characterization of a battery of monoclonal antibodies for differentiation of newcastle disease virus and pigeon paramyxovirus-1 strains.twenty monoclonal antibodies (mcas) prepared against the velogenic gb-texas strain of newcastle disease virus (ndv) and the type 1 pigeon paramyxovirus (ppmv-1) were characterized and examined as potential immunodiagnostic reagents. all mcas generated were found to bind specifically, but with varying reactivity, to various ndv strains in direct binding assays. in addition, mca 15c4 neutralized and inhibited hemagglutination (ha) of all lentogenic, mesogenic, and velogenic ndv strains tested but ...19883401172
isolation of the pigeon pmv-1 variant of newcastle disease virus from imported pheasants (phasianus colchicus).isolation of a virulent pigeon paramyxovirus 1 (ppmv-1) strain of newcastle disease virus (ndv) from pheasants imported for release is reported. although no clinical signs or postmortem lesions suggesting ndv infection were detected, the intestine was processed for attempted virus isolation as part of a surveillance programme on wild-bird populations. the potential role of pheasants as carriers of the disease, and the importance of developing surveillance programmes for wild bird populations is ...19947597861
pigeon paramyxovirus-1 (p-group) as the cause of severe outbreaks in fancy columba livia in saudi avian paramyxovirus-1, which was previously isolated from ailing fancy columba livia in saudi arabia, was characterized in this study using monoclonal antibodies (mabs). the results indicate that although the virus belongs to the pigeon paramyxovirus-1 (ppmv-1) group 'p' still it shows some variation in its binding pattern to the mabs.199910676146
biological and molecular characterization of a pigeon paramyxovirus type-1 isolate found in this report, we describe the biological and molecular characterization of a paramyxovirus type-1 (ppmv-1) isolate found in wild pigeons in an urban habitat in buenos aires, argentina. of the nine pigeons captured, three were moribund, and the other six showed diarrhea, ataxia, tremor, torticolis, and wing paralysis. the intracerebral pathogenicity index was 1.29, and the amino acid (aa) sequence at the fusion protein cleavage site was 112grq krf117. these characteristics correspond to a virul ...200111569728
molecular characterisation of three avian paramyxovirus type 1 isolated from pigeons in france.three avian paramyxovirus type 1 (apmv-1) isolated from pigeons duringpigeon paramyxovirosis outbreaks were molecularly characterised by sequencing parts of the six genes (np, p, m, f, hn and l) of each strain. virulent 99143 isolate was found to be very closely related to non-pathogenic vaccine strains of apmv-1, even for its f protein cleavage site motif. strains 99299 and 99106, typical pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (ppmv-1) variants, exhibited between 10% and 20% difference with apmv-1 at the ...200312803469
monitoring of pigeon paramyxovirus type-1 in organs of pigeons naturally infected with salmonella experimental pigeon paramyxovirus (ppmv-1) infection was followed by reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction for 31 days after infection, in 16 organs of inoculated or contact pigeons naturally infected with salmonella typhimurium. with two exceptions, both groups presented similar results. typical nervous signs and a green diarrhoea were observed. the spread of ppmv-1 was relatively quick, all organs being largely positive at 4 days after inoculation or contact. the lung, sple ...200312850917
characterization of a pigeon paramyxovirus (ppmv-1) isolated from chickens in south africa.a paramyxovirus with a thermostability of 60 min (typical of velogenic viruses) and a mean death time of > 90 h (typical of lentogenic viruses) was isolated from layers near mooi river, south africa. our results, based on comparative nucleotide sequence data indicated that the virus is pigeon paramyxovirus 1 (ppmv-1), a variant of newcastle disease virus. the f0 cleavage site contains a 112rrkkrf117 motif, and the virus had 98% sequence identity with ppmv-1 strains from the far east. ppmv-1 was ...200415373338
characterization of pigeon paramyxoviruses (newcastle disease virus) isolated in south africa from 2001 to 2006.pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (ppmv-1), a variant of newcastle disease virus that primarily affects doves and pigeons has been isolated in south africa since the mid-1980s. phylogenetic evidence indicates that pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 viruses were introduced into south africa on multiple occasions, based on the presence of two separate lineages, 4bi and 4bii, that have been circulating in europe and the far east since the early 1990s. during 2006, a ppmv-1 virus was isolated from an african gro ...200818788208
avian paramyxovirus type 1 from pigeons: isolate characterization and pathogenicity after chicken or embryo passage of selected isolates.nine pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 isolates from the united states and canada were characterized and three of the isolates were pathotyped before and after passage in chickens and serial passage in chicken embryos. one isolate previously passaged in madin darby bovine kidney cells was also pathotyped after chicken and embryo passage. hemagglutination (ha) titers of all isolates were low when tested by microtiter procedures and all were negative by rapid-plate ha. the ha titers were increased by a ...19968883804
identification and grouping of newcastle disease virus strains by restriction site analysis of a region from the f gene.a 75% region of the f gene (between nucleotides 334 and 1682) of newcastle disease virus (ndv) rna was amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr). pcr products were cleaved by three restriction endonucleases and the positions of thirty cleavage sites were mapped in more than 200 ndv strains. restrictions site analysis established six major groups of ndv isolates and unique fingerprints of vaccine strains. group i comprised lentogenic strains isolated mainly from waterf ...19968634018
deduced amino acid sequences at the fusion protein cleavage site of newcastle disease viruses showing variation in antigenicity and pathogenicity.the amino acid sequence at the f2/f1 cleavage site of the f0 fusion protein of 17 strains of newcastle disease virus (ndv) was deduced from sequencing a 32 nucleotide area of the genome by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) techniques. with the addition of sequences at the same area previously published for 9 other viruses comparisons were made of a total of 26 ndv strains and isolates (11 of low virulence, 15 of high virulence or mesogenic) covering ten antigenic groups d ...19938435046
studies on the virulence of pigeon paramyxovirus-1 (pmv-1). ii. mechanism of the virulence increase of pigeon pmv-1. 19883254093
studies on the virulence of pigeon paramyxovirus-1 (pmv-1). i. changes in the virulence of pigeon pmv-1 strains isolated in hungary upon passage in chickens, embryonated hen's eggs and pigeons. 19882978215
pathogenicity and cross-protection of pigeon paramyxovirus-1 and newcastle disease virus in young chickens.avian paramyxovirus-1 (pmv-1) isolates from delaware racing pigeons were compared with newcastle disease virus (ndv) in pathogenicity and cross-protection studies in young chickens. the pathogenicity of pigeon pmv-1 isolates was more closely related to mesogenic (roakin) ndv than to lentogenic (la sota) or velogenic (texas gb) ndv strains. pigeon pmv-1 produced 100% mortality in 1-day-old ndv-susceptible chickens following intratracheal and intracerebral inoculation. laboratory tests often used ...19872960315
efficacy of oil-emulsion vaccines prepared with pigeon paramyxovirus-1, ulster, and la sota newcastle disease viruses.three strains of avian paramyxovirus-1 virus (pmv-1) were used to prepare four experimental monovalent oil-emulsion vaccines. a pigeon pmv-1 isolate (ppmv-1) and the newcastle disease virus strains la sota and ulster were used to prepare four pools of beta-propiolactone-inactivated allantoic fluid for the vaccines. groups of susceptible white rock chickens and racing homing pigeons were vaccinated subcutaneously with one of the vaccines, and their serologic responses were determined using the he ...19892522767
[comparative pathogenicity tests of eight pigeon paramyxovirus 1 variant isolates in pigeons, turkeys and chickens].eight pigeon paramyxovirus-1 isolates which were isolated from diseased pigeons were comparatively tested for their pathogenicity in chickens, turkeys and racing pigeons. intramuscular inoculation of all of the eight viruses resulted in all pigeons in clinical signs like polyuria, lameness of wings and in parts also in torticollis. also, intravenously inoculated chickens developed distinct signs such as apathy, liquid droppings and in part also torticollis. six of the eight pmv-1 isolates induce ...19921289039
genomic characterizations of six pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 viruses isolated from live bird markets in china during 2011 to 2013.the genomes of six pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (ppmv-1) isolated from symptomless pigeons in live poultry markets during the national active surveillance from 2011 to 2013 were sequenced and analyzed in this study. the complete genome lengths of all isolates were 15,192 nucleotides with the gene order of 3'-np-p-m-f-hn-l-5'. all isolates had the same motif of 112rrqkrf117 at the cleavage site of the fusion protein, which was typical of velogenic newcastle disease virus (ndv). several mutations w ...201525928057
isolation of an atypical pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 in this study, a pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (ppmv-1) isolated from a flock of ornamental pigeons in poland in 2010 is described. the ppmv-1/poland/h2/10 isolate showed the amino acid sequence at the cleavage site of f2/f1 112krqkrf117 i.e. typical of virulent strains. despite having the monoclonal antibody binding pattern typical of pigeon variants ppmv-1 (antigenic group "p"), the polish isolate clustered into genetic sublineage 4a, which is usually associated with pmv-1 isolated from poultry.201121528725
a comparative infection study of pigeon and avian paramyxovirus type 1 viruses in pigeons: evaluation of clinical signs, virus shedding and seroconversion.the pathogenesis of pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (ppmv-1) isolate av324/96 and of its recombinant derivative, rgav324, was studied in pigeons. for comparison, the virulent chicken virus fl-herts, which is a recombinant derivative of strain herts/33, was also included. after inoculation by the combined intraocular, intranasal and intratracheal route, clinical signs, virus shedding and serological responses were examined. clinical signs were observed only in the fl-herts-infected group. all virus-i ...201121500031
passaging of a newcastle disease virus pigeon variant in chickens results in selection of viruses with mutations in the polymerase complex enhancing virus replication and virulence.some newcastle disease virus (ndv) variants isolated from pigeons (pigeon paramyxovirus type 1; ppmv-1) do not show their full virulence potential for domestic chickens but may become virulent upon spread in these animals. in this study we examined the molecular changes responsible for this gain of virulence by passaging a low-pathogenic ppmv-1 isolate in chickens. complete genome sequencing of virus obtained after 1, 3 and 5 passages showed the increase in virulence was not accompanied by chang ...201020965986
molecular characterization of avian paramyxovirus type 1 (newcastle disease) viruses isolated from pigeons between 2000 and 2008 in slovenia.fourteen avian paramyxovirus type 1 (apmv-1; newcastle disease) viruses isolated from dead free-living and domestic pigeons in slovenia between 2000 and 2008 were analyzed by a molecular characterization of a part of the fusion protein gene, which included the region encoding the fusion protein cleavage site. phylogenetic analysis indicated that the slovene pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (ppmv-1) viruses do not cluster together but instead are divided into two groups--4bi and 4bii--of sublineage 4b ...201020945791
the viral replication complex is associated with the virulence of newcastle disease virus.virulent strains of newcastle disease virus ([ndv] also known as avian paramyxovirus type 1) can be discriminated from low-virulence strains by the presence of multiple basic amino acid residues at the proteolytic cleavage site of the fusion (f) protein. however, some ndv variants isolated from pigeons (pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 [ppmv-1]) have low levels of virulence, despite the fact that their f protein cleavage sites contain a multibasic amino acid sequence and have the same functionality a ...201020660202
two genetically closely related pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (ppmv-1) variants with identical velogenic fusion protein cleavage sites but with strongly contrasting virulence.two pathogenetically different pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (ppmv-1) virus clones were recently derived by passage of a single isolate with an intracerebral pathogenicity index (icpi) of 0.32. the virus clones had an icpi of 0.025 and 1.3, respectively (fuller et al., 2007). remarkably both viruses contained a cleavage site motif in the precursor fusion (f) protein that is usually associated with virulent viruses. in the current study, both viral genomes were completely sequenced and only four am ...201020018463
outbreak of newcastle disease due to pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 in grey partridges (perdix perdix) in scotland in october october 2006, following an initially non-statutory disease investigation affecting 12-week-old grey partridges (perdix perdix), an outbreak of newcastle disease due to infection with the avian paramyxovirus type 1 virus responsible for the current panzootic in pigeons (ppmv-1) was confirmed in scotland. two pens of partridges were affected by signs including loss of condition, diarrhoea, progressive neurological signs and mortality totalling approximately 24 per cent, and laboratory evidence ...200919880861
virulence of pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 does not always correlate with the cleavability of its fusion protein.some pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (ppmv-1) strains exhibit low virulence in chickens, despite their fusion (f) protein's multi-basic cleavage site. to elucidate the molecular basis of the low pathogenicity of these strains, we constructed an infectious full-length cdna clone of ppmv-1 strain av324. this strain is non-virulent for chickens, although its f protein contains the typical virulence motif (112)rrkkrf(117). by using reverse genetics, we exchanged the f genes of av324 and a virulent newca ...200919641043
partial characterisation of five cloned viruses differing in pathogenicity, obtained from a single isolate of pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (ppmv-1) following passage in fowls' eggs.viruses with intracerebral pathogenicity indices (icpis) of 0.025, 0.55, 1.013 and 1.3. were cloned from a ppmv-1 isolate with an icpi of 0.32 by passage in embryonated fowls' eggs. deduced amino acid sequences of the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn) and precursor fusion proteins (f0) showed them to have only a single amino acid difference: those with an icpi value <0.7 had proline at amino acid position 453 of the f0 protein, and those with an icpi value >0.7 contained a serine. the virus with ...200717514489
characterization of pigeon-origin newcastle disease virus isolated in china.fourteen pigeon-origin newcastle disease virus (ndv) isolates were obtained from sick pigeons in china between 1996 and 2005. the mean death time (mdt) of embryonated eggs and the intracerebral pathogenicity indices (icpi) were tested to determine the virulence of the field isolates. the result indicated that most isolates were proved to be mesogenic (mdt 60-90 hr and icpi > 1.2). the main function regions of f protein gene of the isolates were amplified and sequenced for phylogenetic and residu ...200617274307
molecular study of the quasispecies evolution of a typical pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 after serial passages in pigeons by contact.the quasispecies nature of a typical pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (ppmv-1) was, for the first time, studied under conditions close to the natural infectious environment. the virus was serially passaged in pigeons by successive contacts. viral heterogeneity was analysed in the kidneys and brain of five pigeons from the last contact, by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions performed on rna directly extracted from the organ and targeting the p and hn genes of the virus. the viral diversi ...200516191691
[study on challenge dose of pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (chuansha strain)].in order to determine the challenge dose of pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (ppmv-1) inactivated vaccine (s-1 strain). the virus titer of ppmv-1 e5 allantoic fluid (chuansha strain) was determined using spf chicken embryos in this research. after inoculating 30-day-old and 120-day-old pigeons with low-hi antibody against ppmv-1 (hi antibody < or =2) with different doses of ppmv-1 (chuansha strain), the clinical symptoms and histopathological lesions of the challenged pigeons were examined. the resul ...201424923172
granuloma formation and suspected neuropathic pain in a domestic pigeon (columba livia) secondary to an oil-based, inactivated newcastle disease vaccine administered for protection against pigeon paramyxovirus-1.a domestic pigeon developed a sterile granuloma following vaccination with an oil-adjuvant, inactivated la sota strain of newcastle disease. the aim of vaccination was to provide protection against pigeon paramyxovirus-1 (ppmv-1), a disease previously considered exotic to australia. granuloma formation is considered a rare complication of vaccination against ppmv-1 in pigeons. clinical signs consistent with neuropathic pain became apparent during the extensive management of the granuloma, which ...201424766048
pigeon paramyxovirus: association with common avian pathogens in chickens and serologic survey in wild birds.pigeon paramyxovirus-1 (ppmv-1) was isolated from pigeons from east-central alabama and used in association with chicken anemia virus (cav), infectious bursal disease virus (ibdv), or finch mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) in specific-pathogen-free chickens to assess dinical disease and pathology. ppmv-1 infection in all groups was conducted at day 10 of age via the ocular route. the low passage ppmv-1 isolate was inoculated into chickens in different groups at 10 days post-cav infection, 6 days po ...200515839419
what's in a strain? viral metagenomics identifies genetic variation and contaminating circoviruses in laboratory isolates of pigeon paramyxovirus type 1.we used next generation sequencing on random amplified viral nucleic acids to determine the genome sequence of 11 pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (ppmv-1) isolates from belgium (period 1998-2011). the ppmv-1 deep sequence data allowed identification of sequence variability in multiple ppmv-1 isolates, including one stop codon in the matrix gene which was present in 15% of the viral population of one isolate. notably, mutations that were previously associated with pathogenicity in chickens were ident ...201323220336
matrix protein gene sequence analysis of avian paramyxovirus 1 isolates obtained from pigeons.the matrix protein gene was cloned and sequenced for several recent isolates of avian paramyxovirus type 1 (apmv-1). specifically, isolates from pigeons and doves, members of the columbidae family were examined. apmv-1 is the causative agent of newcastle disease and the virus is associated with disease among a diverse number of avian species. newcastle disease virus (ndv) isolates from pigeons have also been classified as pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (ppmv-1). matrix protein gene sequences for pp ...200312803472
evolution of pigeon newcastle disease virus strains.twenty-seven newcastle disease virus isolates obtained during the years 1998 and 1999 from racing pigeons were shown to be antigenically indistinguishable from the pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (ppmv-1) viruses isolated in the years 1983 and 1984. partial sequencing of 240 base pairs of the f gene demonstrated at least 94.7% identity at the nucleotide level between isolates from 1983 and 1984, and more recent viruses isolated in 1998 and 1999. most of the nucleotide changes observed were silent mu ...200212427346
development of a rt-nested pcr test detecting pigeon paramyxovirus-1 directly from organs of infected animals.a rt-nested pcr that amplifies part of the conserved nucleoprotein gene of avian paramyxovirus type 1 is described. the technique allowed the detection of pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (ppmv-1) virus directly from a wide range of infected chicken and pigeon organs, and should be able to detect typical newcastle disease viruses too. compared with the reference method, the developed rt-nested pcr was found more sensitive, as it was able to detect virus genome in infected pigeon organs at late stage ...200212393150
pathogenesis of six pigeon-origin isolates of newcastle disease virus for domestic chickens.the pathogenesis of six pigeon-origin isolates of newcastle disease virus (ndv) was investigated in chickens. four isolates were previously defined as the variant pigeon paramyxovirus 1 (ppmv-1), and two isolates were classified as avian paramyxovirus 1 (apmv-1). birds inoculated with ppmv-1 isolates were euthanatized, and tissue samples were collected at 2, 5, and 10 days postinoculation (dpi). birds inoculated with apmv-1 isolates died or were euthanatized, and tissue samples were collected at ...200212014499
virulence of pigeon-origin newcastle disease virus isolates for domestic chickens.the virulence of six pigeon-origin isolates of newcastle disease virus (ndv) was evaluated before and after passage in white leghorn chickens. four isolates were defined as pigeon paramyxovirus-1 (ppmv-1) and two isolates were classified as avian paramyxovirus-1 (apmv-1) with ndv monoclonal antibodies. the four ppmv-1 isolates were passaged four times in chickens, and the apmv-1 isolates were passaged only once. infected birds were monitored clinically and euthanatized. tissues were collected fo ...200111785895
genomic characterization of a wild-bird-origin pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (ppmv-1) first isolated in the northwest region of china.pigeon paramyxovirus type-1(ppmv-1) is an enzootic in pigeon flocks and causes severe economic losses in the poultry industry in many countries. a ppmv-1 isolate, abbreviated as ppmv-1/ql-01/ch/15, was isolated from a great spotted woodpecker in the northwest region of china in 2015. the complete genome was sequenced, and the results showed that the virus genome was 15,192 nt in length, in the gene arrangement 3'-np-p-m-f-hn-l-5'. several amino acid mutations were identified in the functional do ...201727882444
six-year surveillance of newcastle disease virus in wild birds in north-eastern spain (catalonia).given that newcastle disease (nd) is one of the major threats for the poultry industry, testing of newcastle disease virus (ndv) has been carried out since 2010 in cases of mortality in wild birds (passive surveillance) in catalonia. the objective is to provide an early warning system to prevent the infection of poultry. since 2010, 35 episodes of mortality in wild birds were attributed to ndv infection. throughout this period there was a progressive expansion of ndv to new areas, with an increa ...201727754702
genetic characterization and phylogeny of pigeon paramyxovirus isolate (ppmv-1) from pakistan.knowing the genome characteristics of circulating newcastle disease viruses [avian paramyxoviruses (apmv-1) and pigeon paramyxoviruses (ppmv-1)] is important to devise appropriate diagnostics and control strategies. apmvs originating from chicken and wildlife in pakistan are well-elucidated; nevertheless, molecular characterization for the circulating ppmv-1 is largely unknown.201627547669
phylogenetic analysis of some newcastle disease virus isolates from the sudan.a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) was used to amplify 1412 bp of the fusion protein gene (f gene) of four newcastle disease virus (ndv) isolates; two velogenic (ty-1/90 and dik-90) and two lentogenic isolates (dongla 88/1 and gd.s.1). following sequencing, nucleotide sequences were annotated and 894 bp were compared phylogenetically with those from strains previously reported in the sudan and the virus strains published on the genbank. it could be demonstrated that ty-1/ ...201627419101
a single r36q mutation in the matrix protein of pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 reduces virus replication and shedding in pigeons.pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (ppmv-1) is considered an antigenic and variant of avian paramyxovirus type 1 (apmv-1) that has adapted to pigeons as hosts. however, how this host-specific adaption of ppmv-1 is related to its biological characteristics is unknown. in this study, seven unique amino acids in ppmv-1 that are not present in other apmv-1 strains (n = 39 versus n = 106) were identified. r36 of the m protein was found to be not only a unique amino acid but also a positive-selection site. t ...201627038826
different regions of the newcastle disease virus fusion protein modulate pathogenicity.newcastle disease virus (ndv), also designated as avian paramyxovirus type 1 (apmv-1), is the causative agent of a notifiable disease of poultry but it exhibits different pathogenicity dependent on the virus strain. the molecular basis for this variability is not fully understood. the efficiency of activation of the fusion protein (f) is determined by presence or absence of a polybasic amino acid sequence at an internal proteolytic cleavage site which is a major determinant of ndv virulence. how ...201425437176
pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 variants with polybasic f protein cleavage site but strikingly different pathogenicity.newcastle disease viruses (ndv) isolated from pigeons (pigeon paramyxovirus type 1; ppmv-1) are mostly of mesogenic pathotype and characterized by a polybasic amino acid sequence motif at the fusion protein (f) cleavage site. this feature also applies to isolate r75/98 from germany. its genome consists of 15,192 nucleotides and it specifies an intracerebral pathogenicity index (icpi) of 1.1, as is typical for mesogenic ndv. recombinant r75/98 (rr75/98) derived by reverse genetics also possesses ...201425228150
a comparative study of pigeons and chickens experimentally infected with ppmv-1 to determine antigenic relationships between ppmv-1 and ndv compare the pathogenicity of ppmv-1 in pigeons and chickens, both species of birds were experimentally infected with strain pi/ch/lhlj/110822, which was isolated from a pigeon in china. the clinical signs, gross lesions, and histopathological changes were observed in pigeons inoculated with pi/ch/lhlj/110822. the morbidity and mortality rates were 80% and 70% in pigeons, respectively, whereas there were no clinical signs or gross lesions in chickens inoculated with the same strain. the viral ...201424314393
phylogenetic analysis and comparison of eight strains of pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (ppmv-1) isolated in china between 2010 and 2012.eight strains of pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (ppmv-1) were isolated and identified in this study, from diseased pigeon flocks suspected to be infected with ppmv-1 in china between 2010 and 2012. these ppmv-1 isolates were purified using specific-pathogen-free (spf) chicken embryo cells before full-length genomic sequencing. the complete genome of these isolates contained 15,192 nucleotides, similar to those of newcastle disease virus (ndv) strains in genotypes v-xi, with the gene order 3'-np-p-m ...201323292066
the evolution of pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (ppmv-1) in great britain: a molecular epidemiological study.newcastle disease (nd), caused by virulent strains of avian paramyxovirus type 1 (apmv-1), is considered throughout the world as one of the most important animal diseases. for over three decades now, there has been a continuing panzootic caused by a variant virulent apmv-1 strain, so-called pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (ppmv-1), primarily in racing pigeons, which has also spread to wild birds and poultry. ppmv-1 isolations have been made in great britain every year since 1983. in this study, we h ...201422966870
characterization of pigeon paramyxoviruses (newcastle disease virus) isolated in kazakhstan in 2005.isolates of newcastle disease virus (ndv) from deceased wild and domestic pigeons in kazakhstan were obtained from the almaty region during 2005 and were genotypically analyzed by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) with primers specific to the viral fusion (f) protein gene. part of the amplified f protein dna product (nucleotide sequence 47-422) and the deduced amino acid sequences were compared phylogenetically with those from strains previously reported in other geo ...201222492000
complete genomic sequence of virulent pigeon paramyxovirus in laughing doves (streptopelia senegalensis) in kenya.following mass deaths of laughing doves (streptopelia senegalensis) in different localities throughout kenya, internal organs obtained during necropsy of two moribund birds were sampled and analyzed by next generation sequencing. we isolated the virulent strain of pigeon paramyxovirus type-1 (ppmv-1), ppmv1/laughing dove/kenya/isiolo/b2/2012, which had a characteristic fusion gene motif (110)ggrrqkrf(117). we obtained a partial full genome of 15,114 nucleotides. the phylogenetic relationship bas ...201627224210
host avian beta-defensin and toll-like receptor responses of pigeons following infection with pigeon paramyxovirus type 1.the high morbidity and mortality in pigeons caused by pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (ppmv-1) highlights the need for new insights into the host immune response and novel treatment approaches. host defense peptides (hdps) are key components of the innate immune system. in this study, three novel avian β-defensins (avbds 2, 7, and 10) were characterized in pigeons and shown to possess direct antiviral activity against ppmv-1 in vitro. in addition, we evaluated the mrna expression of these avbds and ...201526162868
experimental infection of different species of birds with pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 virus--evaluation of clinical outcomes, viral shedding, and distribution in tissues.the virulence of pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (ppmv-1) for different species of birds was investigated in two independent sets of experiments in which groups of pigeons, chickens, turkeys, quails, and geese (10 birds per group) were inoculated with 10(6) median embryo infectious doses of ppmv-1 isolate: 1) nonpassaged (nppmv-1, intracerebral pathogenicity [icpi] value = 1.27) and 2) after six passages in specific-pathogen-free chickens (pppmv-1, icpi = 1.46) via the oculonasal route. naive birds ...201425618996
occurrence, characteristics and control of pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 in pigeons.newcastle disease (nd) is a highly contagious and devastating viral disease of poultry and other birds that has a worldwide distribution. nd in pigeons is called paramyxovirosis and is caused by antigenic "pigeon variant" of the virus (pigeon paramyxovirus type 1, ppmv-1). during ppmv-1 infections, central nervous system symptoms and sometimes high mortality are observed. in the case of infection with viscerotropic strains which exhibit specific affinity for the kidneys, the first observed sign ...201424988870
successful establishment and global dispersal of genotype vi avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 after cross species transmission.the evolutionary history of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (pmv1), which includes the agents of newcastle disease (nd), is characterized by a series of strain emergence events since viruses in this family were first recognized in the 1920s. despite the importance of nd to the poultry industry, little is known about pmv1 strain emergence events and the subsequent dispersal and evolution of new strains. the genotype vi-pmv1 was first identified in the 1980s and has been named pigeon paramyxovirus- ...201323628639
genetic characterization of a pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 isolated from columba livia in uruguay.summary. the isolation and molecular characterization of pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (ppmv-1) from a sick racing pigeon in uruguay is reported for the first time. hemagglutination inhibition (hi) tests were performed to detect antibodies against avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (apmv-1), and a hi titer of 1/32 was obtained. tracheal and cloacal swabs were processed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rrt-pcr) with the use of the national veterinary services laboratory-u.s ...201222545555
co-circulation of paramyxo- and influenza viruses in pigeons in recent years, avian influenza virus (aiv) and newcastle disease virus (ndv) have caused large-scale outbreaks in many countries, including egypt. the culling and vaccination strategies have failed to control both viruses in egypt. in this study, we investigated the outbreaks of nervous manifestations and deaths in pigeons between 2013 and 2015. the h5n1 subtype of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus and pigeon paramyxovirus-1, an antigenic variant of ndv, were found to be the cause; a ...201728116911
emergence of a deviating genotype vi pigeon paramyxovirus type-1 isolated from india.pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (ppmv-1) is an antigenic variant of avian paramyxovirus type 1 (apmv-1), which infects pigeons. the virus causes high morbidity and mortality, creating an alarming state for the poultry industry. the present work describes the molecular and pathogenic characterization of a ppmv-1 strain isolated from pigeon in bhopal, india. complete genome sequence analysis revealed a genome of 15,192 nucleotides encoding six genes organized in the order 3'-n-p-m-f-hn-l-5'. the fusio ...201728349356
characterization of two pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 isolates in china.for over three decades, there has been a continuing panzootic caused by a virulent variant avian paramyxovirus type 1 strain, the so-called pigeon paramyxovirus type 1. it is found primarily in racing pigeons, but it has also spread to wild birds and poultry. in this study, two pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 strains, sd12 and bj13, obtained from diseased pigeons in china, were characterized. phylogenetic analysis based on complete sequences allowed characterization of both strains as genotype vi, c ...201525735628
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