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malaria incidence and assessment of entomological indices among resettled communities in ethiopia: a longitudinal study.population resettlement has been considered among factors that may increase risk of malaria transmission. this study reports, the impact of resettlement on malaria incidence and entomological indices among communities resettled in suburbs of jimma town, southwestern ethiopia.201525626598
transmission patterns of plasmodium falciparum by anopheles gambiae in benin.to better control malaria, the clear and urgent need is for improved data to inform decision makers, but in several african countries, there is a lack of baseline data on vectors and variation in the intensity of malaria transmission. this has resulted in the implementation of vector control efforts that ignore variation in vector behaviour and intensity of transmission, an approach that is most often not cost-effective. this study presents a detailed entomological description of mosquito distri ...201425412948
first report of an exophilic anopheles arabiensis population in bissau city, guinea-bissau: recent introduction or sampling bias?the malaria vector anopheles arabiensis exhibits greater behavioural and ecological plasticity than the other major vectors of the anopheles gambiae complex, which presents challenges for major control methods. this study reports for the first time the presence of an. arabiensis in antula, a suburb of bissau city, the capital of guinea bissau, where high levels of hybridization between anopheles coluzzii and an. gambiae have been reported. given that previous surveys in the area, based on indoor ...201425370807
recent outbreaks of rift valley fever in east africa and the middle east.rift valley fever (rvf) is an important neglected, emerging, mosquito-borne disease with severe negative impact on human and animal health. mosquitoes in the aedes genus have been considered as the reservoir, as well as vectors, since their transovarially infected eggs withstand desiccation and larvae hatch when in contact with water. however, different mosquito species serve as epizootic/epidemic vectors of rvf, creating a complex epidemiologic pattern in east africa. the recent rvf outbreaks i ...201425340047
increased malaria transmission around irrigation schemes in ethiopia and the potential of canal water management for malaria vector control.irrigation schemes have been blamed for the increase in malaria in many parts of sub-saharan africa. however, proper water management could help mitigate malaria around irrigation schemes in this region. this study investigates the link between irrigation and malaria in central ethiopia.201425218697
generation of an infectious negev virus cdna clone.the genus negevirus consists of insect-only viruses isolated from mosquitoes and sandflies. here, we report the successful construction of a full-length infectious cdna clone of negev virus (negv) strain m30957. viral rna was transcribed in vitro and virus was readily rescued with or without the use of a cap analogue. these results strongly suggest that negv, and likely other members within the genus, is a non-segmented, single-stranded, positive-sense rna virus.201424878640
anopheles ziemanni a locally important malaria vector in ndop health district, north west region of cameroon.malaria transmission in cameroon is mediated by a plethora of vectors that are heterogeneously distributed across the country depending on the biotope. to effectively guide malaria control operations, regular update on the role of local anopheles species is essential. therefore, an entomological survey was conducted between august 2010 and may 2011 to evaluate the role of the local anopheline population in malaria transmission in three villages of the ndop health district in the northwest region ...201424903710
an experimental hut study to quantify the effect of ddt and airborne pyrethroids on entomological parameters of malaria transmission.current malaria vector control programmes rely on insecticides with rapid contact toxicity. however, spatial repellents can also be applied to reduce man-vector contact, which might ultimately impact malaria transmission. the aim of this study was to quantify effects of airborne pyrethroids from coils and ddt used an indoor residual spray (irs) on entomological parameters that influence malaria transmission.201424693934
evidence for perennial malaria in rural and urban areas under the sudanian climate of kandi, northeastern benin.in arid settings, droughts usually lead to periods of very low or no malaria transmission. however, in rural kandi (sonsoro) in northeastern benin, several malaria cases are often diagnosed during dry seasons. the underlying factors accounting for this phenomenon remain unknown.201424564957
design and testing of a novel, protective human-baited tent trap for the collection of anthropophilic disease vectors.currently, there exists a deficit of safe, active trapping methods for the collection of host-seeking anopheles and other disease-causing arthropod vectors. the gold-standard approach for mosquito collection is that of human landing catch (hlc), in which an individual exposes bare skin to possibly infected vectors. here, we present the development of a new method for mosquito collection, the infoscitex tent, which uses modern tent materials coupled with a novel trap design. this provides an effi ...024605476
impact of land-use on malaria transmission in the plateau region, southeastern benin.the goal of the study is to investigate if local agricultural practices have an impact on malaria transmission in four villages located in the same geographical area within a radius of 15 kilometers. among the villages, one (itassoumba) is characterized by the presence of a large market garden and fishpond basins, the three others (itakpako, djohounkollé and ko-koumolou) are characterized by traditional food-producing agriculture.201324330734
impact of housing condition on indoor-biting and indoor-resting anopheles arabiensis density in a highland area, central ethiopia.exposure of individuals to malaria infection may depend on their housing conditions as houses serve as biting and resting places of vectors. this study describes the association of housing conditions with densities of indoor-biting and indoor-resting anopheles arabiensis in hobe, dirama and wurib villages of a highland area in central ethiopia.201324191901
impact of operational effectiveness of long-lasting insecticidal nets (llins) on malaria transmission in pyrethroid-resistant areas.a dynamic study on the transmission of malaria was conducted in two areas (r⁺ area: low resistance area; r⁺⁺⁺ area: high resistance area) in the department of plateau in south eastern benin, where the population is protected by long lasting insecticidal nets (llins). the aim of this study was to determine if the resistance of malaria vectors to insecticides has an impact on their behavior and on the effectiveness of llins in the reduction of malaria transmission.201324499508
avian malaria prevalence and mosquito abundance in the western cape, south africa.the close relationship between vector-borne diseases and their environment is well documented, especially for diseases with water-dependent vectors such as avian malaria. mosquitoes are the primary vectors of avian malaria and also the definitive hosts in the disease life cycle. factors pertinent to mosquito ecology are likely to be influential to observed infection patterns; such factors include rainfall, season, temperature, and water quality.201324160170
agro-ecosystems impact malaria prevalence: large-scale irrigation drives vector population in western ethiopia.development strategies in ethiopia have largely focused on the expansion of irrigated agriculture in the last decade to reduce poverty and promote economic growth. however, such irrigation schemes can worsen the socio-economic state by aggravating the problem of mosquito-borne diseases. in this study, the effect of agro-ecosystem practices on malaria prevalence and the risk of malaria transmission by the primary vector mosquito, anopheles arabiensis, in ethiopia were investigated.201324083353
monitoring malaria vector control interventions: effectiveness of five different adult mosquito sampling methods.long-term success of ongoing malaria control efforts based on mosquito bed nets (long-lasting insecticidal net) and indoor residual spraying is dependent on continuous monitoring of mosquito vectors, and thus on effective mosquito sampling tools. the objective of our study was to identify the most efficient mosquito sampling tool(s) for routine vector surveillance for malaria and lymphatic filariasis transmission in coastal kenya. we evaluated relative efficacy of five collection methods--light ...024180120
standardizing operational vector sampling techniques for measuring malaria transmission intensity: evaluation of six mosquito collection methods in western kenya.operational vector sampling methods lack standardization, making quantitative comparisons of malaria transmission across different settings difficult. human landing catch (hlc) is considered the research gold standard for measuring human-mosquito contact, but is unsuitable for large-scale sampling. this study assessed mosquito catch rates of cdc light trap (cdc-lt), ifakara tent trap (itt), window exit trap (wet), pot resting trap (prt), and box resting trap (brt) relative to hlc in western keny ...201323631641
new insights into the population structure of anopheles gambiae s.s. in the gulf of guinea islands revealed by herves transposable elements.transposable elements (tes) are mobile portions of dna that are able to replicate and spread in the genome of many organisms. tes can be used as a means to insert transgenes in insects, being stably inherited throughout generations. anopheles gambiae is the main vector of human malaria in sub-saharan africa. given the extraordinary burden this disease imposes, the mosquito became a choice target for genetic control approaches with the purpose of reducing malaria transmission. in this study, we i ...201323638171
the role of anopheles arabiensis and anopheles coustani in indoor and outdoor malaria transmission in taveta district, kenya.the scaling up of malaria vector control efforts in africa has resulted in changing the malaria vectorial systems across different ecological settings. in view of the ongoing trends in vector population dynamics, abundance, species composition and parasite infectiousness, there is a need to understand vector distribution and their contribution to malaria transmission to facilitate future planning of control strategies. we studied indoor and outdoor malaria transmission dynamics and vector popula ...201323601146
response of anopheles gambiae s.l. (diptera: culicidae) to larval habitat age in western kenya highlands.larval control is of paramount importance in the reduction of vector populations. previous observations have suggested that, larvae of anopheles gambiae s.l occur more often in small temporary habitats while other studies showed that long-lasting stable habitats are more productive than unstable habitats. in addition, the physical and biological conditions and stability of larval habitats can change rapidly in natural conditions. therefore, we examined the effect of larval habitat age on product ...201323324330
impact of cyfluthrin (solfac ew050) impregnated bed nets on malaria transmission in the city of mbandjock : lessons for the nationwide distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (llins) in cameroon.insecticide treated materials remain the mainstay for malaria prevention. the current study reports on the entomological impact of cyfluthrin impregnated bed nets on malaria transmission in mbandjock, a semi urban locality in southern cameroon. several findings pertaining to the recent distribution of llins across cameroon are discussed.201323311927
identification of wolbachia strains in mosquito disease vectors.wolbachia bacteria are common endosymbionts of insects, and some strains are known to protect their hosts against rna viruses and other parasites. this has led to the suggestion that releasing wolbachia-infected mosquitoes could prevent the transmission of arboviruses and other human parasites. we have identified wolbachia in kenyan populations of the yellow fever vector aedes bromeliae and its relative aedes metallicus, and in mansonia uniformis and mansonia africana, which are vectors of lymph ...201223185484
variation in malaria transmission dynamics in three different sites in western kenya.the main objective was to investigate malaria transmission dynamics in three different sites, two highland villages (fort ternan and lunyerere) and a lowland peri-urban area (nyalenda) of kisumu city. adult mosquitoes were collected using psc and cdc light trap while malaria parasite incidence data was collected from a cohort of children on monthly basis. rainfall, humidity and temperature data were collected by automated weather stations. negative binomial and poisson generalized additive model ...201222988466
assessment of the effect of insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying for malaria control in three rural kebeles of adami tulu district, south central ethiopia.in the adami tulu district, indoor residual spraying (irs) and insecticide-treated nets (itns) has been the main tool used to control malaria. the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of irs and itns control strategies in aneno shisho kebele (lowest administrative unit of ethiopia) compared with kamo gerbi (supplied itn only) and jela aluto (no irs and itns), with regards to the prevalence of malaria and mosquito density.201222533789
malaria vectors in lake victoria and adjacent habitats in western kenya.the prevalence of malaria among the residents of the lake victoria basin remains high. the environment associated with the lake may maintain a high number of malaria vectors. lake habitats including water hyacinths have been suspected to be the source of vectors. this study investigated whether malaria vectors breed in the lake habitats and adjacent backwater pools. anopheline larvae were collected within the littoral zone of the lake and adjacent pools located along approximately 24.3 km of the ...201222412913
evaluation of two methods of estimating larval habitat productivity in western kenya highlands.malaria vector intervention and control programs require reliable and accurate information about vector abundance and their seasonal distribution. the availability of reliable information on the spatial and temporal productivity of larval vector habitats can improve targeting of larval control interventions and our understanding of local malaria transmission and epidemics. the main objective of this study was to evaluate two methods of estimating larval habitat productivity in the western kenyan ...201121682875
application of broad-spectrum resequencing microarray for genotyping rhabdoviruses.the rapid and accurate identification of pathogens is critical in the control of infectious disease. to this end, we analyzed the capacity for viral detection and identification of a newly described high-density resequencing microarray (rma), termed pathogenid, which was designed for multiple pathogen detection using database similarity searching. we focused on one of the largest and most diverse viral families described to date, the family rhabdoviridae. we demonstrate that this approach has th ...201020610710
exploring the origin and degree of genetic isolation of anopheles gambiae from the islands of são tomé and príncipe, potential sites for testing transgenic-based vector control.the evolutionary processes at play between island and mainland populations of the malaria mosquito vector anopheles gambiae sensu stricto are of great interest as islands may be suitable sites for preliminary application of transgenic-based vector control strategies. são tomé and príncipe, located off the west african coast, have received such attention in recent years. this study investigates the degree of isolation of an. gambiae s.s. populations between these islands and the mainland based on ...200825567803
detection of plasmodium falciparum infection in anopheles squamosus (diptera: culicidae) in an area targeted for malaria elimination, southern zambia.southern zambia is the focus of strategies to create malaria-free zones. interventions being rolled out include test and treat strategies and distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets that target vectors that host-seek indoors and late at night. in macha, choma district, collections of mosquitoes were made outdoors using barrier screens within homesteads or uv bulb light traps set next to goats, cattle, or chickens during the rainy season of 2015. anopheline mosquitoes were identified to spec ...201627297214
biology of mosquitoes that are potential vectors of rift valley fever virus in different biotopes of the central highlands of madagascar.there were epidemic-epizootics of rift valley fever (rvf) affecting humans and cattle in madagascar in the district of anjozorobe in 2008. little is known about the role of malagasy mosquitoes in the circulation of rvf virus. therefore, we investigated the species diversity, dynamics and biology of potential rvf virus vectors in the rainforest, rainforest edge (village of anorana), and savanna biotope (village of antanifotsy) of this district between november 2008 and july 2010. we captured 56,6 ...201323802456
arbovirus and insect-specific virus discovery in kenya by novel six genera multiplex high-resolution melting analysis.a broad diversity of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) of global health concern are endemic to east africa, yet most surveillance efforts are limited to just a few key viral pathogens. additionally, estimates of arbovirus diversity in the tropics are likely to be underestimated as their discovery has lagged significantly over past decades due to limitations in fast and sensitive arbovirus identification methods. here, we developed a nearly pan-arbovirus detection assay that uses high-resolut ...201627482633
zika virus: an updated review of competent or naturally infected mosquitoes.zika virus (zikv) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) that recently caused outbreaks in the americas. over the past 60 years, this virus has been observed circulating among african, asian, and pacific island populations, but little attention has been paid by the scientific community until the discovery that large-scale urban zikv outbreaks were associated with neurological complications such as microcephaly and several other neurological malformations in fetuses and newborns. this paper is a ...201729145400
indoor and outdoor malaria vector surveillance in western kenya: implications for better understanding of residual transmission.the widespread use of indoor-based malaria vector control interventions has been shown to alter the behaviour of vectors in africa. there is an increasing concern that such changes could sustain residual transmission. this study was conducted to assess vector species composition, feeding behaviour and their contribution to indoor and outdoor malaria transmission in western kenya.201729110670
composition of anopheles mosquitoes, their blood-meal hosts, and plasmodium falciparum infection rates in three islands with disparate bed net coverage in lake victoria, kenya.small islands serve as potential malaria reservoirs through which new infections might come to the mainland and may be important targets in malaria elimination efforts. this study investigated malaria vector species diversity, blood-meal hosts, plasmodium infection rates, and long-lasting insecticidal net (llin) coverage on mageta, magare and ngodhe islands of lake victoria in western kenya, a region where extensive vector control is implemented on the mainland.201728886724
vector competence of culex antennatus and anopheles coustani mosquitoes for rift valley fever virus in madagascar.culex antennatus (diptera: culicidae), anopheles coustani (diptera: culicidae) and anopheles squamosus/cydippis were found to be infected with rift valley fever virus (rvfv) during an epidemic that occurred in 2008 and 2009 in madagascar. to understand the roles played by cx. antennatus and an. coustani in virus maintenance and transmission, rvfv vector competence was assessed in each species. mosquito body parts and saliva of mosquitoes that fed on rvfv-infected blood were tested for rvfv using ...201829383746
de novo profiling of rna viruses in anopheles malaria vector mosquitoes from forest ecological zones in senegal and cambodia.mosquitoes are colonized by a large but mostly uncharacterized natural virome of rna viruses, and the composition and distribution of the natural rna virome may influence the biology and immunity of anopheles malaria vector populations.201931429704
dry season occurrence of anopheles mosquitoes and implications in jabi tehnan district, west gojjam zone, ethiopia.generating evidence on the dry season occurrence of the larval and adult stages of anopheles mosquitoes helps to design effective malaria vector control strategy as the populations of the vectors is expected to be low.201830497495
microdam impoundments provide suitable habitat for larvae of malaria vectors: an observational study in western kenya.impoundments formed by microdams in rural areas of africa are important sources of water for people, but they provide potential larval habitats for anopheles (diptera: culicidae) mosquitoes that are vectors of malaria. to study this association, the perimeters of 31 microdam impoundments in western kenya were sampled for anopheles larvae in three zones (patches of floating and emergent vegetation, shorelines of open water, and aggregations of cattle hoofprints) across dry and rainy seasons. of 3 ...201829462354
assessing the presence of wuchereria bancrofti infections in vectors using xenomonitoring in lymphatic filariasis endemic districts in ghana.mass drug administration (mda) is the current mainstay to interrupt the transmission of lymphatic filariasis. to monitor whether mda is effective and transmission of lymphatic filariasis indeed has been interrupted, rigorous surveillance is required. assessment of transmission by programme managers is usually done via serology. new research suggests that xenomonitoring holds promise for determining the success of lymphatic filariasis interventions. the objective of this study was to assess wuche ...201930884886
biodiversity pattern of mosquitoes in southeastern senegal, epidemiological implication in arbovirus and malaria transmission.the composition, density, diversity, and temporal distribution of mosquito species and the influence of temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall on these data were investigated in 50 sites across five land cover classes (forest, savannah, barren, village, and agriculture) in southeastern senegal. mosquitoes were collected monthly in each site between june 2009 and march 2011, with three people collecting mosquitoes landing on their legs for one to four consecutive days. in total, 81,219 spec ...201930428055
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