a second reductase gene involved in melanin biosynthesis in the sap-staining fungus ophiostoma floccosum.two different dna sequences amplified by pcr from ophiostoma floccosum show high homology to reductase genes of the fungal melanin biosynthetic pathway and suggest that two reductases may participate in this pathway in o. floccosum. previously, one reductase gene, thn1 had been isolated from o. floccosum and proved to be involved in melanin biosynthesis. the second reductase gene, thn2, encodes a protein of 284 amino acids and is the longest fungal melanin reductase so far reported. the protein ...200212172794
genetic and physical mapping of a rice blast resistance locus, pi-co39(t), that corresponds to the avirulence gene avr1-co39 of magnaporthe grisea.we have identified, genetically mapped and physically delineated the chromosomal location of a new rice blast resistance locus, designated pi-co39(t). this locus confers resistance to magnaporthe grisea isolates carrying the avr1-co39 avirulence locus. the avr1-co39 locus is conserved in non-rice (cereals and grasses)-infecting isolates of m. grisea, making pi-co39(t) useful for engineering m. grisea resistance in rice and other cereals. the resistance in the rice line co39 was inherited as a si ...200212172799
characterization of a novel rice gene osatx and modulation of its expression by components of the stress signalling our search to identify gene(s) involved in the rice self-defense responses, we cloned a novel rice (oryza sativa l. cv. nipponbare) gene, osatx, a single copy gene, from the ja treated rice seedling leaves cdna library. this gene encodes a 69 amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 7649.7 and a pi of 5.6. osatx was responsive to cutting (wounding by cutting the excised leaf), over its weak constitutive expression in the healthy leaves. the critical signalling molecules, jasm ...200212207666
repeat-induced point mutation (rip) in magnaporthe grisea: implications for its sexual cycle in the natural field context.repeat-induced point mutation (rip) is a process that detects dna duplications and peppers their sequences with c:g to t:a transitions in the sexual phase of the life cycle. so far, this unique mechanism has been identified as a currently active process in only two fungal species, neurospora crassa and podospora anserina. to determine whether a rip-like process operates in the plant pathogenic fungus magnaporthe grisea, the retrotransposon maggy and the hygromycin b phosphotransferase gene were ...200212207702
[effects of ecological factors on infection process of pyricularia grisea].rice blast is one of the main rice diseases. in order to discuss the occurrence regularity and improve the veracity of forecasting, the effects of ecological factors on infecting process, such as rice growth period, cultivar resistance, temperature, precipitation, and fertilization of nitrogen, were studied quantitatively. the results showed that adhering conidia on leaves, or ratio of infection was negatively correlative with the growth period of rice. the latent period of pyricularia grisea wa ...200212216396
glycosphingolipids from magnaporthe grisea cells: expression of a ceramide dihexoside presenting phytosphingosine as the long-chain base.magnaporthe grisea is a fungal pathogen that infects rice leaves and causes rice blast, a devastating crop disease. m. grisea produces active elicitors of the hypersensitive response in rice that were previously identified as ceramide monohexosides (cmhs). using several chromatographic approaches, mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance, we identified ceramide mono- and dihexosides (cdh) in purified lipid extracts from m. grisea cells. as described by other authors, cmh consists of a c ...200212220534
jasmonate-inducible genes are activated in rice by pathogen attack without a concomitant increase in endogenous jasmonic acid levels.the possible role of the octadecanoid signaling pathway with jasmonic acid (ja) as the central component in defense-gene regulation of pathogen-attacked rice was studied. rice (oryza sativa l.) seedlings were treated with ja or inoculated with the rice blast fungus magnaporthe grisea (hebert) barr., and gene-expression patterns were compared between the two treatments. ja application induced the accumulation of a number of pathogenesis-related (pr) gene products at the mrna and protein levels, b ...199712223690
gene-expression patterns and levels of jasmonic acid in rice treated with the resistance inducer 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid.acquired disease resistance can be induced in rice (oryza sativa) by a number of synthetic or natural compounds, but the molecular mechanisms behind the phenomenon are poorly understood. one of the synthetic inducers of resistance, 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (ina), efficiently protected rice leaves from infection by the rice blast fungus magnaporthe grisea (hebert) barr. a comparison of gene-expression patterns in plants treated with ina versus plants inoculated with the compatible pathogen m ...199712223792
salicylic acid in rice (biosynthesis, conjugation, and possible role).salicylic acid (sa) is a natural inducer of disease resistance in some dicotyledonous plants. rice seedlings (oryza sativa l.) had the highest levels of sa among all plants tested for sa content (between 0.01 and 37.19 [mu]g/g fresh weight). the second leaf of rice seedlings had slightly lower sa levels than any younger leaves. to investigate the role of sa in rice disease resistance, we examined the levels of sa in rice (cv m-201) after inoculation with bacterial and fungal pathogens. sa levels ...199512228500
regulatory genes controlling mpg1 expression and pathogenicity in the rice blast fungus magnaporthe grisea.mpg1, a pathogenicity gene of the rice blast fungus magnaporthe grisea, is expressed during pathogenesis and in axenic culture during nitrogen or glucose limitation. we initiated a search for regulatory mutations that would impair nitrogen metabolism, mpg1 gene expression, and pathogenicity. first, we developed a pair of laboratory strains that were highly fertile and pathogenic toward barley. using a combinatorial genetic screen, we identified mutants that failed to utilize a wide range of nitr ...199612239399
mpg1 encodes a fungal hydrophobin involved in surface interactions during infection-related development of magnaporthe grisea.the rice blast fungus expresses a pathogenicity gene, mpg1, during appressorium formation, disease symptom development, and conidiation. the mpg1 gene sequence predicts a small protein belonging to a family of fungal proteins designated hydrophobins. using random ascospore analysis and genetic complementation, we showed that mpg1 is necessary for infection-related development of magnaporthe grisea on rice leaves and for full pathogenicity toward susceptible rice cultivars. the protein product of ...199612239409
evolution and organization of a highly dynamic, subtelomeric helicase gene family in the rice blast fungus magnaporthe grisea.sequence analysis of a 13-kb telomeric region in o-137, a rice pathogenic isolate of magnaporthe grisea, uncovered a novel gene, designated tlh1 (telomere-linked helicase 1). the tlh1 gene is a member of a gene family, and the sequences flanking this gene family have also been amplified. genetic mapping showed that most members of the tlh gene family are tightly linked to the telomeres. a physical mapping technique, termed reca-mediated achilles' heel cleavage, and cloning and sequencing of two ...200212242226
camp regulates infection structure formation in the plant pathogenic fungus magnaporthe grisea.magnaporthe grisea, the causal agent of rice blast, is one of the most destructive fungal pathogens of rice throughout the world. infection of rice by m. grisea requires the formation of an appressorium, a darkly pigmented, dome-shaped structure. the germ tube tip differentiates into an appressorium following germination of conidia on a leaf surface. when conidia germinate on growth medium or other noninductive surfaces, the emerging germ tube does not differentiate and continues to grow vegetat ...199312271080
osbimk1, a rice map kinase gene involved in disease resistance responses.the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (mapks) has been previously implicated in signal transduction during plant responses to pathogen attack as well as to various environmental stresses. we have isolated from rice a new mapk cdna, osbimk1 ( o ryza s ativa l. bth-induced mapk 1), which encodes a 369-amino-acid protein with moderate to high nucleotide sequence similarity to previously reported plant mapk genes. osbimk1 contains all 11 of the mapk conserved subdomains and the phospho ...200212355160
a new class of tetraspanins in fungi.tetraspanins are animal proteins involved in membrane complexes that are involved in cell adhesion, differentiation, and motility. the pls1 gene from rice blast fungus magnaporthe grisea encodes a protein (pls1p) structurally related to tetraspanins that is required for pathogenicity. in botrytis cinerea public sequences, we identified an est homologous to pls1. using degenerated oligonucleotides, we amplified sequences homologous to pls1 in fungi colletotrichum lindemuthianum and neurospora cra ...200212372414
identification of a 118-kb dna fragment containing the locus of blast resistance gene pi-2(t) in rice.rice blast disease, caused by the fungal pathogen pyricularia grisea sacc., is one of the most devastating crop diseases worldwide. previous studies have shown that the dominant blast resistance gene pi-2(t) confers resistance to a broad spectrum of pathogenic strains. using a population of 292 recombinant inbred lines combined with bioinformatic analysis, we mapped pi-2(t) between the ssr (simple-sequence repeat) marker ssr140 and the rflp (restriction fragment length polymorphism) marker jsh12 ...200212395199
fine genetic mapping and physical delimitation of the lesion mimic gene spl11 to a 160-kb dna segment of the rice genome.the rice lesion mimic mutant spl11 was previously found to confer broad-spectrum disease resistance to both magnaporthe grisea and xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. to better understand the molecular basis underlying cell death and disease resistance in rice, a map-based cloning strategy has been employed to isolate spl11. five spl11-linked rapd markers were developed and four of them were mapped to rice chromosome 12. a high-resolution genetic map was developed using a segregating population consi ...200212395200
development of novel pesticides based on phytoalexins: part 2. quantitative structure-activity relationships of 2-heteroaryl-4-chromanone derivatives.phytoalexins are low-molecular-weight chemicals that immune systems of plants produce and accumulate in response to infections, especially those of fungal origin. although their content is not high in plants, yet they have shown unique fungicidal activity and played an important role in the defence system of plants. in searching for novel environmentally benign fungicides with high activity, the structures of flavanone derivatives, one of the most important phytoalexins groups, have been modifie ...200212400447
cpmk2, an slt2-homologous mitogen-activated protein (map) kinase, is essential for pathogenesis of claviceps purpurea on rye: evidence for a second conserved pathogenesis-related map kinase cascade in phytopathogenic fungi.cpmk2, encoding a mitogen-activated protein (map) kinase from the ascomycete claviceps purpurea, is an orthologue of slt2 from saccharomyces cerevisiae, the first isolated from a biotrophic, non-appressorium-forming pathogen. deletion mutants obtained by a gene replacement approach show impaired vegetative properties (no conidiation) and a significantly reduced virulence, although they retain a limited ability to colonize the host tissue. increased sensitivity to protoplasting enzymes indicates ...200212406210
a mitogen-activated protein kinase gene (mgv1) in fusarium graminearum is required for female fertility, heterokaryon formation, and plant infection.fusarium graminearum is an important pathogen of small grains and maize in many areas of the world. infected grains are often contaminated with mycotoxins harmful to humans and animals. during the past decade, f. graminearum has caused several severe epidemics of head scab in wheat and barley. in order to understand molecular mechanisms regulating fungal development and pathogenicity in this pathogen, we isolated and characterized a map kinase gene, mgv1, which is highly homologous to the mps1 g ...200212423017
reef coral fluorescent proteins for visualizing fungal pathogens.the fluorescent proteins amcyan, zsgreen, zsyellow, and asred, modified versions of proteins identified recently from several anthozoa species of reef corals, were expressed for the first time in a heterologous system and used for imaging two different fungal plant pathogens. when driven by strong constitutive fungal promotors, expression of these reef coral fluorescent proteins yielded bright cytoplasmic fluorescence in fusarium verticillioides and magnaporthe grisea, and had no detectable effe ...200212431456
live-cell imaging of endocytosis during conidial germination in the rice blast fungus, magnaporthe grisea.although there is growing evidence that endocytosis is important in hyphal tip growth, it has not previously been shown to occur during fungal spore germination. we have analysed and characterized endocytosis during the germination of living conidia of the rice blast fungus, magnaporthe grisea. conidia treated with the endocytic markers lucifer yellow carbohydrazide, fitc-dextran, and fm4-64 were imaged by confocal microscopy. internalization of these fluorescent marker dyes by conidia was block ...200212431458
apoptotic cell death is a common response to pathogen attack in oats.we have examined the characteristics of cell death induced by pathogen infection in oats with respect to following hallmark apoptotic features: dna laddering, chromatin condensation, and electron microscopic-terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated utp end labeling positive response. a wide range of plant pathogens representing different levels of parasitism in susceptible and resistant interactions were used for the inocula, which include (i) an obligate parasite, puccinia coronata f. sp. ...200212437297
molecular characterization of a cystathionine beta-synthase gene, cbs1, in magnaporthe grisea.cbs1 from magnaporthe grisea is a structural and functional homolog of the cystathionine beta-synthase (cbs) gene from saccharomyces cerevisiae. our studies indicated that m. grisea can utilize homocysteine and methionine through a cbs-independent pathway. the results also revealed responses of m. grisea to homocysteine that are reminiscent of human homocystinuria.200212455965
efficient gene identification and targeted gene disruption in the wheat blotch fungus mycosphaerella graminicola using tagko.tagko ( transposon- arrayed gene knock out) is a highly efficient method for gene discovery and gene function assignment in the rice blast fungus magnaporthe grisea. here, we report the application of genome-wide tagko to the wheat blotch fungus mycosphaerella graminicola, including the successful development of electroporation-based transformation for this fungus. a m. graminicola genomic cosmid library was constructed and a pool of 250 cosmid clones was mutagenized by in vitro transposition. s ...200212478391
regulation of the mpg1 hydrophobin gene in the rice blast fungus magnaporthe grisea.the hydrophobin-encoding gene mpg1 of the rice blast fungus magnaporthe grisea is highly expressed during the initial stages of host plant infection and targeted deletion of the gene results in a mutant strain that is reduced in virulence, conidiation, and appressorium formation. the green fluorescent protein-encoding allele sgfp was used as a reporter to investigate regulatory genes that control mpg1 expression. the map kinase-encoding gene pmk1 and the wide domain regulators of nitrogen source ...200212481998
the mitogen-activated protein kinase gene maf1 is essential for the early differentiation phase of appressorium formation in colletotrichum lagenarium.colletotrichum lagenarium, the causal agent of cucumber anthracnose, invades host plants by forming a specialized infection structure called an appressorium. in this fungus, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) gene cmk1 is involved in several steps of the infection process, including appressorium formation. in this study, the goal was to investigate roles of other mapks in c. lagenarium. the mapk gene maf1, related to saccharomyces cerevisiae mpk1 and magnaporthe grisea mps1, was isolate ...200212481999
trehalose synthesis and metabolism are required at different stages of plant infection by magnaporthe grisea.the relationship of trehalose metabolism to fungal virulence was explored in the rice blast fungus magnaporthe grisea. to determine the role of trehalose synthesis in pathogenesis, we identified and deleted tps1, encoding trehalose-6-phosphate synthase. a deltatps1 mutant failed to synthesize trehalose, sporulated poorly and was greatly attenuated in pathogenicity. appressoria produced by deltatps1 did not develop full turgor or elaborate penetration hyphae efficiently. to determine the role of ...200312514128
[studies on monoclonal antibodies of magnaporthe grisea and its interfering effect on appressorium formation].selecting by indirect elisa eleven hybridoma cell lines, secreting monoclonal antibodies (mcabs) against magnaporthe grisea were produced by fusing mouse myeloma cells(sp2/0) with spleen cells from balb/c mice immunized with the mixture of conidia, germ tubes and appressoria of m. grisea using 50% peg. the result of iftc test showed that four of mcabs, named as 2b4, 4a1, 1d1, and 2h4 specifically bound to the cell wall surface of the fungus; western blotting revealed that 2b4, 4a1, 1d1 were reco ...200012549060
[allelopathic potential of volatile oil from mikania micrantha].mikania micrantha, an exotic plant species, is an important weed in south china. the volatile oil of the weed species had significant biological activities on plants and their pathogens, particularly pyricularia grisea. the results showed that the seeding growth of 6 plant species decreased obviously when exposed to increasing concentration (200, 400, 800, 1600 mg.l-1) of the volatile oil. the fresh weight of all test plants decreased, and the emergence of all test plants delayed for 1-2 days un ...200212557680
[genetic analysis of blast resistance in japonica rice landrace heikezijing from taihu region].japonica rice landrace heikezijing (hkzj) from taihu region is highly resistant to several chinese and japanese differential strains of magnaporthe grisea. the f1, f2 and ril populations from the cross between the resistant variety heikezijing and the susceptible variety lijiangxintuanheigu (ljxthg) were inoculated by spray with two strains of ken 54-04 and hoku 1 in seedling stages. based on the r:s ratios of segregation in f1, f2 and ril populations it was showed that there were two independen ...200212561228
[genetic analysis and molecular marker of avr-pi1, avr-pi2 and avr-pi4a of magnaporthe grisea].the isolate 81278zb15 is a fertile strain of predominant virulence of magnaporthe grisea in fujian province, china. its rep-pcr (repetitive element-based polymerase chain reaction) dna fingerprint and virulence spectrum are different from those of guy11, a hermophrodite. ascospores of the cross 81278zb15 and guy11 were randomly isolated and their virulence was tested on co39 nils (near isogenic lines, c101lac pi-1, c101a51 pi-2, c104pkt pi-3, c101pkt pi-4a, c105ttp-4l-23 pi-4b and co39). the res ...200212561231
[analysis of gene expression profiles during host-magnaporthe grisea interactions in a pair of near isogenic lines of rice].a pair of near isogenic lines g205 and g71 were selected from recombinant inbred lines (ril) of zhong156 x gumei2. on the resistance locus pi-25(t), g205 had the resistant allele that was from gumei 2 while g71 had the susceptible allele that was from zhong156. for the genetic background, different alleles were detected on only 24 loci out of the 672 rflp or sslp loci surveyed. the expression profiles of g205 and g71 in response to magnaporthe grisea were investigated using cdna microarray conta ...200212561473
acquired resistance functions in mlo barley, which is hypersusceptible to magnaporthe grisea.barley plants carrying a mutation in the mlo (barley [hordeum vulgare l.] cultivar ingrid) locus conferring a durable resistance against powdery mildew are hypersusceptible to the rice blast fungus magnaporthe grisea. it has been speculated that a functional mlo gene is required for the expression of basic pathogen resistance and that the loss of mlo function mediating powdery mildew resistance is an exception for this particular disease. here, we report that the onset of acquired resistance (ar ...200312575744
overexpression of bax inhibitor suppresses the fungal elicitor-induced cell death in rice (oryza sativa l) cells.treatment of suspension-cultured cells of rice (oryza sativa l.) with cell wall extract of rice blast fungus (magnaporthe grisea) elicits a rapid generation of h2o2, alkalinization of culture medium, and eventual cell death. to elucidate genes involved in these processes, we exploited sage (serial analysis of gene expression) technique for the molecular analysis of cell death in suspension-cultured cells treated with the elicitor. among the downregulated genes in the elicitor-treated cells, a bi ...200312581301
overexpression of the wasabi defensin gene confers enhanced resistance to blast fungus ( magnaporthe grisea) in transgenic rice.transgenic rice ( oryza sativa cv. sasanishiki) overexpressing the wasabi defensin gene, a plant defensin effective against the rice blast fungus, was generated by agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. twenty-two t2 homozygous lines harboring the wasabi defensin gene were challenged by the blast fungus. transformants exhibited resistance to rice blast at various levels. the inheritance of the resistance over generations was investigated. t3 plants derived from two highly blast-resis ...200212582903
cloning and sequence analysis of a mitochondrial gene cluster encoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit iii from trichoderma pseudokoningii.a mitochondrial gene cluster encoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit iii (cox3), an orf (called orf250) similar to nadh dehydrogenase subunit vi (nd6), ten trna molecules, partial rrna small subunit and rrna large subunit from trichoderma pseudokoningii s38 was cloned and sequenced. these genes are tandemly clustered on the mitochondrial genome of trichoderma pseudokoningii s38. phylogenetic analysis showed that cytochrome c oxidase subunits iii exhibited high degree of similarity to sequences fro ...200212592707
a hybrid machine model of rice blast fungus, magnaporthe grisea.the fungus, magnaporthe grisea (rice blast fungus) is a major agricultural problem affecting rice and related food crops. the way that the fungus invades the host plant and propagates itself is a very important scientific problem and recent advances in research into the genetic basis of these processes can be used to build a simple partial model using hybrid computational modelling techniques. the possible potential benefits of doing this include the use of computer simulation and automated anal ...200312595120
comparative analyses of genomic locations and race specificities of loci for quantitative resistance to pyricularia grisea in rice and barley.comparative genomic analyses have revealed extensive colinearity in gene orders in distantly related taxa in mammals and grasses, which opened new horizons for evolutionary study. the objective of our study was to assess syntenic relationships of quantitative trait loci (qtl) for disease resistance in cereals by using a model system in which rice and barley were used as the hosts and the blast fungus pyricularia grisea sacc. as the pathogen. in total, 12 qtl against three isolates were identifie ...200312601171
characterization of transgenic rice plants over-expressing the stress-inducible beta-glucanase gene gns1.the gns1 gene of rice (oryza sativa l. japonica) encodes 1,3;1,4-beta glucanase (ec, which hydrolyzes 1,3;1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages on 1,3;1,4-beta-glucan, an important component of cell walls in the poaceae family. rna and protein gel blot analyses demonstrated that blast disease or dark treatment induced the expression of the gns1 gene. to assess the function of the gns1 gene in disease resistance, we characterized transgenic rice plants constitutively expressing the gns1 gene. th ...200312602898
significance of individual amino acid residues for coenzyme and substrate specificity of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from the fungus cochliobolus lunatus.17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from the fungus cochliobolus lunatus (17beta-hsdcl) is a nadph dependent member of the short-chain dehydrogenase reductase (sdr) superfamily. recently, we prepared a homology-built structural model of 17beta-hsdcl using the known three-dimensional structure of homologous 1,3,8-trihydroxynaphthalene reductase from the fungus magnaporthe grisea. this model structure directed our studies of structure-function relationship of the fungal 17beta-hsd, as one of the m ...200312604235
brassinosteroid functions in a broad range of disease resistance in tobacco and rice.brassinolide (bl), considered to be the most important brassinosteroid (br) and playing pivotal roles in the hormonal regulation of plant growth and development, was found to induce disease resistance in plants. to study the potentialities of bl activity on stress responding systems, we analyzed its ability to induce disease resistance in tobacco and rice plants. wild-type tobacco treated with bl exhibited enhanced resistance to the viral pathogen tobacco mosaic virus (tmv), the bacterial pathog ...200312609030
occan, a novel transposon in the fot1 family, is ubiquitously found in several magnaporthe grisea isolates.we investigated a dna fragment and its flanking region deleted in the spontaneous pi-a virulent mutant of magnaporthe grisea ina168. a new transposon-like sequence was identified from a region adjacent to the deleted fragment and was named occan. occan contained a 2,259-bp orf interrupted by one 63-bp intron and had both a ta dinucleotide and 77 bp of perfect inverted repeats at both termini, without direct repeats. these features indicated that occan is a member of the fot1 family. rt-pcr analy ...200312612805
characterization of spontaneous mutants of magnaporthe grisea expressing stable resistance to the qo-inhibiting fungicide azoxystrobin.the class of qo-inhibiting fungicides (qois) act as respiration inhibitors by binding to the qo center of cytochrome b. the longevity of these fungicides has been challenged by the selection of fungal sub-populations resisting high doses of qoi fungicides, with a g143a amino acid exchange in the cytochrome b target site identified as the most common cause of resistance. in contrast, the mechanism of alternative respiration, as another mechanism of fungal qoi resistance, has thus far not been aff ...200312612806
disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance in rice are inversely modulated by an abscisic acid-inducible mitogen-activated protein kinase.mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) cascades play an important role in mediating stress responses in eukaryotic organisms. however, little is known about the role of mapks in modulating the interaction of defense pathways activated by biotic and abiotic factors. in this study, we have isolated and functionally characterized a stress-responsive mapk gene (osmapk5) from rice. osmapk5 is a single-copy gene but can generate at least two differentially spliced transcripts. the osmapk5 gene, its p ...200312615946
biosynthesis of fungal melanins and their importance for human pathogenic fungi.for more than 40 years fungi have been known to produce pigments known as melanins. predominantly these have been dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa)-melanin and dihydroxynaphthalene (dhn)-melanin. the biochemical and genetical analysis of the biosynthesis pathways have led to the identification of the genes and corresponding enzymes of the pathways. only recently have both these types of melanin been linked to virulence in some human pathogenic and phytopathogenic fungi. the absence of melanin in hum ...200312620252
analysis of expressed sequence tags from gibberella zeae (anamorph fusarium graminearum).gibberella zeae is a broad host range pathogen that infects many crop plants, including wheat and barley, and causes head blight and rot diseases throughout the world. to better understand fungal development and pathogenicity, we have generated 7996 ests from three cdna libraries. two libraries were generated from carbon-(c-) and nitrogen- (n-) starved mycelia and one library was generated from cultures of maturing perithecia (p). in other fungal pathogens, starvation conditions have been shown ...200312620255
the glyoxylate cycle is required for temporal regulation of virulence by the plant pathogenic fungus magnaporthe grisea.we describe the isolation and characterization of icl1 from the rice blast fungus magnaporthe grisea, a gene that encodes isocitrate lyase, one of the principal enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle. icl1 shows elevated expression during development of infection structures and cuticle penetration, and a targeted gene replacement showed that the gene is required for full virulence by m. grisea. in particular, we found that the prepenetration stage of development, before entry into plant tissue, is affe ...200312622815
an eight-cysteine-containing cfem domain unique to a group of fungal membrane proteins.cfem, an eight cysteine-containing domain, has been identified by analyzing over 25 fungal sequences selected from database sequence searches. features of cfem suggest that it is a novel domain with characteristics distinct from known cysteine-rich domains. some cfem-containing proteins (e.g. pth11 from magnaporthe grisea) are proposed to have important roles in fungal pathogenesis.200312633989
impact of alternative respiration and target-site mutations on responses of germinating conidia of magnaporthe grisea to qo-inhibiting fungicides.qo-inhibiting fungicides act as respiration inhibitors by binding to the qo center of cytochrome b. sensitivities of fungi to qo inhibitors can be influenced by the induction of alternative respiration or by mutational changes of the cytochrome b target site. previous studies on both mechanisms in magnaporthe grisea (hebert) barr were focused on the mycelial stage of the pathogen. the present study describes the expression and impact of both resistance mechanisms during the stage of conidia germ ...200312639047
identification of five new blast resistance genes in the highly blast-resistant rice variety ir64 using a qtl mapping strategy.rice progenies used for the construction of genetic maps permit exhaustive identification and characterization of resistance genes present in their parental cultivars. we inoculated a rice progeny derived from the cross ir64 x azucena with different magnaporthe grisea isolates that showed differential responses on the parental cultivars. by qtl mapping, nine unlinked loci conferring resistance to each isolate were identified and named pi-24( t) to pi-32( t). they could correspond to nine specifi ...200312647052
of smuts, blasts, mildews, and blights: camp signaling in phytopathogenic regulates morphogenesis and virulence in a wide variety of fungi including the plant pathogens. in saprophytic yeasts such as saccharomyces cerevisiae, camp signaling plays an important role in nutrient sensing. in filamentous saprophytes, the camp pathway appears to play an integral role in vegetative growth and sporulation, with possible connections to mating. infection-related morphogenesis includes sporulation (conidia and teliospores), formation of appressoria, infection hyphae, and sc ...200312651963
three types of defense-responsive genes are involved in resistance to bacterial blight and fungal blast diseases in rice.bacterial blight and fungal blast diseases of rice, caused by xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and pyricularia grisea sacc., respectively, are two of the most devastating diseases in rice worldwide. to study the defense responses to infection with each of these pathogens, expression profiling of 12 defense-responsive genes was performed using near-isogenic rice lines that are resistant or susceptible to bacterial blight and fungal blast, respectively, and rice cultivars that are resistant or suscep ...200312684879
pcr based molecular technique for identification and discrimination of quarantined and non-quarantined tilletia sps.polymerase chain reaction (pcr) based rapd profiles, in conjunction with six primers, of karnal bunt of wheat and rice bunt exhibiting distinct polymorphic dna. a total of 84 rapd loci were observed on polyacrylamide gel for both tilletia sps. out of 84, 16 loci were found monomorphic, while other 68 loci were unique. usefulness of random primers was also checked with other seed borne fungal pathogens of wheat and rice. none of primers gave amplification with magnaporthe grisea, a causative agen ...200212693693
rice brown spot and susceptibility of some cultivars in north of iran.rice brown spot is one of the important diseases in the world including iran. 91 samples of the infected plants such as leaves and panicles were collected from different locations of guilan province, north of iran and the fungi isolated and studied for pathogenicity. three species of bipolaris (b. oryzae, bipolaris sp. and b. cf. victoriae) were isolated more than other species with serious effects on the plants respectively. reactions of 8 cultivars of rice, neda, nemat, sepeed-rood, bejar, kha ...200212701419
targeted gene disruption of the neuronal calcium sensor 1 homologue in rice blast fungus, magnaporthe grisea.we isolated a neuronal calcium sensor 1/frequenin-like gene, mg-ncs-1, from magnaporthe grisea and evaluated the phenotypes of null-mutants of the gene. the putative mg-ncs-1 protein showed high similarity to the other ncs-1 proteins. the null-mutants had normal growth and pathogenicity similar to the parental strain, but their growth was suppressed in high concentrations of ca2+ or acidic conditions.200312723620
genetic and physical mapping of pi5(t), a locus associated with broad-spectrum resistance to rice gain an understanding of the molecular basis for resistance to rice blast (magnaporthe grisea), we have initiated a project to clone pi5(t), a locus associated with broad-spectrum resistance to diverse blast isolates. aflp-derived markers linked to pi5(t)-mediated resistance were isolated using bulked segregant analysis of f(2) populations generated by crossing three recombinant inbred lines (rils), ril125, ril249, and ril260 with the susceptible line co39. the most tightly linked aflp marker ...200312756540
hop, an active mutator-like element in the genome of the fungus fusarium oxysporum.a new type of active dna transposon has been identified in the genome of fusarium oxysporum by its transposition into the niad target gene. two insertions within the final exon, in opposite orientations at the same nucleotide site, have been characterized. these elements, called hop, are 3,299 bp long, with perfect terminal inverted repeats (tirs) of 99 bp. the sequencing of genomic copies reveals a 9-bp target site duplication and no apparent sequence specificity at the insertion sites. the seq ...200312777515
family 19 chitinase of streptomyces griseus hut6037 increases plant resistance to the fungal disease.chitinase c (chic) is the first bacterial family 19 chitinase discovered in streptomyces griseus hut6037. in vitro, chic clearly inhibited hyphal extension of trichoderma reesei but a rice family 19 chitinase did not. in order to investigate the effects of chic as an increaser of plant resistance to fungal diseases, the chic gene was introduced into rice plants under the control of the increased camv 35s promoter and a signal sequence from the rice chitinase gene. transgenic plants were morpholo ...200312784627
possible role of phytocassane, rice phytoalexin, in disease resistance of rice against the blast fungus magnaporthe addition to momilactone, phytocassanes a through e (diterpene phytoalexins) were detected in rice leaves in fields suffering from rice blast. furthermore, phytocassane accumulation was most abundant at the edges of necrotic lesions, indicating that the phytoalexins prevent subsequent spread of the fungus from the infected site. in pot experiments the pattern of phytocassane accumulation in rice leaves in an incompatible interaction (infection with an avirulent race of magnaporthe grisea) was ...200312784637
[a study on introduction of chitinase gene and beta-1,3-glucanase gene into restorer line of dian-type hybrid rice (oryza sativa l.) and enhanced resistance to blast (magnaporthe grisea)].plasmid pblgc containing chitinase gene from phaseolus limensis and beta-1,3-glucanase gene from nicotiana tabacum was bombarded into the restorer line "nan29" of dian-type hybrid rice (oryza sativa l. ssp. japonica) from yunnan province of south-west china. 93 regenerants were obtained from the calli that were resistant to g418 (100 to 150 mg/l) on nb medium. using beta-1,3 glucanase gene as the probe, 17 of the regenerants were identified to be transgenic lines by dot blotting and the foreign ...200312812057
identification and fine mapping of pi33, the rice resistance gene corresponding to the magnaporthe grisea avirulence gene ace1.rice blast disease is a major constraint for rice breeding. nevertheless, the genetic basis of resistance remains poorly understood for most rice varieties, and new resistance genes remain to be identified. we identified the resistance gene corresponding to the cloned avirulence gene ace1 using pairs of isogenic strains of magnaporthe grisea differing only by their ace1 allele. this resistance gene was mapped on the short arm of rice chromosome 8 using progenies from the crosses ir64 (resistant) ...200312838393
a blumeria graminis gene family encoding proteins with a c-terminal variable region with homologues in pathogenic a study aimed at characterising, at the molecular level, the obligate biotrophic fungus blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (bgh), we have identified a novel group of genes, the egh16h genes, and shown that two of these are up-regulated during primary infection of barley leaves. the genes have partial homology to a previously characterised bgh gene family, egh16. egh16 and egh16h are subfamilies of a larger multigene family with presently about 15 members identified in bgh. egh16h has about ten m ...200312853153
purcopia, a ty1-copia truncated retroelement in the genome of claviceps purpurea.truncated copy of reverse transcriptase of ty1/copia retroelement (purcopia) was found as part of the species-specific rapd 257(540) marker of claviceps purpurea. a region of 94 bp with 78.9% identity to an unannotated region of the genomic clone of the rice blast fungus pyricularia grisea (accession no. aq162050) was found at the 5' end of the pseudogene. comparison with database sequences revealed that purcopia is close to the plant retroelements represented by tto1, ta1-3 and bare-1, whereas ...200312879745
co-expression of a modified maize ribosome-inactivating protein and a rice basic chitinase gene in transgenic rice plants confers enhanced resistance to sheath blight.chitinases, beta-1,3-glucanases, and ribosome-inactivating proteins are reported to have antifungal activity in plants. with the aim of producing fungus-resistant transgenic plants, we co-expressed a modified maize ribosome-inactivating protein gene, mod1, and a rice basic chitinase gene, rch10, in transgenic rice plants. a construct containing mod1 and rch10 under the control of the rice rbcs and act1 promoters, respectively, was co-transformed with a plasmid containing the herbicide-resistance ...200312885168
the bacterial transposon tn7 causes premature polyadenylation of mrna in eukaryotic organisms: tagko mutagenesis in filamentous fungi.tagko is a tn7-based transposition system for genome wide mutagenesis in filamentous fungi. the effects of transposon insertion on the expression of tagko alleles were examined in magnaporthe grisea and mycosphaerella graminicola. northern analysis showed that stable, truncated transcripts were expressed in the tagko mutants. mapping of the 3'-ends of tagko cdnas revealed that they all contain tn7 end sequences, regardless of the transposon orientation. polyadenylation signals characteristic of ...200312907724
diagnosis of dehydratase inhibitors in melanin biosynthesis inhibitor (mbi-d) resistance by primer-introduced restriction enzyme analysis in scytalone dehydratase gene of magnaporthe grisea.we have established a simple diagnosis method for rice blast fungus resistant to mbi-d. this involves the preparation of pcr templates directly from the lesions in combination with primer-introduced restriction enzyme analysis pcr (pira-pcr).200312916764
mining microorganism est databases in the quest for new proteins.microorganisms with large genomes are commonly the subjects of single-round partial sequencing of cdna, generating expressed sequence tags (ests). usually there is a great distance between gene discovery by est projects and submission of amino acid sequences to public databases. we analyzed the relationship between available ests and protein sequences and used the sequences available in the secondary database, clusters of orthologous groups (cog), to investigate ests from eight microorganisms of ...200312917813
[analysis of genetic structure of magnaporthe grisea in the fields of different rice varieties].the dna of 251 magnaporthe grisea isolates from shiping county, which originated from monoculture and mixture fields, was extracted and amplified by rep-pcr which primer was from palindromes pot2 of magnaporthe grisea. the result showed that all isolates were amplified 9-17 dna bands, the size was about from 400 bp to 23 kb, but mainly between 5-10 kb. 65% bands were polymorphism bands, and 35% were the same bands. genetic structures of magnaporthe grisea in the different rice varieties fields w ...200312924129
[chemical composition of volatile oil from chromolaena odorata and its effect on plant, fungi and insect growth].the volatile oil from c. odorata had a significant effect on the growth of plants, fungi and insects. the result showed that the seedling growth of five test plants was obviously inhibited, in the order of ryegrass > chinese cabbage > radish > snap been > rice. the inhibitory effect of the oil at its middle concentration (800 mg.l-1) for pyricularia grisea was the strongest, the next was to phytophthora nicotianae, and the weakest was to fusarium axysporum. the inhibitory percentage was 61.40%, ...200312924132
an ordered collection of expressed sequences from cryphonectria parasitica and evidence of genomic microsynteny with neurospora crassa and magnaporthe grisea.cryphonectria parasitica, the causative agent of chestnut blight, has proven to be a tractable experimental system for studying fungal pathogenesis. moreover, the development of infectious cdna clones of c. parasitica hypoviruses, capable of attenuating fungal virulence, has provided the opportunity to examine molecular aspects of fungal plant pathogenesis in the context of biological control. in order to establish a genomic base for future studies of c. parasitica, the authors have analysed a c ...200312949163
molecular markers linked to the blast resistance gene pi-z in rice for use in marker-assisted selection.rice blast, caused by the fungal pathogen pyricularia grisea, is a serious disease affecting rice-growing regions around the world. current methods for identification of blast-resistant germplasm and progeny typically utilize phenotypic screening. however, phenotypic screens are influenced by environmental conditions and the presence of one resistance gene can sometimes phenotypically mask other genes conferring resistance to the same blast race. pi-z is a dominant gene located on the short arm ...200312955204
production and secretion of aspergillus nidulans catalase b in filamentous fungi driven by the promoter and signal peptide of the cladosporium fulvum hydrophobin gene hcf-1.we describe here the use of sequences from the hydrophobin gene hcf-1 of cladosporium fulvum to construct pcatbex, a vector for high-level expression and secretion of catb, a catalase from aspergillus nidulans. transformation of c. fulvum with pcatbex results in a 60-fold increase in the mycelial activity in the fungus and the appearance of up to 5.4 mkat/l of catalase in the growth medium. the levels of catalase in the supernatant increased dramatically following removal of nitrogen from the me ...200312955453
serial analysis of gene expression (sage) of magnaporthe grisea: genes involved in appressorium formation.treatment with cyclic amp (camp) induces appressorium formation in the phytopathogenic fungus magnaporthe grisea, the causative agent of rice blast disease. in a search for the m. grisea genes responsible for appressorium formation and host invasion, sage (serial analysis of gene expression) was carried out using mrna isolated from fungal conidia germinating in the presence and absence of camp. from camp-treated conidia 5087 tags including 2889 unique tags were isolated, whereas untreated conidi ...200312955499
rna silencing in the phytopathogenic fungus magnaporthe oryzae.systematic analysis of rna silencing was carried out in the blast fungus magnaporthe oryzae (formerly magnaporthe grisea) using the enhanced green fluorescence protein (egfp) gene as a model. to assess the ability of rna species to induce rna silencing in the fungus, plasmid constructs expressing sense, antisense, and hairpin rnas were introduced into an egfp-expressing transformant. the fluorescence of egfp in the transformant was silenced much more efficiently by hairpin rna of egfp than by ot ...200312971600
the g-beta subunit mgb1 is involved in regulating multiple steps of infection-related morphogenesis in magnaporthe grisea.trimeric g-proteins transmit extracellular signals to various downstream effectors (e.g. map kinases) in eukaryotes. in the rice blast fungus magnaporthe grisea, the pmk1 map kinase is essential for appressorium formation and infectious growth. the pmk1 deletion mutant fails to form appressoria but still responds to exogenous camp for tip deformation. since gene disruption mutants of three galpha subunits still form appressoria and are phenotypically different from pmk1 mutants, it is likely tha ...200314507377
genomic characterization of rim2/hipa elements reveals a cacta-like transposon superfamily with unique features in the rice genome.the availability of huge amounts of rice genome sequence now permits large-scale analysis of the structure and molecular characteristics of the previously identified transposase-encoding rim2 (also called hipa) element, which is transcriptionally activated by infection with the fungal pathogen magnaporthe grisea and by treatment with the corresponding fungal elicitor. based on genomic cloning and data mining from 230 mb of rice genome sequence, 347 rim2 elements, with an average size of 5.8 kb, ...200314513364
the photolyase gene from the plant pathogen fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is induced by visible light and alpha-tomatine from tomato plant.survival of irradiated spores from fusarium oxysporum with ultraviolet radiation (uv) was increased following exposition to visible light, indicating that this phytopathogenic fungus has a mechanism of photoreactivation able to counteract the lethal effects of uv. a genomic sequence containing the complete photolyase gene (phr1) from f. oxysporum was isolated by heterologous hybridisation with the neurospora crassa photolyase gene. the f. oxysporum phr1 cdna was isolated and expressed in a photo ...200314516768
on the trail of a cereal killer: exploring the biology of magnaporthe grisea.the blast fungus magnaporthe grisea causes a serious disease on a wide variety of grasses including rice, wheat, and barley. rice blast is the most serious disease of cultivated rice and therefore poses a threat to the world's most important food security crop. here, i review recent progress toward understanding the molecular biology of plant infection by m. grisea, which involves development of a specialized cell, the appressorium. this dome-shaped cell generates enormous turgor pressure and ph ...200314527276
rice c2-domain proteins are induced and translocated to the plasma membrane in response to a fungal elicitor.hundreds of proteins involved in signaling pathways contain a ca(2+)-dependent membrane-binding motif called the c2-domain. however, no small c2-domain proteins consisting of a single c2-domain have been reported in animal cells. we have isolated two cdna clones, oserg1a and oserg1b, that encode two small c2-domain proteins of 156 and 159 amino acids, respectively, from a fungal elicitor-treated rice cdna library. the clones are believed to have originated from a single gene by alternative splic ...200314529272
increased tryptophan decarboxylase and monoamine oxidase activities induce sekiguchi lesion formation in rice infected with magnaporthe grisea.sekiguchi lesion (sl)-mutant rice infected with magnaporthe grisea showed increased light-dependent tryptophan decarboxylase (tdc) and monoamine oxidase (mao) activities. tdc and mao activities were observed before the penetration of m. grisea to rice cells and maintained high levels even after sekiguchi lesion formation. light-dependent expression of tdc gene was observed in leaves inoculated with m. grisea before sekiguchi lesion formation. spore germination fluid (sgf) of m. grisea also induc ...200314535886
purification and characterization of laccase from the rice blast fungus, magnaporthe grisea.a 70-kda extracellular laccase was purified from the rice blast fungus magnaporthe grisea using gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography the procedure provided 282-fold purification with a specific enzyme activity of 225.91 u mg(-1) and a yield of 11.92%. the enzyme oxidized a wide range of substrates. the highest level of oxidation was detected with syringaldazine as the substrate. using syringaldazine as the substrate, the enzyme exhibited a ph optimum of 6 and temperature optimum of 30 ...200314568157
differential responses in vitro of rice cultivars to italian lineages of the blast pathogen pyricularia grisea (cooke) sacc. 1. oxidative burst.suspension cultured cells of six rice cultivars differing in their sensitivity to blast were treated with mycelial wall hydrolysates prepared from seven isolates belonging to different pyricularia grisea lineages. soon after elicitor addition, rice cells produced significant amounts of superoxide anion, which was rapidly converted into diffusible peroxide. maximal effects were achieved at 50 mg l-1 elicitor. in all cases, a 7 to 13-fold increase in the basal rate of reactive oxygen species produ ...200314593804
the development of simple sequence repeat markers for magnaporthe grisea and their integration into an established genetic linkage map.although microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (ssr) markers have several advantages, few have been developed in fungi. the goal of this study was to identify and characterize ssr-containing loci in the filamentous ascomycete magnaporthe grisea, the causal agent of rice blast disease, and to add these markers to an integrated genetic map of this species [theor. appl. genet. 95 (1997) 20]. we have constructed and screened a microsatellite-enriched small-insert genomic library as well as exploi ...200314599888
isolation and characterization of novel defense response genes involved in compatible and incompatible interactions between rice and magnaporthe identify early-induced defense genes involved in broad-spectrum resistance to rice blast, suppression subtractive hybridization was used to generate two cdna libraries enriched for transcripts differentially expressed in pi9(t)-resistant and -susceptible plants. after differential screening by membrane-based hybridization and subsequent confirmation by reverse northern blot analysis, selected clones were sequenced and analyzed. forty-seven unique cdna clones were found and assigned to eight d ...200414605807
cloning, sequencing, and characterization of the genetic region relevant to biosynthesis of the lipopeptides iturin a and surfactin in bacillus subtilis.bacillus subtilis b3 was found to produce lipopeptides iturins and fengycin that have activity against several plant pathogens such as fusarium graminearum, rhizoctonia solani, rhizoctonia cerealis, and pyricularia grisea. a 3642-bp genomic region of b. subtilis b3 comprising srfdb3, aspb3, lpab3, and yczeb3 genes that resulted in biosynthesis of surfactin in b. subtilis 168 was cloned, sequenced, and characterized. among them, the srfdb3 gene encodes thioesterase, which is required for biosynth ...200314629006
contig assembly and microsynteny analysis using a bacterial artificial chromosome library for epichloë festucae, a mutualistic fungal endophyte of grasses.we constructed and characterized a bacterial artificial chromosome (bac) library for epichloë festucae, a genetically tractable fungal plant mutualist. the 6144 clone library with an average insert size of 87kb represents at least 18-fold coverage of the 29 mb genome. we used the library to assemble a 110kb contig spanning the putative ornithine decarboxylase (odc) ortholog and subsequently expanded it to 228kb with a single walking step in each direction. furthermore, we evaluated conservation ...200414643256
importance of ascorbate peroxidases osapx1 and osapx2 in the rice pathogen response pathways and growth and reproduction revealed by their transcriptional profiling.we have identified and characterized two rice ascorbate peroxidase (osapx1 and osapx2) genes against diverse signals known to involve in defense/stress responses, using "2-week-old rice seedling in vitro model system". oryza sativa ascorbate peroxidase 1 and 2 (osapx1/2) share 83% similarity to each other at amino acid level and belong to a small gene family in the rice genome. osapx1/2 show a weak constitutive expression in leaves. their transcripts were up-regulated upon wounding (by cut), and ...200314644501
identification of fungal ( magnaporthe grisea) stress-induced genes in wild rice ( oryza minuta).to identify fungal stress-related genes in wild rice, oryza minuta, we constructed a subtracted library using suppression subtractive hybridization in combination with mirror orientation selection. dna chips containing 960 randomly selected cdna clones were applied by reverse northern analysis to eliminate false positive clones from the library and to prescreen differentially expressed genes. in total, 377 cdna clones were selected on the basis of their signal intensities and expression ratios. ...200414648106
identification of proteins that interact with two regulators of appressorium development, adenylate cyclase and camp-dependent protein kinase a, in the rice blast fungus magnaporthe grisea.adenylate cyclase (mac1) and the catalytic subunit of camp-dependent protein kinase a (cpka) are required for appressorium development and pathogenesis in the rice blast pathogen magnaporthe grisea. to identify new components in the camp signal transduction pathway, we used the yeast two-hybrid system to screen mac1 and cpka against an appressorium cdna library. the cdna library was constructed by gateway recombinational cloning, enabling transfer of the library to various alternative vectors. t ...200414648199
proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins induced by rice blast fungus and elicitor in suspension-cultured rice cells.we used two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-de) and other proteomic approaches to identify proteins expressed in suspension-cultured rice cells in response to the rice blast fungus, magnaporthe grisea. proteins were extracted from suspension-cultured cells at 24 and 48 h after rice blast fungus inoculation or treatment with elicitor or other signal molecules such as jasmonic acid (ja), salicylic acid, and h(2)o(2). the proteins were then polyethylene glycol fractionated before separation by 2-de. ...200314673787
enhancing rice resistance to fungal pathogens by transformation with cell wall degrading enzyme genes from trichoderma atroviride.three genes encoding for fungal cell wall degrading enzymes (cwdes), ech42, nag70 and gluc78 from the biocontrol fungus trichoderma atroviride were inserted into the binary vector pcambia1305.2 singly and in all possible combinations and transformed to rice plants. more than 1800 independently regenerated plantlets in seven different populations (for each of the three genes and each of the four gene combinations) were obtained. the ech42 gene encoding for an endochitinase increased resistance to ...200414674022
gene expression analysis of plant host-pathogen interactions by supersage.the type iii restriction endonuclease ecop15i was used in isolating fragments of 26 bp from defined positions of cdnas. we call this substantially improved variant to the conventional serial analysis of gene expression (sage) procedure "supersage." by applying supersage to magnaporthe grisea (blast)-infected rice leaves, gene expression profiles of both the rice host and blast fungus were simultaneously monitored by making use of the fully sequenced genomes of both organisms, revealing that the ...200314676315
transcript abundance of rml1, encoding a putative gt1-like factor in rice, is up-regulated by magnaporthe grisea and down-regulated by light.we isolated and sequenced both genomic dna and cdna clones, which encoded a putative gt1-like protein with 385 amino acids, from cultivated rice (oryza sativa ssp. indica). this protein shows significant amino acid sequence similarities with trihelix dna-binding gt-1a/b2f and gt-1 factors that were identified in dicot plants. northern blotting analysis indicated that the transcript of the rice gt-1 factor in seedling was up-regulated by the rice blast fungus magnaporthe grisea, down-regulated by ...200414693376
a simple protocol for isolation of fungal dna.genomic dna was isolated from as little as 2 mg dry biomass of magnaporthe grisea by microwave treatment within 30 s. the quantity of dna was good enough for pcr analysis and dot blot hybridization. this technique can be used for various studies, such as dna fingerprinting to study the population structure of the phytopathogen in different regions, and for a quick screening of m. grisea transformants.200314719830
the tetraspanin bcpls1 is required for appressorium-mediated penetration of botrytis cinerea into host plant leaves.animal tetraspanins are membrane proteins controlling cell adhesion, morphology and motility. in fungi, the tetraspanin mgpls1 controls an appressorial function required for the penetration of magnaporthe grisea into host plants. an orthologue of mgpls1, bcpls1, was identified in the necrotrophic fungal plant pathogen botrytis cinerea. we constructed a bcpls1::bar null mutant by targeted gene replacement. bcpls1::bar is not pathogenic on intact plant tissues of bean, tomato or rose, but it infec ...200414731267
cloning, sequencing and functional analysis of magnaporthe grisea mvp1 gene, a hex-1 homolog encoding a putative 'woronin body' protein.a hex-1 homolog named mvp1 was isolated from an appressoria cdna library of the rice blast fungus magnaporthe grisea. the transcript of approximately 1.6 kb contains 546 bp of coding sequence with a 3' untranslated region about 168 bp long and a 5' untranslated region about 870 bp long. southern gel blot analysis of genomic dna following digestion with three restriction enzymes (bamhi, ecori, hindiii) indicated that the gene exists as a single copy in m. grisea genome. rna gel blot analyses show ...200414734169
antifungal 3-butylisocoumarins from new naturally occurring 3-butylisocoumarins were isolated and identified from lipophilic extracts of aerial as well as underground organs: corfin (17) and 3'-hydroxycorfin (18) from the roots of chamaemelum mixtum and (-)-(r)-2'-methoxydihydroartemidin (5), (+)-(s,r)-epoxyartemidin (6a), dracumerin (12), (+)-(r)-(e)-3'-hydroxyartemidin (13), and capillarin isovalerate (20) from various organs of artemisia dracunculus (tarragon). furthermore, six known derivatives, artemidiol (7), (e/z)-art ...200414738379
expression and characterization of recombinant fungal acetyl-coa carboxylase and isolation of a soraphen-binding domain.acetyl-coa carboxylase (acc) catalyses the first step in fatty-acid biosynthesis. owing to its role in primary metabolism, acc has been exploited as a commercial herbicide target and identified as a chemically validated fungicide target. in animals, acc is also a key regulator of fat metabolism. this function has made acc a prime target for the development of anti-obesity and anti-type ii diabetes therapeutics. despite its economic importance, there is a lack of published information on recombin ...200414766011
linoleate diol synthase of the rice blast fungus magnaporthe grisea.mycelia of two strains of magnaporthe grisea, guy 11 and th3, were incubated with linoleic acid, and the metabolites were isolated and identified by gc-ms and lc-ms. the two main metabolites were identified as 8-hydroxylinoleic and 7,8-dihydroxylinoleic acids, and the former was further oxidized by n-2 and by n-3 hydroxylation to 8,16- and 8,17-dihydroxylinoleic acids. lipoxygenase metabolites of linoleic acid could not be detected. the sequence of the genome of m. grisea has been released from ...200314870931
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