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persistent chromosome changes in hepatic cells of adult mice infected with coxsackievirus a 13. 19769813
evolutionary study on the coxsackievirus a 24 variant causing acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis by oligonucleotide mapping analysis of rna genome.the evolution of the variant of coxsackievirus a 24 (ca 24 v) which causes acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis was explored. using 15 isolates obtained from southeast asia during the period 1970-1986, the genetic distance between isolates was estimated from pairwise comparison of nucleotide changes deduced from common spots on oligonucleotide maps of the isolates. from regression analysis of the genetic distance and the time of isolation of the isolates, the evolutionary rate of ca 24 v was estimat ...19902171464
light and electron microscopic autoradiography of coxsackievirus a 1 infected muscles: viral rna synthesis and inhibition of host cell rna synthesis. 19724117917
initiation and spreading of coxsackievirus a 1 infection in muscles of newborn mice. 19724114643
the sequence of the coxsackievirus a 21 polymerase gene indicates a remarkably close relationship to the polioviruses. brief report.we have sequenced the coxsackievirus a 21 polymerase gene and 3' noncoding region. the sequence is 98 per cent homologous at the amino acid level to the three poliovirus serotypes. this is comparable to the relationship between polioviruses and indicates a recent evolutionary divergence of the viruses.19873034200
the histopathology of enterovirus infections of new-born mice.for 32 years we have provided a routine histopathological service on animals for the regional virus laboratory, ruchill hospital, glasgow. this article concerns mainly experimental coxsackievirus a, coxsackievirus b and echovirus infections in new-born mice. in addition to previously reported findings, we have sometimes observed degenerative and inflammatory changes in neurons related to the gasserian, posterior root or autonomic ganglia. not all deposits of brown fat are simultaneously the seat ...19872822811
[etiology of 1988 epidemic of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis in beijing].an epidemic of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (ahc) occurred in beijing during august-september in 1988. conjunctival swabs were collected from 50 ahc patients at the eye clinic of the peking union medical college hospital. 25 strains of viruses were isolated with hela cell cultures. all the viral isolates were identified as coxsackievirus a 24 variant (ca 24 v) with antiserum from the center for disease control, u. s. a. paired serum samples from 30 ahc patients were examined for neutralizing ...19902174765
outbreak of coxsackievirus a-14 meningitis among newborns in a maternity hospital ward.during the late winter of 1983, 16 newborns with vague symptoms of failure to thrive, reluctance to feed and a slight rise in body temperature, were found to have meningitis caused by coxsackievirus a-14. the cerebrospinal fluid showed pleocytosis with polymorphonuclear cells in excess but was otherwise normal. the clinical course was uneventful in all infants, but two of them demonstrated clinical signs of incipient cerebral oedema during the acute phase of the illness. an electroencephalogram ...19873035861
in vitro and in vivo activities of win 54954, a new broad-spectrum antipicornavirus drug.win 54954 (5-[5-[2,6-dichloro-4-(4,5-dihydro-2-oxazolyl)phenoxy]pentyl]-3- methylisoxazole) is a new member of the class of broad-spectrum antipicornavirus compounds known to bind in a hydrophobic pocket within virion capsid protein vp1. in plaque reduction assays, win 54954 reduced plaque formation of 50 of 52 rhinovirus serotypes (mics ranged from 0.007 to 2.2 micrograms/ml). a concentration of 0.28 microgram/ml was effective in inhibiting 80% of the 52 serotypes tested (ec80). win 54954 was a ...19892559655
viral contamination of some drinking waters in romania: a twenty years survey.a synthesis is made on the 20 years virological survey of the drinking water from some towns of romania. the sampling of the water was made by the gauze-pad method. the virus concentration method by adsorption-elution with the yeast cells was applied concomitantly, at first with the pe60 method, then, during the last years, either with aluminum hydroxide or with the polymer pv methods, and the concentrates were inoculated both into suckling mice and into cell cultures. various types of coxsackie ...19892560479
factors involved in enzyme-linked immunoassay of viruses and evaluation of the method for identification of enteroviruses.a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for identification of selected enteroviruses: poliovirus type 1, echovirus type 6, coxsackievirus a type 9, and coxsackievirus b types 1 through 6. partially purified viral antigens or virus-specific antibodies were adsorbed to polystyrene spectrophotometer cuvettes, which permitted the assays to be reported and compared in terms of enzyme units specifically reacting. both the adsorbed antigen and the adsorbed antibody methods were approx ...1979229122
intrauterine fetal demise associated with enterovirus infection.we have presented a case of fetal intrauterine enterovirus (coxsackievirus a) infection at 36 weeks' gestation. viral infection should be suspected when there is a history compatible with viral illness in the mother during pregnancy. although an increased level of igm antibodies in cord blood suggests a previous intrauterine infection, the diagnosis of fetal or neonatal viral infection ultimately depends upon the isolation of the viral agent.19863012787
isolation of a monoclonal antibody that blocks attachment of the major group of human rhinoviruses.reciprocal competition binding assays have previously demonstrated that 20 of 24 human rhinovirus serotypes tested compete for a single cellular receptor. these studies suggested that the vast majority of rhinovirus serotypes utilize a single cellular receptor. with hela cells as an immunogen, a mouse monoclonal antibody was isolated which had the precise specificity predicted by the competition binding study. the receptor antibody was shown to protect hela cells from infection by 78 of 88 human ...19863001366
synthesis and structure-activity studies of some disubstituted phenylisoxazoles against human picornavirus.a number of 2,6-disubstituted analogues of disoxaril, a broad spectrum antipicornavirus agent, have been prepared and evaluated against several rhinovirus serotypes. a qsar study revealed that the mean mic (mic) against five rhinovirus serotypes correlated well with log p. the 2,6-dichloro analogue, 15, was highly effective in vitro against rhinoviruses with an mic80 of 0.3 microm, as well as against several enteroviruses, and was also effective in preventing paralysis in mice infected with coxs ...19892913305
a comparison of two cell culture systems for the primary isolation of enteric viruses.several studies have been reported on the comparative susceptibility of various cell cultures for the primary isolation of enteric viruses. the present report gives a comparison of human embryo kidney cells and rhesus monkey kidney cells for the primary isolation of viruses from faecal specimens. altogether, 148 enteroviruses, covering 21 serotypes, and 20 adenoviruses were isolated. the marked sensitivity of human embryo kidney cells to adenoviruses was again demonstrated. these cells, however, ...19704320959
genetic diversity of enterovirus subgroups.enterovirus serotypes were studied using nucleic acid hybridization and nucleotide sequence analysis. a great majority of enteroviruses could be roughly divided into two larger subgroups the first consisting of poliovirus and certain coxsackievirus a serotypes. the second subgroup included coxsackie b viruses, most echo viruses, enterovirus 71 and representatives of coxsackie a viruses. enterovirus 70 showed low homology to the viruses in both groups. interestingly, echo virus 22 failed to react ...19892539795
[viral diseases of the outer eye--rapid diagnosis by immunohistochemistry].rapid diagnosis of viral diseases of the outer eye was attempted by means of immunohistochemical methods. specimens were obtained with a nitrocellulose membrane, used as a blotter of immunoblotting test. an impression of the corneal or conjunctival surface was obtained by anesthetizing the eye and lightly pressing the membrane against the tissues. in some cases, scraping materials were taken on a slide glass. viral antigens in the specimens were detected by peroxidase-antiperoxidase (pap) method ...19902278234
molecular detection and identification of enteroviruses using enzymatic amplification and nucleic acid hybridization.analysis of enteroviral genomes has revealed that the 5' nontranslated region is highly conserved, providing consensus sequences for the design of oligonucleotides which should anneal to most, if not all, human enteroviral rnas. we designed and used a pair of such generic primers to enzymatically amplify cdna from coxsackievirus group b types 1 through 6, poliovirus types 1 through 3, 4 coxsackievirus a types, and 29 echoviruses. the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) products generated with these ...19902161866
[study on rapid diagnosis of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis caused by coxsackievirus a24 variant].an pandemic of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (ahc) caused by coxsackievirus a 24 variant (ca 24v) occurred in china in 1988. rapid diagnosis of ahc was investigated by immunofluorescence technique. the bacteria-free conjunctival swab samples were inoculated into hela cell monolayer. the virus-specific antigens in infected cells were examined by indirect immunofluorescence test. of 35 samples, 17 was identified as ca 24v. the results of isolation and typing could be obtained with in 5 days. fu ...19902167770
nucleic acid sequence relationships between enterovirus serotypes.forty-eight different enterovirus serotypes were analysed by a nucleic-acid hybridization test using probes derived from the 3' end of coxsackievirus a21 (ca21) and b3 (cb3), poliovirus 3 (p3) and enterovirus 70 (e70). more than 90% of the serotypes could be detected with this collection of reagents. the cb3 probe reacted with all the coxsackie b viruses, with all three poliovirus serotypes, and with almost all of the 30 echo virus types tested. in addition some of the coxsackie a viruses and th ...19872456458
microneutralization test for determination of rhinovirus and coxsackievirus a antibody in human diploid cells.a method for determination of serum-neutralizing antibody titers to rhinovirus type 16 and coxsackievirus type a-4 in human diploid cells (wi-38) grown in microtiter plates is described. a good correlation was observed when comparing neutralization tests in wi-38 and other cells. the wi-38 microtiter method is relatively simple and economical. it is suitable for those laboratories which are required to conduct large-scale serological evaluation of antibodies for rhinoviruses and coxsackie a viru ...19694306262
phylogenetically different strains of a variant of coxsackievirus a 24 were repeatedly introduced but discontinued circulating in japan.variations in the nucleotide sequence of 3 c proteinase of coxsackievirus a 24 variant (ca 24 v) were analyzed to define the route of transmission and spread of the virus which was introduced to japan on three separate occasions, 1985-86, 1988, and 1989. the nucleotide sequences of isolates from the same year's outbreak in japan were identical or closely related, while the isolates from different outbreaks were less closely related to one another than to those from other countries in the same ye ...19921326259
lyophilized combination pools of enterovirus equine antisera: preparation and test procedures for the identification of field strains of 19 group a coxsackievirus serotypes.this paper describes the preparation of seven combination pools of equine antisera, designated j though p, for identification of 19 coxsackievirus a immunotypes. each pool is composed of 4 to 6 antisera; the serotypes included are a1-6, 8, 10-15, and 17-22. these pools, unlike the previously prepared a-h enterovirus pools, were lyophilized from volumes of 0.5 ml dispensed into 5-ml vials, and when rehydrated with 5 ml of diluent provide 50-antibody-unit material ready for use in identification t ...1977558177
reproduction of coxsackievirus a 5 in human embryo skin-muscle explants. 197715445
demonstration of specific antibodies to a coxsackie-like virus in patients of a hepatitis outbreak.lynchburg fecal virus (lfv), originally isolated from the stool of an infectious hepatitis patient, was passaged 15 times in wi-38 cells and partially characterized. its properties are as follows: rna virus; 27 nm in diameter, picornavirus-like morphology; inactivated at 56 c for 60 minutes; resistant to treatment with hydrochloric acid (ph 3.0), chloroform (33%), and diethyl ether (20%). neutralization studies indicated that lfv is antigenically related to coxsackievirus a-24 but not to prototy ...1979223437
ultraviolet devitalization of eight selected enteric viruses in estuarine water.the effect of ultraviolet (uv) radiation on the devitalization of eight selected enteric viruses suspended in estuarine water was determined. the surviving fractions of each virus were calculated and then plotted against the uv exposure time for purposes of comparison. analytical assessment of the survival data for each virus consisted of least squares regression analysis for determination of intercepts and slope functions. all data were examined for statistical significance. when the slope func ...19704316273
[immunologic response of 3 animal species (guinea-pigs, hamsters, mice) to different coxsackievirus a. i. comparative study of complement fixing antibodies]. 19715108070
common antigen between coxsackievirus a 16 and enterovirus 71.cross immunofluorescence revealed that coxsackievirus a 16 (ca 16) shared a common antigen with enterovirus 71 (e 71). the cross reactivity of these two serotypes was also examined by complement fixation test with purified virus preparations fractionated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation and two peaks of antigenicity were detected, one being type-specific and the other cross-reacting. the common antigen was heat-stable and attributable to empty capsids. immuno-diffusion also revealed th ...1978209293
enteroviruses other than poliovirus.the role of enteroviruses in certain specific disease--cardiac disease, nephritis, diabetes, and hemorrhagic conjunctivitis--is examined. it has now been well documented that coxsackievirus b (types cb1 through cb5 but not cb6) is the main pathogen involved in various clinical forms of viral heart disease. coxsackievirus a (ca4 and ca16) and echovirus (types 9 and 22) may also be associated with viral heart disease. in regard to the etiologic role of enteroviruses in nephritis, pancreatitis, and ...1976193602
epidemiologic investigation of hand, foot, and mouth disease. infection caused by coxsackievirus a 16 in baltimore, june through september 1968. 19705493828
airborne transmission of respiratory infection with coxsackievirus a type 21. 19705415578
four-year study of who virus reports on enteroviruses other than poliovirus.in 1963 the world health organization established a system for collecting and distributing information on viruses. by 1970, 93 laboratories in 33 countries were participating. the present study is an analysis of the reports on coxsackieviruses a and b and echoviruses for the 4 years 1967-70. among the coxsackieviruses a, type 9 was reported most frequently, and the most frequently reported coxsackievirus b was type 3. among the echoviruses, types 9, 6, and 30 were common. in the northern hemisph ...19724537851
direct myocardial injury by enterovirus: a central role in the evolution of murine myocarditis. 19937689428
[5 cases of herpangina caused by different types of coxsackievirus a group]. 19655869206
gianotti-crosti-like eruption associated with coxsackievirus a-16 infection. 19826284809
use of the colonic carcinoma cell line caco-2 for in vivo amplification and detection of enteric viruses.the use of the continuous cell line caco-2 as an in vivo amplification system for the detection of fastidious human enteric viruses is reported. caco-2 cells showed an increased sensitivity to laboratory strains of group a rotavirus 3, reovirus 3, astrovirus 1, poliovirus 1, coxsackievirus a 24, enterovirus 70, and adenovirus 5, 40 and 41, when compared to a routine host cell line for each virus. nucleic acids from wild-type infectious rotavirus, astrovirus, and adenovirus 40 in stool samples of ...19947852976
rt-pcr, nucleotide, amino acid and phylogenetic analyses of enterovirus type 71 strains from asia.a specific and sensitive method based on rt-pcr was developed to detect enterovirus 71 (ev71) from patients with hand, foot and mouth disease, myocarditis, aseptic meningitis and acute flaccid paralysis. rt-pcr primers from conserved parts of the vp1 capsid gene were designed on the basis of good correlation with sequences of ev71 strains. these primers successfully amplified 44 strains of ev71 including 34 strains isolated from singapore in 1997 and 1998, eight strains from malaysia isolated in ...200010960707
[study of coxsackievirus group a. i. serological variation of coxsackieviruses group a isolated in gifu prefecture].forty four isolated strains of coxsackievirus group a were tested for antigenic variation with antiserum against each prototype strain by neutralization test. isolates of type 2, type 4, type 5, type 8 and type 10 of coxsackievirus group a, were not confirmed antigenic variation by neutralization test with immune sera to the prototype virus strain. however, 57.1% of type 9 isolates of coxsackievirus a group were confirmed as variants. in isolates of coxsackievirus group a type 16, the isolate in ...19989503781
hemorrhagic viral keratoconjunctivitis in taiwan caused by adenovirus types 19 and 37: applicability of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism in detecting adenovirus genotypes.acute keratoconjunctivitis with prominent subconjunctival hemorrhage (sch) is usually perceived by a clinician as acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (ahc) associated with enteroviruses; however, sch can also be an adenoviruses infection. a rapid and sensitive laboratory diagnosis is helpful for differential diagnosis. therefore, the sensitivity and applicability of polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and reverse transcription (rt)-pcr diagnoses were evaluated for keratoconjunctivitis associated with v ...200111322419
genetic and phylogenetic clustering of enteroviruses.genetic and phylogenetic analysis of enteroviruses showed that in the 5'ncr enteroviruses formed three clusters: polioviruses (pvs), coxsackievirus a type 21 (cav21), cav24 and enterovirus type 70 (env70) formed one cluster; coxsackievirus b isolates (cbvs), cav9, cav16, env71, echovirus type 11 (ev11), ev12 and all partially sequenced echoviruses and swine vesicular disease virus (svdv) belonged to another cluster and bovine enteroviruses (bevs) formed the third cluster. in the capsid coding re ...19968760417
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection and identification of coxsackieviruses a.coxsackieviruses a are known to cause a wide range of human disease processes. however, because many coxsackieviruses a present in clinical specimens do not produce a recognizable cytopathic effect in readily available tissue culture systems, infections with coxsackieviruses a are often difficult to diagnose. we have thus developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) systems for the detection and serotyping of coxsackievirus a antigens. the assays consist of a double-antibody elisa which u ...19816260675
an outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease in singapore.epidemiological studies were carried out during an extensive outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease caused by coxsackievirus a 16 in singapore in 1981. most of the cases were concentrated in densely populated public housing estates, and the morbidity rate was highest in children under 5 years of age. the mean secondary attack rate for children under 12 years of age was 76.7% compared with an overall rate of 31.3%. the incubation period ranged from 1 to 7 days. factors favouring the transmissio ...19826297819
use of molecular assay in diagnosis of hand, foot and mouth disease caused by enterovirus 71 or coxsackievirus a 16.hand, foot and mouth disease is a common illness in children and is usually caused by coxsackievirus a 16 and enterovirus 71. it has been noted that enterovirus 71 infection is more severe with significantly greater frequency of serious complications and fatality than coxsackievirus a 16. therefore, it is important to develop a rapid and specific assay for discriminating coxsackievirus a 16 and enterovirus 71 in hand, foot and mouth disease outbreaks. in this study we designed two sets of rt-pcr ...200211879688
inactivation of virus during anaerobic digestion of manure in laboratory scale biogas reactors.reduction of porcine parvovirus, bovine enterovirus and faecal enterococci were measured in biogas reactors continuously run on manure and manure supplemented with household waste at 35 degrees c and 55 degrees c and in batch test run at 70 degrees c. the aim of the experiments was to study the sanitation effect of anaerobic digestion and to evaluate the use of faecal enterococci as an indicator of sanitation. parallel studies on the reduction of virus and faecal enterococci were done in physiol ...19968678476
enterovirus infection can induce immune responses that cross-react with beta-cell autoantigen tyrosine phosphatase ia-2/iar.insulin-dependent (type 1) diabetes is characterized by progressive destruction of insulin-producing beta cells probably by autoreactive t lymphocytes. viral infections, especially those caused by coxsackieviruses, are postulated to play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease in humans. one mechanism by which viral infections could initiate or accelerate diabetogenic processes is "molecular mimicry," induction of antiviral immune responses cross-reacting with epitopes in the beta-cell autoant ...200211793386
development and evaluation of a nucleic acid sequence based amplification (nasba) protocol for the detection of enterovirus rna in cerebrospinal fluid samples.a nucleic acid sequence based (nasba) assay for the generic detection of enterovirus rna in cerebrospinal fluid (csf) samples was developed and compared with an established reverse transcription/nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr) protocol. the sensitivity of nasba followed by detection of amplicons with a biotinylated oligonucleotide probe was < or = ten copies of enterovirus rna, indicating that enterovirus nasba achieves a similar sensitivity as nested pcr. moreover, nasba detected a panel ...200211906737
molecular phylogeny and proposed classification of the simian picornaviruses.the simian picornaviruses were isolated from various primate tissues during the development of general tissue culture methods in the 1950s to 1970s or from specimens derived from primates used in biomedical research. twenty simian picornavirus serotypes are recognized, and all are presently classified within the enterovirus genus. to determine the phylogenetic relationships among all of the simian picornaviruses and to evaluate their classification, we have determined complete vp1 sequences for ...200211773400
neutralizing antibodies to enterovirus 71 in belém, brazil.non-polio enteroviruses (coxsackievirus a, coxsackievirus b, echovirus and ev 68-72) which belong to the enterovirus (ev) genus, picornaviridae family, may be responsible for acute flaccid paralysis, aseptic meningitis, myocarditis, hepatitis, pleurodinia, neonatal sepsis, hand, foot and mouth disease (hfmd) even though 50-80% of infections are asymptomatic. ev 71 has been responsible for outbreaks and epidemics of hfmd and acute neurologic disease justifying its study in our country. the aim of ...200211992146
localized thigh swelling mimicking a neoplastic process: involvement of coxsackie virus type a21.a 4-y-old girl was admitted because of a left leg limp with an isolated swollen upper thigh and normal muscle enzymes. a radioisotope scan showed increased uptake especially in the bone and soft tissue of the left thigh, while magnetic resonance imaging of that region demonstrated widespread oedema in striated muscle. on muscle biopsy perivascular infiltrates were demonstrated but muscle fibres were not shown to be affected. sequence analysis of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction am ...200212022313
diagnosis of group a coxsackieviral infection using polymerase chain reaction.to examine the relation between enteroviral infection, especially group a coxsackieviral infection, and acute febrile illness over two summers using tissue culture and polymerase chain reaction (pcr).200212244006
nucleotide analysis and phylogenetic study of the homology boundaries of coxsackie a and b viruses.modern molecular methods use vp1 coding region as a target for rt-pcr assays followed by sequencing, in order to identify new untyped enteroviruses' strains. in the present study, two different genomic portions of vp1 and the full length of 2a coding region of 53 clinical isolates, mostly belonging to hev-b species, were amplified and sequenced. nucleotide analysis of the produced sequences revealed that the values that define an unknown strains serotype vary according to the serotype and the sp ...200516175336
is coxsackievirus the cause of unilateral acute idiopathic maculopathy? 200414718310
enterovirus infection and activation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells.gastrointestinal tract associated lymphoid tissue is considered to be the main replication site for enteroviruses. in order to invade tissues to reach pancreatic islets, cardiac muscles, and other secondary replication sites, the virus has to survive circulation in the blood and find a way to get through endothelial cells. in the present study, the susceptibility of human endothelial cells to infections caused by human parechovirus 1 and several prototype strains of enteroviruses, representing d ...200312767007
complete genomic sequencing shows that polioviruses and members of human enterovirus species c are closely related in the noncapsid coding region.the 65 human enterovirus serotypes are currently classified into five species: poliovirus (3 serotypes), human enterovirus a (hev-a) (12 serotypes), hev-b (37 serotypes), hev-c (11 serotypes), and hev-d (2 serotypes). coxsackie a virus (cav) serotypes 1, 11, 13, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, and 24 constitute hev-c. we have determined the complete genome sequences for the remaining nine hev-c serotypes and compared them with the complete sequences of cav21, cav24, and the polioviruses. the viruses ...200312885914
assessment of an enterovirus sewage surveillance system by comparison of clinical isolates with sewage isolates from milwaukee, wisconsin, collected august 1994 to december 2002.the quantity and serotypes of enteroviruses (evs) in the influent of a local sewage treatment plant were compared to local clinical ev cases to determine if testing of sewage is adequate for an ev surveillance system. the study was carried out from august 1994 to december 2002. monthly influent specimens were processed by organic flocculation, and dilutions of concentrate were inoculated onto a number of different cell types for virus isolation. evs were detected in 88 of 100 monthly influent sa ...200314660364
the change of etiological agents and clinical signs of epidemic viral conjunctivitis over an 18-year period in southern taiwan.epidemic viral conjunctivitis is a highly contagious eye disease that occurs worldwide and is caused mainly by adenoviruses and enteroviruses. an 18-year analysis of the changes of pathogens and clinical signs in a subtropical and densely populated island presents certain special features.200312768288
complete genome sequences of all members of the species human enterovirus a.the species human enterovirus a (hev-a) in the family picornaviridae consists of coxsackieviruses (cv) a2-a8, a10, a12, a14 and a16 and enterovirus 71. complete genome sequences for the prototype strains of the 10 serotypes whose sequences were not represented in public databases have been determined and analysed in conjunction with previously available complete sequences in genbank. members of hev-a are monophyletic relative to all other human enterovirus species in all regions of the genome ex ...200415166444
index of suspicion. 200312728190
enteroviruses 76, 89, 90 and 91 represent a novel group within the species human enterovirus a.molecular methods have enabled the rapid identification of new enterovirus (ev) serotypes that would have been untypable using existing neutralizing antisera. nineteen strains of four new ev types termed ev76 (11 isolates), ev89 (two isolates), ev90 (four isolates) and ev91 (two isolates), isolated from clinical specimens from patients in france (one isolate) and bangladesh (18 isolates), are described. nucleotide sequences encoding the vp1 capsid protein (882-888 nt) are less than 65 % identica ...200515659764
role of recombination in evolution of enteroviruses.enteroviruses, members of the picornaviridae family, comprise a large (over 70 serotypes) group of viruses that are ubiquitous in nature, infect different species and cause a wide range of diseases. human enteroviruses were recently classified into five species, human enterovirus a-d and poliovirus. recombination has long been known to be an important property of poliovirus genetics. recently, several publications demonstrated that recombination is extremely frequent also in non-polio enteroviru ...200515578739
non-specific febrile illness by coxsackievirus a16 in a 6-day-old newborn.a case of non-specific febrile illness by coxsackievirus a 16 (ca 16) in a 6-day-old newborn whose mother had developed hand, foot and mouth disease manifestations 2 days after delivery is reported. notwithstanding the concurrence of negative circumstances like the presence of the enterovirus genome in the cerebrospinal fluid, absence of type specific neutralizing antibody and a few days of life, the newborn recovered 3 days after the onset of fever. this case, also characterized by the absence ...200415252383
a comparative amplification of five different genomic regions on coxsackie a and b viruses. implications in clinical diagnostics.modern molecular approaches in human enterovirus detection rely on the designing of generic and often degenerate primers in order to amplify specific sequences within the enterovirus genome. in the present study a comparative application of primer sets targeting 5'utr, the vp1 region, the 3d region as well as a long genomic fragment including the 3'end of vp1, the full length of 2a and 2b, and the 5' moiety of the 2c-coding region was attempted, in order to evaluate their specificity and suitabi ...200515680214
systemic therapy of malignant human melanoma tumors by a common cold-producing enterovirus, coxsackievirus a21.the incidence of malignant melanoma continues to increase worldwide; however, treatment of metastatic melanoma remains unsatisfactory, and there is an urgent need for development of effective targeted therapeutics. a potential biological target on the surface of malignant melanoma cells is the up-regulated expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (icam)-1 and decay-accelerating factor (daf), relative to surrounding benign tissue. coxsackievirus a21 (a common cold virus) targets and destroys ...200414734451
[pay close attention to human enterovirus 71 infection]. 200516053728
rna interference against enterovirus 71 infection.enterovirus 71 (ev71) is a highly infectious major causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (hfmd) which could lead to severe neurological complications. there is currently no effective therapy against ev71. in this study, rna interference (rnai) is employed as a therapeutic approach for specific viral inhibition. various regions of the ev71 genome were targeted for inhibition by chemically synthesized sirnas. transfection of rhabdomyosarcoma (rd) cells with sirna targeting the 3'utr, 2c ...200516083932
human enterovirus 71 subgenotype b3 lacks coxsackievirus a16-like neurovirulence in mice infection.at least three different ev-71 subgenotypes were identified from an outbreak in malaysia in 1998. the subgenotypes c2 and b4 were associated with the severe and fatal infections, whereas the b3 virus was associated with mild to subclinical infections. the b3 virus genome sequences had >= 85% similarity at the 3' end to cv-a16. this offers opportunities to examine if there are characteristic similarities and differences in virulence between cv-a16, ev-71 b3 and ev-71 b4 and to determine if the pr ...200516122396
the ultrastructure of the developing replication site in foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected bhk-38 cells.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the type species of the aphthovirus genus of the picornaviridae: infection by picornaviruses results in a major rearrangement of the host cell membranes to create vesicular structures where virus genome replication takes place. in this report, using fluorescence and electron microscopy, membrane rearrangements in the cytoplasm of fmdv-infected bhk-38 cells are documented. at 1.5-2.0 h post-infection, free ribosomes, fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum, g ...200415039536
[laboratory diagnosis for enterovirus 71 infection]. 200516111282
[detection of enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus a16 from children with hand, foot and mouth disease in shanghai, 2002].it was noticed that coxsackievirus a16 (ca16) and enterovirus 71 (ev71) were two major etiological agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (hfmd) in children. recently there were several large outbreaks of hfmd in the asia-pacific region, and there was a propensity to cause severe complications or death in children under 5 years of age. the severe forms were associated with ev71 infection. although epidemics of hfmd have been reported in the mainland of china, few reports about ev71 as the pathog ...200516191294
molecular epidemiology of enterovirus 71 over two decades in an australian urban community.enterovirus 71 (ev71), first isolated in 1969, has been responsible for numerous outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (hfmd) with a small proportion of cases associated with neurological disease. since 1997 there has been a significant increase in both the prevalence and virulence of ev71 in the asia-pacific region. we have examined the genetic diversity of ev71 in a large australian city (sydney n.s.w.) over a nineteen-year period. we determined the vp1 gene sequence of forty-eight ev71 st ...200616369861
modulation of cytokine production by intravenous immunoglobulin in patients with enterovirus 71-associated brainstem encephalitis.several epidemics of enterovirus 71 (ev71) infections occurred in taiwan since 1998.200616861032
outcome of enterovirus 71 infections with or without stage-based management: 1998 to 2002.enterovirus 71 (ev71) infection may progress through four stages, one of which is cardiopulmonary failure. in taiwan in 1998 almost all the ev71 patients with cardiopulmonary failure died. to improve clinical outcome of ev71 patients, we developed a stage-based management program in 2000.200415071287
phylogenetic evidence for inter-typic recombination in the emergence of human enterovirus 71 subgenotypes.human enterovirus 71 (ev-71) is a common causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (hfmd). in recent years, the virus has caused several outbreaks with high numbers of deaths and severe neurological complications. several new ev-71 subgenotypes were identified from these outbreaks. the mechanisms that contributed to the emergence of these subgenotypes are unknown.200616939656
[a study on enterovirus infection in osaka prefecture --comparison with virus isolation and rt-pcr amplifying viral protein 1 region].detection of viral genomes with rt-pcr, which amplifies viral protein 1 region, as well as virus isolation was performed on 860 patients (996 specimens) who had been suspected for enterovirus (ev) infection in osaka prefecture from april 2003 to jury 2004. the viral positive rates of the clinical materials, combining above two procedures, were as follows: 48.2% from the feces, 38.3% from the throat swabs, and 18.0% from the cerebrospinal fluids. the positive rate by the clinical diagnosis indica ...200515977548
validation of rt-pcr assays for molecular characterization of porcine teschoviruses and enteroviruses.porcine enteroviruses (pevs) and teschoviruses (ptvs) are described as causative agents of neurological disorders, fertility disorders and dermal lesions of swine. difficulties in the serological detection of these viruses may lead to a significant underestimation of infections with clinical symptoms. with the recent availability of genome sequence data for all the serotypes, molecular diagnosis is a possibility. the present study describes a new approach to molecular 'serotyping' of ptvs and pe ...200616907956
the vp1 protein of human enterovirus 71 self-associates via an interaction domain spanning amino acids 66-297.enterovirus 71 (ev71) is a major etiological agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (hfmd). several recent outbreaks of hfmd in east asia were associated with neurological complications and numerous deaths. in 2000, an outbreak in singapore afflicted thousands of children, resulting in four fatal cases from whom ev71 was isolated. the virus possesses four structural proteins vp1, vp2, vp3, and vp4, each of which is involved in forming the pentameric icosahedral structure of the virus. here we re ...200616555287
the difficult-to-cultivate coxsackieviruses a can productively multiply in primary culture of mouse skeletal muscle.coxsackieviruses a (cva) are associated with several clinical manifestations such as aseptic meningitis and paralytic syndromes in humans. most cva are difficult-to-cultivate, which impedes their propagation and isolation from clinical material. here, we tested the ability of cultivable (cva-13, cva-14), and difficult-to-cultivate (cva-6, cva-22) strains to infect primary cultures of skeletal muscle cells established from newborn mice. we found that such cultures sustained the multiplication of ...200716956688
identification of immunodominant vp1 linear epitope of enterovirus 71 (ev71) using synthetic peptides for detecting human anti-ev71 igg antibodies in western blots.a major igg-specific immunodominant vp1 linear epitope of enterovirus 71 (ev71) strain 41 (5865/sin/00009), defined by the core sequence legttnpng, was identified by pepscan analysis. oligonucleotides corresponding to the amino-acid sequence of synthetic peptide sp32 were cloned and over-expressed in escherichia coli as a recombinant glutathione-s-transferase (gst)-sp32 fusion protein. in elisas, this protein did not react with human anti-ev71 igg antibodies, but there was significant immunoreac ...200818076666
genetic evolution of enterovirus 71: epidemiological and pathological implications.since its discovery in the 1970s, enterovirus 71 (ev71) has become one of the most pathogenic enterovirus serotypes causing recurrent outbreaks in different parts of the world. three waves of outbreaks globally have been recorded over the last three decades and more recently active circulation of ev71 is evident amongst countries in south east asia and beyond. there is evidence of a continuous evolution in its genetic make up which is likely to impact on its epidemiology and pathological potenti ...200717487831
basic rationale, current methods and future directions for molecular typing of human enterovirus.enterovirus is a genus of the picornaviridae family including more than 80 serotypes belonging to four species designed human enterovirus a to d. the antigens of the structural proteins support the subdivision of enteroviruses into multiple serotypes. comparative phylogeny based on molecular typing methods has been of great help to classify former and new types of enterovirus, and to investigate the diversity of enteroviruses and the evolutionary mechanisms involved in their diversity. by now, m ...200717620049
ozone exposure in the culture medium inhibits enterovirus 71 virus replication and modulates cytokine production in rhabdomyosarcoma cells.in the present study, the effects of ozone exposure on enterovirus 71 (ev71) replication and related cytokine production were investigated. rhabdomyosarcoma cells (rd) were exposed to 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 ppm ozone or filtered air under different exposure regimens before or after infection for 1 or 2 h. the results revealed that at a proper concentration of ozone, e.g., 1.5 or 2 ppm, ozone exposure restricted virus production, prolonged survival time of cells and modulated cytokine production relat ...200717764758
recognition of coxsackievirus a by enterovirus genus-specific immune and molecular markers in experimentally infected suckling mice.most of coxsackieviruses a (cv-a) are difficult to isolate in cell culture and are responsible for flask paralysis in suckling mice. the aim of the present work was to analyze the ability of immune and rt-pcr techniques to detect viral components of three different serotypes, cv-a6, cv-a13, and cv-a14, in skeletal muscles of experimentally infected suckling mice.200516004942
outbreak of neurologic enterovirus type 71 disease: a diagnostic challenge.similar to poliovirus, enterovirus type 71 (ev71) causes severe disease, including aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis, and acute cardiopulmonary dysfunction. large epidemics of ev71 infection have been reported worldwide.200717879907
passive protection against lethal enterovirus 71 infection in newborn mice by neutralizing antibodies elicited by a synthetic peptide.enterovirus 71 (ev71) infections could lead to high mortalities and neither vaccine nor therapeutic treatment is available. we investigated vaccination with a synthetic peptide sp70 representing a neutralizing linear vp1 epitope of ev71 strain 41 (subgenogroup b4) and passive transfer of anti-sp70 antibodies to protect suckling balb/c mice against ev71 infectivity. when the mouse anti-sp70 antisera with a neutralizing antibody titer of 1:32 were passively administered to one-day-old suckling mic ...200717890123
[study on the molecular typing and epidemiology of non-polio enteroviruses isolated from yunnan province, china].this report presented an overview on the epidemiology of enterovirus in yunnan province, the people's republic of china.200717850701
highly attenuated bordetella pertussis strain bpze1 as a potential live vehicle for delivery of heterologous vaccine candidates.bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough, is a promising and attractive candidate for vaccine delivery via the nasal route, provided that suitable attenuation of this pathogen has been obtained. recently, the highly attenuated b. pertussis bpze1 strain has been described as a potential live pertussis vaccine for humans. we investigated here the use of bpze1 as a live vehicle for heterologous vaccine candidates. previous studies have reported the filamentous hemagglutinin (fha) ...200817954727
epidemiological survey of enterovirus infections occurring in taiwan between 2000 and 2005: analysis of sentinel physician surveillance data.enterovirus (ev) infections are common. there are more than 60 known serotypes, and each has different epidemiologic or medical importance. over 700 physicians from 75% of basic administrative units of taiwan participated in the "sentinel physician surveillance of infectious disease" and reported weekly to the center for disease control-taiwan with data on various infections. data of laboratory-confirmed ev infections from this surveillance between 2000 and 2005 was analyzed. ev serotypes were d ...200717935170
high prevalence of human enterovirus a infections in natural circulation of human enteroviruses.human enterovirus (hev) infections can be asymptomatic or cause only mild illness; recent evidence may implicate hev infection in type 1 diabetes mellitus and myocarditis. here, we report the molecular characterization of hev obtained in serial monthly collections from healthy norwegian infants. a total of 1,255 fecal samples were collected from 113 healthy infants beginning at age 3 months and continuing to 28 months. the samples were analyzed for hev nucleic acid by real-time pcr. fifty-eight ...200616943351
enterovirus surveillance reveals proposed new serotypes and provides new insight into enterovirus 5'-untranslated region evolution.human enteroviruses are currently grouped into five species human enterovirus a (hev-a), hev-b, hev-c, hev-d and poliovirus. during surveillance for enteroviruses serologically non-typable enterovirus strains were found from acute flaccid paralysis patients and healthy individuals. in this study, we report isolates of recently described enterovirus types ev76 and ev90 of hev-a species and characterize two new enterovirus type candidates, ev96 and ev97, to species hev-c and hev-b, respectively. a ...200717698662
molecular phylogeny of modern coxsackievirus a16.a phylogenetic analysis of vp1 and vp4 nucleotide sequences of 52 recent cva16 strains demonstrated two distinct cva16 genogroups, a and b, with the prototype strain being the only member of genogroup a. cva16 g-10, the prototype strain, showed a nucleotide difference of 27.7-30.2% and 19.9-25.2% in vp1 and vp4, respectively, in relation to other cva16 strains, which formed two separate lineages in genogroup b with nucleotide variation of less than 13.4% and less than 16.3% in vp1 and vp4, respe ...200717308978
enhanced potency and efficacy of 29-mer shrnas in inhibition of enterovirus 71.enterovirus 71 (ev71) is the main causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (hfmd) in young children. it has been associated with severe neurological complications and has caused significant mortalities in large-scale outbreaks in asia. in this study, we demonstrated an enhanced silencing of ev71 through the use of chemically synthesized 29-mer shrnas. the 29-mer shrnas were designed to target three highly conserved regions of ev71 genome. transfection of rhabdomyosarcoma (rd) cells with ...200717316836
enterovirus 94, a proposed new serotype in human enterovirus species d.the genus enterovirus (family picornaviridae) contains five species with strains isolated from humans: human enterovirus a (hev-a), hev-b, hev-c, hev-d and poliovirus. in this study, a proposed new serotype of hev-d was characterized. four virus strains were isolated from sewage in egypt and one strain from acute flaccid paralysis cases in the democratic republic of the congo. the complete genome of one environmental isolate, the complete coding sequence of one clinical isolate and complete vp1 ...200717325357
a mammalian cell-based reverse two-hybrid system for functional analysis of 3c viral protease of human enterovirus 71.although several cell-based reporter assays have been developed for screening of viral protease inhibitors, most of these assays have a significant limitation in that numerous false positives can be generated for the compounds that are interfering with reporter gene detection due to the cellular viability. to improve, we developed a mammalian cell-based assay based on the reverse two-hybrid system to monitor the proteolytic activity of human enterovirus 71 (ev71) 3c protease and to validate the ...200818190777
appearance of intratypic recombination of enterovirus 71 in taiwan from 2002 to 2005.genetic recombination is a well-known phenomenon for enteroviruses. in this study, we determined the phylogenetic relationships of five distinct regions of the ev71 genome for 73 ev71 isolates from 1986 and from 1998 to 2005 in taiwan. phylogenetic analyses showed that the 5'-utr, vp4-vp2, vp1, and 3d regions of ev71 isolated in 2004 and 2005 were grouped into genotype c. however, the 2b region of these isolates differed in that it grouped with genotype b, indicating recombination within ev71 ha ...200818036697
identification of human cd4 t-cell epitopes on the vp1 capsid protein of enterovirus 71.the identification of human cd4 t-cell epitopes within a protein vaccine candidate is of great interest,as it provides a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in protective immunity and may therefore help in the design of effective vaccines and diagnostic tools. the entire amino acid sequence of the vp1 capsid protein from enterovirus 71 (ev 71) strain 41 was submitted to analysis by the propred algorithm for the identification of potential promiscuous human cd4 t-cellepitopes. three r ...200818419256
[further improve the understanding of hand, foot and mouth disease]. 200718036289
potent oncolytic activity of human enteroviruses against human prostate cancer.oncolytic virotherapy offers a unique treatment modality for prostate cancer, especially stages that are resistant to current therapies, with the additional benefit of preferentially targeting tumor cells amongst an environment of healthy tissue. herein, the low pathogenic enteroviruses; coxsackievirus a21 (cva21), as well as a bio-selected variant of coxsackievirus a21 (cva21-dafv) and echovirus 1 (ev1) are evaluated as novel oncolytic agents against human prostate cancer.200818288643
prospective identification of enteroviruses involved in meningitis in 2006 through direct genotyping in cerebrospinal fluid.enterovirus infections were investigated with special emphasis on performing rapid molecular identification of enterovirus serotypes responsible for aseptic meningitis directly in cerebrospinal fluid (csf). enterovirus genotyping was carried out directly with specimens tested for the diagnostic procedure, using two seminested pcr assays designed to amplify the complete and partial gene sequences encoding the vp1 and vp4/vp2 capsid proteins, respectively. the method was used for identifying the e ...200817977989
upper aerodigestive tract sequelae in severe enterovirus 71 infection: predictors and outcome.enterovirus 71 (ev71) infection sequelae can be severe and life-threatening, and long-term follow-up outcomes remain unknown. therefore, we conducted a retrospective follow-up study to review airway and neurological sequelae development in patients with severe ev71 infection. we also studied the incidence and risk factors for tracheotomy and gastrostomy requirement.200818029029
complete genome sequences for nine simian enteroviruses.analysis of the vp1 capsid-coding sequences of the simian picornaviruses has suggested that baboon enterovirus (baev), sv19, sv43 and sv46 belong to the species human enterovirus a (hev-a) and sa5 belongs to hev-b, whereas sv4/a2 plaque virus (two isolates of a single serotype), sv6 and n125/n203 (two isolates of a single serotype) appear to represent new species in the genus. we have further characterized by complete genomic sequencing the genetic relationships among the simian enteroviruses se ...200718024906
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