magnaporthe grisea pth11p is a novel plasma membrane protein that mediates appressorium differentiation in response to inductive substrate cues.mutagenesis of magnaporthe grisea strain 4091-5-8 led to the identification of pth11, a pathogenicity gene predicted to encode a novel transmembrane protein. we localized a pth11-green fluorescent protein fusion to the cell membrane and vacuoles. pth11 mutants of strain 4091-5-8 are nonpathogenic due to a defect in appressorium differentiation. this defect is reminiscent of wild-type strains on poorly inductive surfaces; conidia germinate and undergo early differentiation events, but appressoriu ...199910521529
independent signaling pathways regulate cellular turgor during hyperosmotic stress and appressorium-mediated plant infection by magnaporthe grisea.the phytopathogenic fungus magnaporthe grisea elaborates a specialized infection cell called an appressorium with which it mechanically ruptures the plant cuticle. to generate mechanical force, appressoria produce enormous hydrostatic turgor by accumulating molar concentrations of glycerol. to investigate the genetic control of cellular turgor, we analyzed the response of m. grisea to hyperosmotic stress. during acute and chronic hyperosmotic stress adaptation, m. grisea accumulates arabitol as ...199910521531
isolation, antifungal activity, and structure elucidation of the glutarimide antibiotic, streptimidone, produced by micromonospora coerulea.the antibiotic ao58a,which showed strong antifungal activity against some plant pathogenic fungi, was purified from the culture broth and mycelial mats of micromonospora coerulea strain ao58 using various chromatographic procedures. the molecular formula of the antibiotic ao58a was deduced to be c(16)h(23)no(4) (m + h, m/z 294.1707) by high-resolution fab mass spectroscopy. analyses of (1)h nmr, (13)c nmr, and 2d nmr spectral data revealed that the antibiotic ao58a is the glutarimide antibiotic ...199910552660
a mitogen-activated protein kinase of the corn leaf pathogen cochliobolus heterostrophus is involved in conidiation, appressorium formation, and pathogenicity: diverse roles for mitogen-activated protein kinase homologs in foliar pathogens.fungal pathogens perceive and respond to molecules from the plant, triggering pathogenic development. transduction of these signals may use heterotrimeric g proteins, and it is thought that protein phosphorylation cascades are also important. we have isolated a mitogen-activated protein kinase homolog from the corn pathogen cochliobolus heterostrophus to test its role as a component of the transduction pathways. the new gene, chk1, has a deduced amino acid sequence 90% identical to pmk1 of the r ...199910557357
mitogen-activated protein kinase mkp1 of pneumocystis carinii complements the slt2delta defect in the cell integrity pathway of saccharomyces cerevisiae.signal transduction pathways are important in the adaptive response of microbes to their environment. a pneumocystis carinii extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (mapk) homologue, mkp1, has been isolated by sequence similarity screening of p. carinii genomic dna. the mkp1 of p. carinii shows closest homology to other fungal map kinases involved in cell integrity signal transduction cascades, including slt2p/mpk1p of saccharomyces cerevisiae, mkc1 of candida albicans and mps1 of magnapor ...199910564487
characterization of two fungal-elicitor-induced rice cdnas encoding functional homologues of the rab-specific gdp-dissociation using the mrna differential display approach to isolate defense signaling genes active at the early stage of fungal infection two cdna fragments with high sequence homology to rab-specific gdp-dissociation inhibitors (gdis) were identified in rice (oryza sativa l.) suspension cells. using polymerase-chain-reaction products as probes, two full-length cdna clones were isolated from a cdna library of fungal-elicitor-treated rice, and designated as osgdi1 and osgdi2. the deduced amino acid sequen ...199910592042
the map kinase kpp2 regulates mating and pathogenic development in ustilago the phytopathogenic fungus ustilago maydis, fusion of compatible haploid cells is a prerequisite for infection. this process is genetically controlled by the biallelic a locus, encoding pheromone precursors and receptors. these are presumed to be coupled to a heterotrimeric g protein and a map kinase cascade, leading to activation of the hmg domain transcription factor prf1. here, we have demonstrated that putative map kinase sites in prf1 are required for its activity during mating. in addit ...199910594825
crystal structure analysis of a pentameric fungal and an icosahedral plant lumazine synthase reveals the structural basis for differences in assembly.lumazine synthase catalyzes the penultimate step in the synthesis of riboflavin in plants, fungi, and microorganisms. the enzyme displays two quaternary structures, the pentameric forms in yeast and fungi and the 60-meric icosahedral capsids in plants and bacteria. to elucidate the structural features that might be responsible for differences in assembly, we have determined the crystal structures of lumazine synthase, complexed with the inhibitor 5-nitroso-6-ribitylamino-2,4-pyrimidinedione, fro ...199910595538
bwmk1, a novel map kinase induced by fungal infection and mechanical wounding in rice.the activation of the mitogen-activated protein (map) kinases by different environmental stresses has been previously observed in several dicot plant species. here, we report the isolation of a novel map kinase in rice that is induced during infection by the blast fungus magnaporthe grisea or upon mechanical wounding. the gene is designated as bwmk1 for blast- and wound-induced map kinase. the cdna of bwmk1 was isolated from rice leaves challenged by the blast pathogen. transcripts of the corres ...199910624015
expression cloning of the candida albicans csa1 gene encoding a mycelial surface antigen by sorting of saccharomyces cerevisiae transformants with monoclonal antibody-coated magnetic beads.the mycelial surface antigen recognized by monoclonal antibody (mab) 4e1 has previously been shown to be present predominantly in the terminal third of the hyphal structures in candida albicans. we report here the expression cloning of the corresponding gene (csa1 ) by mab 4e1-coated magnetic beads sorting of saccharomyces cerevisiae transformants expressing a c. albicans genomic library. the strategy is both highly selective and highly sensitive and provides an additional genetic tool for the c ...200010652105
mapping of avirulence genes in the rice blast fungus, magnaporthe grisea, with rflp and rapd markers.three genetically independent avirulence genes, avr1-irat7, avri-mednoi; and avr1-ku86, were identified in a cross involving isolates guy11 and 2/0/3 of the rice blast fungus, magnaporthe grisea. using 76 random progeny, we constructed a partial genetic map with restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) markers revealed by probes such as the repeated sequences mgl/mgr583 and pot3/mgr586, cosmids from the m. grisea genetic map, and a telomere sequence oligonucleotide. avirulence genes avr1- ...200010659712
the colletotrichum lagenarium map kinase gene cmk1 regulates diverse aspects of fungal pathogenesis.the infection process of colletotrichum lagenarium, the causal agent of cucumber anthracnose disease, involves several key steps: germination; formation of melanized appressoria; appressorial penetration; and subsequent invasive growth in host plants. here we report that the c. lagenarium cmk1 gene encoding a mitogen-activated protein (map) kinase plays a central role in these infection steps. cmk1 can complement appressorium formation of the pmk1 map kinase mutant of magnaporthe grisea. deletio ...200010755300
identification of rice blast fungal elicitor-responsive genes by differential display order to study molecular interactions that occur between rice and rice blast fungus upon infection, we isolated fungal elicitor-responsive genes from rice (oryza sativa cv. milyang 117) suspension-cultured cells treated with fungal elicitor prepared from the rice blast fungus (magnaporthe grisea) employing a method that combined mrna differential display and cdna library screening. data base searches with the isolated cdna clones revealed that the oserg1 and oserg2 cdnas share significant sim ...200010755311
cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of saccharopine reductase from magnaporthe grisea.the gene coding for saccharopine reductase (e.c., an enzyme of the alpha-aminoadipic pathway of lysine biosynthesis in the pathogenic fungus magnaporthe grisea, was cloned and expressed in escherichia coli. the purified enzyme was crystallized in space groups c2 and c222(1) using ammonium sulfate ph 4.8 or peg 6000 ph 4. 1 as precipitants. the unit-cell parameters are a = 115.0, b = 56.6, c = 74.3 a, beta = 111.1 degrees for space group c2, and a = 89.3, b = 119.0, c = 195.9 a for spac ...200010771443
cyclopenta[b]benzofurans from aglaia species with pronounced antifungal activity against rice blast fungus (pyricularia grisea).eight flavaglines, six cyclopenta[b]benzofurans, a cyclopenta[bc]benzopyran, and a benzo[b]oxepine, together with an aromatic butyrolactone were isolated from aglaia odorata, a. elaeagnoidea, and a. edulis (meliaceae) and tested against the three plant pathogens pyricularia grisea, fusarium avenaceum, and alternaria citri for antifungal properties. using the microdilution technique linked with digital image analysis of germ tubes, the benzofurans displayed strong activity, whereas the benzopyran ...200010775404
differences in the recognition of glucan elicitor signals between rice and soybean: beta-glucan fragments from the rice blast disease fungus pyricularia oryzae that elicit phytoalexin biosynthesis in suspension-cultured rice cells.partial acid/enzymatic hydrolysis of the beta-(1-->3, 1-->6)-glucan from the cell walls of the rice blast disease fungus pyricularia oryzae (magnaporthe grisea) released elicitor-active fragments that induced phytoalexin biosynthesis in suspension-cultured rice cells. from the digestion of the glucan by an endo-beta-(1-->3)-glucanase, one highly elicitor-active glucopentaose was purified as a reduced compound, tetraglucosyl glucitol. the structure of this tetraglucosyl glucitol as well as two ot ...200010810152
confocal microscopy of fm4-64 as a tool for analysing endocytosis and vesicle trafficking in living fungal hyphae.confocal microscopy of amphiphilic styryl dyes has been used to investigate endocytosis and vesicle trafficking in living fungal hyphae. hyphae were treated with fm4-64, fm1-43 or tma-dph, three of the most commonly used membrane-selective dyes reported as markers of endocytosis. all three dyes were rapidly internalized within hyphae. fm4-64 was found best for imaging the dynamic changes in size, morphology and position of the apical vesicle cluster within growing hyphal tips because of its stai ...200010849201
isolation of tc/ag repeat microsatellite sequences for fingerprinting rice blast fungus and their possible horizontal transfer to plant species.genome fingerprinting has been a major role in characterization of population structure and analysis of the variability in phytopathogenic fungi. in order to characterize korean rice blast fungal isolates, the genomic dnas were digested with alui endonuclease and subsequent pcr amplifications using random decamer primers with combinations of microsatellite primers had been carried out. this alu-inter ssr technique revealed high polymorphism among the korean blast fungal isolates. then, fragments ...200010850652
real, an ltr retrotransposon from the plant pathogenic fungus alternaria alternata.a retrotransposon was isolated and characterized from strain 15a of the japanese pear pathotype of alternaria alternata, which causes black spot disease in certain cultivars of japanese pear by producing a host-specific toxin known as ak-toxin. the element, which we have named real (retrotransposon of alternaria alternata), is 6046 bp in size and contains direct long terminal repeats (ltrs) of 218 bp. target-site duplication of 5 bp was found. real contains two long overlapping orfs. the first o ...200010852484
the bmp1 gene is essential for pathogenicity in the gray mold fungus botrytis magnaporthe grisea, a well-conserved mitogen-activated protein (map) kinase gene, pmk1, is essential for fungal pathogenesis. in this study, we tested whether the same map kinase is essential for plant infection in the gray mold fungus botrytis cinerea, a necrotrophic pathogen that employs infection mechanisms different from those of m. grisea. we used a polymerase chain reaction-based approach to isolate map kinase homologues from b. cinerea. the botrytis map kinase required for pathogenesis ...200010875333
a group of expressed cdna sequences from the wheat fungal leaf blotch pathogen, mycosphaerella graminicola (septoria tritici).a group of expressed sequence tags (ests) from the wheat fungal pathogen mycosphaerella graminicola utilizing ammonium as a nitrogen source has been analyzed. single pass sequences of complementary dnas from 986 clones were determined. contig analysis and sequence comparisons allowed 704 unique ests (unigenes) to be identified, of which 148 appeared as multiple copies. searches of the nrdb95 protein database at embl using the blast2x algorithm revealed 407 (57.8%) sequences that generated high t ...200010919380
direct interaction of resistance gene and avirulence gene products confers rice blast resistance.rice expressing the pi-ta gene is resistant to strains of the rice blast fungus, magnaporthe grisea, expressing avr-pita in a gene-for-gene relationship. pi-ta encodes a putative cytoplasmic receptor with a centrally localized nucleotide-binding site and leucine-rich domain (lrd) at the c-terminus. avr-pita is predicted to encode a metalloprotease with an n-terminal secretory signal and pro-protein sequences. avr-pita(176) lacks the secretory and pro-protein sequences. we report here that transi ...200010921881
insertion of the line retrotransposon mgl causes a conidiophore pattern mutation in magnaporthe grisea.we obtained three magnaporthe grisea morphological mutants that had the line transposon mgl inserted into the acr1 locus. sequence analysis revealed that acr1 is homologous to meda, a developmental regulator of aspergillus nidulans conidiation. these results demonstrated that mgl elements could transpose and cause insertional mutagenesis in m. grisea.200010939262
cerebroside elicitors found in diverse phytopathogens activate defense responses in rice plants.cerebrosides a and c, compounds categorized as glycosphingolipids, were isolated in our previous study from the rice blast fungus (magnaporthe grisea) as novel elicitors which induce the synthesis of rice phytoalexins. in this paper, these cerebroside elicitors showed phytoalexin-inducing activity when applied to plants by spray treatment and also induced the expression of pathogenesis-related (pr) proteins in rice leaves. this elicitor activity of the cerebrosides showed the structural specific ...200010945336
constitutive expression of the defense-related rir1b gene in transgenic rice plants confers enhanced resistance to the rice blast fungus magnaporthe grisea.the rirlb gene of rice (oryza sativa) is one of a set of putative defense genes whose transcripts accumulate upon inoculation of rice with the non-host pathogen pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. it belongs to a family of genes encoding small extracellular proteins so far only identified in cereals. to assess the function of the rirlb gene in rice blast resistance, it was placed under the control of the camv 35s promoter and transferred into rice plants of the japonica variety taipei 309 by biol ...200010949374
the second naphthol reductase of fungal melanin biosynthesis in magnaporthe grisea: tetrahydroxynaphthalene reductase.mutants of magnaporthe grisea harboring a defective gene for 1,3, 8-trihydroxynaphthalene reductase retain the capability to produce scytalone, thus suggesting the existence of a second naphthol reductase that can catalyze the reduction of 1,3,6, 8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene to scytalone within the fungal melanin biosynthetic pathway. the second naphthol reductase gene was cloned from m. grisea by identification of cdna fragments with weak homology to the cdna of trihydroxynaphthalene reductase. th ...200010956664
molecular structure of rdna repeat unit in magnaporthe grisea.the 8-kb repeat unit of m. grisea rrna-encoding dna (rdna) was cloned as three subclones, pm50, pm21, and pm86. nucleotide sequencing of these subclones uncovered the structure of an rdna repeat unit similar to those of other ascomycetes. the intergenic spacer (igs) of the rdna cistron contained a repetitive (r) region, which was rich in two kinds of short tandemly repeated elements.200010993165
new sequence data enable modelling of the fungal alternative oxidase and explain an absence of regulation by pyruvate.respiratory rates involving the alternative oxidase (ao) were studied in mitochondria from tapesia acuformis. there was no evidence for regulation by pyruvate, in contrast with plant ao. the site of interaction of pyruvate with the plant ao is a conserved cysteine. the primary sequence was obtained for ao from magnaporthe grisea and compared with four published sequences for fungal ao. in all cases this cysteine was absent. sequence data were obtained for the c-terminal domain of a further five ...200010996313
characterization of rci-1, a chloroplastic rice lipoxygenase whose synthesis is induced by chemical plant resistance activators.a full-length lipoxygenase cdna (rci-1) has been cloned from rice (oryza sativa) whose corresponding transcripts accumulate in response to treatment of the plants with chemical inducers of acquired resistance such as benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid s-methyl ester (bth), 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (ina), and probenazole. in contrast, rci-1 transcript levels did not increase after inoculation with compatible and incompatible races of the rice blast fungus magnaporthe grisea and the n ...200010998053
bioactive sesquiterpenes from the basidiomycete resupinatus leightonii.1(10),4-germacradiene-2,6,12-triol (1), a new germacrane sesquiterpene, and 1,6-farnesadiene-3,10,11-triol (2), a known nerolidol derivative, were isolated from submerged cultures of the basidiomycete resupinatus leightonii. both compounds inhibited camp-induced appressorium formation in magnaporthe grisea and showed cytotoxic activity. the structure of 1 was determined by nmr and mass spectroscopic methods.200011000039
regulation of conidiation and adenylyl cyclase levels by the galpha protein gna-3 in neurospora crassa.we have identified a new gene encoding the g protein alpha subunit, gna-3, from the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa. the predicted amino acid sequence of gna-3 is most similar to the galpha proteins mod-d, maga, and cpg-2 from the saprophytic fungus podospora anserina and the pathogenic fungi magnaporthe grisea and cryphonectria parasitica, respectively. deletion of gna-3 leads to shorter aerial hyphae and premature, dense conidiation during growth on solid medium or in standing liquid cult ...200011003665
map kinase and protein kinase a-dependent mobilization of triacylglycerol and glycogen during appressorium turgor generation by magnaporthe grisea.magnaporthe grisea produces an infection structure called an appressorium, which is used to breach the plant cuticle by mechanical force. appressoria generate hydrostatic turgor by accumulating molar concentrations of glycerol. to investigate the genetic control and biochemical mechanism for turgor generation, we assayed glycerol biosynthetic enzymes during appressorium development, and the movement of storage reserves was monitored in developmental mutants. enzymatic activities for glycerol gen ...200011006342
the rice rim2 transcript accumulates in response to magnaporthe grisea and its predicted protein product shares similarity with tnp2-like proteins encoded by cacta transposons.a rice transcript, rim2, was identified that accumulated in both incompatible and compatible interactions between rice and magnaporthe grisea. the rim2 transcript also accumulated in response to treatment with a cell wall elicitor derived from m. grisea. a 3.3-kb rim2 cdna clone was isolated and is predicted to encode a protein of 653 amino acids, which shares 32 55% identity with tnp2-like proteins encoded by cacta transposons of other plants. a 1.05-kb segment of the rim2 sequence shows 82% nu ...200011016827
cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of dihydroxybutanone phosphate synthase from magnaporthe grisea.dihydroxybutanone phosphate synthase (ds) catalyzes a commitment step in riboflavin biosynthesis where ribulose 5-phosphate is converted to dihydroxybutanone phosphate and formate. ds was cloned from the pathogenic fungus magnaporthe grisea (using functional complementation of an escherichia coli ds knockout mutant) and expressed in e. coli. the purified protein crystallized in space group p2(1)2(1)2. diffraction data extending to 1.5, 1.0 and 1.8 a resolution were collected from crystals that w ...200011053863
site-directed mutagenesis of the magb gene affects growth and development in magnaporthe grisea.g protein signaling is commonly involved in regulating growth and differentiation of eukaryotic cells. we previously identified magb, encoding a galpha subunit, from magnaporthe grisea, and disruption of magb led to defects in a number of cellular responses, including appressorium formation, conidiation, sexual development, mycelial growth, and surface sensing. in this study, site-directed mutagenesis was used to further dissect the pleiotropic effects controlled by magb. conversion of glycine 4 ...200011059488
redox and fungicidal properties of phthalocyanine metal complexes as related to active oxygen.some chemical and fungicidal effects of 20 phthalocyanines of co, fe, cu, and al were studied. under dark conditions, these complexes reduced nitroblue tetrazolium in the presence of kcn, accelerated the autoxidation of ascorbate or hydroquinone and decomposed hydrogen peroxide. in the later reaction, hydroxyl radical was generated as evidenced with the deoxyribose assay. the inhibition by superoxide dismutase and catalase of catalyzed autoxidation of ascorbate suggests the participation of supe ...200011065192
crystal structure of saccharopine reductase from magnaporthe grisea, an enzyme of the alpha-aminoadipate pathway of lysine biosynthesis.the biosynthesis of the essential amino acid lysine in higher fungi and cyanobacteria occurs via the alpha-aminoadipate pathway, which is completely different from the lysine biosynthetic pathway found in plants and bacteria. the penultimate reaction in the alpha-aminoadipate pathway is catalysed by nadph-dependent saccharopine reductase. we set out to determine the structure of this enzyme as a first step in exploring the structural biology of fungal lysine biosynthesis.200011080625
a telomeric avirulence gene determines efficacy for the rice blast resistance gene pi-ta.genetic mapping showed that the rice blast avirulence gene avr-pita is tightly linked to a telomere on chromosome 3 in the plant pathogenic fungus magnaporthe grisea. avr-pita corresponds in gene-for-gene fashion to the disease resistance (r) gene pi-ta. analysis of spontaneous avr-pita(-) mutants indicated that the gene is located in a telomeric 6.5-kb bglii restriction fragment. cloning and dna sequencing led to the identification of a candidate gene with features typical of metalloproteases. ...200011090206
ta single amino acid difference distinguishes resistant and susceptible alleles of the rice blast resistance gene pi-ta.the rice blast resistance (r) gene pi-ta mediates gene-for-gene resistance against strains of the fungus magnaporthe grisea that express avirulent alleles of avr-pita. using a map-based cloning strategy, we cloned pi-ta, which is linked to the centromere of chromosome 12. pi-ta encodes a predicted 928-amino acid cytoplasmic receptor with a centrally localized nucleotide binding site. a single-copy gene, pi-ta shows low constitutive expression in both resistant and susceptible rice. susceptible r ...200011090207
novel fungal transcriptional activators, cmr1p of colletotrichum lagenarium and pig1p of magnaporthe grisea, contain cys2his2 zinc finger and zn(ii)2cys6 binuclear cluster dna-binding motifs and regulate transcription of melanin biosynthesis genes in a developmentally specific manner.colletotrichum lagenarium and magnaporthe grisea are plant pathogenic fungi that produce melanin during the appressorial differentiation stage of conidial germination and during the late stationary phase of mycelial growth. here, we report the identification of genes for two unique transcription factors, cmr1 (colletotrichum melanin regulation) and pig1 (pigment of magnaporthe), that are involved in melanin biosynthesis. both cmr1p and pig1p contain two distinct dna-binding motifs, a cys2his2 zi ...200011123670
neobulgarones a approximately f from cultures of neobulgaria pura, new inhibitors of appressorium formation of magnaporthe grisea.six new dimeric anthraquinone derivatives, neobulgarones a (3a), b (3b), c (4a), d (4b), e (5a) and f (5b), were isolated from the mycelia of the ascomycete neobulgaria pura together with the monomeric carviolin (1) and 1-o-methylemodin (2). all new compounds inhibited the formation of appressoria in germinating conidia of magnaporthe grisea on inductive (hydrophobic) surface. the compounds exhibited moderate cytotoxic, but no antifungal, antibacterial, or phytotoxic activities.200011132957
probenazole induces systemic acquired resistance in arabidopsis with a novel type of action.probenazole (pbz; 3-allyloxy-1,2-benzisothiazole-1,1-dioxide), which is the active ingredient in oryzemate, has been used widely in asia to protect rice plants against the rice blast fungus magnaporthe grisea. to study pbz's mode of action, we analyzed its ability, as well as that of its active metabolite 1, 2-benzisothiazol-3 (2h)-one 1,1-dioxide (bit) to induce defense gene expression and resistance in arabidopsis mutants that are defective in various defense signaling pathways. wild-type arab ...200111169191
inhibition of fungal appressorium formation by pepper (capsicum annuum) esterase.a pepper esterase gene (pepest) that is highly expressed during an incompatible interaction between pepper (capsicum annuum) and the anthracnose fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides has been previously cloned. glutathione-s-transferase-tagged recombinant pepest protein expressed in escherichia coli showed substrate specificity for p-nitrophenyl esters. inoculation of compatible unripe pepper fruits with c. gloeosporioides spores amended with the recombinant protein did not cause anthracnose sym ...200111194875
production of antimicrobial defensin in nicotiana benthamiana with a potato virus x vector.a recombinant plasmid,, was constructed to express the gene-encoding wasabi (wasabia japonica) defensin with the potato virus x (pvx) vector. allows the expression of defensin in the host nicotiana benthamiana, and the defensin protein wt1 can be purified from virus-infected leaves by heat treatment and affinity chromatography. wt1 exhibits strong antifungal activity toward the phytopathogenic fungi magnaporthe grisea (50% inhibitory concentration [ic50] = 5 microg/ml) and botryt ...200111204773
methylation is not the main force repressing the retrotransposon maggy in magnaporthe grisea.we have introduced the ltr-retrotransposon maggy into a naive genome of magnaporthe grisea and estimated the copy number of maggy in a cell by serial isolation of fungal protoplasts at certain time intervals. the number of maggy elements rapidly increased for a short period following introduction. however, it did not increase geometrically and reached equilibrium at 20-30 copies per genome, indicating that maggy was repressed or silenced during proliferation. de novo methylation of maggy occurre ...200111238993
plant--fungal interactions: the search for phytoalexins and other antifungal compounds from higher plants.a brief review is given of some biological, chemical and chemotaxonomic aspects of phytoalexin research. emphasis is placed on the search for antifungal compounds in the plant families leguminosae and rosaceae, and in rice, oryza sativa. the possible role of phytoalexins in the resistance of rice plants against the fungus pyricularia oryzae (= magnaporthe grisea) is discussed, and the future prospects of phytoalexin research are outlined.200111243452
a map kinase of the vascular wilt fungus fusarium oxysporum is essential for root penetration and pathogenesis.the soil-borne vascular wilt fungus fusarium oxysporum infects a wide variety of plant species by directly penetrating roots, invading the cortex and colonizing the vascular tissue. we have identified fmk1, encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) of f. oxysporum that belongs to the yeast and fungal extracellular signal-regulated kinase (yerk1) subfamily. targeted mutants of f. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici carrying an inactivated copy of fmk1 have lost pathogenicity on tomato plants bu ...200111251832
molecular characterization of the cdna encoding an acidic isoform of pr-1 protein in rice.rice cdna encoding an acidic type of pathogenesis-related protein-1 (pr-1a) was cloned and characterized. the deduced pr-1a protein consisted of 168 amino acid residues, including 24 hydrophobic signal sequences at the n-terminus. the predicted molecular mass of the pr-1a was 15,728 da with a theoretical pi of 4.5, an indication of an acidic protein. the pr-la showed high homology to an acidic pr-1 of zea mays (74%) and a previously identified basic type pr-1 of rice (64%). both rice pr-1 and pr ...200111266113
map kinases in fungal kinases in eukaryotic cells are well known for transducing a variety of extracellular signals to regulate cell growth and differentiation. recently, map kinases homologous to the yeast fus3/kss1 map kinases have been identified in several fungal pathogens and found to be important for appressorium formation, invasive hyphal growth, and fungal pathogenesis. this map kinase pathway also controls diverse growth or differentiation processes, including conidiation, conidial germination, and femal ...200011273677
definition of tissue-specific and general requirements for plant infection in a phytopathogenic fungus.although plant diseases are usually characterized by the part of the plant that is affected (e.g., leaf spots, root rots, wilts), surprisingly little is known about the factors that condition the ability of pathogens to colonize different plant tissues. here we demonstrate that the leaf blast pathogen magnaporthe grisea also can infect plant roots, and we exploit this finding to distinguish tissue-specific and general requirements for plant infection. tests of a m. grisea mutant collection ident ...200111277427
transposon impala, a novel tool for gene tagging in the rice blast fungus magnaporthe grisea.impala, a tc1-mariner transposable element from fusarium oxysporum, was introduced into the rice blast fungus magnaporthe grisea to develop transposon-based insertional mutagenesis. a construct (pnil160) containing an autonomous impala copy inserted in the promoter of niad encoding aspergillus nidulans nitrate reductase was introduced by transformation into a m. grisea nitrate reductase-deficient mutant. impala excision was monitored by restoration of prototrophy for nitrate. southern analysis o ...200111277428
organization and distribution pattern of mglr-3, a novel retrotransposon in the rice blast fungus magnaporthe grisea.a specific telomere was deleted in spontaneous, gain-of-virulence mutants derived from a rice pathogen of magnaporthe grisea. three different types of transposons, including pot2, mg-sine, and a novel, 6-kb-long ltr (long terminal repeat)-type retrotransposon designated mglr-3, were identified on this chromosomal end. the 114-bp-long telomeric repeat is immediately followed by the 3' ltr of mglr-3. a truncated copy of pot2 immediately flanks the 5' ltr, suggesting that this telomere was generate ...200111277622
a novel jasmonic acid-inducible rice myb gene associates with fungal infection and host cell death.endogenous signal molecules such as jasmonic acid (ja) and salicylic acid (sa) play an important role in induced resistance against pathogen infection and insect herbivory. in rice seedlings, ja is an effective inducer of systemic acquired resistance (sar) against infection of blast fungus (pyricularia grisea). to gain further insights into ja-mediated defense signaling pathways, we isolated and characterized a pathogen- and ja-induced rice gene (jamyb) that encodes a myb transcription factor. t ...200111310740
molecular cloning of three genes encoding g protein alpha subunits in the white root rot fungus, rosellinia necatrix.three genes encoding g protein alpha subunits were cloned from the white root rot fungus, rosellinia necatrix, and characterized. only one copy of each gene was present in the genome. the protein sequences of rga1, rga2, and rga3 are very similar to those of maga, magb and magc of magnaporthe grisea, respectively. moreover, rga1 is similar to mod-d which is closely related to vegetative incompatibility in podospora anserina, which suggests that rga1 is important in the vegetative incompatibility ...200111330689
gain of virulence caused by insertion of a pot3 transposon in a magnaporthe grisea avirulence gene.the avirulence gene avr-pita in magnaporthe grisea prevents the fungus from infecting rice cultivars carrying the disease resistance gene pi-ta. insertion of pot3 transposon into the promoter of avr-pita caused the gain of virulence toward yashiro-mochi, a rice cultivar containing pi-ta, which demonstrated the ability of pot3 to move within the m. grisea genome. the appearance of pot3 in m. grisea seems to predate the diversification of various host-specific forms of the fungus.200111332731
identification of defense-related rice genes by suppression subtractive hybridization and differential screening.identification of host genes involved in defense responses is one of most critical steps leading to the elucidation of disease resistance mechanisms in plants. in this study, two different cloning strategies were employed to identify defense-related genes from a tropical japonica rice cultivar (oryza sativa cv. drew). with the use of bacterial colony arrays, differential screening of a blast fungus (pyricularia grisea)-induced rice cdna library led to the isolation of 22 distinct rice genes that ...200111332734
structures of trihydroxynaphthalene reductase-fungicide complexes: implications for structure-based design and catalysis.trihydroxynaphthalene reductase catalyzes two intermediate steps in the fungal melanin biosynthetic pathway. the enzyme, a typical short-chain dehydrogenase, is the biochemical target of three commercial fungicides. the fungicides bind preferentially to the nadph form of the enzyme.200111342131
17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from cochliobolus lunatus: model structure and substrate specificity.a homology-built structural model of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from the fungus cochliobolus lunatus, a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family, was worked out using the known three-dimensional structure of trihydroxynaphthalene reductase (ec from magnaporthe grisea as a template. due to 61% sequence identity, the model also revealed a similar backbone trace. on the basis of qualitative thin-layer chromatography and comparative kinetic tests of the activity to ...200011368312
dissection of defence response pathways in rice.the cloning of major resistance genes has led to a better understanding of the molecular biology of the steps for induction of resistance, yet much remains to be discovered about the downstream genes that collectively confer resistance, i.e. the defence response (dr) genes. we are dissecting the pathways contributing to resistance in rice by identifying a collection of mutants with deletions or other structural rearrangements in dr genes. the collection of rice mutants has been screened for many ...200111387980
pls1, a gene encoding a tetraspanin-like protein, is required for penetration of rice leaf by the fungal pathogen magnaporthe grisea.we describe in this study punchless, a nonpathogenic mutant from the rice blast fungus m. grisea, obtained by plasmid-mediated insertional mutagenesis. as do most fungal plant pathogens, m. grisea differentiates an infection structure specialized for host penetration called the appressorium. we show that punchless differentiates appressoria that fail to breach either the leaf epidermis or artificial membranes such as cellophane. cytological analysis of punchless appressoria shows that they have ...200111391010
characterization of a pr-10 pathogenesis-related gene family induced in rice during infection with magnaporthe grisea.a partial cdna with homology to the pr-10 class of pathogenesis-related proteins was used to screen a rice genomic library. one 16-kb genomic clone contained three genes with pr-10 similarity. these genes, rpr10a, rpr10b, and rpr10c, were arranged in tandem and separated by approximately 2.5 kb. rpr10a cdna was obtained by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and sequence analysis revealed that rpr10a and rpr10b encode predicted proteins of 158 and 160 amino acids, respectively, and ...200111437261
glucosylceramide synthases, a gene family responsible for the biosynthesis of glucosphingolipids in animals, plants, and fungi.glucosylceramides are membrane lipids in most eukaryotic organisms and in a few bacteria. the physiological functions of these glycolipids have only been documented in mammalian cells, whereas very little information is available of their roles in plants, fungi, and bacteria. in an attempt to establish appropriate experimental systems to study glucosylceramide functions in these organisms, we performed a systematic functional analysis of a glycosyltransferase gene family with members of animal, ...200111443131
regions of microsynteny in magnaporthe grisea and neurospora crassa.a bacterial artificial chromosome (bac) clone containing 110,467 bp of genomic dna from magnaporthe grisea was sequenced, annotated, and compared to the genomes of neurospora crassa, candida albicans, and saccharomyces cerevisiae. twenty-six open reading frames (orfs), involved in multiple biochemical pathways, were identified in the bac sequence. a region of 53 kb, containing 18 of the 26 orfs, was found to be syntenic to a portion of the n. crassa genome. subregions of complete colinearity as ...200111456466
fungal gene expression during pathogenesis-related development and host plant successfully infect plants, pathogenic fungi must recognize and communicate with their host during different stages of the disease cycle. in past years, techniques such as insertional mutagenesis, sensitive gfp-based reporter systems and microarray techniques have been developed to analyze these processes at the molecular level, and now novel insights into this fascinating aspect of pathogen-plant communication are beginning to emerge. this is exemplified by a number of pathogenicity genes fu ...200111495797
establishment of a new cross of the rice blast fungus derived from japanese differential strain ina168 and hermaphroditic rice pathogen guy11.mating experiments between magnaporthe grisea japanese rice pathogens and guy11, a hermaphroditic fertile rice pathogen, were done aimed at identification of avirulence genes. a cross named cross 2107 with thirty-six random progenies was obtained. segregation analyses of genetic markers found that the cross was less suitable for genetic analysis. backcrosses with cross 2107 progenies and guy11 were done and another cross named cross 5307 with sixty-five progenies was obtained. a locus controllin ...200111515527
molecular cloning and characterization of a novel jasmonate inducible pathogenesis-related class 10 protein gene, jiospr10, from rice (oryza sativa l.) seedling leaves.a novel rice (oryza sativa l.) gene, homologous to a sorghum pathogenesis-related class 10 protein gene, was cloned from a cdna library prepared from 2-week-old jasmonic acid-treated rice seedling leaves, and named as jiospr10 (jasmonate inducible). jiospr10 encoded a 160-amino-acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 17,173.23 da and a pi of 5.84. jiospr10 was highly similar (77%) to the sorghum pr10 protein, but showed less than 55% similarity with other identified pr10s at the amin ...200111527396
pde1 encodes a p-type atpase involved in appressorium-mediated plant infection by the rice blast fungus magnaporthe grisea.plant infection by the rice blast fungus magnaporthe grisea is brought about by the action of specialized infection cells called appressoria. these infection cells generate enormous turgor pressure, which is translated into an invasive force that allows a narrow penetration hypha to breach the plant cuticle. the magnaporthe pde1 mutant was identified previously by restriction enzyme-mediated dna integration mutagenesis and is impaired in its ability to elaborate penetration hyphae. here we repor ...200111549759
molecular cloning, sequence analysis and expression of a novel gene induced by near-uv light in bipolaris oryzae.a cdna clone derived from a novel gene (uvi-1) that is inducible by near-uv light was isolated by a differential screening procedure from a cdna library of the fungus bipolaris oryzae and characterized further. sequence analysis of the clone revealed that uvi-1 encodes a protein with a putative molecular mass of 17 kda; the uvi-1 protein shows significant similarity to a putative protein encoded by a cdna which is expressed during appressorium formation in the rice blast fungus, magnaporthe gris ...200111589579
pyret, a ty3/gypsy retrotransposon in magnaporthe grisea contains an extra domain between the nucleocapsid and protease domains.a novel ty3/gypsy retrotransposon, named pyret, was identified in the plant pathogenic fungus magnaporthe grisea (anamorph pyricularia oryzae). pyret-related elements were distributed in a wide range of pyricularia isolates from various gramineous plants. the pyret element is 7250 bp in length with a 475 bp ltr and one conceptual orf. the orf contains seven nonsense mutations in the reading frame, indicating that the pyret clone is lightly degenerate. comparative domain analysis among retroeleme ...200111600699
wheat puroindolines enhance fungal disease resistance in transgenic rice.antimicrobial peptides play a role in the immune systems of animals and plants by limiting pathogen infection and growth. the puroindolines, endosperm-specific proteins involved in wheat seed hardness, are small proteins reported to have in vitro antimicrobial properties. rice, the most widely used cereal crop worldwide, normally does not contain puroindolines. transgenic rice plants that constitutively express the puroindoline genes pina and/or pinb throughout the plants were produced. pin extr ...200111605965
genetic organization of a repeated dna sequence family in the rice blast fungus.the fungal rice pathogen magnaporthe grisea contains repetitive dna sequences called mgr. we have used a dna probe, mgr586, derived from these sequences and crosses between rice-pathogenic and non-rice-pathogenic laboratory strains of m. grisea to rapidly map genes in this organism. the rice-pathogenic strain contained 57 ecori restriction fragments that hybridize to the mgr586 probe; the other five non-rice-pathogenic parent strains contained a single mgr586 sequence. genetic analysis of mgr se ...199211607299
heat shock, copper sulfate and oxidative stress activate the retrotransposon maggy resident in the plant pathogenic fungus magnaporthe grisea.maggy is a gypsy-like retrotransposon isolated from the plant pathogenic fungus magnaporthe grisea. the ability of various stresses to activate maggy was tested in the original and in a heterologous host (colletotrichum lagenarium), using beta-glucuronidase (gus) as a reporter. the maggy promoter was activated in m. grisea by either heat shock, copper sulfate, or oxidative stress, but not by the antifungal substance p-coumaric acid. transcriptional up-regulation of maggy rna was also observed fo ...200111683275
conversion of pipecolic acid into lysine in penicillium chrysogenum requires pipecolate oxidase and saccharopine reductase: characterization of the lys7 gene encoding saccharopine reductase.pipecolic acid is a component of several secondary metabolites in plants and fungi. this compound is useful as a precursor of nonribosomal peptides with novel pharmacological activities. in penicillium chrysogenum pipecolic acid is converted into lysine and complements the lysine requirement of three different lysine auxotrophs with mutations in the lys1, lys2, or lys3 genes allowing a slow growth of these auxotrophs. we have isolated two p. chrysogenum mutants, named 7.2 and 10.25, that are una ...200111717275
the vacuole as central element of the lytic system and sink for lipid droplets in maturing appressoria of magnaporthe grisea.histochemical and ultrastructural studies were carried out on a wild-type strain (guy11) and a melanin-deficient mutant (buf1) of the rice-blast pathogen, magnaporthe grisea (= pyricularia oryzae), in order to investigate the destination of lipid storage reserves during appressorium development. lipid droplets were abundant in conidia and were mobilised upon germination, accumulating in the appressorial hook which developed at the tip of each germ tube. following the formation of a septum at the ...200111732192
brachypodium distachyon. a new model system for functional genomics in grasses.a new model for grass functional genomics is described based on brachypodium distachyon, which in the evolution of the pooideae diverged just prior to the clade of "core pooid" genera that contain the majority of important temperate cereals and forage grasses. diploid ecotypes of b. distachyon (2n = 10) have five easily distinguishable chromosomes that display high levels of chiasma formation at meiosis. the b. distachyon nuclear genome was indistinguishable in size from that of arabidopsis, mak ...200111743099
magnaporthedb: a federated solution for integrating physical and genetic map data with bac end derived sequences for the rice blast fungus magnaporthe grisea.we have created a federated database for genome studies of magnaporthe grisea, the causal agent of rice blast disease, by integrating end sequence data from bac clones, genetic marker data and bac contig assembly data. a library of 9216 bac clones providing >25-fold coverage of the entire genome was end sequenced and fingerprinted by hindiii digestion. the image/fpc software package was then used to generate an assembly of 188 contigs covering >95% of the genome. the database contains the result ...200211752272
the role of g protein alpha subunits in the infection process of the gray mold fungus botrytis identify signal transduction pathways of the gray mold fungus botrytis cinerea involved in host infection, we used heterologous hybridization and a polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based approach to isolate two genes (bcg1 and bcg2) encoding alpha subunits of heterotrimeric gtp-binding proteins. both genes have homologues in other fungi: bcg1 is a member of the g alpha(i) class, whereas bcg2 has similarities to the magc gene of magnaporthe grisea and the gna-2 gene of neurospora crassa. revers ...200111763127
a protein from the mold aspergillus giganteus is a potent inhibitor of fungal plant pathogens.a purified preparation of antifungal protein (afp) from aspergillus giganteus exhibited potent antifungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungi magnaporthe grisea and fusarium moniliforme, as well as the oomycete pathogen phytophthora infestans. under conditions of total inhibition of fungal growth, no toxicity of afp toward rice protoplasts was observed. additionally, application of afp on rice plants completely inhibited m. grisea growth. these results are discussed in relation to the pot ...200111763131
analysis of genes expressed during rice-magnaporthe grisea interactions.expressed sequence tag (est) analysis was applied to identify rice genes involved in defense responses against infection by the blast fungus magnaporthe grisea and fungal genes involved in growth within the host during a compatible interaction. a total of 511 clones was sequenced from a cdna library constructed from rice leaves (oryza sativa cv. nipponbare) infected with m. grisea strain 70-15 to generate 296 nonredundant ests. the sequences of 293 clones (57.3%) significantly matched national c ...200111763134
complementation of the magnaporthe grisea deltacpka mutation by the blumeria graminis pka-c gene: functional genetic analysis of an obligate plant pathogen.obligate plant-pathogenic fungi have proved extremely difficult to characterize with molecular genetics because they cannot be cultured away from host plants and only can be manipulated experimentally in limited circumstances. previously, in order to characterize signal transduction processes during infection-related development of the powdery mildew fungus blumeria graminis (syn. erysiphe graminis) f. sp. hordei, we described a gene similar to the catalytic subunit of cyclic amp-dependent prote ...200111768531
agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the plant pathogenic fungus, magnaporthe effective way to study the infection mechanisms of fungal pathogens is to disrupt their genes via transformation in both targeted and random manners. this isolates the mutants that exhibit altered virulence. in this paper, we report the successful transformation of magnaporthe grisea, the causal agent for rice blast, that is mediated by agrobacterium tumefaciens. employing the binary vector pbht2, which carries the bacterial hygromycin b phosphotransferase gene under the control of the asperg ...200111804343
meiotic deletion at the buf1 locus of the fungus magnaporthe grisea is controlled by interaction with the homologous chromosome.the magnaporthe grisea buf1 gene suffers high-frequency mutation in certain genetic crosses, resulting in buff-colored progeny. analysis of 16 buf1 mutants arising from a cross with a mutation frequency of 25% revealed that, in every case, the buf1 gene was deleted. the deletions occurred in only one of the parental chromosomes and were due to intrachromosomal recombination. tetrad analysis revealed that deletions occurred in 44% of meioses and usually affected both chromatids of the mutable chr ...200211805051
structural definition of the active site and catalytic mechanism of 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase.x-ray crystal structures of l-3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase from magnaporthe grisea are reported for the e-so(4)(2-), e-so(4)(2-)-mg(2+), e-so(4)(2)(-)-mn(2+), e-so(4)(2)(-)-mn(2+)-glycerol, and e-so(4)(2)(-)-zn(2+) complexes with resolutions that extend to 1.55, 0.98, 1.60, 1.16, and 1.00 a, respectively. active-site residues of the homodimer are fully defined. the structures were used to model the substrate ribulose 5-phosphate in the active site with the phosphate group anchor ...200211827524
analysis of the structure of the avr1-co39 avirulence locus in virulent rice-infecting isolates of magnaporthe grisea.the avr1-co39 gene that came from a magnaporthe grisea isolate from weeping lovegrass controls avirulence on the rice cultivar co39. avr1-co39 was not present in the genome of the rice-infecting m. grisea isolate guyll from french guyana, suggesting that the gene had been deleted. molecular analysis of the deletion breakpoints in the avr1-co39 locus revealed the presence of a truncated copy of a previously unknown retrotransposon at the left-hand border. at the right-hand border was a truncated ...200211843304
effects of signaling molecules, protein phosphatase inhibitors and blast pathogen (magnaporthe grisea) on the mrna level of a rice (oryza sativa l.) phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (osphgpx) gene in seedling leaves.with a specific focus on rice self-defense response(s), the effects of global signaling molecules, jasmonic acid (ja), salicylic acid (sa), abscisic acid (aba), and ethylene (using the ethylene generator, ethephon), and protein phosphatase (pp) inhibitors, cantharidin and endothall on expression of a rice phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (osphgpx) gene in rice seedling leaves were investigated. we provide first evidence for a potent up-regulation of the osphgpx mrna accumulation ...200211867229
an atp-binding cassette multidrug-resistance transporter is necessary for tolerance of gibberella pulicaris to phytoalexins and virulence on potato tubers.the necrotrophic pathogen gibberella pulicaris infects potato tubers through wounds that contain fungitoxic secondary metabolites such as the phytoalexins rishitin and lubimin. in order to colonize tuber tissue, the fungus must possess a mechanism to tolerate potato defense compounds. in this paper, we show that a gene, gpabc1, that codes an atp-binding cassette (abc) transporter is required for tolerance to these phytoalexins and for virulence on potato. the gpabc1 gene, isolated in the course ...200211876422
a microsatellite sequence from the rice blast fungus (magnaporthe grisea) distinguishes between the centromeres of hordeum vulgare and h. bulbosum in hybrid plants.a tc/ag-repeat microsatellite sequence derived from the rice blast fungus (magnaporthe grisea) hybridized to all of the centromeres of hordeum vulgare chromosomes, but hybridized faintly or not at all to the chromosomes of hordeum bulbosum. using this h. vulgare centromere-specific probe, the chromosomes of four f1 hybrids between h. vulgare and h. bulbosum were analyzed. the chromosome constitution in the root tips of the hybrids was mosaic, i.e., 7 (7v, h. vulgare) and 14 (7v + 7b h. bulbosum) ...200211908659
mst12 regulates infectious growth but not appressorium formation in the rice blast fungus magnaporthe the rice blast fungus magnaporthe grisea, a mitogen-activated protein kinase gene, pmk1, is known to regulate appressorium formation and infectious hyphae growth. since pmk1 is homologous to the fus3 and kss1 genes that regulate the transcription factor ste12 in yeast, we functionally characterized the ste12 homologue in m. grisea (mst12). a polymerase chain reaction-based approach was used to isolate the mst12 gene that is homologous to yeast ste12. four mst12 deletion mutants were isolated ...200211952120
a magnaporthe grisea cyclophilin acts as a virulence determinant during plant infection.cyclophilins are peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerases that are highly conserved throughout eukaryotes and that are best known for being the cellular target of the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin a (csa). the activity of csa is caused by the drug forming a complex with cyclophilin a and inhibiting the calmodulin-dependent phosphoprotein phosphatase calcineurin. we have investigated the role of cyp1, a cyclophilin-encoding gene in the phytopathogenic fungus magnaporthe grisea, which is the caus ...200211971145
a proteomics approach towards understanding blast fungus infection of rice grown under different levels of nitrogen fertilization.proteins extracted from leaf blades of rice plants infected with blast fungus, magnaporthe grisea, were separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the separated proteins were electroblotted onto a polyvinylidene difluoride membrane, and 63 proteins were analyzed by a gas-phase protein sequencer. the n-terminal amino acid sequences of 33 out of 63 proteins were determined in this manner. n-terminal regions of the remaining proteins could not be sequenced. the internal amino ...200111990510
identification of a putative vacuolar serine protease gene in the rice blast fungus, magnaporthe grisea.we identified and cloned a gene designated spm1, encoding a serine protease from the rice blast fungus magnaporthe grisea. spm1 is a single-copy gene, encoding a subtilisin-like serine protease with 536 amino acids. analyses of the deduced amino acid sequence of spm1 suggested that spm1 would be localized in a vacuole, an important organelle in pathogenicity.200212005067
the biotrophic, non-appressorium-forming grass pathogen claviceps purpurea needs a fus3/pmk1 homologous mitogen-activated protein kinase for colonization of rye ovarian tissue.claviceps purpurea is a common pathogen of a wide range of grasses and cereals that is able to establish a stable, balanced interaction with its host plant and is considered a biotroph. it does not form special penetration structures such as appressoria. to study the signaling processes involved in this special host-pathogen interaction, we have cloned a gene, cpmk1, encoding a mitogen-activated protein (map) kinase that shows significant homology to fus3 of saccharomyces cerevisiae and to pmk1 ...200212026168
genomics of phytopathogenic fungi and the development of bioinformatic resources.genomic resources available to researchers studying phytopathogenic fungi are limited. here, we briefly review the genomic and bioinformatic resources available and the current status of fungal genomics. we also describe a relational database containing sequences of expressed sequence tags (ests) from three phytopathogenic fungi, blumeria graminis, magnaporthe grisea, and mycosphaerella graminicola, and the methods and underlying principles required for its construction. the database contains si ...200212036272
a novel gene, cbp1, encoding a putative extracellular chitin-binding protein, may play an important role in the hydrophobic surface sensing of magnaporthe grisea during appressorium differentiation.the conidial germ tube of the rice blast fungus, magnaporthe grisea, differentiates a specialized cell, an appressorium, required for penetration into the host plant. formation of the appressorium is also observed on artificial solid substrata such as polycarbonate. a novel emerging germ tube-specific gene, cbp1 (chitin-binding protein), was found in a cdna subtractive differential library. cbp1 coded for a putative extracellular protein (signal peptide) with two similar chitin-binding domains a ...200212036274
disruption of the alternative oxidase gene in magnaporthe grisea and its impact on host infection.plants and numerous fungi including magnaporthe grisea protect mitochondria from interference by respiration inhibitors by expressing alternative oxidase, the enzymatic core of alternative respiration. the alternative oxidase gene aoxmg of m. grisea was disrupted. several lines of evidence suggested that the disruption of aoxmg was sufficient to completely curb the expression of alternative respiration. in the infection of barley leaves, several aoxmg-minus and, thus, alternative respiration-def ...200212036280
inducibility by pathogen attack and developmental regulation of the rice ltp1 gene.using a genomic clone encoding a rice lipid transfer protein, ltp1, we analysed the activity of the 5' region of the ltp1 gene in transgenic rice (oryza sativa l.) during plant development and under pathogen attack. the -1176/+13, -556/+13 and -284/+13 regions of the promoter were fused upstream from the uida reporter gene and nos 3' polyadenylation signal, resulting in the pdelta1176gus, pdelta556gus and pdelta284gus constructs which were transferred to rice by microprojectile bombardment. hist ...200212081375
diversity of antifungal actinomycetes in various vegetative soils of korea.diversity of actinomycetes and their antifungal activities against some plant pathogenic fungi were examined in various vegetative soils from 14 different sites in the western part of korea. actinomycete counts ranged from 1.17 x 10(6) to 4.20 x 10(6) cfu x g(-1) dried soil. a total of 1510 actinomycetes were isolated from the soil samples. streptomyces was predominant in soils with a ph range of 5.1-6.5, 9.1-13.0% moisture, and 9.1-11.0% organic matter. most micromonospora, dactylosporangium, a ...200212109880
engineering a genetic transformation system for colletotrichum acutatum, the causal fungus of lime anthracnose and postbloom fruit drop of citrus.postbloom fruit drop (pfd) of citrus is caused by colletotrichum acutatum. pfd isolates infect flower petals, induce abscission of small fruit and can cause severe yield loss on most citrus cultivars. isolates from key lime anthracnose (kla) cause that disease on the mexican lime, but also cause pfd on sweet orange. both pfd and kla isolates exhibited resistance to the common selection agents including hygromycin, bialaphos, benomyl and geneticin/g418. a genetic transformation system was develop ...200212127485
fungal melanin inhibitor and related compounds from penicillium decumbens.two polyketides, decumbenones a and b, and versiol were isolated from the culture filtrate of the fungus, penicillium decumbens. their respective structures were 1-(2,8-dihydroxy-1,2,6-trimethyl-1,2,6,7,8,8a-hexahydronaphthalen-1-yl)-3-hydroxy-1-propanone and 1-(2,8-dihydroxy-1,2,6-trimethyl-1,2,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydronaphthalen-1-yl)-3-hydroxy-1-propanone based on nmr spectroscopic data, chemical conversion, and x-ray analysis. decumbenone a inhibited melanization in magnaporthe grisea, the ric ...200212127587
development of new fungicides against magnaporthe grisea: synthesis and biological activity of pyrazolo[3,4-d][1,3]thiazine, pyrazolo[1,5-c][1,3,5]thiadiazine, and pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine derivatives.some pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4(5h)-thione, pyrazolo[3,4-d][1,3]thiazin-4-one/thione, and pyrazolo[1,5-c][1,3,5]thiadiazine-4-one/thione derivatives were synthesized and screened for antifungal activity against the causal agent of rice blast disease, magnaporthe grisea. in all cases a remarkable inhibition of fungal growth was found in the range from 10 to 200 microg x ml(-1). several compounds were able to control mycelium growth at a rate of 10 microg x ml(-1), a concentration at which the ref ...200212166969
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