docosahexaenoic acid is superior to eicosapentaenoic acid as the essential fatty acid for growth of grouper, epinephelus malabaricus.juvenile grouper (epinephelus malabaricus) were fed seven experimental diets, one control diet and one reference diet for 12 wk to determine the dietary requirement of grouper for docosahexaenoic (dha) and eicosapentaenoic (epa) acids. each of the seven diets contained 1 g/100 g dha and epa in various combinations and 9 g/100 g tristearin. the control diet contained 1 g/100 g trilinolenin and trilinolein (3:1, wt/wt), and no supplemental epa or dha. the reference diet contained only natural oils ...200211773511
characterization of virus-like particles assembled in a recombinant baculovirus system expressing the capsid protein of a fish nodavirus.betanodaviruses are causative agents of neurological disorders in several species of fish. we cloned and sequenced the rna2 segment of two grouper viruses isolated from epinephelus malabaricus (malabaricus grouper nervous necrosis virus, mgnnv) and epinephelus lanceolatus (dragon grouper nervous necrosis virus, dgnnv). the sequences of the two rnas were 99% identical and comparison with previously sequenced rna2 segments of fish nodaviruses striped jack nervous necrosis virus, atlantic halibut v ...200111883005
virus-like particles of a fish nodavirus display a capsid subunit domain organization different from that of insect nodaviruses.the structure of recombinant virus-like particles of malabaricus grouper nervous necrosis virus (mgnnv), a fish nodavirus isolated from the grouper epinephelus malabaricus, was determined by electron cryomicroscopy (cryoem) and three-dimensional reconstruction at 23-a resolution. the cryoem structure, sequence comparison, and protein fold recognition analysis indicate that the coat protein of mgnnv has two domains resembling those of tomato bushy stunt virus and norwalk virus, rather than the ex ...200212021370
copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase from epinephelus malabaricus cdna and enzyme property.a full-length cdna of 803 base pairs encoding a putative copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase (cu/zn-sod) from epinephelus malabaricus was cloned by the polymerase chain reaction approach. nucleotide sequence analysis of this cdna clone revealed that it comprises a complete open reading frame coding for 154 amino acid residues. the deduced amino acid sequence showed high similarity (65-91%) with the sequences of the cu/zn-sod from other species. computer analysis of the residues required for coordin ...200312952420
pathogenesis studies on vibrio alginolyticus in the grouper, epinephelus malabaricus, bloch et schneider.a pathogenic vibrio, strain s3y was isolated from an outbreak of vibriosis in grouper (epinephelus malabaricus) fry in kaohsiung, southern taiwan in november 1991. it was identified as vibrio alginolyticus on the basis of a number of biochemical tests. the bacterium was therefore identified as vibrio, a gram-negative, straight rod, motile, oxidase and catalase positive, swarming on tsa plate, fermentative and produced yellow colonies on tcbs agar. it did not utilise sodium citrate, but it was ge ...19958559039
a novel quantitative immunomagnetic reduction assay for nervous necrosis virus.rapid, sensitive, and automatic detection platforms are among the major approaches of controlling viral diseases in aquaculture. an efficient detection platform permits the monitoring of pathogen spread and helps to enhance the economic benefits of commercial aquaculture. nervous necrosis virus (nnv), the cause of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy, is among the most devastating aquaculture viruses that infect marine fish species worldwide. in the present study, a highly sensitive magnetoreduc ...201222855375
prosorhynchus maternus sp. n. (digenea: bucephalidae) from the malabar grouper epinephelus malabaricus (perciformes: serranidae) off new caledonia.a new species, prosorhynchus maternus sp. n., is described from the serranid fish epinephelus malabaricus (bloch et schneider) in the waters off new caledonia. it belongs to a group of prosorhynchus species from serranids in which the uterus is restricted to the postovarian region. its distinguishing features include the vitellarium relatively distant from the rhynchus, the cirrus-sac relatively distant from the posterior testis, the distinctly pre-equatorial mouth and several other somatic rati ...200617120498
in situ hybridization of a marine fish virus, singapore grouper iridovirus with a nucleic acid probe of major capsid protein.a dna probe of 531 base pairs for singapore grouper iridovirus (sgiv) was generated by polymerase chain reaction and labeled with nonradioactive digoxigenin. an in situ hybridization based method was developed to detect sgiv in formalin-fixed tissues from maricultured malabar grouper, epinephelus malabaricus bloch and schneider. the in situ hybridization detected sgiv in the kidney, spleen, liver, intestine, stomach and gills from naturally infected fish. strong hybridization signals were obtain ...200415041208
sphaerospora epinepheli n. sp. (myxosporea: sphaerosporidae) observed in grouper (epinephelus malabaricus).sphaerospora epinepheli n. sp. is described from grouper, epinephelus malabaricus, in cage-cultured and wild fish collected from both coastal lines of southern thailand. subspherical to spherical spores and mono- or disporous pseudoplasmodia were observed in the lumen of kidney tubules. pseudoplasmodia were round to elongate, size range 15.6-22.9 microns (length) x 8.4-21.6 microns (width). spores were 7.8-10.0 microns (length) x 12.3-14.5 microns (thickness), and 7.0-9.5 microns (width) with tw ...20091920143
first record of the indo-pacific areolate grouper epinephelus areolatus (forsskål, 1775) (perciformes: epinephelidae) in the mediterranean sea.the number of alien species in the mediterranean sea is steadily increasing and it seems that the pace has been accelerating since the turn of the century (galil et al. 2014). in 2015 alone five additional fish species have been reported, epinephelus geoffroyi (klunzinger, 1870) (golani et al. 2015); stolephorus indicus (van hasselt, 1823) (fricke et al. 2015); sardinella gibbosa (bleeker, 1849) (stern et al. 2015); mobula japanica (müller & henle, 1841) (capapé et al. 2015); and cryptocentrus c ...201627395890
a new host record of sphaerospora epinepheli (myxosporea: bivalvulida) occurring on orange-spotted grouper epinephelus coioides from thailand: epidemiology, histopathology and phylogenetic 1991, the first record of sphaerospora epinepheli was described as a kidney parasite of wild and cultured malabar grouper, epinephelus malabaricus, along coastlines of thailand, the gulf of thailand and the andaman sea. however, the present study detected high infection of this parasite in kidney renal tubes of orange spotted grouper, epinephelus coioides, collected from andaman sea. the highest infection rate of 36.82% was observed during the rainy season in 2009 in phang-nga bay, in the nor ...201222525585
control of parasites in cultured marine finfishes in southeast asia--an overview.mariculture in southeast asia began in the 1970s and expanded rapidly during the 1980s, with the commercial hatchery production of the seabass lates calcarifer. other important cultured species were epinephelus coioides, epinephelus malabaricus, lutjanus johni, and lutjanus argentimaculatus. intensification in the polyculture of these species and the large-scale international movement of fingerlings or juveniles, as well as the rapid expansion and concentration of fish farms, have caused severe ...19979394188
first occurrence of argathona macronema (bleeker, 1857) (isopoda: cirolanidae) on coral reef fishes along the tuticorin coastal water, gulf of mannar.isopod parasites are considered as a major threat to the fishing industry, due to rigorous disease outbreaks. the parasites from the two economically important reef fish family lutjanidae and serranidae are analyzed i.e. epinephelus malabaricus and lutjanus rivulatus. the samples are obtained from the landings of trawl net from gulf of mannar region of south east coast of india. they are severely infested by the isopod parasite agrathona macronema in the pectoral fins and ventral region of the b ...201728316414
two isoforms of piscidin from malabar grouper, epinephelus malabaricus: expression and functional characterization.two isoforms of piscidin from malabar grouper (epinephelus malabaricus), empis-1 and empis-2, were cloned and studied. empis-1 and empis-2 showed the different in the 3'utr features of mrna and gene expression patterns. auuua-motif-containing are was found in mrna of empis-1, but not in that of empis-2. empis-1 and empis-2 expressed not only in the potential sites of pathogen entry, but also in grouper's immune-related tissues such as head kidney (hd), peripheral blood leukocytes (pbl) and splee ...201627554395
comparison of the responses of different recombinant fish type i interferons against betanodavirus infection in grouper.the nervous necrosis virus (nnv) is an aquatic virus that can infect more than 30 species including the grouper, which is a valuable fish species in taiwan. nnv causes up to 90-100% mortality in the aquaculture industry. interferons (ifns) are a family of cytokines that stimulate the expression of numerous proteins to protect the host against viruses and possess very unique specific characteristics in fish. the cross-reactivity of heterologous ifns on grouper cells and larvae has not been well-s ...201626691305
the complete nucleotide sequence of malabar grouper (epinephelus malabaricus) mitochondrial this study, we reported the complete mitochondrial dna sequence of the epinephelus malabaricus. the full-length of the mitochondrial genome consisted of a 16,423 bp fragment, with the base composition of a (28.70%), t (26.55%), g (15.92%) and c (28.83%). it contained 2 rrna genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 trna genes and a major non-coding control region (d-loop region). the composition and order of these genes were identical to most of other vertebrates. all the protein initiation codons w ...201625405909
transient sex change in the immature malabar grouper, epinephelus malabaricus, androgen clarify the cause of sex change recovery after the withdrawal of androgen treatment, immature female malabar grouper were fed a diet containing 17alpha-methyltestosterone (mt) at 50 μg/g for 7 mo and then a normal diet for 6 mo. the mt brought about precocious sex change from immature ovaries to mature testes with active spermatogenesis, including the development of spermatozoa, and sex change reversed soon after mt treatment withdrawal. this result indicates that precocious sex change in imm ...201424829030
identification of the stat1 gene and the characterisation of its immune response to immunostimulants, including nervous necrosis virus (nnv) infection, in malabar grouper (epinephelus malabaricus).signal transducer and activator of transcription (stat)-1 is an indispensable signal transduction protein that is involved in the interferon pathway. stat-1 plays an important role in the innate immune response. the full-length cdna of malabar grouper (epinephelus malabaricus) stat-1, mgstat1, was cloned. phylogenetic analysis was performed based on the amino acid sequence. our results indicate that stat1 is highly conserved with other vertebrates. we also report the expression of mgstat1 in dif ...201323954694
the role of pituitary gonadotropins in gonadal sex differentiation in the protogynous malabar grouper, epinephelus malabaricus.the aim of this study was to clarify the roles of 2 gonadotropins (gths), follicle-stimulating hormone (fsh) and luteinizing hormone (lh), on sex differentiation in the protogynous malabar grouper, epinephelus malabaricus. to do this, the mrna expression patterns of gth subunits (cga, fshb, and lhb) in the fish pituitary throughout gonadal sex differentiation were investigated. real-time reverse transcriptase (rt)-pcr showed that cga and fshb were present in the undifferentiated and ovarian diff ...201222841761
the effects of a sudden salinity change on cortisol, glucose, lactate, and osmolality levels in grouper epinephelus malabaricus.grouper epinephelus malabaricus (weighing 46.37 ± 5.10 g) previously maintained in 24‰ seawater were transferred to 14, 19, 24 (control), 29, and 34‰ seawater. serum cortisol, glucose, lactate, and osmolality levels were measured at 7 time points during 240 min. serum cortisol and glucose levels of fish transferred to 29 and 34‰ seawater significantly increased to the highest after 10 and 20 min, respectively. no significant differences in serum cortisol and glucose levels were observed for the ...201222371096
differentiation of steroid-producing cells during ovarian differentiation in the protogynous malabar grouper, epinephelus understand the mechanism of sex differentiation in the protogynous malabar grouper epinephelus malabaricus, we performed an immunohistochemical investigation of the expression of three steroidogenic enzymes, cholesterol-side-chain-cleavage enzyme (cyp11a), aromatase (cyp19a1a), and cytochrome p45011beta-hydroxylase (cyp11b), in the gonads during ovarian differentiation. strong positive immunoreactivity against cyp11a, the key enzyme of steroidogenesis, and cyp19a1a which is essential for estr ...201121948710
taxonomic relationship among seven species of groupers (genus epinephelus; family serranidae) as revealed by rapd fingerprinting.phenotypic identification of groupers of the genus epinephelus is based on color patterns and a suite of morphologic characters. however, these characters often show intraspecific variations and differences between juveniles and adults of the same species. the present work is an attempt to study and ratify the status of epinephelus spp. using random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) analysis based on samples drawn from southeast and southwest coasts of india. the rapd fingerprints generated in ep ...200615136913
dietary docosahexaenoic acid is more optimal than eicosapentaenoic acid affecting the level of cellular defence responses of the juvenile grouper epinephelus malabaricus.the combined effects of dietary docosahexaenoic (dha) and eicosapentaenoic (epa) acids on phagocytic, respiratory burst, and leucocyte proliferative activities of the juvenile grouper, epinephelus malabaricus, were investigated. the test fish were fed for 12wk on test diets containing 1g 100g(-1) diet of dha and epa in combinations (dha/epa: 3/1, 2/1, 1/1, 0.7/1, 0.3/1). in addition to promoting fish growth, high dietary dha/epa ratio significantly enhanced phagocytic and respiratory burst activ ...200312681278
evaluation of dorsal aorta cannulation for immunological studies of grouper (epinephelus malabaricus).blood is often withdrawn to study the immune responses of fish. however, netting, handling and anaesthetising the experimental fish, and drawing blood samples cause severe stress that may alter the effects of immune study protocols and treatments. we evaluated the effect of aorta cannulation, for use in immune studies, on grouper (epinephelus malabaricus) plasma cortisol, total red and white blood cell counts and phagocytosis. plasma cortisol increased from 30 to 88 ng/ml 1 day after insertion o ...200312657533
[technique of implanting 17 alpha-methyltestosterone to induce the sex reversal of epinephelus malabaricus].this paper discussed the method of implanting 17 alpha-methyltestosterone to induce the sex reversal of epinephelus malabaricus, which included chemical treatment, dosage and operating on the fish. after twice implanting of exogenous hormone, the mature females of 3 years old were transformed into functional males. sperm could be squeezed from 58% of the fish on 139 days after operating, and from 100% on 301 days. when the functional males were used for artificial breeding, the parent fish spawn ...200111757385
plasma vitellogenin of grouper (epinephelus malabaricus): isolation and properties.radiolabelled vitellogenin produced by juvenile grouper following injection of 3h-leucine, 32p-orthophosphate and estradiol-stimulation was purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography and characterized by electrophoresis and chemical analysis. the radiolabelled product was found to exist in two heterogeneous molecular weight forms by electrophoresis under nondenaturing conditions on polyacrylamide gel with m(r), of 260,000 and 525,000. it showed two protein monomers (m(r) 113,00 ...19969568356
light and electron microscope observations on presporogonic and sporogonic stages of sphaerospora epinepheli (myxosporea) in grouper (epinephelus malabaricus).presporogonic (blood) stages of sphaerospora epinepheli supamattaya, fischer-scherl, hoffmann, boonyaratpalin, 1990 were observed in the circulating blood, sinus of kidney, glomerurar capillaries and liver arteries of grouper epinephelus malabaricus. the earliest detectable stage was a primary cell with one secondary cell. after cell divisions, nine to 16 secondary cells were found in one primary cell. ultrastructural examination revealed electron-dense bodies (118-145 nm) in the cytoplasm of pr ...20098457803
first record of unicapsula seriolae (myxozoa: multivalvulida) from the muscle of malabar grouper epinephelus malabaricus in japan.unicapsula seriolae (myxozoa; multivalvulida) was found in the trunk muscle of malabar grouper epinephelus malabaricus caught off wakayama prefecture, japan. numerous filamentous or sesamoid brown to black lesions were observed in the skeletal muscle. histopathological observation indicated that the lesions were myxosporean plasmodia encapsulated by a fibrous layer, accompanied by melanin deposition. spores having one large and two rudimentary polar capsules were subspherical in shape and 6.6 × ...201424632098
optimization of process parameters for the production of collagen peptides from fish skin (epinephelus malabaricus) using response surface methodology and its characterization.the study optimized the hydrolysis conditions for the production of fish collagen peptides from skin of malabar grouper (epinephelus malabaricus) using response surface methodology. the hydrolysis was done with enzymes pepsin, papain and protease from bovine pancreas. effects of process parameters viz: ph, temperature, enzyme substrate ratio and hydrolysis time of the three different enzymes on degree of hydrolysis were investigated. the optimum response of degree of hydrolysis was estimated to ...201728242948
ultrastructural study of osmolality effect on spermatozoa of three marine teleosts.with particular emphasis on mitochondria that may provide endogenous energy for spermatozoan motility, the morphological changes of the spermatozoa of three marine teleosts, black porgy (acanthopagrus schlegelli), black grouper (epinephelus malabaricus), and atlantic croaker (micropogonias undulatus), were compared either after activation in artificial sea water or when immersed in various osmotic pressure media. the midpieces of these three teleosts spermatozoa are composed of mitochondria surr ...19957491621
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