Publications

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pseudoloma neurophilia n. g., n. sp., a new microsporidium from the central nervous system of the zebrafish (danio rerio).an unusual xenoma-forming microsporidium was discovered in the central nervous system of moribund zebrafish from a laboratory colony in eugene, oregon. infected fish were often emaciated and lethargic, and histological examination commonly revealed severe myelitis and myositis associated with the infection. based on its structure, development, and small subunit ribosomal dna sequence it is unique among fish microsporidia. spores are uninucleate, ovoid to pyriform, with a prominent posterior vacu ...200112095112
transmission and tissue distribution of pseudoloma neurophilia (microsporidia) of zebrafish, danio rerio (hamilton). 200312946012
polymerase chain reaction detection of pseudoloma neurophilia, a common microsporidian of zebrafish (danio rerio) reared in research laboratories.one of the most prevalent pathogens found in zebrafish (danio rerio) research facilities is the microsporidian parasite pseudoloma neurophilia. infections occur primarily in the spinal cord and are associated with emaciation and scoliotic changes. it is unclear why p. neurophilia is so widespread among research colonies, although transfer of infected animals and eggs between laboratories is a likely contributor. in addition to preventing the spread of this pathogen among facilities, it is desira ...200616539333
spores of two fish microsporidia (pseudoloma neurophilia and glugea anomala) are highly resistant to chlorine.pseudoloma neurophilia (microsporidia) is the most common pathogen found in zebrafish danio rerio research facilities. the parasite is associated with marked emaciation. zebrafish laboratories usually disinfect eggs to prevent transmission of pathogens, typically with chlorine at 25 to 50 ppm for 10 min. the ability of chlorine to kill spores of p. neurophilia and 2 other microsporidia, glugea anomala and encephalitozoon cuniculi, was evaluated using 2 viability stains. sytox green was used to v ...200717803106
animal cell cultures in microsporidial research: their general roles and their specific use for fish microsporidia.the use of animal cell cultures as tools for studying the microsporidia of insects and mammals is briefly reviewed, along with an in depth review of the literature on using fish cell cultures to study the microsporidia of fish. fish cell cultures have been used less often but have had some success. very short-term primary cultures have been used to show how microsporidia spores can modulate the activities of phagocytes. the most successful microsporidia/fish cell culture system has been relative ...200919184249
pseudoloma neurophilia infections in zebrafish danio rerio: effects of stress on survival, growth, and reproduction.pseudoloma neurophilia (microsporidia) is a common disease of zebrafish danio rerio, including those used as research models. we conducted a study comprised of 4 separate experiments to determine the effects of husbandry stress on preexisting and experimental p. neurophilia infections and the subsequent effects on survival, infection onset and intensity, fish growth, and reproduction. in fish (ab strain) with preexisting infections, stress or feeding cortisol significantly increased mortality ov ...200920183967
transmission, diagnosis, and recommendations for control of pseudoloma neurophilia infections in laboratory zebrafish (danio rerio) facilities.the microsporidium pseudoloma neurophilia represents a considerable challenge for laboratory zebrafish (danio rerio) facilities. in 2010, p. neurophilia infections were diagnosed in zebrafish from 74% of the facilities that submitted fish to the zebrafish international resource center (zirc) pathology service, and this organism remains the most commonly diagnosed pathogen in submitted fish. accordingly, many of the zirc pathology service consultations deal with control and prevention of microspo ...201122330247
Luna stain, an improved selective stain for detection of microsporidian spores in histologic sections.Microsporidia in histologic sections are most often diagnosed by observing spores in host tissues. Spores are easy to identify if they occur in large aggregates or xenomas when sections are stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). However, individual spores are not frequently detected in host tissues with conventional H&E staining, particularly if spores are scattered within the tissues, areas of inflammation, or small spores in nuclei (i.e. Nucleospora salmonis). Hence, a variety of selective ...201121848126
development of a sensitive assay for the detection of pseudoloma neurophilia in laboratory populations of the zebrafish danio rerio.the zebrafish danio rerio is an increasingly important biological model in many areas of research. due to the potential for non-protocol-induced variation, diseases of zebrafish, especially those resulting in chronic, sub-lethal infections, are of great concern. the microsporidium pseudoloma neurophilia is a common parasite of laboratory zebrafish. current methods for detection of this parasite require lethal sampling of fish, which is often undesirable with poorly spawning mutant lines and smal ...201122013754
development, ultrastructural pathology, and taxonomic revision of the microsporidial genus, pseudoloma and its type species pseudoloma neurophilia, in skeletal muscle and nervous tissue of experimentally infected zebrafish danio rerio.the microsporidium pseudoloma neurophilia was initially reported to infect the central nervous system of zebrafish causing lordosis and eventually death. subsequently, muscle tissue infections were also identified. to understand the infection process, development, and ultrastructural pathology of this microsporidium, larval and adult zebrafish were fed p. neurophilia spores. spores were detected in the larval fish digestive tract 3-h postexposure (pe). by 4.5-d pe, developing parasite stages wer ...201122092657
development and maintenance of a specific pathogen-free (spf) zebrafish research facility for pseudoloma neurophilia.pseudoloma neurophilia (microsporidia) is very common in zebrafish danio rerio research facilities. a new zebrafish facility has been established at the sinnhuber aquatic resource laboratory (sarl), oregon state university, corvallis, or, u.s.a., and this was an opportunity to establish a specific pathogen-free (spf) colony of zebrafish for this microsporidium. progeny from 9 zebrafish lines (n=2203) were initially transferred to the sarl facility in 2007 following pcr screening of broodstock an ...201121797038
microsporidiosis in zebrafish research facilities.pseudoloma neurophilia (microsporidia) is the most common pathogen detected in zebrafish (danio rerio) from research facilities. the parasite infects the central nervous system and muscle and may be associated with emaciation and skeletal deformities. however, many fish exhibit subclinical infections. another microsporidium, pleistophora hyphessobryconis, has recently been detected in a few zebrafish facilities. here, we review the methods for diagnosis and detection, modes of transmission, and ...201223382342
documented and potential research impacts of subclinical diseases in zebrafish.the zebrafish (danio rerio) has become a very important animal model in biomedical research. in contrast with other models, such as mice, there has been relatively little documentation or control of subclinical disease in zebrafish research facilities. several infectious and noninfectious conditions are consistently detected by histopathology in apparently healthy d. rerio. the most commonly observed infectious agent in zebrafish is pseudoloma neurophilia, which is a microsporidian organism that ...201223382344
verification of intraovum transmission of a microsporidium of vertebrates: pseudoloma neurophilia infecting the zebrafish, danio rerio.direct transmission from parents to offspring, referred to as vertical transmission, occurs within essentially all major groups of pathogens. several microsporidia (phylum microsporidia) that infect arthropods employ this mode of transmission, and various lines of evidence have suggested this might occur with certain fish microsporidia. the microsporidium, pseudoloma neurophilia, is a common pathogen of the laboratory zebrafish, danio rerio. we previously verified that this parasite is easily tr ...201324086686
unusual fluorescent granulomas and myonecrosis in danio rerio infected by the microsporidian pathogen pseudoloma neurophilia.abstract zebrafish are a powerful model organism to study disease. like other animal models, danio rerio colonies are at risk of pathogenic infection. microsporidia, a group of intracellular fungus-like parasites, are one potential threat. microsporidian spores germinate and spread causing pathological changes in the central nervous system, skeletal muscle, and other anatomic sites. infection can impair breeding, cause other morbidities, and ultimately be lethal. previously, detecting microspori ...201424707848
pseudoloma neurophilia: a retrospective and descriptive study of nervous system and muscle infections, with new implications for pathogenesis and behavioral phenotypes.pseudoloma neurophilia is a microsporidium of zebrafish (danio rerio) that preferentially infects neural tissue. it is one of the most common pathogens of zebrafish in research laboratories based on diagnostic data from the zebrafish international resource center diagnostic service (eugene, or). five hundred fifty-nine zebrafish infected with p. neurophilia submitted to zirc from 86 laboratories between the years 2000 and 2013 were examined via histopathology to develop a retrospective study of ...201525789546
the common neural parasite pseudoloma neurophilia is associated with altered startle response habituation in adult zebrafish (danio rerio): implications for the zebrafish as a model organism.the zebrafish's potential as a model for human neurobehavioral research appears nearly limitless despite its relatively recent emergence as an experimental organism. since the zebrafish has only been part of the research community for a handful of decades, pathogens from its commercial origins continue to plague laboratory stocks. one such pathogen is pseudoloma neurophilia, a common microparasite in zebrafish laboratories world-wide that generally produces subclinical infections. given its high ...201526028515
facility design and health management program at the sinnhuber aquatic research laboratory.the number of researchers and institutions moving to the utilization of zebrafish for biomedical research continues to increase because of the recognized advantages of this model. numerous factors should be considered before building a new or retooling an existing facility. design decisions will directly impact the management and maintenance costs. we and others have advocated for more rigorous approaches to zebrafish health management to support and protect an increasingly diverse portfolio of ...201626981844
controlling endemic pathogens-challenges and opportunities.by most measures, the university of utah centralized zebrafish animal resource is a successful zebrafish core facility: we house ∼4000-5000 tanks for over 16 research groups; provide services and equipment for ∼150 users; are currently undergoing an expansion by 3000 tanks; and have been praised by institutional and national regulatory agencies for the cleanliness and efficiency of our facility. in recent years, we have implemented new programs to improve the overall health of our colony and bel ...201626982004
pseudoloma neurophilia infection combined with gamma irradiation causes increased mortality in adult zebrafish (danio rerio) compared to infection or irradiation alone: new implications for studies involving immunosuppression.gamma irradiation is commonly used as a bone marrow suppressant in studies of the immune system and hematopoiesis, most commonly in mammals. with the rising utility and popularity of the zebrafish (danio rerio), gamma irradiation is being used for similar studies in this species. pseudoloma neurophilia, a microparasite and common contaminant of zebrafish facilities, generally produces subclinical disease. however, like other microsporidia, p. neurophilia is a disease of opportunity and can produ ...201627123755
expansion of the known host range of the microsporidium, pseudoloma neurophilia.the microsporidium, pseudoloma neurophilia, is the most common infectious organism found in laboratory zebrafish colonies. many currently used zebrafish lines originally came from pet store fish, and the initial description of p. neurophilia came from zebrafish obtained from a retail pet store. however, as p. neurophilia has not been described from wild-caught zebrafish, whether p. neurophilia is a natural pathogen of zebrafish is an open question. the pooling of fish of different species in the ...201627182659
early development and tissue distribution of pseudoloma neurophilia in the zebrafish, danio rerio.the early proliferative stages of the microsporidian parasite, pseudoloma neurophilia were visualized in larval zebrafish, danio rerio, using histological sections with a combination of an in situ hybridization probe specific to the p. neurophilia small-subunit ribosomal rna gene, standard hematoxylin-eosin stain, and the luna stain to visualize spores. beginning at 5 d post fertilization, fish were exposed to p. neurophilia and examined at 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h post exposure (hpe). ...201624411000
retrospective study of the prevalence of pseudoloma neurophilia shows male sex bias in zebrafish danio rerio (hamilton-buchanan). 201625588311
implementation of a zebrafish health program in a research facility: a 4-year retrospective study.in the past two decades, zebrafish (danio rerio)-based research has contributed to significant scientific advances. still, husbandry and health programs did not evolve at the same pace, as evidenced by the absence of general guidelines. health monitoring is essential to animal welfare, to permit animal exchanges across facilities, to contribute to robust experimental results, and for data reproducibility. in this study, we report a health program implemented in a zebrafish research facility to p ...201627186875
genome analysis of pseudoloma neurophilia: a microsporidian parasite of zebrafish (danio rerio).microsporidia are highly successful parasites that infect virtually all known animal lineages, including the model danio rerio (zebrafish). the widespread use of this aquatic model for biomedical research has resulted in an unexpected increase in infections from the microsporidium pseudoloma neurophilia, which can lead to significant physical, behavioral, and immunological modifications, resulting in nonprotocol variation during experimental procedures. here, we seek to obtain insights into the ...201727230544
the common neural parasite pseudoloma neurophilia causes altered shoaling behaviour in adult laboratory zebrafish (danio rerio) and its implications for neurobehavioural research. 201727396581
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