experimental transmission of st. louis encephalitis virus by ochlerotatus j. japonicus.ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus a newly discovered nonindigenous mosquito species in north america, and a colonized strain of culex pipiens were compared for their vector competence for st. louis encephalitis virus (sle). infection rates in oc. j. japonicus were 0-33% after feeding on chickens with viremias between 10(4.1) and 10(4.7) plaque-forming units (pfu)/ml of blood. in comparison, infection rates were 12-94% for cx. pipiens that fed on the same chickens. when fed on chickens with viremi ...200312825669
global change and human vulnerability to vector-borne change includes climate change and climate variability, land use, water storage and irrigation, human population growth and urbanization, trade and travel, and chemical pollution. impacts on vector-borne diseases, including malaria, dengue fever, infections by other arboviruses, schistosomiasis, trypanosomiasis, onchocerciasis, and leishmaniasis are reviewed. while climate change is global in nature and poses unknown future risks to humans and natural ecosystems, other local changes are o ...200414726459
finding needles in the haystack: single copy microsatellite loci for aedes japonicus (diptera: culicidae).first identified in three north american states in 1998, aedes japonicus japonicus, the asian bush mosquito, has since spread to 21 states, plus ontario in canada, northern france, and belgium. analyses of the introduction and expansion of this potentially deadly disease vector will be radically improved by including powerful genetic markers like microsatellites. useful microsatellite loci have, however, been difficult to identify for mosquitoes in the genus aedes because of the high amount of r ...200516222019
establishment of ochlerotatus japonicus (diptera: culicidae) in ontario, canada.ochlerotatus (finlaya) japonicus (theobold) is newly established in ontario, canada. it was first discovered in 2001 during the province-wide west nile virus mosquito surveillance program implemented by the ontario ministry of health and long term care. although the numbers of adults trapped in cdc light traps were low in 2001 and 2002, they increased during the 2003 and 2004 surveillance seasons. oc. japonicus larvae also have been collected in large numbers in the niagara peninsula in a variet ...200616619591
horizontal and vertical transmission of japanese encephalitis virus by aedes japonicus (diptera: culicidae).aedes japonicus (theobald) was evaluated for competence as a vector of japanese encephalitis virus and for its ability to transmit the virus vertically to its f1 larvae. ae. japonicus supported the growth of the virus at 20 and 28 degrees c after feeding on a virus-blood mixture of 10(6.2) plaque forming unit (pfu)/ml. this species was able to transmit the virus to suckling mice after feeding on a virus-blood meal (10(6.2) pfu/ml) or a viremic chick (10(3.7) pfu/ml). vertical transmission of the ...19892552120
ecology of invasive mosquitoes: effects on resident species and on human health.investigations of biological invasions focus on patterns and processes that are related to introduction, establishment, spread and impacts of introduced species. this review focuses on the ecological interactions operating during invasions by the most prominent group of insect vectors of disease, mosquitoes. first, we review characteristics of non-native mosquito species that have established viable populations, and those invasive species that have spread widely and had major impacts, testing wh ...200517637849
failure of aedes albopictus to overwinter following introduction and seasonal establishment at a tire recycling plant in the northeastern july 2006, an introduction of the asian tiger mosquito, aedes albopictus, was documented for the first time at a commercial tire recycling plant in northeastern connecticut, usa. the introduction likely occurred via transport of infested tires originating from northern new jersey or metropolitan new york city. efforts were made to determine seasonal establishment and overwintering success by assessing adult biting and oviposition activity in the surrounding woodlands. the first adult female w ...200919432065
potential transmission of west nile virus in the british isles: an ecological review of candidate mosquito bridge vectors.west nile virus (wnv) transmitted by mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) infects various vertebrates, being pathogenic for birds, horses and humans. after its discovery in tropical africa, sporadic outbreaks of wnv occurred during recent decades in eurasia, but not the british isles. wnv reached new york in 1999 and spread to california by 2003, causing widespread outbreaks of west nile encephalitis across north america, transmitted by many species of mosquitoes, mainly culex spp. the periodic reapp ...200515752172
potential north american vectors of west nile virus.the outbreak of disease in the new york area in 1999 due to west nile (wn) virus was the first evidence of the occurrence of this virus in the americas. to determine potential vectors, more than 15 mosquito species (including culex pipiens, cx. nigripalpus, cx. quinquefasciatus, cx. salinarius, aedes albopictus, ae. vexans, ochlerotatus japonicus, oc. sollicitans, oc. taeniorhynchus, and oc. triseriatus) from the eastern united states were evaluated for their ability to serve as vectors for the ...200111797788
ochlerotatus j. japonicus in frederick county, maryland: discovery, distribution, and vector competence for west nile virus.ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus is reported for the 1st time south of the mason-dixon line, in frederick county, maryland. fifty-seven oviposition trap samples were collected throughout the county between june 30 and august 24, 2000. from 971 larvae reared from the oviposition traps, 5 species were identified: ochlerotatus triseriatus (45%), oc. j. japonicus (43%), aedes albopictus (7%), culex pipiens (4%), and toxorynchites ritulus septentrionalis (<1%). ochlerotatus j. japonicus was found wid ...200111480822
aedes (finlaya) japonicus (diptera: culicidae), a newly recognized mosquito in the united states: analyses of genetic variation in the united states and putative source populations.introduction of potential disease vectors into a new geographic area poses health risks to local human, livestock, and wildlife populations. it is therefore important to gain understanding of the dynamics of these invasions, in particular its sources, modes of spread after the introduction, and vectorial potential. we studied the population genetics of aedes (finlaya) japonicus japonicus (theobald), an asian mosquito that was recognized for the first time in the united states in 1998. we examine ...200111296814
vector competence of north american mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) for west nile virus.we evaluated the potential for several north american mosquito species to transmit the newly introduced west nile (wn) virus. mosquitoes collected in the new york city metropolitan area during the recent wn virus outbreak, at the assateague island wildlife refuge, va, or from established colonies were allowed to feed on chickens infected with wn virus isolated from a crow that died during the 1999 outbreak. these mosquitoes were tested approximately 2 wk later to determine infection, disseminati ...200111296813
first record of aedes japonicus japonicus in illinois: defining its spatial distribution and associated mosquito species.since the initial discovery of aedes japonicus japonicus in 1998 from sites in the northeastern united states (new york, connecticut, and new jersey), this invasive mosquito species now permeates local faunas throughout eastern north america and continues to expand its distribution westward. in july and august of 2006, the 1st reported specimens of ae. japonicus were detected in east central illinois at 2 woodlots in southern urbana. sampling efforts were concentrated around the site of the orig ...200717939502
global transport networks and infectious disease spread.air, sea and land transport networks continue to expand in reach, speed of travel and volume of passengers and goods carried. pathogens and their vectors can now move further, faster and in greater numbers than ever before. three important consequences of global transport network expansion are infectious disease pandemics, vector invasion events and vector-borne pathogen importation. this review briefly examines some of the important historical examples of these disease and vector movements, suc ...200616647974
arrival and establishment of aedes japonicus japonicus (diptera: culicidae) in iowa.the arrival and establishment of aedes (finlaya) japonicus japonicus (theobald) (diptera: culicidae) in iowa are reported. in total, 518 wild adult specimens were collected through the statewide mosquito and mosquito-borne virus surveillance program in 2007 and 2008. specimens were collected with new jersey light traps, co2-baited cdc light traps, grass infusion-baited gravid traps, and mosquito magnet traps located in 12 counties in central and eastern iowa specimens were identified morphologic ...200919960671
an unusual larval collection and survival of orthopodomyia signifera in the presence of the predator toxorhynchites rutilus septentrionalis.from a discarded heavy-equipment tire (ca. 57 liter) at an industrial construction site, we collected 655 (86.0%) orthopodomyia signifera, 23 (3.0%) toxorhynchites rutilus septentrionalis, 17 (2.2%) aedes japonicus japonicus, and 67 (8.8%) culex pipiens pipiens. although larvae of aedes albopictus and aedes triseriatus were not collected from this container, both species were prevalent as host-seeking adults and readily collected as larvae from other containers at this site. laboratory trials to ...200919852230
the invasive mosquito aedes japonicus in central europe.complaints about a biting pest led to the recognition of invasive aedes (finlaya) japonicus japonicus (theobald) (diptera: culicidae) in central europe. larval collections from cemetery vases revealed a colonized area of approximately 1400 km(2) in northern switzerland spreading into bordering germany, suggesting that the mosquito has been established in this region for several years. within this range, larvae of ae. japonicus were recovered from more containers than the most common resident cul ...200919941611
field evaluation of cdc gravid trap attractants to primary west nile virus vectors, culex mosquitoes in new york state.a field study was conducted to evaluate two cdc gravid trap attractants available for the west nile virus surveillance program in new york state (nys). according to potential attractiveness, a common lawn sod in nys, kentucky bluegrass (poa pratensis) infusion and a rabbit chow infusion were compared for attractiveness to primary west nile virus vectors, culex mosquitoes. attractiveness of each infusion was measured by the number of adult mosquitoes caught in cdc gravid traps and the number of e ...200415532922
yeast-generated co2 as a convenient source of carbon dioxide for adult mosquito sampling.a new, convenient method was developed to supply co2 for mosquito sampling by using yeast, which converts sugar into co2 and ethyl alcohol. the system could, at average, generate 32.4 ml/min of co2 for at least 27 h. the total weight of the co2 generated was estimated to be 94 g. the efficacy of yeast-generated co2 as attractant for mosquitoes was significant, and the following 6 mosquito species were collected using yeast-generated co2 traps from july to september 2003 in a residential area of ...200415532924
larval mosquitoes in abandoned tire pile sites from west virginia.larvae of 13 mosquito species were collected from abandoned tire piles at peridomestic and nonperidomestic sites in 3 south-central west virginia counties from may through september 2002. ochlerotatus triseriatus was the most frequently collected species from may through august, whereas aedes albopictus and ochlerotatus japonicus were more prevalent in september. prevalence of oc. triseriatus and culex restuans declined throughout the study period. conversely, prevalences of ae. albopictus, oc. ...200415088700
discovery, distribution, and abundance of the newly introduced mosquito ochlerotatus japonicus (diptera: culicidae) in connecticut, usa.the earliest documented specimen of an exotic east asian mosquito ochlerotatus (finlaya) japonicis japonicus (theobald) in the western hemisphere is reported along with the results of a state wide survey to determine the distribution and abundance of this mosquito in connecticut. ochlerotatus japonicus was collected from 87 locations in eight counties. it is established throughout the state and occurs in a variety of natural and artificial container habitats including discarded tire casings, bir ...200111761373
the effect of west nile virus perceptions and knowledge on protective behavior and mosquito breeding in residential yards in upstate new york.a knowledge, attitudes, and practices (kap) questionnaire combined with entomological surveys of residential mosquito-breeding sites were conducted in two upstate new york neighborhoods. we tested the hypothesis that "correct" west nile virus (wnv) knowledge and perceptions correspond with the use of practices that prevent mosquitoes from breeding and biting. our results demonstrate that perceptions of wnv relate to the number of positive containers in yards and the use of mosquito preventive me ...200919452223
emergence of zoonotic arboviruses by animal trade and migration.abstract: arboviruses are transmitted in nature exclusively or to a major extend by arthropods. they belong to the most important viruses invading new areas in the world and their occurrence is strongly influenced by climatic changes due to the life cycle of the transmitting vectors. several arboviruses have emerged in new regions of the world during the last years, like west nile virus (wnv) in the americas, usutu virus (usuv) in central europe, or rift valley fever virus (rvfv) in the arabian ...201020377873
blood feeding patterns of mosquitoes: random or structured?abstract:201020205866
suppressing aedes albopictus, an emerging vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses, by a novel combination of a monomolecular film and an insect-growth regulator.the asian tiger mosquito aedes albopictus (skuse) is rapidly increasing its global range and importance in transmission of chikungunya and dengue viruses. we tested pellet formulations of a monomolecular film (agnique) and (s)-methoprene (altosid) under laboratory and field conditions. in the laboratory, agnique provided 80% control for 20 days, whereas altosid, in combination with agnique, provided 80% control for > 60 days. during field trials, the 1:1 pellet ratio of combined products provide ...201020439963
host feeding patterns of established and potential mosquito vectors of west nile virus in the eastern united important variable in determining the vectorial capacity of mosquito species for arthropod-borne infections is the degree of contact of the vector and the vertebrate reservoir. this parameter can be estimated by examining the host-feeding habits of vectors. serological and polymerase chain reaction based methods have been used to study the host-feedings patterns of 21 mosquito species from new york, new jersey, and tennessee, 19 of which previously have been found infected with west nile viru ...200415018775
vector-host interactions of culiseta melanura in a focus of eastern equine encephalitis virus activity in southeastern virginia.eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) causes a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne zoonosis that is responsible for sporadic outbreaks of severe illness in humans and equines in the eastern usa. culiseta (cs.) melanura is the primary vector of eeev in most geographic regions but its feeding patterns on specific avian and mammalian hosts are largely unknown in the mid-atlantic region. the objectives of our study were to: 1) identify avian hosts of cs. melanura and evaluate their potential role in ...201526327226
effectiveness of print education at reducing urban mosquito infestation through improved resident-based management.improving resident-based management and knowledge of mosquitoes is often an integral component of integrated mosquito management, especially in urban landscapes with considerable mosquito habitat on privately owned lands. this study tested the effectiveness of print education materials at reducing urban mosquito exposure through improving resident knowledge of, and attitudes towards, mosquitoes and mosquito management in washington dc, usa. there was a specific focus on the removal of water-fill ...201627171195
current status of invasive mosquito surveillance in the uk.non-native invasive mosquitoes have for many years made incursions into europe, and are now established in many european countries. the continued european importation of potential vectors and their expansion within europe increases their potential for importation and establishment in the uk. coupled with increasing numbers of returning dengue and chikungunya infected travellers, the potential exists for transmission of vector borne disease in new regions.201526122427
a review of the invasive mosquitoes in europe: ecology, public health risks, and control options.there has been growing interest in europe in recent years in the establishment and spread of invasive mosquitoes, notably the incursion of aedes albopictus through the international trade in used tires and lucky bamboo, with onward spread within europe through ground transport. more recently, five other non-european aedine mosquito species have been found in europe, and in some cases populations have established locally and are spreading. concerns have been raised about the involvement of these ...201222448724
ecology of culiseta melanura and other mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) from walton county, fl, during winter period 2013-2014.winter ecology of putative vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (eeev) in northern florida was investigated at field locations with evidence of historic eeev winter transmission. light traps and resting shelters were used to sample the mosquito community in the vicinity of eight sentinel flocks throughout the winter period (november-april) of 2013 and 2014 in walton county, fl. overall mosquito activity was relatively low, although mosquitoes were captured during each week of the st ...201526336227
microsatellite markers characterized in the mosquito aedes taeniorhynchus (diptera, culicidae), a disease vector and major pest on the american coast and the galápagos islands.the black salt-marsh mosquito, aedes taeniorhynchus, plays an important role in the transmission of arboviruses such as west nile virus and other pathogens of concern for human and animal health in north and latin america. this mosquito is notably the only widely distributed mosquito species found in the galápagos islands, where its impact as disease vector has not yet been studied. the use of microsatellite markers can significantly improve our understanding of the population structure and dyna ...200919655436
out of the bush: the asian bush mosquito aedes japonicus japonicus (theobald, 1901) (diptera, culicidae) becomes invasive.the asian bush or rock pool mosquito aedes japonicus japonicus is one of the most expansive culicid species of the world. being native to east asia, this species was detected out of its original distribution range for the first time in the early 1990s in new zealand where it could not establish, though. in 1998, established populations were reported from the eastern us, most likely as a result of introductions several years earlier. after a massive spread the mosquito is now widely distributed i ...201424495418
development of dirofilaria immitis within the mosquito aedes (finlaya) koreicus, a new invasive species for europe.over the recent decades, container-breeding mosquito species belonging to the genus aedes have frequently been recorded far from their place of origin. aedes koreicus was first reported in north-eastern italy in 2011, in a region endemic for dirofilaria immitis, the agent of canine heartworm disease. the vector competence of ae. koreicus for d. immitis was here tested under laboratory conditions, by infecting mosquitoes with a local strain of d. immitis.201525884876
mosquitoes inoculate high doses of west nile virus as they probe and feed on live hosts.west nile virus (wnv) is transmitted to vertebrate hosts by mosquitoes as they take a blood meal. the amount of wnv inoculated by mosquitoes as they feed on a live host is not known. previous estimates of the amount of wnv inoculated by mosquitoes (10(1.2)-10(4.3) pfu) were based on in vitro assays that do not allow mosquitoes to probe or feed naturally. here, we developed an in vivo assay to determine the amount of wnv inoculated by mosquitoes as they probe and feed on peripheral tissues of a m ...200717941708
larvicidal effects of a neem (azadirachta indica) oil formulation on the malaria vector anopheles gambiae.larviciding is a key strategy used in many vector control programmes around the world. costs could be reduced if larvicides could be manufactured locally. the potential of natural products as larvicides against the main african malaria vector, anopheles gambiae s.s was evaluated.200717519000
human bloodfeeding by the recently introduced mosquito, aedes japonicus japonicus, and public health implications.knowledge of the host-feeding behavior and extent of interactions with human hosts are important in evaluating the role and vector potential of invasive mosquitoes in transmission of native arboviruses. we collected blood-engorged females of the recently established exotic species aedes japonicus japonicus from sites in new jersey during 2000 to 2007 and identified the sources of vertebrate blood meals by sequencing portions of the cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial dna. over 1/3 (36%, n = 36) o ...200919653507
stormwater ponds, constructed wetlands, and other best management practices as potential breeding sites for west nile virus vectors in delaware during 2004.we performed longitudinal surveys of mosquito larval abundance (mean mosquito larvae per dip) in 87 stormwater ponds and constructed wetland in delaware from june to september 2004. we analyzed selected water quality factors, water depth, types of vegetation, degree of shade, and level of insect predation in relation to mosquito abundance. the 2004 season was atypical, with most ponds remaining wet for the entire summer. in terms of west nile virus (wnv) vectors, wetlands predominantly produce a ...200617019774
evaluation of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry for characterization of culicoides nubeculosus biting midges.matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms) has shown promise in species identification of insect species. we evaluated its potential to consistently characterize laboratory-reared biting midges of the species culicoides nubeculosus (meigen) (diptera: ceratopogonidae). twenty-one reproducible potential biomarker masses for c. nubeculosus were identified under different experimental treatments. these treatments included the homogenization of insects ...201021118284
a geospatial study of the potential of two exotic species of mosquitoes to impact the epidemiology of west nile virus in maryland.we used geospatial techniques to study the potential impact of 2 exotic mosquitoes, aedes albopictus and ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus, on the epidemiology of west nile virus in maryland. these 2 species have established populations in maryland over the past 15 years. larvae of both mosquito species are found in natural and artificial water-holding cavities and containers, particularly water in tires. therefore, we used locations of licensed tire dealers and of tire dumps scheduled for clean ...200314524539
population structure and distribution patterns of the sibling mosquito species culex pipiens and culex torrentium (diptera: culicidae) reveal different evolutionary paths.nowadays a number of endemic mosquito species are known to possess vector abilities for various diseases, as e.g. the sibling species culex pipiens and culex torrentium. due to their morphological similarity, ecology, distribution and vector abilities, knowledge about these species' population structure is essential. culicidae from 25 different sampling sites were collected from march till october 2012. all analyses were performed with aligned cox1 sequences with a total length of 658 bp. popula ...201425048456
impacts of the creation, expansion and management of english wetlands on mosquito presence and abundance - developing strategies for future disease mitigation.the incidence of mosquito-borne diseases is increasing in europe, partly due to the incursion of a number of invasive species known to be vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses, but also due to the involvement of native species in the transmission of west nile virus and malaria. for some of these pathogens, there is a risk of the re-emergence of vector-borne diseases that were once widespread in europe, but declined partly due to large-scale land-drainage projects. some mosquito species explo ...201525889666
relative abundance of tree hole-breeding mosquitoes in boone county, missouri, usa, with emphasis on the vector potential of aedes triseriatus for canine heartworm, dirofilaria immitis (spirurida: filariidae).aedes (protomacleaya) triseriatus currently shares its habitat in the usa with the introduced species aedes (finlaya) japonicus and aedes (stegomyia) albopictus. in the late 1980s, before the introduction of these 2 species, ae. triseriatus was the dominant tree hole- and artificial container-breeding mosquito in central missouri. aedes triseriatus represented 89% of the mosquito immatures collected from water-filled tree holes and artificial containers at 3 forested field sites in central misso ...200516252517
direct pcr of indigenous and invasive mosquito species: a time- and cost-effective technique of mosquito barcoding.millions of people die each year as a result of pathogens transmitted by mosquitoes. however, the morphological identification of mosquito species can be difficult even for experts. the identification of morphologically indistinguishable species, such as members of the anopheles maculipennis complex (diptera: culicidae), and possible hybrids, such as culex pipiens pipiens/culex pipiens molestus (diptera: culicidae), presents a major problem. in addition, the detection and discrimination of newly ...201526663040
first records of aedes japonicus japonicus in wisconsin.aedes japonicus japonicus was collected via gravid trapping in wisconsin in the summers of 2004 and 2005 at fort mccoy, monroe county. subsequently, in the summer of 2007, ae. japonicus was captured in a human landing catch in dane county, madison, wi. additional collections were made at this site in the spring of 2008. invasion is in progress, but significant population increases have not yet been confirmed.200819181068
recently discovered aedes japonicus japonicus (diptera: culicidae) populations in the netherlands and northern germany resulted from a new introduction event and from a split from an existing population.originally native to east asia, aedes japonicus japonicus, a potential vector of several arboviruses, has become one of the most invasive mosquito species in the world. after having established in the usa, it is now spreading in europe, with new populations emerging. in contrast to the usa, the introduction pathways and modes of dispersal in europe are largely obscure.201525608763
laboratory colonization of aedes japonicus japonicus.we describe methodology used for the laboratory colonization of aedes japonicus japonicus, an exotic mosquito species native to eastern asia and first collected in new jersey as larvae in 1999. we created a free mating colony in 2000 that readily bloodfed on restrained bobwhite quail (colinus virginianus). a larval diet of finely ground purina lab diet dissolved in dechlorinated water has proven acceptable. this is the first report of ae. j. japonicus colonization from mosquitoes collected in th ...200819181071
ecological approaches to informing public health policy and risk assessments on emerging vector-borne zoonoses.pathogens associated with vector-borne zoonoses occur in enzootic cycles within nature. they are driven by a combination of vertebrate host and invertebrate vector population dynamics, which in turn respond to changes in environmental stimuli. human involvement in these cycles, and hence the occurrence of human disease, is often to act as incidental host. from a public health perspective our ability to better predict human outbreaks of these diseases and prepare intervention and mitigation strat ...201022460391
evidence that implicit assumptions of 'no evolution' of disease vectors in changing environments can be violated on a rapid timescale.projected impacts of climate change on vector-borne disease dynamics must consider many variables relevant to hosts, vectors and pathogens, including how altered environmental characteristics might affect the spatial distributions of vector species. however, many predictive models for vector distributions consider their habitat requirements to be fixed over relevant time-scales, when they may actually be capable of rapid evolutionary change and even adaptation. we examine the genetic signature o ...025688024
can horton hear the whos? the importance of scale in mosquito-borne disease.the epidemiology of vector-borne pathogens is determined by mechanisms and interactions at different scales of biological organization, from individual-level cellular processes to community interactions between species and with the environment. most research, however, focuses on one scale or level with little integration between scales or levels within scales. understanding the interactions between levels and how they influence our perception of vector-borne pathogens is critical. here two examp ...024724278
predicting the mosquito species and vertebrate species involved in the theoretical transmission of rift valley fever virus in the united states.rift valley fever virus (rvfv) is a mosquito-borne virus in the family bunyaviridiae that has spread throughout continental africa to madagascar and the arabian peninsula. the establishment of rvfv in north america would have serious consequences for human and animal health in addition to a significant economic impact on the livestock industry. published and unpublished data on rvfv vector competence, vertebrate host competence, and mosquito feeding patterns from the united states were combined ...201425211133
standardized laboratory feeding of larval aedes japonicus japonicus (diptera: culicidae).the asian bush mosquito (aedes japonicus japonicus, theobald 1901) is an invasive culicid species which originates in asia but is nowadays present in northern america and europe. it is a competent vector for several human disease pathogens. in addition to the public health threat, this invasive species may also be an ecological threat for native container-breeding mosquitoes which share a similar larval habitat. therefore, it is of importance to gain knowledge on ecological and eco-toxicological ...201526452522
the roles of mosquito and bird communities on the prevalence of west nile virus in urban wetland and residential habitats.this study investigated the impacts of urban wetlands and their adjacent residential environments on the transmission dynamics of west nile virus (wnv) within the state of new jersey (usa). a working hypothesis was that urban wetlands decrease the local prevalence of wnv through the dilution effect from increased bird diversity, and through relative reductions in the numbers of competent avian host and mosquito species commonly associated with wnv. surveys of mosquito and bird communities were u ...025484570
does autocthonous primary production influence oviposition by aedes japonicus japonicus (diptera: culicidae) in container habitats?aedes (finlaya) japonicus japonicus (theobald) (diptera: culicidae) is recently invasive in north america and has expanded its range rapidly since 1998. throughout its native and expanded range, ae. j. japonicus larvae are commonly observed in many types of natural and artificial water-filled containers that vary in organic matter content and exposure to sunlight. larvae are most often found in containers with decaying leaf material or algae, and we postulated that the added autocthonous primary ...023427654
metallic copper spray--a new control technique to combat invasive container-inhabiting mosquitoes.the control of container-inhabiting mosquitoes is mainly based on environmental management with special emphasis on community participation e.g. source reduction by elimination or modification of water bodies. however, citizens are often not aware of the problems related to urban mosquito control or just ignore the advice provided during anti-mosquito control campaigns. in particular, cemeteries contain favourite breeding sites for container-inhabiting mosquitoes like ochlerotatus j. japonicus, ...201526553319
development of guidelines for the surveillance of invasive mosquitoes in europe.the recent notifications of autochthonous cases of dengue and chikungunya in europe prove that the region is vulnerable to these diseases in areas where known mosquito vectors (aedes albopictus and aedes aegypti) are present. strengthening surveillance of these species as well as other invasive container-breeding aedine mosquito species such as aedes atropalpus, aedes japonicus, aedes koreicus and aedes triseriatus is therefore required. in order to support and harmonize surveillance activities ...201323866915
interspecific larval competition between aedes albopictus and aedes japonicus (diptera: culicidae) in northern virginia.aedes albopictus (skuse) and aedes japonicus (theobald) are two of the most recent and widespread invasive mosquito species to have become established in the united states. the two species co-occur in water-filled artificial containers, where crowding and limiting resources are likely to promote inter- or intraspecific larval competition. the performance of northern virginia populations of ae. japonicus and ae. albopictus competing as larvae under field conditions was evaluated. per capita rates ...018714861
phylogeography of the coastal mosquito aedes togoi across climatic zones: testing an anthropogenic dispersal hypothesis.the coastal mosquito aedes togoi occurs more or less continuously from subarctic to subtropic zones along the coasts of the japanese islands and the east asian mainland. it occurs also in tropical southeast asia and the north american pacific coast, and the populations there are thought to have been introduced from japan by ship. to test this hypothesis, the genetic divergence among geographic populations of a. togoi was studied using one mitochondrial and three nuclear gene sequences. we detect ...201526107619
japanese aedes albopictus among four mosquito species reaching new zealand in used tires.since a 1988-89 survey of northern new zealand revealed no additions to the known mosquito fauna, this country's used tire importations have much increased. relevant entomological quarantine was thus monitored in a november 1992-january 1993 auckland project, during which almost 1/3 of 8,549 casings from japan proved wet on inspection. in this study and at 2 south island ports afterwards, 5 vessels from japan and one from australia were found to have brought in mosquito-infested used tires. live ...19948014623
mosquito larvae in tires from mississippi, united states: the efficacy of abiotic and biotic parameters in predicting spatial and temporal patterns of mosquito populations and communities.container systems, including discarded vehicle tires, which support populations of mosquitoes, have been of interest for understanding the variables that produce biting adults that serve as both nuisances and as public health threats. we sampled tires in six sites at three times in 2012 across the state of mississippi to understand the biotic and abiotic variables responsible for explaining patterns of larvae of common species, species richness, and total abundance of mosquitoes. from 498 tires ...201526334813
spread of aedes japonicus japonicus (theobald, 1901) in austria, 2011-2015, and first records of the subspecies for hungary, 2012, and the principality of liechtenstein, 2015.the asian bush mosquito, aedes (hulecoeteomyia) japonicus japonicus (theobald, 1901) (diptera: culicidae), was first identified in austria in august 2011 in the federal state of styria at the border to slovenia.201627343074
north american wetlands and mosquito control.wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. there is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by ...201223222252
control of mosquitoes in catch basins in connecticut with bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, bacillus sphearicus, and spinosad.catch basins are a major source of culex pipiens pipiens, cx. restuans, and aedes japonicus in northeastern usa. vectobac cg (bacillus thuringiensis israelensis [bti]), vectolex cg (bacillus sphaericus [bs]), and vectobac 12as (bti), each applied at maximum label rate of 1.8 g, 1.8 g, and 0.193 ml per catch basin, respectively, significantly reduced the numbers of larvae for 1 wk. the dosages on the labels for treatment of mosquito larvae in catch basins, where mosquito breeding is continuous, a ...201121476447
west nile virus: a re-emerging pathogen revisited.west nile virus (wnv), a flavivirus of the flaviviridae family, is maintained in nature in an enzootic transmission cycle between avian hosts and ornithophilic mosquito vectors, although the virus occasionally infects other vertebrates. wnv causes sporadic disease outbreaks in horses and humans, which may result in febrile illness, meningitis, encephalitis and flaccid paralysis. until recently, its medical and veterinary health concern was relatively low; however, the number, frequency and sever ...024175211
occurrence and spread of the invasive asian bush mosquito aedes japonicus japonicus (diptera: culicidae) in west and north germany since detection in 2012 and 2013, respectively.the invasive asian bush mosquito aedes japonicus japonicus was first recognised as established in germany in 2008. in addition to the first known and quickly expanding population in the southwestern part of the country, three separate populations were discovered in west, north and southeastern germany in 2012, 2013 and 2015, respectively, by means of the 'mueckenatlas', a german instrument of passive mosquito surveillance. since the first findings of mosquito specimens in west and north germany, ...201627936209
invasion biology of aedes japonicus japonicus (diptera: culicidae).aedes japonicus japonicus (theobald) (diptera: culicidae) has recently expanded beyond its native range of japan and korea into large parts of north america and central europe. population genetic studies begun immediately after the species was detected in north america revealed genetically distinct introductions that subsequently merged, likely contributing to the successful expansion. interactions, particularly in the larval stage, with other known disease vectors give this invasive subspecies ...024397520
aedes albopictus and aedes japonicus - two invasive mosquito species with different temperature niches in europe.aedes albopictus and ae. japonicus are two of the most widespread invasive mosquito species that have recently become established in western europe. both species are associated with the transmission of a number of serious diseases and are projected to continue their spread in europe.201627814747
anthropogenic impacts on mosquito populations in north america over the past century.the recent emergence and spread of vector-borne viruses including zika, chikungunya and dengue has raised concerns that climate change may cause mosquito vectors of these diseases to expand into more temperate regions. however, the long-term impact of other anthropogenic factors on mosquito abundance and distributions is less studied. here, we show that anthropogenic chemical use (ddt; dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and increasing urbanization were the strongest drivers of changes in mosquito ...201627922001
source reduction behavior as an independent measurement of the impact of a public health education campaign in an integrated vector management program for the asian tiger mosquito.the goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a public health educational campaign to reduce backyard mosquito-larval habitats. three communities each, within two new jersey counties, were randomly selected to receive: (1) both education and mosquito control, (2) education only, and (3) no education or mosquito control. four separate educational events included a 5-day elementary school curriculum in the spring, and three door to door distributions of educational brochures. before ...201121655124
how do nutritional stress and la crosse virus infection interact? tests for effects on willingness to blood feed and fecundity in aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae).evolutionary theory predicts that vector-borne pathogens should have low virulence for their vector because of selection against pathogens that harm the vector sufficiently to reduce transmission. environmental factors such as nutritional stress can alter vector-pathogen associations by making the vectors more susceptible to pathogens (condition-dependent competence) and vulnerable to the harm caused by pathogen replication (condition-dependent virulence). we tested the hypotheses of condition-d ...201526477049
a new focus of aedes japonicus japonicus (theobald, 1901) (diptera, culicidae) distribution in western germany: rapid spread or a further introduction event?the asian bush mosquito, aedes japonicus japonicus, a potential vector of several viruses, was first detected in germany in 2008 on the swiss-german border. in the following years, this invasive species apparently succeeded in establishing populations in southern germany and in spreading northwards. in 2011, its distribution area already covered large areas of the federal state of baden-wurttemberg, and its northernmost german collection point was reported to be close to stuttgart. several indep ...201223216741
community ecology of container mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in virginia following invasion by aedes japonicus.the success of an invasive species in a new region depends on its interactions with ecologically similar resident species. invasions by disease vector mosquitoes are important as they may have ecological and epidemiological consequences. potential interactions of a recent invasive mosquito, aedes japonicus theobald, with resident species in virginia were evaluated by sampling larvae from containers and trapping adults. distinct species compositions were observed for artificial containers and roc ...023270159
why are anopheline mosquitoes not present in the seychelles?species of anopheline mosquitoes are largely distributed over emerged lands around the world and, within the tropics, few areas are without these insects, which are vectors of malaria parasites. among the exceptions is the seychelles archipelago in the western indian ocean. however, in the aldabra island group, located in the extreme western portion of the archipelago, anopheles gambiae s.l. was introduced, leading to massive proliferation and then elimination, with the most recent autochthonous ...201121303530
newly discovered population of aedes japonicus japonicus (diptera: culicidae) in upper bavaria, germany, and salzburg, austria, is closely related to the austrian/slovenian bush mosquito population.the german mosquito surveillance instrument 'mueckenatlas' requests the general public to collect and submit mosquito specimens. among these, increasing numbers of individuals of invasive species have been registered. specimens of the asian bush mosquito aedes japonicus japonicus submitted from german upper bavaria, where this species had not previously been recorded, triggered regional monitoring in mid-2015.201627000804
evidence for reduction of native mosquitoes with increased expansion of invasive ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus (diptera: culicidae) in the northeastern united states.ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus (theobald) is an invasive mosquito native to japan, korea, and eastern china. the species was first detected in the northeastern united states in 1998 and has rapidly spread throughout much of eastern north america. in addition to used tire casings, oc. j. japonicus develops in a wide variety of artificial and natural container habitats, especially rock pools along stream beds. in an effort to evaluate the invasion success and impact of oc. j. japonicus on popula ...201020180307
your worst enemy could be your best friend: predator contributions to invasion resistance and persistence of natives.native predators are postulated to have an important role in biotic resistance of communities to invasion and community resilience. effects of predators can be complex, and mechanisms by which predators affect invasion success and impact are understood for only a few well-studied communities. we tested experimentally whether a native predator limits an invasive species' success and impact on a native competitor for a community of aquatic insect larvae in water-filled containers. the native mosqu ...200919841945
interspecific competition of a new invasive mosquito, culex coronator, and two container mosquitoes, aedes albopictus and cx. quinquefasciatus (diptera: culicidae), across different detritus environments.the mosquito culex coronator (dyar and knab) (diptera: culicidae) has undergone rapid range expansion in the united states since 2003, with its historical distribution in the southwest expanding eastward to the atlantic coast. although cx. coronator nominally use small natural aquatic habitats for development, the use of containers (e.g., tires) makes it potentially important as container invasive. to determine the potential ecological effects of cx. coronator on resident container species, we c ...024605457
elevation of pseudoskusea, rusticoidus and protomacleaya to valid subgenera in the mosquito genus aedes based on taxon naming criteria recently applied to other members of the tribe aedini (diptera: culicidae).pseudoskusea, rusticoidus and protomacleaya were well-recognized, morphologically distinct subgenera within the genus aedes prior to a series of taxonomic changes over the past 15 years by reinert, harbach and kitching, when they were recognized as subgenera of the genus ochlerotatus. in our recent effort to stabilize the tribe aedini, we synonymized these subgenera and associated species back into the genus aedes, but incorrectly assigned them as putative informal groups, instead of reinstating ...201526714624
higher mosquito production in low-income neighborhoods of baltimore and washington, dc: understanding ecological drivers and mosquito-borne disease risk in temperate cities.mosquito-vectored pathogens are responsible for devastating human diseases and are (re)emerging in many urban environments. effective mosquito control in urban landscapes relies on improved understanding of the complex interactions between the ecological and social factors that define where mosquito populations can grow. we compared the density of mosquito habitat and pupae production across economically varying neighborhoods in two temperate u.s. cities (baltimore, md and washington, dc). seven ...201323583963
field evaluation of four widely used mosquito traps in central monitor adult mosquitoes several trapping devices are available. these are differently constructed and use various mechanisms for mosquito attraction, thus resulting in different trapping sensitivities and efficacies for the various species. mosquito monitoring and surveillance programs in europe use various types of mosquito traps, but only a few comparisons have been conducted so far. this study compared the performance of four commercial trapping devices, which are commonly used in europe.201424924481
invasive process and repeated cross-sectional surveys of the mosquito aedes japonicus japonicus establishment in belgium.when accidentally introduced in a new location, a species does not necessarily readily become invasive, but it usually needs several years to adapt to its new environment. in 2009, a national mosquito survey (modirisk) reported the introduction and possible establishment of an invasive mosquito species, aedes j. japonicus, in belgium. first collected in 2002 in the village of natoye from a second-hand tire company, then sampled in 2003 and 2004, the presence of adults and larvae was confirmed in ...201424694576
erratum to: aedes albopictus and aedes japonicus - two invasive mosquito species with different temperature niches in europe. 201627919276
cemeteries are effective sites for monitoring la crosse virus (lacv) and these environments may play a role in lacv crosse encephalitis (lac) is the leading arboviral disease among children, and was previously limited to the upper midwest. in 2012 nine pediatric cases of lac occurred in eastern tennessee, including one fatal case. in an attempt to identify sites near an active lacv infection and describe the abundance and distribution of potential lacv vectors near a fatal lac case in the appalachian region, we initiated an end of season study using a combination of questing and oviposition mosquito traps ...201525860584
intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of succession: effects of habitat age and season on an aquatic insect community.1. classical studies of succession, largely dominated by plant community studies, focus on intrinsic drivers of change in community composition, such as interspecific competition and changes to the abiotic environment. they often do not consider extrinsic drivers of colonization, such as seasonal phenology, that can affect community change. 2. we investigated both intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of succession for dipteran communities that occupy ephemeral pools, such as those in artificial conta ...024910493
species interactions among larval mosquitoes: context dependence across habitat gradients.biotic interactions involving mosquito larvae are context dependent, with effects of interactions on populations altered by ecological conditions. relative impacts of competition and predation change across a gradient of habitat size and permanence. asymmetrical competition is common and ecological context changes competitive advantage, potentially facilitating landscape-level coexistence of competitors. predator effects on mosquito populations sometimes depend on habitat structure and on emerge ...019067629
epidemiology of la crosse virus emergence, appalachia region, united crosse encephalitis is a viral disease that has emerged in new locations across the appalachian region of the united states. conventional wisdom suggests that ongoing emergence of la crosse virus (lacv) could stem from the invasive asian tiger (aedes albopictus) mosquito. efforts to prove this, however, are complicated by the numerous transmission routes and species interactions involved in lacv dynamics. to analyze lacv transmission by asian tiger mosquitoes, we constructed epidemiologic mod ...027767009
female adult aedes albopictus suppression by wolbachia-infected male mosquitoes.dengue, chikungunya and zika viruses are pathogens with an increasing global impact. in the absence of an approved vaccine or therapy, their management relies on controlling the mosquito vectors. but traditional controls are inadequate, and the range of invasive species such as aedes albopictus (asian tiger mosquito) is expanding. genetically modified mosquitoes are being tested, but their use has encountered regulatory barriers and public opposition in some countries. wolbachia bacteria can cau ...201627659038
anopheles (anopheles) petragnani del vecchio 1939-a new mosquito species for germany.the so far known species of the anopheles claviger complex, anopheles claviger s.s. and anopheles petragnani, can only be distinguished by partial overlapping characteristics of immature stages and by nucleotide sequence variation of the genomic ribosomal dna (rdna) internal transcribed spacer 2 (its2) region. the known distribution of an. petragnani is so far restricted to the western mediterranean region, whereas an. claviger s.s. occurs across most of europe, up to the middle east and north a ...201627003404
public health adaptation to climate change in oecd countries.climate change is a major challenge facing public health. national governments play a key role in public health adaptation to climate change, but there are competing views on what responsibilities and obligations this will-or should-include in different nations. this study aims to: (1) examine how national-level public health adaptation is occurring in organization for economic cooperation and development (oecd) countries; (2) examine the roles national governments are taking in public health ad ...201627618074
first record of the asian bush mosquito, aedes japonicus japonicus, in italy: invasion from an established austrian 2011 we identified the asian bush mosquito, aedes japonicus japonicus (theobald, 1901) (diptera: culicidae) for the first time in northern slovenia and in the bordering austrian federal state of styria. between may and july 2012 the distribution area of ae. j. japonicus was already found to be extended westwards into carinthia and eastwards towards burgenland and bordering hungary. in august 2012 the species was first detected in a western province of hungary. in subsequent years, follow-up f ...201627184024
contributions of temporal segregation, oviposition choice, and non-additive effects of competitors to invasion success of aedes japonicus (diptera: culicidae) in north america.the mosquito aedes japonicus (diptera: culicidae) has spread rapidly through north america since its introduction in the 1990s. the mechanisms underlying its establishment in container communities occupied by competitors aedes triseriatus and aedes albopictus are unclear. possibilities include (a) temporal separation of a. japonicus from other aedes, (b) oviposition avoidance by a. japonicus of sites containing heterospecific aedes larvae, and (c) non-additive competitive effects in assemblages ...026101466
making mosquito taxonomy useful: a stable classification of tribe aedini that balances utility with current knowledge of evolutionary relationships.the tribe aedini (family culicidae) contains approximately one-quarter of the known species of mosquitoes, including vectors of deadly or debilitating disease agents. this tribe contains the genus aedes, which is one of the three most familiar genera of mosquitoes. during the past decade, aedini has been the focus of a series of extensive morphology-based phylogenetic studies published by reinert, harbach, and kitching (rh&k). those authors created 74 new, elevated or resurrected genera from wha ...201526226613
reintroduction of the invasive mosquito species aedes albopictus in belgium in july 2013.since its first report in 2000, the invasive mosquito aedes albopictus was not found any more during the different entomological inspections performed at its place of introduction in belgium between 2001 and 2012. in july 2013, one adult male was captured at the same site (a platform of imported used tires located in vrasene, oost-vlaanderen province), during a monitoring using co2-baited trap. this finding suggests the reintroduction of the species in belgium via the used tire trade.201324325893
approaches to passive mosquito surveillance in the eu.the recent emergence in europe of invasive mosquitoes and mosquito-borne disease associated with both invasive and native mosquito species has prompted intensified mosquito vector research in most european countries. central to the efforts are mosquito monitoring and surveillance activities in order to assess the current species occurrence, distribution and, when possible, abundance, in order to permit the early detection of invasive species and the spread of competent vectors. as active mosquit ...201525567671
laboratory colonization of aedes japonicus japonicus (diptera: culicidae) collected in narita, japan and the biological properties of the established colony.a laboratory colony of the mosquito aedes japonicus japonicus, which has recently invaded the united states and is recognized as a highly competent vector of west nile virus, was established from larvae collected in narita, japan. the mosquitoes were maintained with induced insemination, blood-feeding on humans, and oviposition in water provided from the original collection site during the first few generations, then the colony was transferred to a large cage (40×40×100 cm in height) and adapted ...201021099089
mitigating future avian malaria threats to hawaiian forest birds from climate change.avian malaria, transmitted by culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in the hawaiian islands, has been a primary contributor to population range limitations, declines, and extinctions for many endemic hawaiian honeycreepers. avian malaria is strongly influenced by climate; therefore, predicted future changes are expected to expand transmission into higher elevations and intensify and lengthen existing transmission periods at lower elevations, leading to further population declines and potential extin ...201728060848
la crosse virus in aedes japonicus japonicus mosquitoes in the appalachian region, united crosse virus (lacv), a leading cause of arboviral encephalitis in children in the united states, is emerging in appalachia. for local arboviral surveillance, mosquitoes were tested. lacv rna was detected and isolated from aedes japonicus mosquitoes. these invasive mosquitoes may significantly affect lacv range expansion and dynamics.025811131
unexpected patterns of admixture in german populations of aedes japonicus japonicus (diptera: culicidae) underscore the importance of human intervention.the mosquito aedes japonicus japonicus, originally restricted to temperate east asia, is now widespread in north america and more recently has become established in europe. to ascertain the putative number of separate introductions to europe and examine patterns of expansion we analyzed the genetic makeup of ae. j. japonicus populations from five cemeteries in north rhine-westphalia and rhineland-palatinate, two western german federal states, as well as of specimens from populations in belgium, ...201424992470
predation resistance does not trade off with competitive ability in early-colonizing mosquitoes.the tradeoff between colonization and competitive ability has been proposed as a mechanism for ecological succession, and this tradeoff has been demonstrated in multiple successional communities. the tradeoff between competitive ability and predation resistance is also a widely-described phenomenon; however, this tradeoff is not usually postulated as a cause of ecological succession. early successional species that arrive before predator colonization could be either (1) less vulnerable to predat ...201323649756
establishment of aedes japonicus japonicus and its colonization of container habitats in michigan.oviposition dynamics and colonization of container habitats by the invasive species, aedes (finlaya) japonicus japonicus (theobald) were examined through the use of ovistrips placed in buckets, and larval surveys of tree holes and tires at sites in central michigan. in general, oviposition and colonization increased during the study periods, with several sites showing large increases from <10% ae. j. japonicus initially to over 60% in the following years. seasonally, higher proportions of ae. j. ...023270158
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