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sclerospora graminicola axenic culture.sclerospora graminicola (sacc.) schroet., the obligate pathlogen causing downy mildew (green-ear) of pearl millet (pennisetum typhoides stapf. and hubb.) has been successfully cultured for the first time on a known semisynthetic mediumn with no evident loss of fructifications. sclerospora graminicola was first grown on host callus tissue and subsequently on a modification of white's basal medium that contained casein hydrolyzate (oxoid). 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and kinetin.19695762609
detection of genetic variability in pearl millet downy mildew (sclerospora graminicola) by aflp.downy mildew, caused by sclerospora graminicola, is an economically important disease of pearl millet in the semiarid regions of asia and africa. amplified restriction fragment length polymorphism (aflp) was used to detect the extent of genomic variation among 19 fungal isolates from different cultivars of pearl millet grown in various regions of india. fourteen aflp primer combinations produced 184 polymorphic bands. an unweighted pair-group method of averages cluster analysis represented by de ...200314994825
rust and downy mildew resistance in pearl millet (pennisetum glaucum) mediated by heterologous expression of the afp gene from aspergillus giganteus.the cdna encoding the antifungal protein afp from the mould aspergillus giganteus was introduced into two pearl millet (pennisetum glaucum) genotypes by particle bombardment. stable integration and expression of the afp gene was confirmed in two independent transgenic t0 plants and their progeny using southern blot and rt-pcr analysis. in vitro infection of detached leaves and in vivo inoculation of whole plants with the basidomycete puccinia substriata, the causal agent of rust disease, and the ...200616779647
purification and characterization of proline/hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein from pearl millet coleoptiles infected with downy mildew pathogen sclerospora graminicola.hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (hrgps) are important plant cell wall structural components, which are also involved in response to pathogen attack. in pearl millet, deposition and cross-linking of hrgps in plant cell walls was shown to contribute to the formation of resistance barriers against the phytopathogenic oomycete sclerospora graminicola. in the present study, the purification and characterization of hrgps that accumulated in coleoptiles of pearl millet seedlings in response to s. gra ...200717166528
role of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins in resistance of pearl millet against downy mildew pathogen sclerospora graminicola.hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (hrgps) are important plant cell wall components involved in plant defense response to pathogen attack. in the present study, a resistant pearl millet (pennisetum glaucum) cultivar, ip18292, was compared with a susceptible cultivar, 7042s, to investigate the contribution of hrgps in the successful defense against the phytopathogenic oomycete s. graminicola. northern hybridization using mehrgp cdna, a heterologous probe from cassava, indicated steady accumulation ...200717554553
a simple method for the germination of oospores of sclerospora graminicola. 193017745452
chitosan enhances disease resistance in pearl millet against downy mildew caused by sclerospora graminicola and defence-related enzyme activation.the present study investigated the effect of chitosan seed priming on the induction of disease resistance in pearl millet against downy mildew disease caused by sclerospora graminicola (sacc.) schroet.200818663698
importance of seed-borne fungi of sorghum and pearl millet in burkina faso and their control using plant extracts.seed-borne fungi of sorghum and pearl millet in burkina faso were surveyed. a total of 188 seed samples from various locations, collected in 1989 (42) and 2002 (146), were tested, using the blotter, dry inspection and washing methods. infection experiments were carried out with the major fungi recorded on each crop by the blotter test. six essential oils of plants were investigated for their inhibitory activity against eight pathogenic fungi. thirty four and 27 fungal species were found in seed ...200818817152
simple sequence repeat markers useful for sorghum downy mildew (peronosclerospora sorghi) and related species.a recent outbreak of sorghum downy mildew in texas has led to the discovery of both metalaxyl resistance and a new pathotype in the causal organism, peronosclerospora sorghi. these observations and the difficulty in resolving among phylogenetically related downy mildew pathogens dramatically point out the need for simply scored markers in order to differentiate among isolates and species, and to study the population structure within these obligate oomycetes. here we present the initial results f ...200819040756
anti-oomycete compounds from ganoderma appalantum, a wood rot basidiomycete.solvent extracts of 17 different basidiomycetes were tested for their ability to inhibit sclerospora graminicola. among those tested, only three basidiomycete crude extracts exhibited significant inhibition on pathogen sporulation, zoospore release and zoospore motility. in vitro, the chloroform extract of ganoderma appalantum (3 mg ml(-1)) recorded a maximum sporangial inhibition of 52.5 and 82.0% zoospore release and 92.5% motility. crude extracts of three different basidiomycete fungi were tr ...200919418357
accumulation of pearl millet downy mildew resistance in mali--2006 results.few crop breeding programs today are breeding crops in their areas of diversity and origin. this study reports on a malian breeding program in an area of genetic diversity. it has the objective to accumulate resistance to major populations of sclerospora graminicola (= sg) with modern breeding and selection methods. this study is part of the development of pearl millet top cross hybrids, with a reduced plant height, sg-resistance (= resistance to pearl millet downy mildew) and 'stay green' at ph ...200718399456
how do obligate parasites evolve? a multi-gene phylogenetic analysis of downy mildews.plant parasitism has independently evolved as a nutrition strategy in both true fungi and oomycetes (stramenopiles). a large number of species within phytopathogenic oomycetes, the so-called downy mildews, are defined as obligate biotrophs since they have not, to date, been cultured on any artificial medium. other genera like phytophthora and pythium can in general be cultured on standard or non-standard agar media. within all three groups there are many important plant pathogens responsible for ...200716990040
development of transgenic pearl millet (pennisetum glaucum (l.) r. br.) plants resistant to downy mildew.transgenic pearl millet lines expressing pin gene--exhibiting high resistance to downy mildew pathogen, sclerospora graminicola--were produced using particle-inflow-gun (pig) method. shoot-tip-derived embryogenic calli were co-bombarded with plasmids containing pin and bar genes driven by camv 35s promoter. bombarded calli were cultured on ms medium with phosphinothricin as a selection agent. primary transformants 1t(0), 2t(0), and 3t(0) showed the presence of both bar and pin coding sequences a ...200616607531
elicitation of defense related enzymes and resistance by l-methionine in pearl millet against downy mildew disease caused by sclerospora graminicola.induction of resistance to downy mildew in pearl millet was studied after treatment with l-methionine. the disease severity was drastically reduced in the seedlings after treatment with l-methionine. northern hybridization was used to study the transcript (mrna) accumulation of defense response genes upon treatment with l-methionine in pearl millet seedlings and the mechanism during the induction of resistance. the gene activation patterns in the highly resistant cultivar ip18294 were compared w ...200516198587
synthesis and anti-mildew activity of 5-(2-aroyl)aryloxymethyl-2-phenyl-1 ,3,4-oxadiazoles against downy mildew of pearl millet.a manipulatively simple, rapid, high-yielding and environmentally benign method for the integration of a heterocyclic ring, 1,3,4-oxadiazole, at the benzophenone nucleus has been achieved through intramolecular cyclization of substituted aroylaryloxyacetohydrazides to substituted 5-(2-aroyl)aryloxymethyl-2-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazoles under solventless 'dry' conditions using montmorillonite k10 clay and microwave irradiation. a comparison is made of the microwave-accelerated reaction with convention ...200415532687
seed treatment with beta-aminobutyric acid protects pennisetum glaucum systemically from sclerospora graminicola.beta-aminobutyric acid (baba) treatment of pearl millet [pennisetum glaucum (l) r br] seeds influenced seedling vigour and protected the seedlings from downy mildew disease caused by the oomycetous biotropic fungus sclerospora graminicola (sacc) schroet. of the different concentrations of baba tested, viz 25, 50, 75 and 100 mm, seeds treated with 50 mm for 6 h resulted in the maximum of 1428 seedling vigour and showed 23% disease incidence in comparison with the control which recorded a seedling ...200111517726
lytic activity in pearl millet: its role in downy mildew disease resistance.sclerospora graminicola causes downy mildew disease in susceptible pearl millet. molecular basis of downy mildew disease resistance has been studied. coleoptile region has been shown earlier to be the most susceptible site for attack by the pathogen. lytic activity is differentially expressed in the coleoptile region of 3-day-old pearl millet seedlings of resistant and susceptible cultivars. significantly higher levels of lytic factors were measured in the coleoptile region of resistant cultivar ...200010940467
a revision of bremia graminicola.bremia graminicola (chromista, peronosporales) is a common downy mildew pathogen of arthraxon spp. (poaceae) in central to east asia and the only species of bremia parasitic on grasses. despite its widespread occurrence and apparent differences in host range and morphology compared with other species of the genus, its placement in bremia has not been challenged for the past 90y. its current taxonomic position is revised based on sporangiophore morphology and ultrastructure, haustorium morphology ...200616766172
resistance to striga hermonthica in wild accessions of the primary gene pool of pennisetum glaucum.abstract resistance to striga hermonthica in 274 wild pennisetum glaucum subsp. monodii and stenostachyum accessions was evaluated at samanko, mali in 1997 and 1998, and at cinzana, mali and sadoré, niger in 1998. data recorded included number of striga plants per plot at least three times during the season, date of striga emergence, number of pennisetum plants, pennisetum anthesis date, and downy mildew incidence (caused by sclerospora graminicola). across trials, the average maximum number of ...200018944482
activity of cyazofamid against sclerospora graminicola, a downy mildew disease of pearl millet.the efficacy of cyazofamid was tested against pearl millet downy mildew disease caused by sclerospora graminicola schroet. significant inhibition of sporangial sporulation, zoospore release and motility was observed at 0.3 mg ml(-1), and this concentration also provided good fungicidal activity under in vitro conditions. under glasshouse conditions, none of the concentrations tested, either 0.01-2 mg ml(-1) as seed treatment or 1-10 mg ml(-1) by foliar application, was found to be phytotoxic. th ...200717497752
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