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composite of pah-degrading endophytic bacteria reduces contamination and health risks caused by pahs in vegetables.vegetables accumulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) at high concentrations when grown in contaminated sites. inoculation with pah-degrading endophytic bacteria (ebpah) has been recognized as one of the most promising ways to remove pahs from plant bodies; however, the performance of single endophytic bacteria is generally limited. this investigation used a composite of eight ebpah to reduce the contamination and health risk posed by 16 epa priority pahs in vegetables including chinese ...028448936
[preliminary findings on the endocrine changes in rabbits fed cabbage (brassica oleracea) & rape (brassica campestris oleifera)]. 195713490561
choline kinase of rapeseed (brassica campestris l.). 195713460808
glyceric acid kinase isolated from a polish variety of rapeseed (brassica campestris l.). 196014429593
some enzymic properties of a partially purified aminoacylase obtained from a polish variety of rapeseed (brassica campestris l.). 196113731830
the size, shape, and structure of chinese rape (brassica campestris l.-youcai) mosaic virus, ymv15, and some chemical characteristics of its protein subunits. 196414208093
brassica campestris l.: floral induction by one long day.a strain of brassica campestris l. responds to a single photoinductive cycle 4 days after sowing. extending the photoperiod from 8 to 22 or 24 hours, with incandescent light of 538-lux intensity, induced inflorescence in 90 percent of the plants. inflorescence development was visible on dissection 5 or 6 days after photoinduction. floral induction increased with duration and intensity of the supplementary light.196617737594
the biosynthesis of some isothiocyanates and oxazolidinethiones in rape (brassica campestris l.).the incorporation of the radioactivity from acetate-1-(14)c, acetate-2-(14)c, dl-methionine-1-(14)c, dl-methionine-2-(14)c, dl-methionine-3,4-(14)c, dl-homomethionine-2-(14)c, dl-allyl-glycine-2-(14)c, and dl-2-amino-5-hydroxyvalerate-2-(14)c into the aglycones of progoitrin, gluconapin, and glucobrassicanapin of maturing rape plants (brassica campestris l.) was investigated. radioactivity from dl-methionine-2-(14)c, dl-methionine-3,4-(14)c, dl-homomethionine-2-(14)c, and acetate-2-(14)c were in ...196716656711
structural investigation of water-soluble rapeseed (brassica campestris) polysaccharides. ii. an acidic arabinogalactan. 19724343240
low molecular weight carbohydrates from rapeseed (brassica campestris) meal. 19734763682
a di-d-galactosyl-myo-inositol from rapeseed (brassica campestris) meal. 19734751275
growth rate, lipid composition, metabolism and myocardial lesions of rats fed rapeseed oils (brassica campestris var. arlo, echo and span, and b. napus var. oro). 19734752972
structural investigation of oxalate-soluble rapeseed (brassica campestris) polysaccharides. 3. an arabinan. 19744370397
study of free and bound lipids of brassica campestris, var yellow sarson. 19744366535
brassica campestris var. span: ii. cardiopathogenicity of fractions isolated from span rapeseed oil when fed to male rats.rapeseed oils low in erucic acid caused myocardial lesions when fed to weanling male rats for 16 weeks. the cardiopathogenic properties appear to be associated with the triglycerides of the oil, and not to nontriglyceride components present in fully refined rapeseed oil. cardiac lipid analysis confirmed that erucic acid accumulation was proportional to the concentration of this acid in the diet.19751177663
lipid changes in tissues of young boars fed rapeseed oil or corn oil.fully refined rapeseed oil, brassica campestris var. arlo plus echo, and corn oil were fed at 20% by weight of a basal diet to young yorkshire boars. a serial slaughter technique was employed whereby 3 boars from each dietary treatment were killed at 0,1,2,3,4 and 8 weeks of the experiment. the fatty acid profiles of heart, liver, adrenals and testes lipids were investigated. the typical fatty acids of rapeseed oil, erucic and eicosenoic acids, were incorporated at different levels into the tiss ...19751232599
brassica compestris var. span: i. fractionation of rapeseed oil by molecular distillation and adsorption chromatography.procedures for the large scale isolation of pure triglycerides and fractions rich in nontriglyceride components from span rapeseed oil are described. fractionation of brassica campestris var. span rapeseed oil by molecular distillation yielded 4 triglyceride fractions, all of which contained traces of sterol esters. an additional triglyceride fraction rich in free and esterified sterols and other volatile components was obtained from the oil. separation by adsorption chromatography of span rapes ...19751177662
relationship between erucic acid and myocardial changes in male rats.the back and belly fat of pigs fed a diet containing 20% by wt rapeseed oil (22% erucic acid) for 16 weeks was rendered into oil. this rendered pig fat, which contained 5.6% erucic acid, was fed to male rats in three separate experiments at 20% by wt of the diet for 16 weeks. in experiment i rendered pig fat was compared only to brassica campestris var. span rapeseed oil containing 4.8% erucic acid. in experiments ii and iii, rendered pig fat was compared to commercial lard containing 0.2% docos ...19761250074
influence of antitranspirants on rapeseed (brassica campestris) plants under water-stressed and nonstressed conditions.daily transpiration rate was decreased by low soil moisture, phenylmercuric acetate (pma) in combination with kaolinite, mobileaf (a filmforming wax emulsion manufactured by the mobil oil co.), pma alone, and kaolinite alone in this order. at high soil moisture, dry matter was decreased by pma but was increased by mobileaf and by pma + kaolinite combination. at low soil moisture, dry matter was increased by mobileaf.water use efficiency was increased at low soil moisture and by antitranspirants. ...197616659605
a quantitative evaluation of inter-varietal hybrids of brassica campestris l.a quantitative evaluation of yield components was carried out in 150 inter-varietal hybrids of brassica campestris using five each of the three varieties, brown sarson (bs) , yellow sarson (ys) and toria (tr). the results showed both additive and non-additive gene action for plant height, number of primary and secondary branches and number of siliquae on the main axis in all the six cross combinations bs-ys, ys-bs, bs-tr, tr-bs, ys-tr and tr-ys. the general combining abilities of bs, ys and tr i ...197624413587
iii. histochemical characteristics of suspensor during embryo development in brassica campestris linn. var., sarson.the development of suspensor in brassica campestris is of the "onagrad type"; the suspensor growth was maximum between the globular and heart stage of embryo development. there after, the suspensor diminished and immediately after the torpedo stage, it degenerated several enzymes (e.g. acid-, alkaline-, adenosine triphosphatase, peroxidase, succinate dehydrogenase, cyotchrome oxidase) and general substances (ascorbic acid, polysaccharides, lipids) were localized in the suspensor during different ...1976827902
productive performance and liver lesions in two strains of laying hens receiving two rapeseed meals.a comparative study was conducted to determine the effect of two varieties of rapeseed meal at 10 and 20% levels in the diet on the productive performance, organ weights and liver lesions of two commercial strains of laying hens. the double-low (brassica napus 1788) rapeseed meal appeared to be superior to span meal (brassica campestris) at the 10% level in maintaining egg production, feed efficiency, thyroid weight and body weight gain. however at the 20% level the productive performance was de ...1977611494
nutritional effects of partially hydrogenated low erucic rapeseed oils.the incidence of cardiac lesions in male rats fed rapeseed oil (brassica campestris, cultivar "span") was lower with partially hydrogenated oil (iodine value 78) than withe the liquid oil which had been treated in various ways. another rapeseed oil (brassica napus, cultivar "tower") was similarly improved when hydrogenated to iodine value 76.6, but not at iodine value 97.1, as demonstrated in both sprague-dawley and wistar rats. the improved nutritional quality of hydrogenated oil appeared not t ...1977916818
are "multiple cross-multiple pollen hybrids' an answer for productive populations in brassica campestris var. 'brown sarson'? : i. methods for studying 'mucromphs'.a set of complex crosses with multiple crosses as female parents were made using multiple pollen in turnip rape (brassica campestris l.). these multiple cross - multiple pollen hybrids (mucromphs) were evaluated for a large number of quantitative characters including yield. new methods were proposed to study such genetic material in depth so as to formulate suitable strategies to breed for attractive seed yield.197924310403
stimulation of embryogenesis and haploid production in brassica campestris anther cultures by elevated temperature treatments.culture of brassica campestris anthers at 35°c for one or three days prior to culture at 25°c significantly stimulated the yield of microspore-derived embryos. more than 100 plants were regenerated from cultured embryos and haploids were identified amongst them. the haploid frequency was greater than 70% if all small-flowered sterile plants were considered to be haploid. the yield of microspore-derived plants in b. campestris is approaching the level where anther culture may be utilized as a pra ...197924306485
combining ability and maternal effects in brassica campestris l. var. 'yellow sarson'.a diallel analysis of combining ability, including maternal effects, genotype x environment interaction and the progress under selection, is reported in three selected crosses of brassica campestris l. var. 'yellow sarson', involving 15 types, including 10 four-valved and 5 two-valved types from different parts of india. twelve characters, including oil content, were studied in the f1 generation.the investigation has revealed only marginal superiority of f1's over the parents for most of the cha ...198024305915
isolation and characterization of an iron-containing superoxide dismutase from a eucaryote, brassica campestris. 19807396513
are 'multiple cross-multiple pollen hybrids' an answer for productive populations in brassica campestris (var.) brown sarson? : part 2: evaluation of 'mucromphs'.a set of 167 'mucromphs' was evaluated in their f1 generation for seven 'plant', four 'plot' and five 'ratio' characters. methods of characterizing the parents and the hybrids on the basis of combining ability effects described in the first part were found to be efficient in identifying desirable cross combinations for pedigree breeding or generating composite populations. order effects of multiple-pollen combinations were found to be potent for a number of character components. high x low cross ...198024301210
"arabidobrassica": a novel plant obtained by protoplast fusion.using somatic hybrid cell lines arabidopsis thaliana+brassica campestris, obtained by cloning individual protoplast-fusion products as starting material, shoots and flowering plants have been regenerated. cytological, biochemical, and morphological analyses indicate that genetic material of both species is present in the resultant plants. shoots and plants obtained from different lines and different regeneration events differed morphologically and genetically. most regenerants show morphological ...198024306240
"arabidobrassica": evidence for intergeneric somatic hybrid nature from electron microscopic morphometry of chromatin.the new method of species and hybrid characterization and determination by quantitative morphometry of chromatin texture in ultra-thin sections of nuclei was applied to the somatic hybrid "arabidobrassica" and its parents, arabidopsis thaliana and brassica campestris. the somatic hybrid exhibits the average amount of condensed chromatin, if compared to the proportion of condensed chromatin in nuclei of the parent species. this result corresponds to similar findings in natural allopolyploids and ...19807398664
"arabidobrassica": chromosomal recombination and morphogenesis in asymmetric intergeneric hybrid cells.a somatic hybrid cell line, cloned from an individual protoplast-fusion product between arabidopsis thaliana and brassica campestris, gave rise to formation of numerous plants differing drastically in morphology. analysis of these various regenerants, all of which originated from one and the same heterokaryon derived from the fusion of two cells, shows the unspecific elimination of chromosomes of both parental species during the callus growth phase. whereas the parental cells have so far not bee ...198124275880
fraction i protein analysis of parasexual hybrid plants arabidopsis thaliana + brassica campestris.the polypeptide composition of fraction i protein (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase) prepared from leaves of two clones of the parasexual hybrid plant arabidopsis thaliana + brassica campestris as well as their parents was analyzed by isoelectric focusing. the protein in hybrid plants contained a heterogenous population of small subunits resulting from the expression of both arbabidopsis and brassica nuclear genes, whereas the large subunit polypeptides, and hence the functional chloroplast ...198124258862
the occurrence of free and bound cytokinins in plasmodia of plasmodiophora brassicae isolated from tissue cultures of clubroots.plasmodia have been isolated from brassica campestris tissue infected with plasmodiophora brassicae. cytokinins were extracted from plasmodia and from the remaining host cytoplasm. fractions were separated in a butanol soluble fraction containing free cytokinins and a water soluble fraction containing bound forms, presumably glucose-6-phosphate derivatives of zeatin and zeatin riboside. the butanol fraction was analysed by high pressure liquid chromatography (hplc). the different glucosides were ...198124258747
absence of the iron-containing superoxide dismutase in mitochondria from mustard (brassica campestris).mitochondria were isolated from mature leaves as well as etiolated seedlings of brassica campestris (mustard), a eukaryote previously shown to possess the iron-containing isoenzyme of superoxide dismutase. on the basis of kcn- and h2o2-sensitivity, and on polyacrylamide-gel analysis, only the cuprozinc and mangano superoxide dismutases were found in mitochondria. the iron-containing enzyme was absent. the mangano enzyme was found in the mitochondrial matrix, whereas the cuprozinc enzyme appeared ...19817306048
uniparental inheritance of a chloroplast photosystem ii polypeptide controlling herbicide binding.the ability of atrazine to inhibit photosystem ii electron transport and the rate of electron transfer from the primary to the secondary quinone electron acceptors in the photosystem ii complex were examined in triazine-resistant and -susceptible parental biotypes of brassica campestris l. and their f1 progeny derived from reciprocal crosses. the lack of herbicide inhibitory activity and the presence of functional properties which decreased the q- to b electron transport rate constant were inher ...19817470498
chromosome pairing in haploids of brassica campestris.the maximum chromosome pairing observed in haploids of brassica campestris was two bivalents plus one trivalent but differences were observed in the chromosome pairing frequencies of the four haploids studied. this pairing supports the theorem that the species is hexasomic for one chromosome, tetrasomic for two and disomic for three others but it is emphasized that some of the observed pairing might be explained by a phenomenon other than homology.198124276328
characterization of chloroplasts isolated from triazine-susceptible and triazine-resistant biotypes of brassica campestris l.chloroplasts isolated from triazine-susceptible and triazine-resistant biotypes of brassica campestris l. were analyzed for lipid composition, ultrastructure, and relative quantum requirements of photosynthesis. in general, phospholipids, but not glycolipids in chloroplasts from the triazine-resistant biotype had a higher linolenic acid concentration and lower levels of oleic and linoleic fatty acids, than chloroplasts from triazine-susceptible plants. chloroplasts from the triazine-resistant bi ...198216662454
inheritance of seed colour in turnip rape (brassica campestris l.).the inheritance of seed colour was investigated in the progenies of crosses between seven yellow seeded forms and a brown seeded one of turnip rape (brassica campestris l.). seed colour differences were found to be determined in each case by one or two genes with epistatic effect. moreover, independent inheritance of hilum colour was observed. seed colour was predominantly but not completely determined by the maternal parent. in total, two genes for seed colour with epistatic (br 1 br 1; br 6 br ...198224270566
comparative studies on s-glycoproteins purified from different s-genotypes in self-incompatible brassica species ii. immunological specificities.antisera were prepared by immunization of apparently purified s-glycoproteins; one from an s allele of brassica campestris and two from s alleles of b. oleracea. each antiserum was reactive not only with the homologous s-glycoprotein but also with the heterologous ones, i.e. with the s-glycoproteins of the other s alleles of the same locus. in double diffusion tests, a spur against the heterologous s-glycoproteins suggested heterogeneity of the glycoproteins. the heterogeneity appears to involve ...198217246075
are "multiple cross-multiple pollen hybrids" an answer for productive populations in brassica campestris var. 'brown sarson'? : part 3. potential of component characters in population breeding.results on 167 f1 'mucromphs' reported earlier were re-examined with the view of determining the potential of component characters in correct identification of parental gca status and f1 heterosis. it was found that a judicious combination of 'plant' and 'ratio' characters would be of direct usefulness in assessing population performance. the role of seedling characters in the process of making a desired level of multiple cross was illustrated. it was found that h x l mucromphs could provide a b ...198224271374
is the 'rejection reaction' inducing ability in sporophytic self-incompatible systems restricted only to pollen and tapetum?the present investigation describes the stigmatic rejection response, induced by anther or pollen at developmental stages ranging from anther primordia to mature pollen, as well as in other floral and vegetative tissues. this has been studied in a sporophytic self-incompatible system, brassica campestris (brassicaceae). the implications of these observations have been discussed.198224270697
effects of cold exposure on feed protein degradation, microbial protein synthesis and transfer of plasma urea to the rumen of sheep.1. three diets of barley-canola-seed (brassica campestris), lucerne (medicago sativa) or chopped brome-grass (bromus inermis) were given at intervals of 3 h to closely-shorn suffolk wethers held at a temperature of 1-5 degree (cold) or 22-24 degree (warm). apparent digestibility of organic matter (om) and nitrogen was reduced by 0.08-0.05 and 0.04 units respectively for lucerne and brome-grass diets given to cold-exposed sheep, but no treatment effects on digestibility were observed for the barl ...19827082623
influence of canola hulls on gain in weight of larvae of the yellow mealworm, tenebrio molitor l.larvae of the yellow mealworm, tenebrio molitor l., gembloux strain, race f, were reared on diets in which the protein component was supplied by defatted ground seed, defatted ground dehulled fraction, or defatted ground hulls of brassica napus l. cv. tower or brassica campestris l. cv. candle, obtained from autoclaved seed. they were also fed casein diets to which defatted ground hulls of tower or candle seed were added. gain in weight was equally good for all diets containing candle seed fract ...19836204614
genetic divergence among thirty-one genotypes of toria (brassica campestris l.) grown in twelve environments.thirty-one toria genotypes were grown in 12 artificially created environments in order to study genetic divergence. d(2) estimates based on 12 characters were used in obtaining the clustering pattern and inter- and intracluster distances. selection of divergent parents has been made in three ways, i.e., on the basis of (a) genetic divergence exhibited when grown in the richest and most productive environment; (b) stable and consistent values of divergence over all 12 environments and (c) pooled ...198424253702
quantitative cytochemistry of beta-galactosidase in normal and enzyme deficient (gal) pollen of brassica campestris: application of the indigogenic method.the available cytochemical methods for localization of beta-galactosidase have been evaluated using pollen grains of brassica campestris. beta-galactosidase-deficient pollen (gal), served as a control. azo dye methods involving naphthyl substrates showed high and nonspecific background staining to the exine. the indigogenic method, employing 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoxyl beta-d-galactoside (x-gal) as the enzyme substrate, gave specific opaque-blue final reaction product, while mutant pollen grains ...19846442287
promotion of flowering in brassica campestris l. cv ceres by sucrose.flower initiation of the quantitative long-day plant brassica campestris cv ceres was earlier and at a lower final leaf number when sucrose was added to the medium in which plants were grown in sterile culture. the optimal concentration of sucrose was 40 to 80 millimolar. this flower-promoting effect of sucrose was not osmotic, as mannitol, sodium chloride, and polyethylene glycol were not effective at equal osmotic potentials.seedlings grown heterotrophically after treatment with 4-chloro-5-(di ...198416663739
a review of the structure and organization of the mitochondrial genome of higher plants.the structure, organisation and functions of the mitochondrial genome of most groups of eukaryotic organisms are known to varying degrees with the notable exception of higher plants. with the recent completion of physical mapping studies on the brassica campestris (chinese cabbage, turnip) and zea mays (maize) mitochondrial genomes, many of the apparent problems of plant mitochondrial genome structure can now be answered. in this manuscript i review the literature relating to the physical observ ...198424310431
plant regeneration in callus and suspension cultures of brassica campestris cv. yellow sarson.prolific shoot bud differentiation was induced in callus and suspension cultures of hypocotyl origin in brassica campestris cv. yellow sarson on ms medium supplemented with k (13.9-23.2 μm) or ba (13.3-22.1 μm). plantlets were obtained by rooting the in vitro differentiated shoots. histological studies revealed a unique mode of meristemoid formation.198424253325
a heat shock protein is encoded within mitochondria of higher plants.a temperature shift from 25 to 41 degrees c initiates the synthesis of a specific set of proteins in maize, including a peptide of 60 kilodaltons. using an in vitro mitochondrial protein synthesizing system, we provide evidence that this 60-kda heat shock protein is encoded within the organelle. further support for this heat-induced protein being encoded within mitochondria is that its synthesis is inhibited in whole seedlings by chloramphenicol. this 60-kda heat shock protein is induced in all ...19854066675
selection of isoresponsive genotypes in toria (brassica campestris l.) based on the pattern of response to environmental variations: a proposed method.thirty-one toria genotypes were compared with three well-established cultivars, 'ludhiana composite-2', 'k-1' and 'tcsu-2' (standard testers). the genotypes, which were almost identical to a standard tester in response to environmental variations and which also had other desirable characteristics, were considered to be acceptable for commercial cultivation. using this criterion, 'tcsu-7', 'th-5' and 'th-4' were found to be acceptable for commercial cultivation. 'th-4' and 'tcsu-7' were found sup ...198524253013
selection of diverse genotypes for heterosis in yield and response in toria (brassica campestris l.).thirty-one genotypes of toria (brassica campestris l.) were grown in twelve environments and subsequently analysed in order to select potential parents which expressed diversity for both 12 different characters (estimated by mahalanobis' d(2) technique) and response to the environments (estimated on the basis of negative correlation between deviations in seed yield of a pair of genotypes from their respective environmental means). coefficients of determination (r(2)) were also used to measure th ...198524254006
isolation and characterization of an iron-containing superoxide dismutase from tomato leaves, lycopersicon esculentum.a cyanide-insensitive superoxide dismutase was purified from tomato leaves (lycopersicon esculentum, mill., var. venture) to apparent homogeneity. the enzyme had twofold higher specific activity (about 4000 standard units) than ferric superoxide dismutases purified from brassica campestris [salin, m. l. and bridges, s. m. (1980) arch. biochem. biophys. 201, 369-374] and nuphar luteum [salin, m.l. and bridges, s. m. (1982) plant physiol. 69, 161-165]. the protein had a relative molecular mass of ...19853967667
on a model for the structure of circular mitochondrial genomes in higher plants.the mitochondrial genome of some higher plants consists of a discrete set of circular molecules. the heterogeneity found in the number of circles and their size is puzzling. in some plants evidence exists that indicates that these circular dna molecules undergo intermolecular and intramolecular recombination events. the result of these events is that two small circles can combine to give one large circle or one large circle can break up into two small circles. here we pursue the idea that such r ...19853870964
[micro-organisms solubilizing insoluble phosphate mineral compounds in the rhizosphere of the rape plant (brassica campestris)].the aim of this study carried out in a soil of the experimental station of the faculty of agronomy of the university of bs. as. was to study the influence of the root of brassica campestris on the functional group of microorganism dissolving insoluble phosphorus mineral compounds, bi and tricalcium phosphate. the microbiological quantitative analysis showed the following values: for bicalcium-phosphate: 5.7 x 10(8), 2.8 x 10(8), and 1.0 x 10(8) and for tricalcium phosphate: 3.2 x 10(8), 1.7 x 10 ...19853870745
initiation of postmeiotic beta-galactosidase synthesis during microsporogenesis in oilseed rape.the synthesis of beta-galactosidase during brassica campestris pollen development results from the transcription of the haploid genome. a quantitative cytochemical method has been developed in which 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoxyl-beta-d-galactoside is used as substrate giving a blue-green final reaction product. we have recently detected oilseed rape plants which are heterozygous for the beta-galactosidase locus, in which 50% of the pollen grains produced are gal (having enzyme activity), while the ...198516664014
mapping the chloroplast genome of triazine resistant canola.the chloroplast of a triazine resistant weed biotype of brassica campestris (bird's rape) has been transferred by repeated back-crossing into an agriculturally important strain, 'tower', of brassica napus to form a triazine resistant cultivar of canola, 'triton', that is low in both erucic acid and thioglucosinolate. in this report, the b. campestris derived chloroplast chromosome of b. napus (cv 'triton') has been cloned into bacterial plasmids and physically mapped for eight restriction enzyme ...198624247607
stability of chloroplastic triazine resistance in rutabaga backcross generations.triazine resistance originally observed in a weed biotype of birdsrape (brassica campestris l.) has been transferred through cytoplasmic substitution into rutabaga (brassica napus ssp. rapifera [metzg.] minsk.) by conventional backcrossing. photosynthetic function and resistance to triazines were examined in six backcross generations of rutabaga as well as in the original parents. chloroplast thylakoid membranes were isolated and their sensitivity to atrazine, metribuzin, and diuron assayed by m ...198616664653
genetic transformation of brassica campestris var. rapa protoplasts with an engineered cauliflower mosaic virus genome.a hybrid cauliflower mosaic virus (camv) genome containing a selectable marker gene was constructed by replacing the gene vi coding region with the aminoglycoside (neomycin) phosphotransferase type ii [aph(3')ii] gene from tn5. this modified viral genome was tested for its infectivity both in planta and in a protoplast transformation system of brassica campestris var. rapa. stable, genetically transformed cell lines of b. campestris var. rapa were obtained after transformation. dna of the hybrid ...198624307380
nitrogen-fixing pseudomonads isolated from roots of plants grown in the canadian high arctic.root-associated bacteria capable of reducing acetylene to ethylene (biological nitrogen fixation) were isolated from various native plants grown in the canadian high arctic. all the strains belonged to the genus pseudomonas but varied in several physiological characteristics. the rates of acetylene reduction at 14 or 20 degrees c were higher than at 25 or 9 degrees c. six strains reduced acetylene at 4 degrees c. all the strains exhibited chemotaxis to l-asparagine in semisolid agar at 4 to 25 d ...198616346983
mycotoxins produced by fusarium oxysporum in the seeds of brassica campestris during storage.three recognized mycotoxins, viz. diaxetoxyscirpenol, t-2 toxin and zearalenone, along with the fatty esters of these toxins were isolated from the flask culture extractives of fusarium oxysporum schlecht (imi 273220) as also from seeds of brassica campestris var. sarson (mustard) infected with this fungus in storage. evaluation of biological activity and toxicity of the extractives and the effects of prolonged ingestion of the mouldy seeds by animals suggest that the infected seeds may present ...19872952882
gene expression in brassica campestris showing a hypersensitive response to the incompatible pathogen xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians.xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians, a pathogen of lettuce, elicits a hypersensitive response within 12 hours of inoculation into brassica leaves, characterized by tissue collapse, loss of membrane integrity, vein blockage and melanin production. in contrast, the compatible pathogen, x. c. pv. campestris, has no visible effects on leaves for 48 hours, after which inoculated areas show chlorosis which eventually spreads, followed by rotting.mrna was prepared from leaves inoculated with suspensions ...198724301262
the nucleotide sequence of a cdna clone encoding acyl carrier protein (acp) from brassica campestris seeds. 19873658685
extensive mitochondrial specific transcription of the brassica campestris mitochondrial genome.we constructed a complete transcriptional map of the 218 kb brassica campestris (turnip) mitochondrial genome. twenty-four abundant and positionally distinct transcripts larger than 500 nucleotides were identified by northern analyses. approximately 30% (61 kb) of the genome is highly transcribed. in addition, a number of less abundant transcripts, many of which overlap with each other and with the major transcripts, were also detected. if each abundant transcript represents a distinct rrna or p ...19873601669
quantitative cytology of the sperm cells of brassica campestris and b. oleracea.pollen grains of brassica campestris l. var. acephala dc and b. oleracea l. were serially sectioned and examined using transmission electron microscopy to determine the three-dimensional organization of sperm cells within the microgametophyte and the quantity of membrane-bound organelles occurring within each cell. sperm cells occur in pairs within each pollen grain, but are dimorphic, differing in size, morphology and mitochondrial content. the larger of the two sperm cells (svn) is distinguish ...198724233007
photosynthetic carbon fixation characteristics of fruiting structures of brassica campestris l.activities of key enzymes of the calvin cycle and c(4) metabolism, rates of co(2) fixation, and the initial products of photosynthetic (14)co(2) fixation were determined in the podwall, seed coat (fruiting structures), and the subtending leaf (leaf below a receme) of brassica campestris l. cv ;toria.' compared to activities of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase and other calvin cycle enzymes, e.g. nadp-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase and ribulose-5-phosphate kinase, the activities of ...198716665321
isolation of a cdna clone for the acyl carrier protein-i of spinach.a 715 base pair cdna clone coding for an acyl carrier protein (acp) in spinach leaves has been isolated and characterized. the amino acid sequence indicated by the cdna sequence closely matches the amino acid sequence of the acp-i isoform. the presence of polyadenylation and dna sequence coding for a precursor protein with a putative transit peptide, and the absence of hybridization between the cloned dna and isolated spinach plastid dna collectively show that the acp-i gene is nuclear-encoded. ...198724276902
tn5-mediated cloning of a genetic region from pseudomonas putida involved in the stimulation of plant root elongation.transposon (tn5) mutagenesis was applied to pseudomonas putida gr12-2r3, which promotes root elongation (a phenotype designated pre) of brassica campestris under gnotobiotic conditions. of 3,000 tn5 transconjugants, only one mutant that lost pre activity but remained prototrophic and capable of plant root colonization was detected. this mutant was complemented by plasmid pre53, which contained a 15.0-kilobase dna insert isolated from a parental strain. the complemented mutant regained full pre a ...198816347807
diploid brassica napus somatic hybrids: characterization of nuclear and organellar dna.five somatic hybrids between brassica campestris and b. oleracea were obtained. molecular, morphological and cytological information all suggest that the resynthesized b. napus plants were hybrids. all five plants were diploid (2n=38) and had mainly bivalents at meiosis. seedset was low after selfing but normal after crossing with b. napus. molecular proof of the hybrid nature of these plants was obtained by hybridization of a rdna repeat to total dna. analysis of chloroplast dna restriction pat ...198824232106
plant regeneration from isolated microspore cultures of chinese cabbage (brassica campestris spp. pekinensis).isolated microspores of chinese cabbage (brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis) were incubated in modified nn medium containing 10% sucrose in darkness at 33°c for one day followed by culture at 25°c. after 14 days of culture, microspores developed into embryos ranging from globular to cotyledonary stage. plants were regenerated after transfer of embryos to medium containing 3% sucrose and no plant growth regulators.198924233535
oil content and fatty acid composition of promising indian brassica campestris l. (toria) genotypes.seeds of sixty four genotypes of brassica campestris l. (toria) were analyzed for oil content and fatty acid composition. oil content varied from 38.9% to 44.6%. major fatty acids viz. oleic, linoleic, linolenic, eicosenoic and erucic acids exhibited ranges from 10.1% to 17.3%, 5.9% to 14.5%, 5.2% to 15.0%, 7.7% to 13.7% and 39.6% to 59.9%, respectively. compared to the standard cultivar itsa, four genotypes contained 5 to 8% lower content of erucic acid; and six genotypes contained significantl ...19892762244
rearrangement, amplification, and assortment of mitochondrial dna molecules in cultured cells of brassica campestris.we compared brassica campestris mitochondrial and chloroplast dnas from whole plants and from a 2-year-old cell culture. no differences were observed in the chloroplast dnas (cpdnas), whereas the culture mitochondrial dna (mtdna) was extensively altered. hybridization analysis revealed that the alterations are due entirely to rearrangement. at least two inversions and one large duplication are found in the culture mtdna. the duplication element is shown to have the usual properties of a plant mt ...198924232468
effect of agno3 and aminoethoxyvinylglycine on in vitro shoot and root organogenesis from seedling explants of recalcitrant brassica genotypes.the presence of 1-10 μm aminoethoxyvinylglycine (avg) or 5-30 μm agno3 markedly enhanced shoot regeneration from cotyledon and hypocotyl cultures of eight recalcitrant brassica campestris and b. juncea genotypes tested. expiants of b. campestris ssp. chinensis and ssp. parachinensis grown with a high avg concentration (20 μm), regenerated poorly. all cytokinins tested were equally effective in promoting shoot formation, except that kinetin was inhibitory to shoot regeneration from hypocotyls of ...199024226701
isolation and characterization of a highly repetitive dna of brassica campestris. 19902102824
effect of cement dust on the growth and yield of brassica campestris l.plants of brassica campestris l. var. g-s20 were treated with cement dust, at rates of 3 (b(1)), 5 (b(2)) and 7 (b(3)) gm(-2) day(-1) for 90 days. treated plants showed a consistent reduction in growth, photosynthetic pigments, yield and oil content over control plants. the overall phytomass of treated plants was significantly decreased, the maximum reduction being 64.8% in b(3) plants, followed by b(2) plants (55.3%) and b(1) plants (43.69%) at 60 days. the effect on oil content was also greate ...199015092252
the isolation and sequence analysis of two seed-expressed acyl carrier protein genes from brassica napus.genomic southern blot analysis of brassica napus dna indicates that seed-expressed acyl carrier protein (acp) is encoded by a multigene family of some 35 genes/haploid genome. two genomic clones encoding b. napus acp have been isolated and sequenced. the coding sequences of the 2 respective genes were found to be perfectly homologous to 2 distinct b. napus seed-expressed cdnas and therefore represent seed-expressed forms of acp. the 2 genomic acp sequences share 94% homology within their coding ...19902102833
a repetitive sequence from diplotaxis erucoides is highly homologous to that of brassica campestris and b. oleracea. 19902103429
expression of mammalian metallothionein suppresses glucosinolate synthesis in brassica campestris.transfection of brassica campestris leaves with cauliflower mosaic virus (camv) harboring a mammalian metallothionein (mt) cdna at the orfii position lowered the glucosinolate (gs) concentration to approximately one-half the level in leaves infected with wild-type camv. this suppression was independent of the plant's sulfate status, suggesting that the pathways for protein (mt) and gs biosynthesis were competing for s on an equal basis. the expression of mt may have lowered the endogenous levels ...199016667497
induction of hydrolytic enzymes in brassica campestris in response to pathovars of xanthomonas campestris.inoculation of mature leaves of turnip (brassica campestris) with the incompatible xanthomonas campestris pv vitians resulted in the induction of beta-1,3-glucanase and chitinase/lysozyme (chl) activity. no increase in the basal activity of beta-1,3-glucanase was observed after inoculation of leaves with heat- or rifampicin-killed x. c. vitians, escherichia coli, or sterile water. inoculation with the compatible x. campestris pv campestris resulted in a slower induction of glucanase than that se ...199016667441
oleosin isoforms of high and low molecular weights are present in the oil bodies of diverse seed species.oleosins are unique and major proteins localized on the surface of oil bodies in diverse seed species. we purified five different oleosins (maize [zea mays l.] kd 16 and kd 18, soybean [glycine max l.] kd 18 and kd 24, and rapeseed [brassica campestris l.] kd 20), and raised chicken antibodies against them. these antibodies were used to test for immunological cross-reactivity among oleosins from diverse seed species. within the same seed species, antibodies raised against one oleosin isoform did ...199016667830
characterization of 2s seed storage protein of brassica campestris and its antigenic homology with seed proteins of other cruciferae.the low molecular weight seed storage protein of brassica campestris has been isolated and its amino acid composition determined. antibody raised against this low molecular weight protein has been used to compare the antigenic similarity between the low molecular weight storage proteins of different cruciferae seeds by immunoprecipitation and western blotting. these studies revealed the existence of antigenically homologous proteins of identical molecular weights in seeds of other cruciferae but ...19911805785
point mutations in the turnip crinkle virus capsid protein affect the symptoms expressed by nicotiana benthamiana.in an effort to determine the biological function(s) of the capsid protein protruding domains unique to the plant carmo- and tombusviruses, we constructed turnip crinkle virus (tcv) mutants in which tandem, in-frame translation terminators replaced the first two codons of the five-amino acid hinge between the shell and the protruding domains of the tcv capsid protein. one of the mutants replicated in inoculated leaves and protoplasts without detectable accumulation of capsid protein. the mutant ...19912053278
genetic analysis of determinants of disease severity and virus concentration in cauliflower mosaic virus.cauliflower mosaic virus (camv) strains cm1841 and w260 produced markedly different symptoms when inoculated onto turnips (brassica campestris l. 'just right'). the cm1841 strain induced a mild degree of stunting of infected plants while strain w260 caused moderate to severe stunting. although cm1841 was significantly milder than w260, it accumulated to a significantly higher concentration than w260 in systemically infected leaves. we constructed a series of hybrid viruses in order to map region ...19912014640
the effects of acetosyringone and ph on agrobacterium-mediated transformation vary according to plant species.expiants of five plant species (allium cepa, antirrhinum majus, brassica campestris. glycine max, and nicotiana tabacum) were co-cultivated with three agrobacterium tumefaciens strains under different conditions to assess the effects of acetosyringone and medium ph on strain virulence. tumours were incited on all dicotyledonous species by strains n2/73 and a281. the presence of acetosyringone during co-cultivation generally enhanced the virulence of these strains, most markedly n2/73 on a. majus ...199124213690
atrazine-resistant cytoplasmic male-sterile-nigra broccoli obtained by protoplast fusion between cytoplasmic male-sterile brassica oleracea and atrazine-resistant brassica campestris.protoplast fusion was used to combine the cytoplasmic traits of atrazine resistance and male sterility in brassica oleracea var. italica (broccoli). leaf protoplasts from broccoli with the petaloid b. nigra type of cytoplasmic male sterility were fused with hypocotyl protoplasts from an atrazine-resistant biotype of b. campestris var. oleifera cv candle (oilseed rape). a total of 19 colonies regenerated shoots, all of which were broccolilike in phenotype, i.e., lacked trichomes. four shoots, all ...199124202359
relationship between protoplast size and critical field strength in protoplast electropulsing and application to reliable dna uptake in brassica.protoplast diameter, a physical parameter controlling the susceptibility to electropermeation, was observed to vary between different batches of brassica napus and brassica campestris protoplasts. in order to control the permeation field strength associated with the protoplast size, we investigated the mathematical relationship between permeant field strength and protoplast size by measuring electroloading of the calcein dye under conditions that did not alter protoplast survival. a roughly line ...199124221493
inheritance of isozyme and rflp markers in brassica campestris and comparison with b. oleracea.using primarily cdna restriction fragment length polymorphism markers (rflps) previously located to brassica oleracea (cabbage, 2n=18) chromosomes, we initiated a comparative rflp map in an f2 population of b. campestris (turnip x mock pak-choi, 2n=20). as with b. oleracea, the genome of b. campestris showed extensive gene duplication, and the majority of detected duplicated loci were unlinked. only 6 of the 49 identified loci were represented as a single copy, and 3 of these 6 were clustered on ...199124213439
transformation of brassica oleracea with an s-locus gene from b. campestris changes the self-incompatibility phenotype.an slg gene derived from the s-locus and encoding and s-locus-specific glycoprotein of brassica campestris l. was introduced via agrobacterium-mediated transformation into b. oleracea l. a self-incompatible hybrid and another with partial self-compatibility were used as recipients. the transgenic plants were altered in their pollen-stigma interaction and were fully compatible upon self-pollination. reciprocal crosses between the transgenic plants and untransformed control plants indicated that t ...199124221439
isolation and developmental expression of bcp1, an anther-specific cdna clone in brassica campestris.differential screening of a mature brassica campestris pollen cdna library has identified five cdna clones that represent transcripts expressed exclusively, or at elevated levels, in pollen. we show here that the expression of one of these, clone bcp1, is tissue specific and temporally regulated. the gene is activated during microspore development, as detected by in situ hybridization. expression is enhanced at the time of pollen maturation and during pollen germination. in situ hybridization ha ...19911821760
the cdna sequence of ns1 glycoprotein of brassica campestris and its homology to s-locus-related glycoproteins of b. oleracea. 19911863779
role of ethylene on de novo shoot regeneration from cotyledonary explants of brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis (lour) olsson in vitro.the promotive effect of agno(3) and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (avg) on in vitro shoot regeneration from cotyledons of brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis in relation to endogenous 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (acc) synthase, acc, and ethylene production was investigated. agno(3) enhanced acc synthase activity and acc accumulation, which reached a maximum after 3 to 7 days of culture. acc accumulation was concomitant with increased emanation of ethylene which peaked after 14 days. in cont ...199116668148
genetics of brassica campestris. 1. genetic constraints on evolution of life-history characters.energy allocation arguments suggest a possible tradeoff between timing and magnitude of reproduction: plants that postpone reproduction may accumulate greater resources and consequently produce more offspring. however, early reproduction may be favored when adult mortality is high. tradeoffs among life-history characters may be a consequence of constraints imposed by genetic and environmental covariation among traits. in this paper we examine the genetic basis of the relationship between timing ...199128567862
molecular and cytological evidence of deletions in alien chromosomes for two monosomic addition lines of brassica campestris-oleracea.a series of rflp and isozyme markers were followed in the progenies of two alien addition lines of brassica campestris-oleracea. one of the lines, carrying the c genome chromosome 4 as the alien chromosome, was surveyed for six markers. fifty-four percent of the plants carrying alien chromosomes displayed all the expected makers, whereas the rest had one to five markers missing. the second line for c genome chromosome 5 displayed a similar behavior when surveyed for three markers. all three mark ...199124221206
efficient shoot regeneration of brassica campestris using cotyledon explants cultured in vitro.a system has been developed for efficient regeneration of shoots from brassica campestris in vitro. using 4-day old cotyledons with petioles as expiants and a combination of ba and naa in the regeneration media, up to 70% of expiants produced shoots after 2 weeks in culture. the optimal conditions for regeneration were found to include a ba concentration of 2mgl(-1) and naa concentration of 1mgl(-1). light intensity had a profound effect on regeneration potential. the use of silver ions as an in ...199124220709
leaf physiological aspects of nitrogen-use efficiency in brassica campestris l.: quantitative genetic variation across nutrient treatments.quantitative genetic parameters for leaf physiological and whole-plant aspects of nitrogen-use efficiency in brassica camprestris l. were estimated in three nutrient treatments in the greenhouse. narrow-sense heritabilities and genetic correlations varied across treatments for some traits. sire effects were significant for leaf nitrogen content in near-optimal and super-optimal, but not in suboptimal nutrient treatments. additive genetic variation for two estimates of leaf physiological nitrogen ...199124221160
patterns of mitochondrial dna instability in brassica campestris cultured cells.we previously showed that the mitochondrial dna (mtdna) of a brassica campestris callus culture had undergone extensive rearrangements (i.e. large inversions and a duplication) relative to dna of the control plant [54]. in this study we observed that after continued growth, the mtdna of this culture continues to change, with rearranged forms amplifying and diminishing to varying proportions. strikingly similar changes were detected in the mtdna profiles of a variety of other long- and short-term ...19911653628
dielectric spectroscopy of plant protoplasts.the relative permittivity and conductivity of the mesophyll protoplasts isolated from brassica campestris leaves and tulipa gesneriana petals were measured over a frequency range from 1khz to 500 mhz.these protoplasts showed a broad dielectric dispersion, which was composed of three subdispersions, termed beta(1)-, beta(2)-, and beta(3)-dispersion in increasing order of frequency.the three subdispersions were assigned to the maxwell-wagner dispersion caused by charging processes at the interface ...199219431864
ecological risks of transgenic plants: effects of spatial dispersion on gene flow.the spread of advantageous transgenic genes from crop plants into wild and weedy relatives is a potential ecological problem. the available theory indicates that the spread of a gene, over space and time, will depend in part on the relative selective advantage of that gene, and in part on gene flow, or the probability distribution of gene movement from source to target plants within a single generation. risk assessment will require knowledge of both. this paper describes an empirical investigati ...199227759266
enhanced shoot regeneration from brassica campestris by silver nitrate.the morphogenetic response of brassica campestris genotype r500 to inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis and action was investigated. a medium containing 1.0 mg.l(-1) naa, 2.0 mg.l(-1) bap, and 30 or 60 μm agno3 significantly enhanced both the percentage shoot regeneration and the number of shoots per cotyledon expiant. although callus proliferation occurred on hypocotyl segments, no shoots were formed in response to agno3 with expiants older than five days. cotyledons older than six days formed s ...199224213282
agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of oilseed brassica campestris: transformation frequency is strongly influenced by the mode of shoot regeneration.protocols were developed for efficient shoot regeneration from hypocotyl and cotyledon explants of oilseed brassica campestris (brown sarson) cv. 'pusa kalyani'. these were used for genetic transformation by an agrobacterium based binary vector carrying neomycin phosphotransferase (npt) gene and β-glucuronidase (gus)-intron gene for plant cell specific expression. transformed plants were recovered from hypocotyl explants at a frequency of 7-13%. addition of silver nitrate markedly enhanced shoot ...199224213158
a brassica campestris-alboglabra addition line and its use for gene mapping, intergenomic gene transfer and generation of trisomics.brassica campestris-alboglabra monosomic addition lines were developed from a trigenomic brassica hybrid (2 n=3 x=29, aac) obtained by backcrossing a resynthesized b. napus (2 n=4 x=38, aacc) line to its parental b. campestris (2 n=2 x=20, aa) line. one addition line was characterized genetically with three loci specific for the alien chromosome and cytologically by meiotic analysis. the following results were obtained. (1) the same chromosome in the b. alboglabra (2 n= 2 x=18, cc) genome carrie ...199224201346
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