetic parameters were evaluated. the effectiveness of the active compound seemed to be strain or genus dependent; 100 mg/liter rep ...201020537272
methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase activity is involved in the plasma membrane redox system required for pigment biosynthesis in filamentous fungi.methylenetetrahydrofolate reductases (mthfrs) play a key role in biosynthesis of methionine and s-adenosyl-l-methionine (sam) via the recharging methionine biosynthetic pathway. analysis of 32 complete fungal genomes showed that fungi were unique among eukaryotes by having two mthfrs, met12 and met13. the met12 type contained an additional conserved sequence motif compared to the sequences of met13 and mthfrs from other eukaryotes and bacteria. targeted gene replacement of either of the two mthf ...201020543064
self-protection against gliotoxin--a component of the gliotoxin biosynthetic cluster, glit, completely protects aspergillus fumigatus against exogenous gliotoxin.gliotoxin, and other related molecules, are encoded by multi-gene clusters and biosynthesized by fungi using non-ribosomal biosynthetic mechanisms. almost universally described in terms of its toxicity towards mammalian cells, gliotoxin has come to be considered as a component of the virulence arsenal of aspergillus fumigatus. here we show that deletion of a single gene, glit, in the gliotoxin biosynthetic cluster of two a. fumigatus strains, rendered the organism highly sensitive to exogenous g ...201020548963
the effect of resource quantity and resource stoichiometry on microbial carbon-use-efficiency.the carbon-use-efficiency (cue) of microorganisms is an important parameter in determining ecosystem-level carbon (c) cycling; however, little is known about how variance in resources affects microbial cue. to elucidate how resource quantity and resource stoichiometry affect microbial cue, we cultured four microorganisms - two fungi (aspergillus nidulans and trichoderma harzianum) and two bacteria (pectobacterium carotovorum and verrucomicrobium spinosum) - under 12 unique c, nitrogen (n) and ph ...201020550579
recombinant production of an aspergillus nidulans class i hydrophobin (dewa) in hypocrea jecorina (trichoderma reesei) is promoter-dependent.fungal hydrophobins have potential for several applications because of their abilities to change the hydrophobicity of different surfaces. yet because of their tendency for aggregation and attachment to interfacial areas only few production processes have so far been reported. towards the development of a heterologous production system, we report here the expression of a class i hydrophobin dewa of aspergillus nidulans in hypocrea jecorina (trichoderma reesei). using the h. jecorina hfb2 (class ...201020567818
pathogenic fungi: leading or led by ambient ph?summary pathogenic fungi have successfully attacked a wide range of hosts, which has forced them into ambient-adaptation. ph is one of the major ambient traits affecting the activity of pathogenicity factors secreted by the pathogen, hence, a ph sensing-response system was developed to enable the pathogen to tailor its arsenal to best fit its host. the pacc pala, b, c, f, h and i apparatus was first identified in aspergillus nidulans and later found in other fungi. secreted pathogenicity factors ...200320569410
ffvel1 and fflae1, components of a velvet-like complex in fusarium fujikuroi, affect differentiation, secondary metabolism and virulence.besides industrially produced gibberellins (gas), fusarium fujikuroi is able to produce additional secondary metabolites such as the pigments bikaverin and neurosporaxanthin and the mycotoxins fumonisins and fusarin c. the global regulation of these biosynthetic pathways is only poorly understood. recently, the velvet complex containing vea and several other regulatory proteins was shown to be involved in global regulation of secondary metabolism and differentiation in aspergillus nidulans. here ...201020572938
identification of potato genes induced during colonization by phytophthora infestans.summary suppression subtractive hybridization (ssh) was applied in a search for genes induced during the compatible interaction between phytophthora infestans and potato. using potato leaves that had been treated with benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid s-methylester (bth) as the control tissue, a low redundancy library with a relatively low frequency of the classic plant pathogenesis-related (pr) genes was generated. 288 of the clones were screened for induced sequences using inverse nor ...200120573000
spotlight on aspergillus nidulans photosensory systems.aspergilli are ubiquitous soil-borne fungi growing within or on the surface of numerous organic substrates. growth within a substrate or growth on the surface correlates to different growth conditions for the hyphae due to significant changes in oxygen or reactive oxygen species levels and variations in humidity or temperature. the production of air-borne spores is supported by the substrate-air interphase and also requires a sensing system to adapt appropriately. here we focus on light as impor ...201020573560
thermotolerance of germlings and mycelium of the insect-pathogenic fungus metarhizium spp. and mycelial recovery after heat stress.the upper temperature limits for germination and growth were determined for metarhizium acridum (arsef 324, 3341 and 3609), m. robertsii (arsef 2575), m. anisopliae (arsef 5749), and aspergillus nidulans (atcc 10074). most of the metarhizium species germinated well at 35 and 36 degrees c; however, compared to 28 degrees c, the growth was very slow (except arsef 5749 from mexico, which germinated at 35 degrees c, but did not grow at 34 or 36 degrees c). germination was severely impaired at 38 and ...201020586069
wild-type mic distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for the triazoles and six aspergillus spp. for the clsi broth microdilution method (m38-a2 document).clinical breakpoints have not been established for mold testing. wild-type (wt) mic distributions (organisms in a species/drug combination with no detectable acquired resistance mechanisms) were defined in order to establish epidemiologic cutoff values (ecvs) for five aspergillus spp. and itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole. also, we have expanded prior ecv data for aspergillus fumigatus. the number of available isolates varied according to the species/triazole combination as follows: 1 ...201020592159
role of nek6 in tumor promoter-induced transformation in jb6 c141 mouse skin epidermal cells.nek6 (nima-related kinase 6) is a homologue of the aspergillus nidulans protein nima (never in mitosis, gene a). we demonstrate that overexpression of nek6 induces anchorage-independent transformation of jb6 cl41 mouse epidermal cells. tissue arrays and western immunoblot analysis show that nek6 is overexpressed in malignant tissues and several cancer cell lines. our data also show that nek6 interacts with stat3, an oncogenic transcription factor, and phosphorylates stat3 on ser(727), which is i ...201020595392
fitness-associated sexual reproduction in a filamentous is a long-standing evolutionary enigma. although the majority of eukaryotes reproduce sexually at least sometimes [1-3], the evolution of sex from an asexual ancestor has been difficult to explain because it requires sexually reproducing lineages to overcome the manifold costs of sex, including the destruction of favorable gene combinations created by selection [4, 5]. conditions for the evolution of sex are much broader if individuals can reproduce either sexually or asexually (i.e., facult ...201020598542
aspergillus nidulans striatin (stra) mediates sexual development and localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum.striatin family proteins have been identified in animals and fungi and are considered to be scaffolding proteins. in fungi striatin orthologs have been associated with sexual development and virulence to plants. in this study, we characterized the functions and localization of the striatin ortholog, stra, in aspergillus nidulans. deltastra strains showed multiple defects in conidium germination, mycelial radial growth, production of diffusible red pigment, and reduced conidiation. the most strik ...201020601045
the extracellular β-1,3-endoglucanase enga is involved in autolysis of aspergillus elucidate the roles of the β-1,3-endoglucanase enga in autolysis of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans and to identify the common regulatory elements of autolytic hydrolases.201020602653
flbc is a putative nuclear c2h2 transcription factor regulating development in aspergillus nidulans.asexual development (conidiation) in aspergillus is governed by multiple regulators. here, we characterize the upstream developmental activator flbc in aspergillus nidulans. flbc mrna is detectable throughout the life cycle, at relatively high levels during vegetative growth, early asexual and late sexual developmental phases. the deletion of flbc causes a delay/reduction in conidiation, brla and vosa expression, and conidial germination. while overexpression of flbc (oeflbc) does not elaborate ...201020624219
urea, the major urea/h+ symporter in aspergillus nidulans.we report here the characterization of urea, a high-affinity urea/h+ symporter of aspergillus nidulans. the deletion of the encoding gene abolishes urea transport at low substrate concentrations, suggesting that in these conditions urea is the sole transport system specific for urea in a. nidulans. the urea gene is not inducible by urea or its precursors, but responds to nitrogen metabolite repression, necessitating for its expression the area gata factor. in contrast to what was observed for ot ...201020633690
genome-wide analysis of microsatellite sequence in seven filamentous fungi.abundance of microsatellites with repeated unit lengths of 1-6 base pairs in seven fungi: aspergillus nidulans, coprinus cinereus, cryptococcus neoformans (serotype a), fusarium graminearum, magnaporthe grisea, neurospora crassa and ustilago maydis were investigated on genomic scale. the results showed that each species has its specific profile for different types and different motifs of ssr loci. ascomycetes fungi m. grisea, n. crassa and basidiomycete fungus u. maydis adopt much more microsate ...200920640828
the roles played by aspergillus nidulans apoptosis-inducing factor (aif)-like mitochondrial oxidoreductase (aifa) and nadh-ubiquinone oxidoreductases (ndea-b and ndia) in farnesol resistance.farnesol (foh) is a nonsterol isoprenoid produced by dephosphorylation of farnesyl pyrophosphate, a catabolite of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. these isoprenoids inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis. here, we show that aspergillus nidulans aifa encoding the apoptosis-inducing factor (aif)-like mitochondrial oxidoreductase plays a role in the function of the mitochondrial complex i. additionally, we demonstrated that ndea-b and ndia encode external and internal alternative nadh dehy ...201020654725
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