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de novo profiling of rna viruses in anopheles malaria vector mosquitoes from forest ecological zones in senegal and cambodia.mosquitoes are colonized by a large but mostly uncharacterized natural virome of rna viruses, and the composition and distribution of the natural rna virome may influence the biology and immunity of anopheles malaria vector populations.201931429704
assessing the presence of wuchereria bancrofti infections in vectors using xenomonitoring in lymphatic filariasis endemic districts in ghana.mass drug administration (mda) is the current mainstay to interrupt the transmission of lymphatic filariasis. to monitor whether mda is effective and transmission of lymphatic filariasis indeed has been interrupted, rigorous surveillance is required. assessment of transmission by programme managers is usually done via serology. new research suggests that xenomonitoring holds promise for determining the success of lymphatic filariasis interventions. the objective of this study was to assess wuche ...201930884886
biodiversity pattern of mosquitoes in southeastern senegal, epidemiological implication in arbovirus and malaria transmission.the composition, density, diversity, and temporal distribution of mosquito species and the influence of temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall on these data were investigated in 50 sites across five land cover classes (forest, savannah, barren, village, and agriculture) in southeastern senegal. mosquitoes were collected monthly in each site between june 2009 and march 2011, with three people collecting mosquitoes landing on their legs for one to four consecutive days. in total, 81,219 spec ...201930428055
dry season occurrence of anopheles mosquitoes and implications in jabi tehnan district, west gojjam zone, ethiopia.generating evidence on the dry season occurrence of the larval and adult stages of anopheles mosquitoes helps to design effective malaria vector control strategy as the populations of the vectors is expected to be low.201830497495
microdam impoundments provide suitable habitat for larvae of malaria vectors: an observational study in western kenya.impoundments formed by microdams in rural areas of africa are important sources of water for people, but they provide potential larval habitats for anopheles (diptera: culicidae) mosquitoes that are vectors of malaria. to study this association, the perimeters of 31 microdam impoundments in western kenya were sampled for anopheles larvae in three zones (patches of floating and emergent vegetation, shorelines of open water, and aggregations of cattle hoofprints) across dry and rainy seasons. of 3 ...201829462354
vector competence of culex antennatus and anopheles coustani mosquitoes for rift valley fever virus in madagascar.culex antennatus (diptera: culicidae), anopheles coustani (diptera: culicidae) and anopheles squamosus/cydippis were found to be infected with rift valley fever virus (rvfv) during an epidemic that occurred in 2008 and 2009 in madagascar. to understand the roles played by cx. antennatus and an. coustani in virus maintenance and transmission, rvfv vector competence was assessed in each species. mosquito body parts and saliva of mosquitoes that fed on rvfv-infected blood were tested for rvfv using ...201829383746
zika virus: an updated review of competent or naturally infected mosquitoes.zika virus (zikv) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) that recently caused outbreaks in the americas. over the past 60 years, this virus has been observed circulating among african, asian, and pacific island populations, but little attention has been paid by the scientific community until the discovery that large-scale urban zikv outbreaks were associated with neurological complications such as microcephaly and several other neurological malformations in fetuses and newborns. this paper is a ...201729145400
indoor and outdoor malaria vector surveillance in western kenya: implications for better understanding of residual transmission.the widespread use of indoor-based malaria vector control interventions has been shown to alter the behaviour of vectors in africa. there is an increasing concern that such changes could sustain residual transmission. this study was conducted to assess vector species composition, feeding behaviour and their contribution to indoor and outdoor malaria transmission in western kenya.201729110670
composition of anopheles mosquitoes, their blood-meal hosts, and plasmodium falciparum infection rates in three islands with disparate bed net coverage in lake victoria, kenya.small islands serve as potential malaria reservoirs through which new infections might come to the mainland and may be important targets in malaria elimination efforts. this study investigated malaria vector species diversity, blood-meal hosts, plasmodium infection rates, and long-lasting insecticidal net (llin) coverage on mageta, magare and ngodhe islands of lake victoria in western kenya, a region where extensive vector control is implemented on the mainland.201728886724
commensal viruses of mosquitoes: host restriction, transmission, and interaction with arboviral pathogens.recent advances in virus detection strategies and deep sequencing technologies have enabled the identification of a multitude of new viruses that persistently infect mosquitoes but do not infect vertebrates. these are usually referred to as insect-specific viruses (isvs). these novel viruses have generated considerable interest in their modes of transmission, persistence in mosquito populations, the mechanisms that restrict their host range to mosquitoes, and their interactions with pathogens tr ...201728096646
exploring the potential of using cattle for malaria vector surveillance and control: a pilot study in western kenya.malaria vector mosquitoes with exophilic and zoophilic tendencies, or with a high acceptance of alternative blood meal sources when preferred human blood-hosts are unavailable, may help maintain low but constant malaria transmission in areas where indoor vector control has been scaled up. this residual transmission might be addressed by targeting vectors outside the house. here we investigated the potential of insecticide-treated cattle, as routinely used for control of tsetse and ticks in east ...201728069065
efficient method for establishing f1 progeny from wild populations of anopheles mosquitoes.the changing malaria situation in madagascar requires additional knowledge on the physiology and behaviour of local mosquito vectors. however, the absence of established colonies for several anopheline species present in madagascar constitutes a limiting factor. to avoid labour intensive work and uncertainty for success of establishing anopheles colonies from malagasy species, field collections of blood-fed females and in-tube forced oviposition were combined to reliably produce large numbers of ...201728069024
malaria epidemiological research in the republic of congo.reliable and comprehensive information on the burden of malaria is critical for guiding national and international efforts in malaria control. the purpose of this review is to provide an overview of published data and available information on malaria resulting from field studies/investigations conducted in the republic of congo (roc) from 1992 to 2015, as baseline for assisting public health authorities and researchers to define future research priorities as well as interventions.201628010728
effect of deforestation and land use changes on mosquito productivity and development in western kenya highlands: implication for malaria risk.african highlands were known to be free of malaria for the past 50 years. however, the ever growing human population in the highlands of africa has led to the deforestation and land coverage changes to create space for more land for cultivation, grazing, and house construction materials needs. this has lead to the creation of suitable breeding habitats, which are in open places. decrease of canopy and forest cover has led to increased temperature both in outdoors and indoors in deforested areas. ...201627833907
similar trends of susceptibility in anopheles arabiensis and anopheles pharoensis to plasmodium vivax infection in ethiopia.around half of the global population is living in areas at risk of malaria infection. plasmodium vivax malaria has become increasingly prevalent and responsible for a high health and socio-economic burden in ethiopia. the availability of gametocyte carriers and mosquito species susceptible to p. vivax infection are vital for malaria transmission. determining the susceptibility of vector species to parasite infection in space and time is important in vector control programs. this study assesses t ...201627756355
composition and genetics of malaria vector populations in the central african republic.in many african countries malaria has declined sharply due to a synergy of actions marked by the introduction of vector control strategies, but the disease remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in central african republic (car). an entomological study was initiated with the aim to characterize the malaria vectors in bangui, the capital of car, and determine their vector competence.201627456078
chicken volatiles repel host-seeking malaria mosquitoes.anopheles arabiensis is a dominant vector of malaria in sub-saharan africa, which feeds indoors and outdoors on human and other vertebrate hosts, making it a difficult species to control with existing control methods. novel methods that reduce human-vector interactions are, therefore, required to improve the impact of vector control programmes. investigating the mechanisms underlying the host discrimination process in an. arabiensis could provide valuable knowledge leading to the development of ...201627439360
integrated analysis of environment, cattle and human serological data: risks and mechanisms of transmission of rift valley fever in madagascar.rift valley fever (rvf) is a vector-borne disease affecting ruminants and humans. madagascar was heavily affected by rvf in 2008-2009, with evidence of a large and heterogeneous spread of the disease. the identification of at-risk environments is essential to optimize the available resources by targeting rvf surveillance in madagascar. herein, the objectives of our study were: (i) to identify the environmental factors and areas favorable to rvf transmission to both cattle and human and (ii) to i ...201627415438
evaluation of a topical formulation of eprinomectin against anopheles arabiensis when administered to zebu cattle (bos indicus) under field conditions.although vector control strategies, such as insecticide-treated bed nets (itns) and indoor residual spraying (irs) have been effective in kenya the transmission of malaria continues to afflict western kenya. this residual transmission is driven in part by anopheles arabiensis, known for its opportunistic blood feeding behaviour and propensity to feed outdoors. the objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of the drug eprinomectin at reducing malaria vector density when applied to c ...201627317557
mosquito host choices on livestock amplifiers of rift valley fever virus in kenya.animal hosts may vary in their attraction and acceptability as components of the host location process for assessing preference, and biting rates of vectors and risk of exposure to pathogens. however, these parameters remain poorly understood for mosquito vectors of the rift valley fever (rvf), an arboviral disease, and for a community of mosquitoes.201627036889
seasonal dynamics, longevity, and biting activity of anopheline mosquitoes in southwestern ethiopia.continuous monitoring of vector species composition, abundance, dynamics, feeding pattern, and host finding strategy is the base to determine when, what, and how control should be implemented. thus, this study was conducted to assess entomological parameters of anopheline mosquitoes in nine villages in seka district, southwestern ethiopia, from june to december 2012. mosquito collection was carried out from selected households in each of the nine study villages using light trap catches from june ...201626798142
high prevalence of west nile virus in domestic birds and detection in 2 new mosquito species in madagascar.west nile virus is an arthropod-borne zoonosis transmitted by a large number of mosquito species, and birds play a key role as reservoir of the virus. its distribution is largely widespread over africa, asia, the americas and europe. since 1978, it has frequently been reported in madagascar. studies described a high seroprevalence level of the virus in humans in different areas of the island and a human fatal case of wnv infection was reported in 2011. despite these reports, the epidemiology of ...201626807720
composition and genetic diversity of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) on islands and mainland shores of kenya's lakes victoria and baringo.the lake baringo and lake victoria regions of kenya are associated with high seroprevalence of mosquito-transmitted arboviruses. however, molecular identification of potential mosquito vector species, including morphologically identified ones, remains scarce. to estimate the diversity, abundance, and distribution of mosquito vectors on the mainland shores and adjacent inhabited islands in these regions, we collected and morphologically identified adult and immature mosquitoes and obtained the co ...201627402888
scoping review of the zika virus literature.the global primary literature on zika virus (zikv) (n = 233 studies and reports, up to march 1, 2016) has been compiled using a scoping review methodology to systematically identify and characterise the literature underpinning this broad topic using methods that are documented, updateable and reproducible. our results indicate that more than half the primary literature on zikv has been published since 2011. the articles mainly covered three topic categories: epidemiology of zikv (surveillance an ...201627244249
zika virus: the latest newcomer.since the beginning of this century, humanity has been facing a new emerging, or re-emerging, virus threat almost every year: west nile, influenza a, avian flu, dengue, chikungunya, sars, mers, ebola, and now zika, the latest newcomer. zika virus (zikv), a flavivirus transmitted by aedes mosquitoes, was identified in 1947 in a sentinel monkey in uganda, and later on in humans in nigeria. the virus was mainly confined to the african continent until it was detected in south-east asia the 1980's, t ...201627148186
review of west nile virus circulation and outbreak risk in madagascar: entomological and ornithological perspectives.west nile fever (wnf) is a zoonotic disease, occurring nearly globally. in madagascar, west nile virus (wnv) was first detected in 1978 from wild birds and the virus is currently distributed across the island, but no epidemic or epizootic period has been recorded. one fatal human case of wnv infection was reported in 2011, suggesting a "tip of the iceberg" phenomenon of a possible wnf epidemic/epizootic on the island. the main objective of this literature-based survey is to review patterns of wn ...201627849515
zika virus: a review from the virus basics to proposed management strategies.this review aims to summarize the body of knowledge available on zika virus to date. a comprehensive review of the scientific literature on zika virus was performed with the aim to stress relevant aspects for healthcare professionals in the non-endemic areas. for several years, the zika virus infection was considered an extremely rare exotic disease with poor clinical relevance. however, zika virus has recently gained the attention of the scientific community and public opinion since the virus s ...201627872736
arbovirus and insect-specific virus discovery in kenya by novel six genera multiplex high-resolution melting analysis.a broad diversity of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) of global health concern are endemic to east africa, yet most surveillance efforts are limited to just a few key viral pathogens. additionally, estimates of arbovirus diversity in the tropics are likely to be underestimated as their discovery has lagged significantly over past decades due to limitations in fast and sensitive arbovirus identification methods. here, we developed a nearly pan-arbovirus detection assay that uses high-resolut ...201627482633
an ecological assessment of the pandemic threat of zika virus.the current outbreak of zika virus poses a severe threat to human health. while the range of the virus has been cataloged growing slowly over the last 50 years, the recent explosive expansion in the americas indicates that the full potential distribution of zika remains uncertain. moreover, many studies rely on its similarity to dengue fever, a phylogenetically closely related disease of unknown ecological comparability. here we compile a comprehensive spatially-explicit occurrence dataset from ...201627564232
haemosporidian parasites of antelopes and other vertebrates from gabon, central africa.re-examination, using molecular tools, of the diversity of haemosporidian parasites (among which the agents of human malaria are the best known) has generally led to rearrangements of traditional classifications. in this study, we explored the diversity of haemosporidian parasites infecting vertebrate species (particularly mammals, birds and reptiles) living in the forests of gabon (central africa), by analyzing a collection of 492 bushmeat samples. we found that samples from five mammalian spec ...201626863304
detection of plasmodium falciparum infection in anopheles squamosus (diptera: culicidae) in an area targeted for malaria elimination, southern zambia.southern zambia is the focus of strategies to create malaria-free zones. interventions being rolled out include test and treat strategies and distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets that target vectors that host-seek indoors and late at night. in macha, choma district, collections of mosquitoes were made outdoors using barrier screens within homesteads or uv bulb light traps set next to goats, cattle, or chickens during the rainy season of 2015. anopheline mosquitoes were identified to spec ...201627297214
susceptibility status of anopheles arabiensis (diptera: culicidae) commonly used as biological materials for evaluations of malaria vector control tools in madagascar.madagascar is a malaria-endemic country with an increase in cases in recent years. in vector control using insecticide, a susceptible strain is necessary to evaluate insecticide efficacy, either for spraying or on nets. the susceptibility of anopheles arabiensis from antananarivo, madagascar to two organophosphate, three pyrethroid, two carbamate, and one organochlorine insecticides was investigated. since 2010, an. arabiensis strain has been maintained away from insecticide source during 110 ge ...201627364163
'a bite before bed': exposure to malaria vectors outside the times of net use in the highlands of western kenya.the human population in the highlands of nyanza province, western kenya, is subject to sporadic epidemics of plasmodium falciparum. indoor residual spraying (irs) and long-lasting insecticide treated nets (llins) are used widely in this area. these interventions are most effective when anopheles rest and feed indoors and when biting occurs at times when individuals use llins. it is therefore important to test the current assumption of vector feeding preferences, and late night feeding times, in ...201526109384
malaria in mauritania: retrospective and prospective overview.malaria has become a major public health problem in mauritania since the 1990s, with an average of 181,000 cases per year and 2,233,066 persons at risk during 1995-2012. this paper provides the first publicly available overview of malaria incidence and distribution in mauritania. information on the burden and malaria species distribution is critical for guiding national efforts in malaria control. as the incidence of malaria changes over time, regular updates of epidemiological data are necessar ...201525880759
insect-specific viruses and their potential impact on arbovirus transmission.arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are the causative agents of significant morbidity and mortality among humans and animals globally. in the past few years, the widespread adoption of next generation sequencing and metagenomics has led to a new era of virus discovery, where many novel viruses have been documented, exhibiting a restricted host-range in mosquitoes. they represent a wide-range of insect-specific viruses within the families of bunyaviridae, flaviviridae, mesoniviridae, reoviridae ...201526322695
utilization of an eilat virus-based chimera for serological detection of chikungunya infection.in december of 2013, chikungunya virus (chikv), an alphavirus in the family togaviridae, was introduced to the island of saint martin in the caribbean, resulting in the first autochthonous cases reported in the americas. as of january 2015, local and imported chikv has been reported in 50 american countries with over 1.1 million suspected cases. chikv causes a severe arthralgic disease for which there are no approved vaccines or therapeutics. furthermore, the lack of a commercially available, se ...201526492074
entomological monitoring and evaluation: diverse transmission settings of icemr projects will require local and regional malaria elimination strategies.the unprecedented global efforts for malaria elimination in the past decade have resulted in altered vectorial systems, vector behaviors, and bionomics. these changes combined with increasingly evident heterogeneities in malaria transmission require innovative vector control strategies in addition to the established practices of long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spraying. integrated vector management will require focal and tailored vector control to achieve malaria elimination. ...201526259942
transmission indices and microfilariae prevalence in human population prior to mass drug administration with ivermectin and albendazole in the gomoa district of ghana.the lymphatic filariasis elimination programme in ghana involves annual mass drug administration (mda) of ivermectin and albendazole to persons living in endemic areas. this is repeated annually for 4-6 years to span across the reproductive lifespan of adult worms. in order to stimulate participation of community members in the mda programme, this study was carried out to understand local views on transmission, management and prevention of the disease. the study also presents baseline transmissi ...201526503363
zoophagic behaviour of anopheline mosquitoes in southwest ethiopia: opportunity for malaria vector control.increased understanding of the feeding behaviours of malaria vectors is important to determine the frequency of human-vector contact and to implement effective vector control interventions. here we assess the relative feeding preferences of anopheles mosquitoes in relation to cattle and human host abundance in southwest ethiopia.201526684464
malaria case in madagascar, probable implication of a new vector, anopheles coustani.indoor spraying of insecticides and the use of insecticide-treated bed nets are key strategies for national malaria vector control in the central highlands of madagascar. during the year 2013, malaria outbreaks were reported by the national malaria control programme in the highlands, including the district of ankazobe.201526620552
investigating a non-mesh mosquito net among outdoor sleeping nomadic communities in kenya.rising reports of exophagic malaria vectors make even more pressing the need for alternatives to traditional, mesh, long-lasting insecticidal nets (llins) designed for indoor sleeping and often inadequate in the protection of outdoor-sleeping populations. this study tests and evaluates the retention, utilization, and durability of novel, non-mesh nets designed for outdoor use. longitudinal, cross-sectional surveys were conducted, the physical condition of nets was assessed, and bio-efficacy and ...201526416107
monitoring changes in malaria epidemiology and effectiveness of interventions in ethiopia and uganda: beyond garki project baseline survey.scale-up of malaria interventions seems to have contributed to a decline in the disease but other factors may also have had some role. understanding changes in transmission and determinant factors will help to adapt control strategies accordingly.201526337671
evaluation of a protocol for remote identification of mosquito vector species reveals bg-sentinel trap as an efficient tool for anopheles gambiae outdoor collection in burkina faso.feasibility and costs of monitoring efforts aimed to monitor mosquito species are strictly dependent on the presence of skilled entomologists directly in the field. however, in several contexts this is not possible or easy to organize, thus limiting the possibility to obtain crucial information on presence/abundance of potential disease vectors and of new invasive species. digital imaging approaches could be extremely useful in the frame of medical entomology to overcome this limit. this work de ...201525888896
the past, present and future use of epidemiological intelligence to plan malaria vector control and parasite prevention in uganda.an important prelude to developing strategies to control infectious diseases is a detailed epidemiological evidence platform to target cost-effective interventions and define resource needs.201525888989
an assessment of participatory integrated vector management for malaria control in kenya.the world health organization (who) recommends integrated vector management (ivm) as a strategy to improve and sustain malaria vector control. however, this approach has not been widely adopted.201525859686
discovery of an oviposition attractant for gravid malaria vectors of the anopheles gambiae species complex.new strategies are needed to manage malaria vector populations that resist insecticides and bite outdoors. this study describes a breakthrough in developing 'attract and kill' strategies targeting gravid females by identifying and evaluating an oviposition attractant for anopheles gambiae s.l.201525885703
investigating the acceptability of non-mesh, long-lasting insecticidal nets amongst nomadic communities in garissa county, kenya using a prospective, longitudinal study design and cross-sectional household surveys.north east kenya is an area of semi-arid terrain, prone to malaria epidemics. the distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (llins) has long been a key malaria intervention, however, for nomadic populations who live and sleep outside, in harsh climates and areas with increasing reports of exophagic behaviour of mosquitoes, traditional llins are often inadequate. this study investigates the acceptability of non-mesh llins, specifically designed to suit nomadic, outdoor sleeping communities.201525652420
malaria incidence and assessment of entomological indices among resettled communities in ethiopia: a longitudinal study.population resettlement has been considered among factors that may increase risk of malaria transmission. this study reports, the impact of resettlement on malaria incidence and entomological indices among communities resettled in suburbs of jimma town, southwestern ethiopia.201525626598
transmission patterns of plasmodium falciparum by anopheles gambiae in benin.to better control malaria, the clear and urgent need is for improved data to inform decision makers, but in several african countries, there is a lack of baseline data on vectors and variation in the intensity of malaria transmission. this has resulted in the implementation of vector control efforts that ignore variation in vector behaviour and intensity of transmission, an approach that is most often not cost-effective. this study presents a detailed entomological description of mosquito distri ...201425412948
first report of an exophilic anopheles arabiensis population in bissau city, guinea-bissau: recent introduction or sampling bias?the malaria vector anopheles arabiensis exhibits greater behavioural and ecological plasticity than the other major vectors of the anopheles gambiae complex, which presents challenges for major control methods. this study reports for the first time the presence of an. arabiensis in antula, a suburb of bissau city, the capital of guinea bissau, where high levels of hybridization between anopheles coluzzii and an. gambiae have been reported. given that previous surveys in the area, based on indoor ...201425370807
recent outbreaks of rift valley fever in east africa and the middle east.rift valley fever (rvf) is an important neglected, emerging, mosquito-borne disease with severe negative impact on human and animal health. mosquitoes in the aedes genus have been considered as the reservoir, as well as vectors, since their transovarially infected eggs withstand desiccation and larvae hatch when in contact with water. however, different mosquito species serve as epizootic/epidemic vectors of rvf, creating a complex epidemiologic pattern in east africa. the recent rvf outbreaks i ...201425340047
increased malaria transmission around irrigation schemes in ethiopia and the potential of canal water management for malaria vector control.irrigation schemes have been blamed for the increase in malaria in many parts of sub-saharan africa. however, proper water management could help mitigate malaria around irrigation schemes in this region. this study investigates the link between irrigation and malaria in central ethiopia.201425218697
generation of an infectious negev virus cdna clone.the genus negevirus consists of insect-only viruses isolated from mosquitoes and sandflies. here, we report the successful construction of a full-length infectious cdna clone of negev virus (negv) strain m30957. viral rna was transcribed in vitro and virus was readily rescued with or without the use of a cap analogue. these results strongly suggest that negv, and likely other members within the genus, is a non-segmented, single-stranded, positive-sense rna virus.201424878640
anopheles ziemanni a locally important malaria vector in ndop health district, north west region of cameroon.malaria transmission in cameroon is mediated by a plethora of vectors that are heterogeneously distributed across the country depending on the biotope. to effectively guide malaria control operations, regular update on the role of local anopheles species is essential. therefore, an entomological survey was conducted between august 2010 and may 2011 to evaluate the role of the local anopheline population in malaria transmission in three villages of the ndop health district in the northwest region ...201424903710
an experimental hut study to quantify the effect of ddt and airborne pyrethroids on entomological parameters of malaria transmission.current malaria vector control programmes rely on insecticides with rapid contact toxicity. however, spatial repellents can also be applied to reduce man-vector contact, which might ultimately impact malaria transmission. the aim of this study was to quantify effects of airborne pyrethroids from coils and ddt used an indoor residual spray (irs) on entomological parameters that influence malaria transmission.201424693934
evidence for perennial malaria in rural and urban areas under the sudanian climate of kandi, northeastern benin.in arid settings, droughts usually lead to periods of very low or no malaria transmission. however, in rural kandi (sonsoro) in northeastern benin, several malaria cases are often diagnosed during dry seasons. the underlying factors accounting for this phenomenon remain unknown.201424564957
eilat virus displays a narrow mosquito vector range.most alphaviruses are arthropod-borne and utilize mosquitoes as vectors for transmission to susceptible vertebrate hosts. this ability to infect both mosquitoes and vertebrates is essential for maintenance of most alphaviruses in nature. a recently characterized alphavirus, eilat virus (eilv), isolated from a pool of anopheles coustani s.i. is unable to replicate in vertebrate cell lines. the eilv host range restriction occurs at both attachment/entry as well as genomic rna replication levels. h ...201425515341
zika virus emergence in mosquitoes in southeastern senegal, 2011.zika virus (zikv; genus flavivirus, family flaviviridae) is maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arboreal aedes spp. mosquitoes and nonhuman primates in african and asian forests. spillover into humans has been documented in both regions and the virus is currently responsible for a large outbreak in french polynesia. zikv amplifications are frequent in southeastern senegal but little is known about their seasonal and spatial dynamics. the aim of this paper is to describe the spatio-temporal pa ...201425310102
a spatially explicit metapopulation model and cattle trade analysis suggests key determinants for the recurrent circulation of rift valley fever virus in a pilot area of madagascar highlands.rift valley fever (rvf) is a vector-borne zoonotic disease that causes high morbidity and mortality in ruminants. in 2008-2009, a rvf outbreak affected the whole madagascar island, including the anjozorobe district located in madagascar highlands. an entomological survey showed the absence of aedes among the potential rvf virus (rvfv) vector species identified in this area, and an overall low abundance of mosquitoes due to unfavorable climatic conditions during winter. no serological nor virolog ...201425474116
vector competence of aedes aegypti and aedes vittatus (diptera: culicidae) from senegal and cape verde archipelago for west african lineages of chikungunya virus.to assess the risk of emergence of chikungunya virus (chikv) in west africa, vector competence of wild-type, urban, and non-urban aedes aegypti and ae. vittatus from senegal and cape verde for chikv was investigated. mosquitoes were fed orally with chikv isolates from mosquitoes (ard30237), bats (cs13-288), and humans (hd180738). after 5, 10, and 15 days of incubation following an infectious blood meal, presence of chikv rna was determined in bodies, legs/wings, and saliva using real-time revers ...201425002293
a cost-effective, community-based, mosquito-trapping scheme that captures spatial and temporal heterogeneities of malaria transmission in rural zambia.monitoring mosquito population dynamics is essential to guide selection and evaluation of malaria vector control interventions but is typically implemented by mobile, centrally-managed teams who can only visit a limited number of locations frequently enough to capture longitudinal trends. community-based (cb) mosquito trapping schemes for parallel, continuous monitoring of multiple locations are therefore required that are practical, affordable, effective, and reliable.201424906704
field study site selection, species abundance and monthly distribution of anopheline mosquitoes in the northern kruger national park, south africa.knowledge of the ecology and behaviour of a target species is a prerequisite for the successful development of any vector control strategy. before the implementation of any strategy it is essential to have comprehensive information on the bionomics of species in the targeted area. the aims of this study were to conduct regular entomological surveillance and to determine the relative abundance of anopheline species in the northern kruger national park. in addition to this, the impact of weather c ...201424460920
modeling larval malaria vector habitat locations using landscape features and cumulative precipitation measures.predictive models of malaria vector larval habitat locations may provide a basis for understanding the spatial determinants of malaria transmission.201424903736
reemergence of anopheles funestus as a vector of plasmodium falciparum in western kenya after long-term implementation of insecticide-treated bed nets.historically, the malaria vectors in western kenya have been anopheles funestus, anopheles gambiae s.s., and anopheles arabiensis. of these species, an. funestus populations declined the most after the introduction of insecticide-treated bed nets (itns) in the 1990s in asembo, and collections of an. funestus in the region remained low until at least 2008. contrary to findings during the early years of itn use in asembo, the majority of the anopheles collected here in 2010 and 2011 were an. funes ...201424470562
biting by anopheles funestus in broad daylight after use of long-lasting insecticidal nets: a new challenge to malaria elimination.malaria control is mainly based on indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets. the efficacy of these tools depends on the behaviour of mosquitoes, which varies by species. with resistance to insecticides, mosquitoes adapt their behaviour to ensure their survival and reproduction. the aim of this study was to assess the biting behaviour of anopheles funestus after the implementation of long-lasting insecticidal nets (llins).201424678587
environmentally friendly tool to control mosquito populations without risk of insecticide resistance: the lehmann's funnel entry trap.current malaria control strategies have cut down the malaria burden in many endemic areas, however the emergence and rapid spread of insecticide and drug resistance undermine the success of these efforts. there is growing concern that malaria eradication will not be achieved without the introduction of novel control tools. one approach that has been developed in the last few years is based on house screening to reduce indoor mosquito vector densities and consequently decrease malaria transmissio ...201323758904
an analysis of two island groups as potential sites for trials of transgenic mosquitoes for malaria control.considerable technological advances have been made towards the generation of genetically modified mosquitoes for vector control. in contrast, less progress has been made towards field evaluations of transformed mosquitoes which are critical for evaluating the success of, and hazards associated with, genetic modification. oceanic islands have been highlighted as potentially the best locations for such trials. however, population genetic studies are necessary to verify isolation. here, we used a p ...201323789035
standardizing operational vector sampling techniques for measuring malaria transmission intensity: evaluation of six mosquito collection methods in western kenya.operational vector sampling methods lack standardization, making quantitative comparisons of malaria transmission across different settings difficult. human landing catch (hlc) is considered the research gold standard for measuring human-mosquito contact, but is unsuitable for large-scale sampling. this study assessed mosquito catch rates of cdc light trap (cdc-lt), ifakara tent trap (itt), window exit trap (wet), pot resting trap (prt), and box resting trap (brt) relative to hlc in western keny ...201323631641
new insights into the population structure of anopheles gambiae s.s. in the gulf of guinea islands revealed by herves transposable elements.transposable elements (tes) are mobile portions of dna that are able to replicate and spread in the genome of many organisms. tes can be used as a means to insert transgenes in insects, being stably inherited throughout generations. anopheles gambiae is the main vector of human malaria in sub-saharan africa. given the extraordinary burden this disease imposes, the mosquito became a choice target for genetic control approaches with the purpose of reducing malaria transmission. in this study, we i ...201323638171
the role of anopheles arabiensis and anopheles coustani in indoor and outdoor malaria transmission in taveta district, kenya.the scaling up of malaria vector control efforts in africa has resulted in changing the malaria vectorial systems across different ecological settings. in view of the ongoing trends in vector population dynamics, abundance, species composition and parasite infectiousness, there is a need to understand vector distribution and their contribution to malaria transmission to facilitate future planning of control strategies. we studied indoor and outdoor malaria transmission dynamics and vector popula ...201323601146
response of anopheles gambiae s.l. (diptera: culicidae) to larval habitat age in western kenya highlands.larval control is of paramount importance in the reduction of vector populations. previous observations have suggested that, larvae of anopheles gambiae s.l occur more often in small temporary habitats while other studies showed that long-lasting stable habitats are more productive than unstable habitats. in addition, the physical and biological conditions and stability of larval habitats can change rapidly in natural conditions. therefore, we examined the effect of larval habitat age on product ...201323324330
impact of cyfluthrin (solfac ew050) impregnated bed nets on malaria transmission in the city of mbandjock : lessons for the nationwide distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (llins) in cameroon.insecticide treated materials remain the mainstay for malaria prevention. the current study reports on the entomological impact of cyfluthrin impregnated bed nets on malaria transmission in mbandjock, a semi urban locality in southern cameroon. several findings pertaining to the recent distribution of llins across cameroon are discussed.201323311927
biology of mosquitoes that are potential vectors of rift valley fever virus in different biotopes of the central highlands of madagascar.there were epidemic-epizootics of rift valley fever (rvf) affecting humans and cattle in madagascar in the district of anjozorobe in 2008. little is known about the role of malagasy mosquitoes in the circulation of rvf virus. therefore, we investigated the species diversity, dynamics and biology of potential rvf virus vectors in the rainforest, rainforest edge (village of anorana), and savanna biotope (village of antanifotsy) of this district between november 2008 and july 2010. we captured 56,6 ...201323802456
impact of land-use on malaria transmission in the plateau region, southeastern benin.the goal of the study is to investigate if local agricultural practices have an impact on malaria transmission in four villages located in the same geographical area within a radius of 15 kilometers. among the villages, one (itassoumba) is characterized by the presence of a large market garden and fishpond basins, the three others (itakpako, djohounkollé and ko-koumolou) are characterized by traditional food-producing agriculture.201324330734
impact of housing condition on indoor-biting and indoor-resting anopheles arabiensis density in a highland area, central ethiopia.exposure of individuals to malaria infection may depend on their housing conditions as houses serve as biting and resting places of vectors. this study describes the association of housing conditions with densities of indoor-biting and indoor-resting anopheles arabiensis in hobe, dirama and wurib villages of a highland area in central ethiopia.201324191901
impact of operational effectiveness of long-lasting insecticidal nets (llins) on malaria transmission in pyrethroid-resistant areas.a dynamic study on the transmission of malaria was conducted in two areas (r⁺ area: low resistance area; r⁺⁺⁺ area: high resistance area) in the department of plateau in south eastern benin, where the population is protected by long lasting insecticidal nets (llins). the aim of this study was to determine if the resistance of malaria vectors to insecticides has an impact on their behavior and on the effectiveness of llins in the reduction of malaria transmission.201324499508
avian malaria prevalence and mosquito abundance in the western cape, south africa.the close relationship between vector-borne diseases and their environment is well documented, especially for diseases with water-dependent vectors such as avian malaria. mosquitoes are the primary vectors of avian malaria and also the definitive hosts in the disease life cycle. factors pertinent to mosquito ecology are likely to be influential to observed infection patterns; such factors include rainfall, season, temperature, and water quality.201324160170
agro-ecosystems impact malaria prevalence: large-scale irrigation drives vector population in western ethiopia.development strategies in ethiopia have largely focused on the expansion of irrigated agriculture in the last decade to reduce poverty and promote economic growth. however, such irrigation schemes can worsen the socio-economic state by aggravating the problem of mosquito-borne diseases. in this study, the effect of agro-ecosystem practices on malaria prevalence and the risk of malaria transmission by the primary vector mosquito, anopheles arabiensis, in ethiopia were investigated.201324083353
quantitative real-time pcr detection of zika virus and evaluation with field-caught mosquitoes.zika virus (zikv), a mosquito borne flavivirus is a pathogen affecting humans in asia and africa. zikv infection diagnosis relies on serology-which is challenging due to cross-reactions with other flaviviruses and/or absence or low titer of igm and igg antibodies at early phase of infection- virus isolation, which is labor intensive, time consuming and requires appropriate containment. therefore, real-time rt-pcr (rrt-pcr) is an appealing option as a rapid, sensitive and specific method for dete ...201324148652
larval ecology of mosquitoes in sylvatic arbovirus foci in southeastern senegal.although adult mosquito vectors of sylvatic arbovirus [yellow fever (yfv), dengue-2 (denv-2) and chikungunya (chikv)] have been studied for the past 40 years in southeastern senegal, data are still lacking on the ecology of larval mosquitoes in this area. in this study, we investigated the larval habitats of mosquitoes and characterized their seasonal and spatial dynamics in arbovirus foci.201223216815
negevirus: a proposed new taxon of insect-specific viruses with wide geographic distribution.six novel insect-specific viruses, isolated from mosquitoes and phlebotomine sand flies collected in brazil, peru, the united states, ivory coast, israel, and indonesia, are described. their genomes consist of single-stranded, positive-sense rnas with poly(a) tails. by electron microscopy, the virions appear as spherical particles with diameters of ∼45 to 55 nm. based on their genome organization and phylogenetic relationship, the six viruses, designated negev, ngewotan, piura, loreto, dezidougo ...201223255793
eilat virus, a unique alphavirus with host range restricted to insects by rna replication.most alphaviruses and many other arboviruses are mosquito-borne and exhibit a broad host range, infecting many different vertebrates including birds, rodents, equids, humans, and nonhuman primates. consequently, they can be propagated in most vertebrate and insect cell cultures. this ability of arboviruses to infect arthropods and vertebrates is usually essential for their maintenance in nature. however, several flaviviruses have recently been described that infect mosquitoes but not vertebrates ...201222908261
identification of wolbachia strains in mosquito disease vectors.wolbachia bacteria are common endosymbionts of insects, and some strains are known to protect their hosts against rna viruses and other parasites. this has led to the suggestion that releasing wolbachia-infected mosquitoes could prevent the transmission of arboviruses and other human parasites. we have identified wolbachia in kenyan populations of the yellow fever vector aedes bromeliae and its relative aedes metallicus, and in mansonia uniformis and mansonia africana, which are vectors of lymph ...201223185484
variation in malaria transmission dynamics in three different sites in western kenya.the main objective was to investigate malaria transmission dynamics in three different sites, two highland villages (fort ternan and lunyerere) and a lowland peri-urban area (nyalenda) of kisumu city. adult mosquitoes were collected using psc and cdc light trap while malaria parasite incidence data was collected from a cohort of children on monthly basis. rainfall, humidity and temperature data were collected by automated weather stations. negative binomial and poisson generalized additive model ...201222988466
assessment of the effect of insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying for malaria control in three rural kebeles of adami tulu district, south central ethiopia.in the adami tulu district, indoor residual spraying (irs) and insecticide-treated nets (itns) has been the main tool used to control malaria. the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of irs and itns control strategies in aneno shisho kebele (lowest administrative unit of ethiopia) compared with kamo gerbi (supplied itn only) and jela aluto (no irs and itns), with regards to the prevalence of malaria and mosquito density.201222533789
malaria vectors in lake victoria and adjacent habitats in western kenya.the prevalence of malaria among the residents of the lake victoria basin remains high. the environment associated with the lake may maintain a high number of malaria vectors. lake habitats including water hyacinths have been suspected to be the source of vectors. this study investigated whether malaria vectors breed in the lake habitats and adjacent backwater pools. anopheline larvae were collected within the littoral zone of the lake and adjacent pools located along approximately 24.3 km of the ...201222412913
evaluation of two methods of estimating larval habitat productivity in western kenya highlands.malaria vector intervention and control programs require reliable and accurate information about vector abundance and their seasonal distribution. the availability of reliable information on the spatial and temporal productivity of larval vector habitats can improve targeting of larval control interventions and our understanding of local malaria transmission and epidemics. the main objective of this study was to evaluate two methods of estimating larval habitat productivity in the western kenyan ...201121682875
larval habitat characteristics of the genus anopheles (diptera: culicidae) and a checklist of mosquitoes in guilan province, northern iran.ecological data are important in the vector control management of mosquitoes. there is scattered published information about the larval habitat characteristics and ecology of the genus anopheles (diptera: culicidae) in iran and most of available data is in relation to malaria vectors in southern iran.201122808409
dry season ecology of anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes at larval habitats in two traditionally semi-arid villages in baringo, kenya.pre-adult stages of malaria vectors in semi-arid areas are confronted with highly variable and challenging climatic conditions. the objective of this study was to determine which larval habitat types are most productive in terms of larval densities in the dry and wet seasons within semi-arid environments, and how vector species productivity is partitioned over time.201121352608
a longitudinal study on anopheles mosquito larval abundance in distinct geographical and environmental settings in western kenya.abstract:201121477340
productivity of malaria vectors from different habitat types in the western kenya highlands.mosquito larval source management (lsm) could be a valuable additional tool for integrated malaria vector control especially in areas with focal transmission like the highlands of western kenya if it were not for the need to target all potential habitats at frequent intervals. the ability to determine the productivity of malaria vectors from identified habitats might be used to target lsm only at productive ones.201121559301
plasmodium falciparum transmission and aridity: a kenyan experience from the dry lands of baringo and its implications for anopheles arabiensis control.abstract: background: the ecology of malaria vectors particularly in semi-arid areas of africa is poorly understood. accurate knowledge on this subject will boost current efforts to reduce the burden of malaria in sub-saharan africa. the objective of this study was to describe the dynamics of malaria transmission in two model semi-arid sites (kamarimar and tirion) in baringo in kenya. methods: adult mosquitoes were collected indoors by pyrethrum spray collections (psc) and outdoors by centers fo ...201121569546
mosquito species abundance and diversity in malindi, kenya and their potential implication in pathogen transmission.mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) are important vectors of human disease-causing pathogens. mosquitoes are found both in rural and urban areas. deteriorating infrastructure, poor access to health, water and sanitation services, increasing population density, and widespread poverty contribute to conditions that modify the environment, which directly influences the risk of disease within the urban and peri-urban ecosystem. the objective of this study was to evaluate the mosquito vector abundance and ...201121626425
development of environmental tools for anopheline larval control.malaria mosquitoes spend a considerable part of their life in the aquatic stage, rendering them vulnerable to interventions directed to aquatic habitats. recent successes of mosquito larval control have been reported using environmental and biological tools. here, we report the effects of shading by plants and biological control agents on the development and survival of anopheline and culicine mosquito larvae in man-made natural habitats in western kenya. trials consisted of environmental manipu ...201121733150
spatial and temporal distribution patterns of anopheles arabiensis breeding sites in la reunion island - multi-year trend analysis of historical records from 1996-2009.abstract:201121708013
distribution of the main malaria vectors in kenya.a detailed knowledge of the distribution of the main anopheles malaria vectors in kenya should guide national vector control strategies. however, contemporary spatial distributions of the locally dominant anopheles vectors including anopheles gambiae, anopheles arabiensis, anopheles merus, anopheles funestus, anopheles pharoensis and anopheles nili are lacking. the methods and approaches used to assemble contemporary available data on the present distribution of the dominant malaria vectors in k ...201020202199
role of culex and anopheles mosquito species as potential vectors of rift valley fever virus in sudan outbreak, 2007.rift valley fever (rvf) is an acute febrile arthropod-borne viral disease of man and animals caused by a member of the phlebovirus genus, one of the five genera in the family bunyaviridae. rvf virus (rvfv) is transmitted between animals and human by mosquitoes, particularly those belonging to the culex, anopheles and aedes genera.201020222979
bionomics of anopheline species and malaria transmission dynamics along an altitudinal transect in western cameroon.highland areas of africa are mostly malaria hypoendemic, due to climate which is not appropriate for anophelines development and their reproductive fitness. in view of designing a malaria control strategy in western cameroon highlands, baseline data on anopheline species bionomics were collected.201020482824
rift valley fever virus epidemic in kenya, 2006/2007: the entomologic investigations.in december 2006, rift valley fever (rvf) was diagnosed in humans in garissa hospital, kenya and an outbreak reported affecting 11 districts. entomologic surveillance was performed in four districts to determine the epidemic/epizootic vectors of rvf virus (rvfv). approximately 297,000 mosquitoes were collected, 164,626 identified to species, 72,058 sorted into 3,003 pools and tested for rvfv by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. seventy-seven pools representing 10 species tested po ...201020682903
anopheles larval abundance and diversity in three rice agro-village complexes mwea irrigation scheme, central kenya.the diversity and abundance of anopheles larvae has significant influence on the resulting adult mosquito population and hence the dynamics of malaria transmission. studies were conducted to examine larval habitat dynamics and ecological factors affecting survivorship of aquatic stages of malaria vectors in three agro-ecological settings in mwea, kenya.201020691120
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