effects of low light on photosynthetic properties, antioxidant enzyme activity, and anthocyanin accumulation in purple pak-choi (brassica campestris ssp. chinensis makino).anthocyanins are secondary metabolites that contribute to red, blue, and purple colors in plants and are affected by light, but the effects of low light on the physiological responses of purple pak-choi plant leaves are still unclear. in this study, purple pak-choi seedlings were exposed to low light by shading with white gauze and black shading in a phytotron. the responses in terms of photosynthetic properties, carbohydrate metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity, anthocyanin biosynthetic enzy ...201728609452
in vitro anticancer activity and cytotoxicity screening of phytochemical extracts from selected traditional chinese medicinal plants.the purpose of this study was to evaluate the anticancer activity of 10 selected traditional chinese medicinal plants on 4 cancer cell lines, namely mcf-7 (breast carcinoma), ball-1 (acute lymphoblastic leukemia), huh-7 (hepatocellular carcinoma), hela (cervical carcinoma) and their cytotoxicity on a normal cell line, namely mcf-10a (non-tumorigenic mammary epithelial line), about which there were few reports previously.201728534383
comparative transcript profiling of fertile and sterile flower buds from multiple-allele-inherited male sterility in chinese cabbage (brassica campestris l. ssp. pekinensis).we studied the underlying causes of multiple-allele-inherited male sterility in chinese cabbage (brassica campestris l. ssp. pekinensis) by identifying differentially expressed genes (degs) related to pollen sterility between fertile and sterile flower buds. in this work, we verified the stages of sterility microscopically and then performed transcriptome analysis of mrna isolated from fertile and sterile buds using illumina hiseq 2000 platform sequencing. approximately 80% of ~229 million high- ...201728492984
management of textile wastewater for improving growth and yield of field mustard (brassica campestris l.).disposal of industrial wastewater is a current issue of urbanization. however, this problem can be sorted out by using wastewater as an alternate source of irrigation after the addition of some amendment. in this way, the problem of disposal of wastewater not only will be resolved but also scarcity of irrigation water can be kept off in the future. the current research study was performed to evaluate the influence of different concentrations of wastewater along with canal water for enhancing gro ...201728448168
transcriptome analysis of a female-sterile mutant (fsm) in chinese cabbage (brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis).female-sterile mutants are ideal materials for studying pistil development in plants. here, we identified a female-sterile mutant fsm in chinese cabbage. this mutant, which exhibited stable inheritance, was derived from chinese cabbage dh line 'ft' using a combination of isolated microspore culture and ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis. compared with the wild-type line 'ft,' the fsm plants exhibited pistil abortion, and floral organs were also relatively smaller. genetic analysis indicated that ...201728443127
effects of foliar dressing of selenite and silicate alone or combined with different soil ameliorants on the accumulation of as and cd and antioxidant system in brassica campestris.this study was conducted to investigate the possibility of using a combined technology to synchronously reduce as and cd accumulation in the edible parts of brassica campestris. the results showed that a foliar application of selenite (se) and silicon (si) combined with soil ameliorants (including ca-mg-p fertilizer, sodium silicate and red mud) showed limited effects on the growth of b. campestris. the as concentration in the leaves of b. campestris in all treatments was below the chinese safet ...201728411516
the genome sequence of brassica campestris chrysovirus 1, a novel putative plant-infecting tripartite chrysovirus.a putative chrysovirus recovered from brassica campestris var. purpurea and provisionally named "brassica campestris chrysovirus 1" (brccv1) was sequenced. the genome of the putative brccv1 consists of three double-stranded rnas (dsrnas) comprising 3,639 (dsrna 1), 3,567 (dsrna 2) and 3,337 (dsrna 3) base pairs, respectively, each containing a single open reading frame (orf 1-3). the putative proteins encoded by orf 1-3 show homologies to rdrp, cp and chryso-p3 of approved or tentative chrysovir ...201728004250
interaction effects on uptake and toxicity of perfluoroalkyl substances and cadmium in wheat (triticum aestivum l.) and rapeseed (brassica campestris l.) from co-contaminated soil.a vegetation study was conducted to investigate the interactive effects of perfluoroalkyl substances (pfass), including perfluorooctanoic acid (pfoa) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (pfos), and cadmium (cd) on soil enzyme activities, phytotoxicity and bioaccumulation of wheat (triticum aestivum l.) and rapeseed (brassica campestris l.) from co-contaminated soil. soil urease activities were inhibited significantly but catalase activities were promoted significantly by interaction of pfass and cd wh ...201727940134
synthesis and biological activities of novel 5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazole mannich bases and bis-mannich bases as ketol-acid reductoisomerase inhibitors.a series of novel 5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazole mannich bases and bis-mannich bases have been conveniently synthesized in good yields. their structures were characterized by ir, (1)h nmr, (13)c nmr and elemental analysis. the preliminary bioassay results indicated that some of the compounds showed promising in vitro fungicidal activities towards several test plant fungi; some of them exhibited significant herbicidal activities against brassica campestris and excellent in vitro inhibitory activi ...201627575481
ectopic expression of the chinese cabbage malate dehydrogenase gene promotes growth and aluminum resistance in arabidopsis.malate dehydrogenases (mdhs) are key metabolic enzymes that play important roles in plant growth and development. in the present study, we isolated the full-length and coding sequences of bramdh from chinese cabbage [brassica campestris l. ssp. pekinensis (lour) olsson]. we conducted bioinformatics analysis and a subcellular localization assay, which revealed that the bramdh gene sequence contained no introns and that bramdh is localized to the chloroplast. in addition, the expression pattern of ...201627536317
novel phenanthrene sorption mechanism by two pollens and their fractions.a pair of pollens (nelumbo nucifera and brassica campestris l.) and their fractions were characterized by elemental analysis and advanced solid-state (13)c nmr techniques and used as biosorbents for phenanthrene (phen). their constituents were largely aliphatic components (including sporopollenin), carbohydrates, protein, and lignin as estimated by (13)c nmr spectra of the investigated samples and the four listed biochemical classes. the structure of each nonhydrolyzable carbon (nhc) fraction is ...201627322011
separation and purification of an anti-tumor peptide from rapeseed (brassica campestris l.) and the effect on cell apoptosis.rapeseed peptides were prepared by means of the combined methods of the laboratory bacteria enzyme synergy and the solid-state fermentation of rapeseed meal. the rapeseed peptides were separated and purified with the tumor cell in vitro anti-proliferative activity as an index. moreover, a kind of rapeseed peptide component rsp-4-3-3 (rapeseed anti-tumor peptide rsp-4-3-3) with high activity was selected. furthermore, by using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (rp-hplc) couple ...201627116475
influence of soil and irrigation water ph on the availability of phosphorus in struvite derived from urine through a greenhouse pot greenhouse pot experiment was used to investigate the availability of phosphorus in struvite derived from urine affected by soil ph (cinnamon soil, ph 7.3; paddy soil, ph 5.3) and irrigation water (ph 6.0 and 7.5) with bird rapeseed (brassica campestris l.). the biomass of applied struvite in paddy soil was significantly greater than that of applied calcium superphosphate. however, statistically significant differences were not observed in cinnamon soil. soil-applied struvite had a higher ol ...201627078189
[safe wintering and economic and ecological benefit of winter rapeseed in dry and cold areas of northern china].the purpose of this study was to realize the security of safe wintering of winter rapeseed in dry and cold regions of northern china. experiments were conducted with 18 winter rapeseed (brassica campestris) varieties at 57 sites from 2008 to 2013 to statistically analyze the wintering rate variation of different varieties in dry and cold regions of northern china. the results showed that, the wintering rate varied from 70% to 90% during the study period in different regions, which had no signifi ...201526995911
physiological characterization and comparative transcriptome analysis of a slow-growing reduced-thylakoid mutant of chinese cabbage (brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis).mutants are ideal for studying physiological processes. the leaves of chinese cabbage are a major place for photosynthesis, and the mutation of these leaves may directly affect the rate of plant growth and development, thus influencing the formation of its leafy head. we characterized a slow-growing mutant, which was designated as drm. the drm exhibited slow growth and development at the seedling and heading stages, leading to the production of a tiny, leafy head, and chlorophyll-deficient leave ...201626858733
[extraction and purification process of total fatty acid in brassica campestris pollen].this study was aimed to optimize the extraction (co2 supercritical extraction) process and purification (ethanol washing and decontaminating) process of total fatty acid in brassica campestris pollen. with the extraction yield of total fatty acid as index, co2 supercritical extraction of total fatty acid in b. campestris polle was optimized by central composite design-response surface methodology. ethanol washing and decontaminating was done for the extract through orthogonal design with content ...201628861968
cadmium-induced hydrogen accumulation is involved in cadmium tolerance in brassica campestris by reestablishment of reduced glutathione homeostasis.hydrogen gas (h2) was recently proposed as a therapeutic antioxidant and signaling molecule in clinical trials. however, the underlying physiological roles of h2 in plants remain unclear. in the present study, hydrogen-rich water (hrw) was used to characterize the physiological roles of h2 in enhancing the tolerance of brassica campestris against cadmium (cd). the results showed that both 50 μm cdcl2 and 50%-saturated hrw induced an increase of endogenous h2 in brassica campestris seedlings, and ...201526445361
cell wall disruption of rape bee pollen treated with combination of protamex hydrolysis and ultrasonication.bee pollen possesses a broad range of potential biological activities, but nutrient absorption and biological activities of bee pollen may be restricted due to complex pollen wall. this study aimed to investigate wall-disruption variations of brassica campestris l. (rape) bee pollen treated with protamex hydrolysis, ultrasonication, and combination of protamex hydrolysis and ultrasonication. pollen sample treated with these three treatments had higher specific surface area values and smaller par ...201528454938
bcmf26a and bcmf26b are duplicated polygalacturonase genes with divergent expression patterns and functions in pollen development and pollen tube formation in brassica campestris.polygalacturonase (pg) is one of the cell wall hydrolytic enzymes involving in pectin degradation. a comparison of two highly conserved duplicated pg genes, namely, brassica campestris male fertility 26a (bcmf26a) and bcmf26b, revealed the different features of their expression patterns and functions. we found that these two genes were orthologous genes of at4g33440, and they originated from a chromosomal segmental duplication. although structurally similar, their regulatory and intron sequences ...201526153985
root-derived short-chain suberin diacids from rice and rape seed in a paddy soil under rice cultivar treatments.suberin-derived substituted fatty acids have been shown to be potential biomarkers for plant-derived carbon (c) in soils across ecosystems. analyzing root derived suberin compounds bound in soil could help to understand the root input into a soil organic carbon pool. in this study, bound lipids were extracted and identified in root and topsoil samples. short-chain suberin diacids were quantified under rice (oryza sativa l.) and rape (brassica campestris) rotations with different cultivar combina ...201525961557
genetic damage induced by a food coloring dye (sunset yellow) on meristematic cells of brassica campestris l.we have performed the present piece of work to evaluate the effect of synthetic food coloring azo dye (sunset yellow) on actively dividing root tip cells of brassica campestris l. three doses of azo dye were administered for the treatment of actively dividing root tip cells, namely, 1%, 3%, and 5%, for 6-hour duration along with control. mitotic analysis clearly revealed the azo dye induced endpoint deviation like reduction in the frequency of normal divisions in a dose dependent manner. mitotic ...201525954313
comparative transcriptome analysis of the petal degeneration mutant pdm in chinese cabbage (brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis) using rna-seq.flowering, which plays a crucial role in the growth and development of flowering plants, is a crucial point from vegetative growth to reproductive growth. the goal of this study was to examine the differences between the transcriptomes of the chinese cabbage mutant pdm and the corresponding wild-type line 'ft'. we performed transcriptome analysis on mrna isolated from flower buds of pdm and 'ft' using illumina rna sequencing (rna-seq) data. a total of 117 differentially expressed genes (degs) we ...201525860116
effect of plant species on nitrogen recovery in aquaponics.nitrogen transformations in aquaponics with different edible plant species, i.e., tomato (lycopersicon esculentum) and pak choi (brassica campestris l. subsp. chinensis) were systematically examined and compared. results showed that nitrogen utilization efficiencies (nue) of tomato- and pak choi-based aquaponic systems were 41.3% and 34.4%, respectively. the abundance of nitrifying bacteria in tomato-based aquaponics was 4.2-folds higher than that in pak choi-based aquaponics, primarily due to i ...201525650140
selenium alleviates chromium toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in cabbage (brassica campestris l. ssp. pekinensis) leaves.the beneficial role of selenium (se) in alleviation of chromium (cr)-induced oxidative stress is well established. however, little is known about the underlying mechanism. the impacts of exogenous se (0.1mg/l) on cr(1mg/l)-induced oxidative stress and antioxidant systems in leaves of cabbage (brassica campestris l. ssp. pekinensis) were investigated by using cellular and biochemical approaches. the results showed that supplementation of the medium with se was effective in reducing cr-induced inc ...201525638524
a phytosterol enriched refined extract of brassica campestris l. pollen significantly improves benign prostatic hyperplasia (bph) in a rat model as compared to the classical tcm pollen preparation qianlie kang pule'an qinghai province, the brassica campestris l. pollen preparation qianlie kang pule'an tablet (qkpt) is traditionally used for bph therapy. however, in qkpt the content of supposedly active phytosterols is relatively low at 2.59%, necessitating high doses for successful therapy. therefore, a phytosterol enriched (4.54%) refined extract of b. campestris pollen (pe) was developed and compared with qkpt in a bph rat model. six groups of rats (n=8 each), namely sham-operated distilled water control ...201525636883
hydrogen-rich water enhances cadmium tolerance in chinese cabbage by reducing cadmium uptake and increasing antioxidant capacities.the aim of the present paper was to understand the specific mechanism of hydrogen-rich water (hrw) in alleviating cadmium (cd) toxicity in chinese cabbage (brassica campestris spp. chinensis l.). our results showed that the addition of 50% saturation hrw significantly alleviated the cd toxic symptoms, including the improvement of both root elongation and seedling growth inhibition. these responses were consistent with a significant decrease of cd accumulation in roots and shoots, which was furth ...201525543863
pectate lyase-like 9 from brassica campestris is associated with intine formation.brassica campestris pectate lyase-like 9 (bcpll9) was previously identified as a differentially expressed gene both in buds during late pollen developmental stage and in pistils during fertilization in chinese cabbage. to characterize the gene's function, antisense-rna lines of bcpll9 (bcpll9) were constructed in chinese cabbage. self- and cross-fertilization experiments harvested half seed yields when bcpll9 lines were used as pollen donors. in vivo and in vitro pollen germination assays showed ...201425443834
[chemical constituents from seeds of brassica campestris].fourteen compounds were isolated by column chromatography from the ethyl acetate extract of the seeds of brassica campestris. their structures were elucidated by physicochemical properties and spectroscopic data analysis. the isolated compounds were respectively identified as (5z,7e)-4, 4-dimethyl-5-acetyl-5, 7-nonadienoic acid (1), indole-3-carboxaldehyde (2), blumenol a (3), vinylsyringol (4), sinapinic acid (5), sinapic acid ethyl ester (6), protocatechuic acid (7), crinosterol (8), campester ...201425276975
induced polyploidization in brassica campestris l. (brassicaceae).present experimental design has been made up to obtain crop with higher ploidy level via synthetic polyploidization. since ploidy manipulation is generally associated with the obtainment of some increased enviable traits of the crop and also provides them greater adaptability to unfavorable or harsh circumstances as compared to its diploids counterparts. thus, herein present research autotetraploids of brassica campestris l. have been lucratively achieved by the application of colchicine. two me ...201524818510
assessment of cadmium accumulation, toxicity, and tolerance in brassicaceae and fabaceae plants--implications for phytoremediation.this study, based on a greenhouse pot culture experiment conducted with 15-day-old rapeseed (brassica campestris l. cv. pusa gold; family brassicaceae) and moong bean (vigna radiata l. wilczek cv. pusa ratna; family fabaceae) plants treated with cadmium (cd) concentrations (0, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1) soil), investigates their potential for cd accumulation and tolerance, and dissects the underlying basic physiological/biochemical mechanisms. in both species, plant dry mass decreased, while cd conce ...201424756685
post-column mobile phase adjustment: a strategy to eliminate the contradiction between liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry in the determination of flavonoids in rat plasma.flavonoids are a group of important naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds with a wide range of biological effects. in this study, a sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed to simultaneously determine multiple active flavonoids, including quercetin (que), kaempferol (kae), apigenin (api), isorhamnetin (iso), luteolin (lut), and naringenin (nar), in rat plasma. to achieve a satisfied peak shape and lc separation, formic acid with the concentration between ...201424675072
bcmf8, a putative arabinogalactan protein-encoding gene, contributes to pollen wall development, aperture formation and pollen tube growth in brassica campestris.the arabinogalactan protein (agp) gene family is involved in plant reproduction. however, little is known about the function of individual agp genes in pollen development and pollen tube growth. in this study, brassica campestris male fertility 8 (bcmf8), a putative agp-encoding gene previously found to be pollen specific in chinese cabbage (b. campestris ssp. chinensis), was investigated.201424489019
gc-ms analysis of the extracts from korean cabbage (brassica campestris l. ssp. pekinensis) and its seed.korean cabbage, a member of the brassicaceae family which also includes cauliflower, mustard, radish, and turnip plants, is a crucial leafy vegetable crop. korean cabbage is harvested after completion of the leaf heading process and is often prepared for use in "baechu kimchi", a traditional korean food. many of the components in korean cabbage are essential for proper human nutrition; these components can be divided into two groups: primary metabolites, which include carbohydrates, amino acids, ...201324471136
stereoselective uptake and distribution of the chiral neonicotinoid insecticide, paichongding, in chinese pak choi (brassica campestris ssp. chinenesis).neonicotinoid chiral insecticidal paichongding is a promising substitute for the widely used imidacloprid. four stereoisomers of paichongding, 5r,7r, 5s,7s, 5s,7r and 5r,7s, were employed in both foliage and roots of chinese pak choi to investigate their stereoselective uptake and distribution in pak choi. results showed that after foliar application, no stereoselective absorption into pak-choi plants was observed among the enantiomers. total absorptions were 35.40% of the applied amount for 5r, ...201324140538
development of a sensitive monoclonal antibody-based indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for analysing chlorantraniliprole residues.chlorantraniliprole (cap) is a new anthranilic diamide insecticide acting with high efficacy on ryanodine receptors of most of the species within the lepidoptera order and has been used worldwide. to monitor its residue in food and environmental samples, we developed an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icelisa), based on monoclonal antibodies. the established icelisa possesses a concentration of producing 50% inhibition (ic50) of 1.60ng/ml. in addition, the assay had the a ...201424054242
the maturation zone is an important target of piriformospora indica in chinese cabbage roots.the mutualistic symbiont piriformospora indica exhibits a great potential in agriculture. the interaction between p. indica and chinese cabbage (brassica campestris cv. chinensis) results in growth and biomass promotion of the host plant and in particular in root hair development. the resulting highly bushy root phenotype of colonized chinese cabbage seedlings differs substantially from reports of other plant species, which prompted the more detailed study of this symbiosis. a large-scale expres ...201324006423
design, synthesis and herbicidal activities of novel 4-(1h-pyrazol-1-yl)-6-(alkynyloxy)-pyrimidine derivatives as potential pigment biosynthesis inhibitors.with the objective of finding novel valuable herbicidal candidates, a series of novel 4-(1h-pyrazol-1-yl)-6-(alkynyloxy)-pyrimidine derivatives were synthesised and their herbicide activities were evaluated in vivo.201423966363
enantioselective uptake and translocation of a novel chiral neonicotinoid insecticide cycloxaprid in youdonger (brassica campestris subsp. chinensis).for a novel potential commercial chiral pesticide, an independent study on the fate characteristics and residues of each stereoisomer is essential if the application rates for the pesticide and human exposure are to be reduced. the absorption and translocation behavior of a chiral insecticide, cycloxaprid, in plants treated by root immersion and blade smearing was studied using (14)c-labeling tracer techniques. with the root treatment, total absorption of (1r;8s)-cycloxaprid (rs) (12.39%) was mu ...201323873706
genotypic differences in nitrate uptake, translocation and assimilation of two chinese cabbage cultivars [brassica campestris l. ssp. chinensis (l.)].a hydroponic trial was conducted to investigate genotypic differences in nitrate uptake, translocation and assimilation between low nitrate accumulator l18 and high accumulator h96 of chinese cabbage [brassica campestris l. ssp. chinensis (l.)]. the results suggested that h96 could uptake more nitrate than l18 in the root but lower transport inside leaf cells and assimilation in the leaf. it was showed that root morphology parameters - length, surface area and volume of h96 were 18.0%, 31.6% and ...201323770590
oxygen and air nanobubble water solution promote the growth of plants, fishes, and mice.nanobubbles (<200 nm in diameter) have several unique properties such as long lifetime in liquid owing to its negatively charged surface, and its high gas solubility into the liquid owing to its high internal pressure. they are used in variety of fields including diagnostic aids and drug delivery, while there are no reports assessing their effects on the growth of lives. nanobubbles of air or oxygen gas were generated using a nanobubble aerator (buvitas; ligaric company limited, osaka, japan). b ...201323755221
[degradation and bioaccumulation characteristics of ciprofloxacin in soil-vegetable system].a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of applying ciprofloxacin (cip) on the growth of flowering chinese cabbage (brassica campestris), radish (raphanus sativus), tomato (solanum lycopersicum) and long bean (vigna unguiculata), the bioaccumation of cip in the vegetables, and the degradation of the antibiotics in soil. the results showed that applying 5, 30 and 75 mg x kg(-1) of cip had no significant effects on the plant biomass of flowering chinese cabbage, tomato and long b ...201223359930
production and characterization of a somatic hybrid of chinese cabbage and order to broaden chinese cabbage gene pool, we conducted interspecific somatic hybridization between chinese cabbage (brassica campestris, 2n=20, aa) and cabbage (b. oleracea, 2n=18, cc). protoplasts were isolated from 10-day-old cotyledons and hypocotyls of young seedlings, and fused by 40% polyethylene glycol (peg). fused cells were cultured in modified k8p liquid medium supplemented with some plant growth regulators. fusion products were characterized by their morphological, cytological an ...201223289310
analysis of hydroxy fatty acids from the pollen of brassica campestris l. var. oleifera dc. by uplc-ms/ms.ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with negative electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (uplc-esi-ms/ms) was used to determine 7 hydroxy fatty acids in the pollen of brassica campestris l. var. oleifera dc. all the investigated hydroxy fatty acids showed strong deprotonated molecular ions [m-h](-), which underwent two major fragment pathways of the allyl scission and the β-fission of the alcoholic hydroxyl group. by comparison of their molecular ions and abundant fragment ions with th ...201326555998
commercial versus synthesized polymers for soil erosion control and growth of chinese cabbage.soil erosion leads to environmental degradation and reduces soil productivity. the use of anionic polyacrylamide (pam) and synthesized biopolymer (bp) using lignin, corn starch, acrylamide, and acrylic acid were tested to evaluate soil erosion, water quality, and growth of chinese cabbage (brassica campestris l.). each treatment of pam and bp was applied at 200 kg ha(-1) to loamy sand soil and subjected to a slope of 36% with a 20 mm h(-1) simulated rainfall. application of bp decreased soil ph ...201325674399
[uptake effect of cd and pb by rape under single cd/pb and cd-pb combined stress].this paper investigated the effects of single cd/pb and cd-pb combined pollution of desert grey soils from the oasis regions on the uptake and translocation of cd and pb by rape (brassica campestris l.), and analyzed the interaction between cd and pb. the results of pot experiment showed that the concentration of cd or pb was promoted when the concentration of cd in soil was less than 7.0 mg x kg(-1) and the concentration of pb in soil was less than 1 500 mg x kg(-1) in single cd/pb and cd-pb co ...201223243889
the pollen wall and tapetum are altered in the cytoplasmic male sterile line rc₇ of chinese cabbage (brassica campestris ssp pekinensis).cytoplasmic male sterile line rc(7) of chinese cabbage produces mature anthers without pollen. to understand the mechanisms involved, we examined the ultrastructural changes during development of the microspores. development of microspores was not affected at the early tetrad stage. during the ring-vacuolated period, some large vacuoles appeared in the tapetum cells, making them larger, extending to the anther sac center during the monocyte period. at the same time, the tapetum degenerated as th ...201223079967
uptake of human pharmaceuticals and personal care products by cabbage (brassica campestris) from fortified and biosolids-amended soils.human pharmaceuticals and personal care products (ppcps) are routinely found in biosolids from wastewater treatment plants (wwtps). once land applied, the ppcps in biosolids are potentially available for plant uptake and bioaccumulation. this study used a greenhouse model to investigate uptake of ppcps commonly detected in biosolids by the agricultural plant chinese cabbage (brassica campestris). two series of greenhouse experiments were conducted as part of this project. in the first set of exp ...201223051741
effects of ambient and elevated level of ozone on brassica campestris l. with special reference to yield and oil quality parameters.tropospheric ozone (o(3)) has become a serious threat to growth and yield of important agricultural crops over asian regions including india. effect of elevated o(3) (ambient+10ppb) was studied on brassica campestris l. (cv. sanjukta and vardan) in open top chambers under natural field conditions. eight hourly mean ambient o(3) concentration varied from 26.3ppb to 69.5ppb during the growth period. plants under o(3) exposure showed reductions in photosynthetic rate, reproductive parameters, yield ...201222986091
[a novel method for extracting leaf-level solar-induced fluorescence of typical crops under cu stress].the leaf-level solar-induced fluorescence changes when the typical crops are under cu stress, which can be considered as a sensitive indicator to estimate the stress level. in the present study, wheat (triticum aestivum l.), pea (pisum sativum l.) and chinese cabbage (brassica campestris l.) were selected and cultured with copper solutions or copper polluted soil with different cu stress. the apparent reflectance of leaves was measured by an asd fieldspec spectrometer and an integrating sphere. ...201222827073
indirect prediction of surface ozone concentration by plant growth responses in east asia using mini-open top chambers.we developed small and mobile open top chambers (mini-otc) measuring 0.6 m (w) × 0.6 m (d) × 1.2 m (h) with an air duct of 0.6 m (w) × 0.23 m (d) × 1.2 m (h). the air duct can be filled with activated charcoal to blow charcoal filtered air (cf) into the chamber, as opposed to non-filtered ambient air (nf). ozone sensitive radish raphanus sativus cv. red chime and rosette pakchoi brassica campestris var. rosularis cv. atu171 were exposed to nf and cf in mini-otcs at different locations in east as ...201322752963
synthesis and herbicidal potential of substituted aurones.with the objective of exploring the herbicidal activity of substituted aurones, a series of 4,6-disubstituted and 4,5,6-trisubstituted aurones were synthesised, and their herbicidal activities against brassica campestris l. and echinochloa crusgalli (l.) beauv. were evaluated in laboratory bioassays. effects of some of the compounds were evaluated on seed germination. the most active compounds in the laboratory were evaluated in the greenhouse.201222718431
deciphering the traits associated with pah degradation by a novel serratia marcesencs l-11 strain.polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) are wide spread industrial pollutants that are released into the environment from burning of coal, distillation of wood, operation of gas works, oil refineries, vehicular emission, and combustion process. in this study a lipolytic bacterium was isolated from mixed stover compost of saccharum munja and brassica campestris. this strain was identified by both classical and 16s ribosomal dna sequencing method and designated as serratia marcesencs l-11. hplc-ba ...201222416870
synthesis, structure, and biological activity of novel (oxdi/tri)azoles derivatives containing 1,2,3-thiadiazole or methyl develop novel inhibitors of ketol-acid reductoisomerase, a series of (oxdi/tri)azoles derivatives was synthesized and characterized by (1)h  nmr, ms, elemental analyses, and crystallography. according to the biological activities of these compounds obtained both in vivo and in vitro, compound 4-cyclopropyl-3-((4-fluorobenzyl)thio)-5-methyl-4h-1,2,4-triazole showed excellent kari inhibitory activity (100% at 100 μg ml (-1)  in vitro). in addition, most of the title compounds exhibited good her ...201222249419
assessment of the interactive effects of ambient o₃ and npk levels on two tropical mustard varieties (brassica campestris l.) using open-top chambers.rising o(3) concentrations in agricultural areas have been identified as a significant threat to crop production in asia including india. the present work reports the results of a field study conducted to assess the usefulness of higher than recommended npk dose in modifying the physiological, growth, yield, and seed quality responses of two mustard (brassica campestris l. var. vardan and aashirwad) varieties under ambient ozone level at a rural site of india, using open-top chambers. twelve hou ...201222072445
phytoextraction of endosulfan a remediation technique.endosulfan is a cyclodiene insecticide used all over the world for the control of various insect pests on variety of food and non crop products. despite judicious use endosulfan has been detected in atmosphere, soil, water, sediment, surface water rain water and food stuffs, which is of concern. in view of the above the use of mustard and maize plants as potential phytoremediation inputs have been evaluated. the potential of mustard (brassica campestris linn.) and maize (zea maize) to remove a o ...201222052137
lead (pb)-inhibited radicle emergence in brassica campestris involves alterations in starch-metabolizing enzymes.lead (pb) is a toxic heavy metal released into the natural environment and known to cause oxidative damage and alter antioxidant mechanism in plants. however, not much is known about the interference of pb with the biochemical processes and carbohydrate metabolism during seed germination. we, therefore, investigated the effect of pb (50-500 μm) upon biochemical alterations in germinating seeds (at 24-h stage) of brassica campestris l. pb treatment significantly enhanced protein and carbohydrate ...201121735112
roles of xanthophylls and exogenous aba in protection against nacl-induced photodamage in rice (oryza sativa l) and cabbage (brassica campestris).changes in actual efficiency of ps ii photochemistry, non-photochemical quenching (npq), content of xanthophylls and kinetics of de-epoxidation were studied in aba-fed and non-aba-fed leaves of rice and cabbage under nacl stress. salt stress induced more progressive decrease in actual efficiency of ps ii photochemistry (фps ii), higher reduction state of ps ii, and a small significant increase in npq in nacl-sensitive rice plants as compared with nacl-tolerant cabbage plants, whereas exogenously ...201121642236
[effects of exogenous dimethylarsinic acid on brassica campestris growth and soil arsenic bioavailability].a pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of exogenous dimethylarsinic acid (dma) on the growth of brassica campestris and the bioavailability of soil arsenic (as). with the increasing concentration of applied dma, the emergence rate and biomass of b. campestris increased at low concentration dma, but decreased at high concentration dma. when the dma concentration reached 90 mg x kg(-1), the emergence rate and biomass of b. campestris in the second cropping decreased by 9.5% and 57.0%, ...201121608259
chemical fractionations and bioavailability of cadmium and zinc to cole (brassica campestris l.) grown in the multi-metals contaminated oasis soil, northwest of china.a pot experiment was conducted to study the relationship between distribution of cadmium (cd) and zinc (zn) and their availability. to cole (brassica campestris l.) grown in the multi-metal contaminated oasis soil in northwest of china. the results showed that cd and zn in the unpolluted oasis soil was mainly found in the residual fractionation, however, with increasing contents of cd and zn in the oasis soil, the distribution of cd and zn changed significantly. the growth of cole could be promo ...201121517001
production of well-matured compost from night-soil sludge by an extremely short period of thermophilic composting.the effect of various operational conditions on the decomposition of organic material during the composting of night-soil treatment sludge was quantitatively examined. the optimum composting conditions were found to be a temperature of ca. 60°c and an initial ph value of 8. rapid decomposition of organic matter ceased by the sixth day of composting under these optimum conditions, and the final value of the cumulative emission of carbon (e(c)), which represents the degree of organic matter decomp ...201121134735
responses of mikania micrantha, an invasive weed to elevated co₂: induction of β-caryophyllene synthase, changes in emission capability and allelopathic potential of β better understand the effect of predicted elevated levels of carbon dioxide (co₂) on an invasive weed mikania micrantha, we constructed a suppressive subtractive hybridization (ssh) library from the leaves of m. micrantha exposed to co₂ at 350 and 750 ppm for 6 d, and isolated a novel gene named β-caryophyllene synthase. β-caryophyllene synthase catalyses the conversion of farnesyl diphosphate to β-caryophyllene, a volatile sesquiterpene with allelopathic potential. real-time pcr analysis rev ...201020821346
role of ca2+ on growth of brassica campestris l. and b. juncea (l.) czern & coss under na+ stress.root and shoot growth of brassica campestris l. and b. juncea increased significantly (p < 0.01) with enhanced ca(2+) treatment along with 60 mm nacl in the root medium. the maximum fresh mass of shoot and root in b. juncea was recorded at 10 mm ca(2+) concentration. the relative growth rate of shoot of both species reached its maximum at 8 mm of ca(2+) concentration. average rate of ca(2+) intake (i(ca)) was higher in b. juncea than b. campestris. in b. juncea, the average transport of ca(2+) t ...201020590985
drying behaviour of rapeseed under thin layer conditions.thin layer drying behaviour of rapeseed (toria, brassica campestris) varieties like 'tl-15', 'th-68' and 'sangam' in the temperature range of 30 to 70°c and at constant air velocity of 2 m/sec was studied. the validity of modified page's equation for prediction of drying time was assessed by fitting the experimental drying data. the drying air temperature affected drying time significantly. the effect of variety on drying time was not significant. drying constants of modified page's model were c ...201023572648
eco-toxic effects of sulfadiazine sodium, sulfamonomethoxine sodium and enrofloxacin on wheat, chinese cabbage and tomato.investigation of the toxic effects of three veterinary drugs [sulfadiazine sodium (sds), sulfamonomethoxine sodium (smms), and enrofloxacin (eflx)] on seed germination, root elongation and shoot elongation of wheat (triticum aestivum l.), chinese cabbage (brassica campestris l.) and tomato (cyphomandra betacea) was carried out. significant linear relationships between the root and shoot elongation and the concentration of veterinary drugs addition were observed. the effects of the three veterina ...200919554446
residue analysis of acephate and its metabolite methamidophos in open field and greenhouse pakchoi (brassica campestris l.) by gas chromatography-tandem mass analyze the dynamic degradation and final residues of acephate and its metabolite methamidophos, field-experiments with pakchoi (brassica campestris l.) in open field and greenhouse were carried out in beijing, china in 2004 and 2005. the degradation dynamics and final residues were determined by gas chromatography (gc) equipped with a pulsed flame photometric detector and gc coupled to mass spectrometry (ms)/ms after acephate was applied on open field and green house pakchoi (b. campestris l ...201019496002
aromatase inhibitory fatty acid derivatives from the pollen of brassica campestris l. var. oleifera dc.two new fatty acid derivatives, 9z,12z,15z-octadecatrienoic acid sorbitol ester (1) and (10,11,12)-trihydroxy-(7z,14z)-heptadecadienoic acid (2), were isolated from the pollen of brassica campestris l. var. oleifera dc., along with the four known fatty acid derivatives, 9z,12z,15z-octadecatrienamide, n-(2-hydroxyethyl) (3), hexadecanoic acid sorbitol ester (4), 15,16-dihydroxy-9z,12z-octadecadienoic acid (5), and 9z,12z,15z-octadecatrienoic acid 2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester (6). their structures we ...200919219725
[toxicological effects of omethoate on leaf photosystem ii of cole].after spraying different concentrations of two brands pesticide omethoate on cole (brassica campestris l.) leaves, the leaf chlorophyll a fluorescence transients were measured by a plant efficiency analyzer (pea), and the toxicological effects and rudimental dynamic courses of omethoate on the leaf photosystem ii (ps ii) were investigated by jip-test. the results showed that after spraying omethoate except at the concentration of 0.50% , the maximal efficiency of photochemistry (f(v)/f(m)) did n ...200819123372
evaluation of physiological, growth and yield responses of a tropical oil crop (brassica campestris l. var. kranti) under ambient ozone pollution at varying npk levels.a field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone on mustard (brassica campestris l. var. kranti) plants grown under recommended and 1.5 times recommended npk doses at a rural site of india using filtered (fcs) and non-filtered open top chambers (nfcs). ambient mean o(3) concentration varied from 41.65 to 54.2ppb during the experiment. plants growing in fcs showed higher photosynthetic rate at both npk levels, but higher stomatal conductance only at recommended npk. there were ...200919070410
an account of the botanical anthelmintics used in traditional veterinary practices in sahiwal district of punjab, pakistan.the present study was aimed at documentation of botanical anthelmintics used in the traditional veterinary practices in sahiwal district of punjab, pakistan.200818657602
accumulation and distribution of toxic metals in wheat (triticum aestivum l.) and indian mustard (brassica campestris l.) irrigated with distillery and tannery the present study, accumulation and distribution of toxic metals (cu, cd, cr, zn, fe, ni, mn, and pb) and their biochemical effect on wheat and mustard plants irrigated with mixed distillery and tannery effluents are reported. analyses of effluents and soil samples have shown high metal content than the permissible limit except pb. further, analyses of plant samples have indicated the maximum accumulation of fe (340 mg kg(-1) in wheat root and 560 mg kg(-1) in mustard leaves) followed by mn a ...200918650002
combined effect of ultraviolet-b radiation and cadmium contamination on nutrient uptake and photosynthetic pigments in brassica campestris l. seedlings.environmental and industrial pollution along with increase in ground level uv-b radiation, because of stratospheric ozone depletion, present multiple stresses, which may affect crop photosynthesis and productivity. the present study was undertaken to see interactive effects of heavy metal contamination (cd(2+)) and uv-b exposure on essential nutrient (ca(2+), mg(2+), k(+)) uptake, biomass, and chlorophyll content in mustard (brassica campestris l.) seedlings. plants grown in 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, and 5 ...200818348293
effects of oyster shell on soil chemical and biological properties and cabbage productivity as a liming materials.oyster shell, a byproduct of shellfish-farming in korea and containing a high amount of caco(3), has a high potential to be used as a liming material in agriculture. however, the agricultural utilization of oyster shell is limited due to its high concentration nacl. the oyster-shell meal collected had a low concentration of water soluble nacl (mean 2.7 g kg(-1)), which might be a result of stacking the material for 6 months in the open field. it has a very similar liming potential with calcium c ...200818294833
[study on the spectrum response of brassica campestris l leaf to the zinc pollution].in the present paper, the spectrum response of brassica campestris l leaf to the stress of heavy metal zinc pollution was studied in three spectral rangess of the red edge position (680-740 nm), the visible spectrum (460-680 nm) and the near infrared spectrum (750-1000 nm). the results indicate that the zn content in cabbage leaves increases and the chlorophyll level reduces with the increase in zn concentration in soil. with the zn content of brassica campestris l leaves increasing, the leaf sp ...200718051532
removal of carotene-like colored compounds by liquid-liquid extraction during polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons analysis of plant tissue.plants contain a wide variety of chemicals, some of which may have similar chromatographic behavior to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs). during solid phase extraction (spe) with si-gel for instance, the co-elution of carotene-like colored compounds with pahs has been observed. in this paper, liquid-liquid extraction was applied for the separation and subsequent analysis of pahs from plant extracts. pahs containing 2-6 rings, which include naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene ...200818001818
ozone affects gas exchange, growth and reproductive development in brassica campestris (wisconsin fast plants).exposure to ozone (o(3)) may affect vegetative and reproductive development, although the consequences for yield depend on the effectiveness of the compensatory processes induced. this study examined the impact on reproductive development of exposing brassica campestris (wisconsin fast plants) to ozone during vegetative growth. plants were exposed to 70 ppb ozone for 2 d during late vegetative growth or 10 d spanning most of the vegetative phase. effects on gas exchange, vegetative growth, repro ...200717803646
sequence variation of chalcone synthase gene in a spontaneous white-flower mutant of chinese cabbage-pak-choi.a spontaneous white-flower mutant of chinese cabbage-pak-choi (brassica campestris ssp. chinenesis, syn. b. rapa ssp. chinenesis) was found in our test fields, and all the plant characters except flower color were identical with wild type ones. we hypothesized that a mutational event had occurred in the gene coding for chalcone synthase (chs), the key enzyme of flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. two genes, later designated bcchs and bcchs-wf, were isolated from wild type and mutant chinese cabbage- ...200817605003
[expression of the genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis of 'tsuda' turnip].'tsuda' turnip (brassica campestris l. ssp. rapa), in which roots anthocyanin pigmentation is light-sensitive, was used as the material. 'tsuda' plants were held in darkness or irradiated with sun light and constant light for different time. anthocyanins in root peel of 'tsuda' turnip exposed to constant light were identified and quantified with a uv-visual spectrophotometer. the results demonstrated that the anthocyanins accumulation in 'tsuda' was related with light-exposure time (fig.1 and ta ...200617075183
[rna fingerprinting of the differential expression fragments related to cytoplasmic male sterility in chinese cabbage].in order to investigate the differential expression of the genes related to cytoplasmic male sterility in chinese cabbage (brassica campestris l. ssp. penkinsis), a modified rna fingerprinting technique was developed to compare the difference in the total rna from flower bud of chinese cabbage among cytoplasmic male sterility (cms) lines, maintainer lines and f1 hybrids. four stably differential fragments s47-412, s93-622, s176-343 and s199-904 were amplified, cloned and sequenced with primers s ...200617035188
[atpase distribution in fertile and sterile anther of a genic male sterile chinese cabbage].lead precipitation technique was used to locate adenosine triphosphatase (atpase) in the fertile and sterile anthers of a genic male sterile chinese cabbage (brassica campestris l. ssp. chinensis makino var. communis tsen et lee),which would help us to understand the relationship between atpase and sterility of anthers of the cabbage. at megaspore mother cell (mmc) of fertile anther many atpase reactive precipitates were located in nucleus but few of the precipitates in cytoplasm of the cell. me ...200616955789
non-host plant extracts reduce oviposition of plutella xylostella (lepidoptera: plutellidae) and enhance parasitism by its parasitoid cotesia plutellae (hymenoptera: braconidae).botanical preparations, usually from non-host plants, can be used to manipulate the behaviour of insect pests and their natural enemies. in this study, the effects of extracts of chrysanthemum morifolium, a non-host plant of the diamondback moth, plutella xylostella (linnaeus), on the olfactory and oviposition responses of this phytophagous insect and on levels of parasitism by its specialist parasitoid cotesia plutellae (kurdjumov) were examined, using chinese cabbage brassica campestris l. ssp ...200616923205
evaluation of different phosphate amendments on availability of metals in contaminated soil.a pot trial was conducted to assess the efficiency of p-induced metal immobilization in soils. natural hydroxyapatite (ha), phosphate rock (pr), triple-superphosphate (tsp), and diammonium phosphate (dap) were evaluated for their ability to reduce cadmium (cd), lead (pb), and zinc (zn) bioavailability in an artificially metal-contaminated soil with three addition levels: t0 (without metals added), t1 (cd/pb/zn:0.6/100/66 mgkg(-1)), and t2 (cd/pb/zn: 1.5/300/200 mgkg(-1)). phosphate compounds wer ...200716887186
selective separation of peptides contained in a rapeseed (brassica campestris l.) protein hydrolysate using uf/nf membranes.the ability of a charged uf membrane to fractionate the small peptides found in a rapeseed protein enzymatic hydrolysate, according to their charge characteristics, was investigated. the complexity of such a hydrolysate has required the setting up of technological alternatives to isolate the small peptides, to obtain a more efficient separation among the numerous peptide species. a preliminary step consisted of precipitation followed by filtration with a 3000 g/mol molecular weight cutoff (mwco) ...200619127728
bcxth1, a brassica campestris homologue of arabidopsis xth9, is associated with cell expansion.xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases (xths) are a group of the enzymes that are responsible for reorganization of the cellulose-xyloglucan framework by catalyzing cleavage and religation of the xyloglucan chains in the plant cell wall. in this study, we report the isolation and characterization of a xth gene from a pistil cdna library of brassica campestris. sequence analysis of the gene, designated bcxth1, revealed that it is homologous to the xth9 gene of arabidopsis. the highly conserve ...200616322981
allelopathic effects of volatile monoterpenoids produced by salvia leucophylla: inhibition of cell proliferation and dna synthesis in the root apical meristem of brassica campestris seedlings.salvia leucophylla, a shrub observed in coastal south california, produces several volatile monoterpenoids (camphor, 1,8-cineole, beta-pinene, alpha-pinene, and camphene) that potentially act as allelochemicals. the effects of these were examined using brassica campestris as the test plant. camphor, 1,8-cineole, and beta-pinene inhibited germination of b. campestris seeds at high concentrations, whereas alpha-pinene and camphene did not. root growth was inhibited by all five monoterpenoids in a ...200516124241
[the molecular biology of cytoplasmic male sterility in chinese cabbage (brassica campestris ssp.pekinensis)]. 200215901566
[component and content changes of volatiles from chinese cabbage damaged by plutella xylostella].the study showed that chinese cabbage, brassica campestris could release a variety of volatiles, especially when infested by plutella xylostella larvae. among these volatiles, saturated hydrocarbon was dominant, aromatic hydrocarbon was the second, and unsaturated hydrocarbon, aldehyde, alcohol, ketone, acid and heteroaromatic compounds were existed with a small amount. chinese cabbage damaged by plutella xylostella larvae produced 3 times of volatiles in amount with more species than the contro ...200415707333
molecular cloning of the monodehydroascorbate reductase gene from brassica campestris and analysis of its mrna level in response to oxidative a majority of living organisms, a fundamental protection mechanism from reactive oxygen species is by the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in which an important antioxidant, ascorbate (vitamin c), is utilized to convert harmful h2o2 to h2o. monodehydroascorbate reductase (mdhar) maintains reduced pools of ascorbate by recycling the oxidized form of ascorbate. by screening a brassica campestris cdna library, we identified a b. campestris mdhar cdna (bcmdhar) which encodes a polypeptide of 434 amino ...200415450955
expression analysis of the pistil genes in controlling self-incompatibility of brassica campestris by co2 gas using brassica campestris, self-incompatibility (si) can be overcome by co2 gas treatment. previously, we reported inhibition of the si in the brassica campestris line, 734, by co2 gas. in this study, we used a cdna microarray comprising 1,184 unique cdna ests from a pistil-specific cdna library of the brassica line to examine the expression of the pistil genes in response to co2. microarray analysis revealed that expression of 2% of the pistil genes was altered by exposure to co2 gas. surprisingly ...200415359129
the recognition of glycolate oxidase apoprotein with flavin analogs in higher plants.the dependence of glycolate oxidase apoprotein (apogo) activity on flavin analogs was surveyed in 9 higher plants from 7 families. activities of all apogos depended not only on flavin mononucleotide (fmn) but also on flavin adenine dinucleotide (fad), but not on riboflavin. the kinetic analysis showed that fmn was the optimum cofactor for apogo from leaves of brassica campestris. in plant kingdom, fmn, fad and riboflavin are three flavin analogs with very similar structure, and they could coexis ...200415253155
antioxidants from rape (brassica campestris vir. japonica hara) oil cake.a simple but novel compound, s-1-methoxy-1-(3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)ethane, was isolated as a moderately antioxidative compound from rape (brassica campestris l. subsp. napus) oil cake together with 5 known compounds. three of these compounds, indolacetonitrile, 4-hydroxyindolacetonitrile, and 4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile, showed strong antioxidative activity evaluated by the ferric thiocyanate method.200415143833
molecular cloning and characterization of nucleoside diphosphate (ndp) kinases from chinese cabbage (brassica campestris).nucleoside diphosphate kinases (ndpks) are key metabolic enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of non-adenosine nucleoside triphosphates (ntp) by transfer of the terminal phosphate between ndp and ntp. recently we isolated three ndpk cdnas from chinese cabbage cdna library. bcndk1 has 636 bp and encodes a putative 17.4 kda protein, bcndk2 has 854 bp and encodes a putative 25.5 kda protein, and bcndk3 is 986 bp long and encodes a putative 25.7 kda protein. the precursor proteins of bcndk2 and bcndk ...200415055533
[mapping and analysis qtl controlling some morphological traits in chinese cabbage (brassica campestris l. ssp. pekinensis)].an aflp and rapd genetic map with 352 markers and a ril (recombinant inbred lines) population from the cross of two cultivated chinese cabbage lines were employed in mapping and analysis quantitative trait loci (qtl). the number, location, variation explained and additive effect of qtl underlying nine morphological traits were determined by using composite interval mapping method. fifty putative qtl, including five for plant growth habit, six for plant height, five for plant diameter, seven for ...200314986434
experiment of seed germination with low pressure environment simulator.seeds of brassica campestris germinated in low pressure environment at the pressures of 100, 50, 30, 20 kpa. the germination rates of 7 days after seeding were more than 90% without the rate at the pressures of 20 kpa. as the pressure was less, the germination was slower. the results showed that seeds of brassica campestris normally germinated at the pressure of more than 30 kpa. the germination rate at the pressures of 20 kpa was about 60%. the germination rate was not normal. however, it was p ...200314676378
chronic effects of vapour phase di-n-butyl phthalate (dbp) on six plant species.a fumigation experiment was performed in which six plant species representing the european flora were exposed to a range of dbp concentrations. controlled amounts of dbp-saturated air were injected into the ingoing air-streams of plant fumigation chambers, maintaining constant concentrations there for a period of up to 76 days. the target concentrations were a control, 0.8, 1.5, 3.5, and 10.0 microg m(-3). the variation in sensitivity between plant species to atmospheric dbp was quantified on th ...200314505713
evaluation of the phytotoxicity of contaminated sediments deposited "on soil". i. impact of water draining from the deposit on the germination of neighbouring part of a study of the phytotoxic risk of spreading of contaminated sediments "on soil", we carried out a laboratory experiment assessing the impact of water draining from sediments in a deposit scenario on the peripheral vegetation. the plant tested were the chinese cabbage (brassica campestris l. var. chinensis), maize (zea mays l.) and ryegrass (lolium perenne l.). the draining water samples (a1, b1 and c1) were obtained after decantation in laboratory of the sediments. the classification ...200312656260
linear dominance relationship among four class-ii s haplotypes in pollen is determined by the expression of sp11 in brassica self-incompatibility.self-incompatibility (si) prevents self-fertilization by rejecting pollen from plants with the same s phenotype. the brassica si system is controlled sporophytically by multiple alleles at the single locus, s, and dominance relationships among s haplotypes are observed in both stigma and pollen. we have identified previously five different class-ii s haplotypes in brassica campestris. here, we performed test-crosses between s heterozygotes and their respective parental s homozygotes for four of ...200312552149
[effects of iaa and stimulated microgravity on formation of adventitious roots of chinese cabbage].under the induction of indole-3-acetic acid (iaa), adventitious roots were differentiated on hypocotyl segments derived from seedlings of chinese cabbage (brassica campestris spp. pekinensis). iaa at concentration of 0.4-1.0 mg/l in solid ms medium incited many adventitious roots on hypocotyl segments. the earliest anatomic changes were observed on cut surface of hypocotyl segments under optical microscope 24 hours after iaa treatment: cytoplasmic and nuclear density became higher in a few of pa ...200012548982
a protein kinase activated by darkness phosphorylates nitrate reductase in komatsuna (brassica campestris) leaves.although it has been shown that leaf nitrate reductase (nr: ec is phosphorylated by subjecting plants to darkness, there is no evidence for the existence of dark-activated or dark-induced nr kinase. this study was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of a protein kinase phosphorylating nr in response to dark treatments. immediately after transferring komatsuna (brassica campestris l.) plants to darkness, we observed rapid increases in the phosphorylating activity of the synthetic pe ...200212121455
levels and tissue-dependent distribution of dioxin in japanese domestic leafy vegetables--from the 1999 national 1999, japanese domestic leafy vegetables were successively investigated for levels of dioxins, including 17 dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (pcdd/fs), four non-ortho co-planar pcbs (co-pcbs) and eight mono-ortho co-pcbs, all of which had been assigned toxic equivalency factors (tefs) by who in 1997. the mean levels of dioxins in the edible portions were 0.07 (0.09) pg teq/g in spinach, 0.13 (0.14) pgteq/g in garland chrysanthemum, 0.01 (0.04) pg teq/g in mitsuba (marsh parsley) and 0.01 (0.03 ...200212117060
genomic cloning and characterization of glutathione reductase gene from brassica campestris var. pekinensis.we have isolated and characterized a gene encoding cytosolic glutathione reductase from brassica campestris (b. campestris). the gene (bcggr1) is presented as a single copy in the b. campestris genome and is composed of 17 exons and 16 introns in the trancribed region with coding sequence beginning in the 2nd exon and ending in the 17th exon. bcggr1 is expressed strongly in roots and calli, and moderately in stems and leaves. the transcription is strongly induced by various stress treatments inc ...200212018846
Displaying items 301 - 400 of 517