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gap junctions and impulse propagation in embryonic epithelium of amphibia. a freeze-etching study.epithelium of amphibian embryos (cynops orientalis, xenopus laevis) was found in preceding experiments to generate and conduct impulses during a limited stage (26-37) of development . in order to elucidate the structural basis of impulse propagation, epithelial cells of four stages were examined by the freeze-etching method: (i) before and (ii) during acquisition of conductivity; (iii) when propagation was fully established, and (iv) when it was no longer present. only few gap junctions (gj) of ...19827105147
ultrastructural changes of nuclei after treatment with mesodermal inducing substance.ultrastructural changes occur in the nuclei of the presumptive ectoderm cells of the early gastrula of cynops orientalis after treatment with a mesodermal inducing substance (guinea pig bone marrow extract). the large condensed chromatin masses in the nuclei of the control series are no longer found; they become more or less dispersed. the successive changes of chromatin from condensed to dispersed have been observed. and in connection with the observations on neural induction after ca-free trea ...19827112079
effect of heterospecific dna on the development of rana nigromaculata.both the dna of a balancer-bearing species (cynops orientalis) and that of a non-balancer-bearing species (rana nigromaculata), when injected into the fertilized eggs of r. nigromaculata, cause some tadpoles derived from the injected eggs to bear a single balancer-like process on the left operculum. based upon these results, it may be so concluded that the occurrence of the balancer-like process in the tadpole is neither due to genetic transformation, nor due to balancer induction, but rather du ...19817256250
molecular characterization of a kif3a-like kinesin gene in the testis of the chinese fire-bellied newt cynops orientalis.kif3a, the subunit within the kinesin-2 superfamily, is a typically n-terminal motor protein, which is involved in membranous organelle and intraflagellar transport. during spermatogenesis, kif3a plays a critical role in the formation of flagella and cilia. kif3a is also related to the left-right asymmetry, the signal pathway, dna damage and tumorigenesis. we used rt-pcr and in situ hybridization to clone the kif3a gene, and we identified its function in the testis of the chinese fire-bellied ne ...201121773941
detection of spring viraemia of carp virus in imported amphibians reveals an unanticipated foreign animal disease threat.global translocation of plants and animals is a well-recognized mechanism for introduction of pathogens into new regions. to mitigate this risk, various tools such as preshipment health certificates, quarantines, screening for specific disease agents and outright bans have been implemented. however, such measures only target known infectious agents and their hosts and may fail to prevent translocation of even well-recognized pathogens if they are carried by novel host species. in a recent exampl ...201627599472
proteomic analysis of the skin from chinese fire-bellied newt and comparison to chinese giant salamander.animal skin that directly interfaces with the external environment has developed diverse adaptive functions to a variety of ecological conditions laden with pathogenic infection and physical harm. amphibians exhibit various adaptations related to their "incomplete" shift from the aquatic to the terrestrial habitat. therefore, it is very necessary to explore the molecular basis of skin function and adaptation in amphibians. currently, the studies on the molecular mechanisms of skin functions in a ...201627343457
spontaneous potentials of embryonic epithelium in urodeles (cynops orientalis).the spontaneous potentials (sps) of nerveless embryonic epithelium of cynops orientalis were observed by conventional intracellular micro-electrode technique. the amplitude and frequency of sps of epithelial cells and the course of initiation and decline were recorded. the sps can occur repeatedly at the stages when the embryonic epithelium is able to conduct excitation. the sp is very similar to the evoked propagatable potential, but has shorter duration. the amplitudes and frequencies of sps d ...19827167803
molecular cloning, characterization, and expression analysis of the three cysteine and glycine-rich protein genes in the chinese fire-bellied newt cynops orientalis.the cysteine- and glycine-rich protein (crp) family members, including the cysteine- and glycine-rich protein 1 (csrp1), cysteine- and glycine-rich protein 2 (csrp2), and the cysteine- and glycine-rich protein 3 (csrp3), have exhibited various cellular functions during cell development and differentiation. however, the sequences of the three csrp genes and their functions are still poorly understood in newts. in this study, we cloned the complete open reading frame (orf) sequences of the three c ...029317320
itraq-based quantitative proteomic analysis of cynops orientalis limb regeneration.salamanders regenerate their limbs after amputation. however, the molecular mechanism of this unique regeneration remains unclear. in this study, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (itraq) coupled with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (lc-ms/ms) was employed to quantitatively identify differentially expressed proteins in regenerating limbs 3, 7, 14, 30 and 42 days post amputation (dpa).201728938871
profiling of glycan alterations in regrowing limb tissues of cynops orientalis.glycans are known to play important roles in molecular recognition, cell-cell adhesion, molecular trafficking, receptor activation, and signal transduction during development and regeneration. despite numerous investigations of regenerating salamander limbs, global analysis of the precise variation of glycans during the limb regeneration process has received little attention. here, we have used lectin microarrays and lectin histochemistry to analyze the alterations and distribution of glycans du ...201728857387
tetrodotoxin in asian newts (salamandridae).tetrodotoxin (ttx) and its analogues occur in a wide range of marine animals but also in terrestrial vertebrates such as frogs, toads and newts. despite numerous studies on ttx in new world newts (notophthalmus viridescens, taricha spp.), few data only exist for asian newts. methanolic extracts of newts from china (cynops orientalis, pachytriton labiatus, paramesotriton chinensis), vietnam (paramesotriton deloustali, p. guangxiensis), and laos (laotriton laoensis) were analyzed by liquid-chromat ...201728528177
proteome analysis of the liver in the chinese fire-bellied newt cynops orientalis.the chinese fire-bellied newt, cynops orientalis, belonging to amphibia, caudata, salamandridae is a species endemic to china. the liver, which is an important digestive gland and the largest amphibian organ, has various functions, including detoxification, glycogen storage, protein synthesis, and hormone production. however, the newt liver has rarely been studied at the molecular level. we performed histomorphology and high-throughput proteomic analysis of the chinese fire-bellied newt liver, u ...201627525932
itraq-based proteomic analysis of adaptive response in the regenerating limb of the cynops orientalis newt.the newt has the powerful capacity to regenerate lost limbs following amputation, and represents an excellent model organism to study regenerative processes. however, the molecular basis of the adaptive response in the regenerating limb of the chinese fire-bellied newt cynops orientalis immediately after amputation remains unclear. to better understand the adaptive response immediately after limb amputation at the protein level, we used isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (itraq ...201526864489
the potential function of prohibitin during spermatogenesis in chinese fire-bellied newt cynops orientalis.prohibitin proteins are multifunctional proteins located mainly at the inner membrane of mitochondria expressed in universal species. they play a vital role in mitochondria's function, cell proteolysis, senescence, apoptosis and as a substrate for ubiquitination. in this study, we used pcr cloning, protein and nucleotide acids alignment, protein structure prediction, western blot, in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence to study the characteristics of the prohibitin gene and the potential r ...201626384251
[photoreceptors and visual pigments in three species of newts].photoreceptor complement and retinal visual pigments in three newt (caudata, salamandridae, pleurodelinae) species (pleurodeles waltl, lissotriton (triturus) vulgaris and cynops orientalis) were studied by light mucroscopy and microspectrophotometry. retinas of all three species contain "red" (rhodopsin/porphyropsin) rods, large and small single cones, and double cones. large single cones and both components of double cones contain red-sensitive (presumably lws) visual pigment whose absorbance s ...201424459859
the apoptotic function analysis of p53, apaf1, caspase3 and caspase7 during the spermatogenesis of the chinese fire-bellied newt cynops orientalis.spontaneous and stress-induced germ cell apoptosis during spermatogenesis of multicellular organisms have been investigated broadly in mammals. spermatogenetic process in urodele amphibians was essentially like that in mammals in spite of morphological differences; however, the mechanism of germ cell apoptosis in urodele amphibians remains unknown. the chinese fire-belly newt, cynops orientalis, was an excellent organism for studying germ cell apoptosis due to its sensitiveness to temperature, s ...201222768170
excretory nitrogen metabolism in the chinese fire-belly newt cynops orientalis in water, on land, or in high concentrations of environmental ammonia.the chinese fire-belly newt cynops orientalis reverts to an aquatic mode of living when sexually mature. despite living in water, sexually mature c. orientalis maintained high capacity for hepatic urea synthesis. however, it had a lower rate of urea production than other terrestrial amphibians because endogenous ammonia could diffuse out to the external medium as nh3. this conserves cellular energy because urea synthesis is energetically expensive. simultaneously, c. orientalis also reduced the ...200414610682
[studies on the localization of npy-like immuno-reactivity in the nervous system during development of cynops orientalis].by immuno-cytochemical method the localization of neuropeptide y (npy) in the nervous system during embryonic development of cynops orientalis was studied. the results revealed that npy was first localized in the peripheral nervous system (late tail-bud stage), and later appeared in the central nervous system (larval stage) where it appeared with the appearance of glial cells. very probably with the migration of neural crest cells npy appeared first in the peripheral nervous system and then dist ...200012548851
[appearance and distribution of retinoic acid in the limb regeneration of cynops orientalis].urodeles are the unique vertebrate which can regenerate their limbs in larvae and adult. the pattern formation of blastema cells in the limb regeneration is a central problem. many evidence have been established to support the hypothesis that ra may be the morphogen in limb development. the limb development and regeneration are so similar morphogenetic processes that we suspect ra may also play an important role in the latter process. in order to give an answer to this question, we tested the li ...19938023640
[the effects of metabolic inhibitors on the excitability of the cells in embryonic epidermis of cynops orientalis].it has been reported that the cells in atypical epidermis, which developed from the in vitro cultured ectoderm isolated at early gastrula, showed very low excitability or were even non-excitable at 6 v when examined electro-physiologically. if non-excitable explants were treated with energy supplying substances, such as glucose, the action potential (ap) appeared quickly. it indicates that, the excitability of epidermis cells is related to their energy metabolism. in order to verify the above pr ...19902091424
[immunocytochemical studies on the appearance and distribution of desmin during myogenesis in the embryos of cynops orientalis].indirect immunofluorescence was used to study the temporal appearance and spatial distribution of desmin during the myogenesis of the embryos of cynops orientalis. desmin is undetectable until stage 25. in stage 25 embryo, it can be seen that desmin is restrictively distributed at both ends of columnar cells, near the boundary between two somites and intense in the cells near by the notochord. from stage 26 to stage 30, the amount of desmin is increased and its distribution pattern shows little ...19892800840
[the appearance and changes of gap junctions during myogenesis of cynops embryos].the appearance and changes of gap junctions during the development of striated muscle cells of cynops orientalis have been studied by paraffin section, ultrathin-section and freeze-etching techniques. gap junctions first appear between the somitic mesoderm cells in the late gastrula. a marked increase of the number of gap junctions occurs at the end of gastrulation. the number of gap junctions remains at a high level from neural plate stage up to nasal pit stage. after the stage of muscle contra ...19892800838
[experiments on the excitability of the cultured embryonic epidermis cells of cynops orientalis].it has been reported that in cynops orientalis the cells in the atypical epidermis resulted from isolation of the ectoderm from the early gastrula and cultured in vitro possesses very low excitability. the great majority of the explants didn't display action potential (ap) with electric stimulus up to 6 v duration 1 ms). if, however, the epidermis was taken from the flank region of a neurula with the underlying mesoderm, in such explant the epidermis cells became excitable at a lower threshold o ...19892763764
[on the excitability of the epidermis and the atypical epidermis of cynops orientalis embryos]. 19873630518
[the localization of rohon-beard cells in the neurula of the urodele cynops orientalis]. 19863577545
[working map of the lampbrush chromosomes of cynops orientalis]. 19853837579
[the ionic dependence of the action potential of the epithelial cells of embryos of cynops orientalis]. 19853835756
coupling of gap junctions by induction of impulse conductivity in cultured epithelium of newt embryo (cynops orientalis).impulse generation and propagation was previously shown to occur in skin epithelium of newt (cynops orientalis) embryos during certain stages of development and to be correlated with morphological changes of gap junctions. these properties are not detected in embryonic epithelia explanted and grown in culture. however, early explants when transplanted to a host embryo develop conductivity, and relatively large gap junctions with loose arrangement of connexons occur as soon as the host embryo rea ...19854028121
the transcriptome of the newt cynops orientalis provides new insights into evolution and function of sexual gene networks in sarcopterygians.amphibians evolved in the devonian period about 400 mya and represent a transition step in tetrapod evolution. among amphibians, high-throughput sequencing data are very limited for caudata, due to their largest genome sizes among terrestrial vertebrates. in this paper we present the transcriptome from the fire bellied newt cynops orientalis. data here presented display a high level of completeness, comparable to the fully sequenced genomes available from other amphibians. moreover, this work fo ...202032214214
characterization of glycoconjugates and sialic acid modification in the olfactory bulb of the chinese fire-bellied newt (cynops orientalis).diverse glycoconjugates are expressed in the vertebrate olfactory bulb and serve as guidance cues for axons of nasal receptor neurons. although the involvement of glycoconjugates in the segregation of the olfactory pathway has been suggested, it is poorly understood in salamanders. in this study, lectin histochemistry was used to determine glycoconjugate distribution in the olfactory bulb of the chinese fire-bellied newt (cynops orientalis). succinylated wheat germ agglutinin (swga), ricinus com ...202031854005
integrative analysis of micrornaome, transcriptome, and proteome during the limb regeneration of cynops orientalis.salamanders completely regenerate their limbs after amputation. thus, these animals are unique models to investigate the mechanisms modulating regeneration in vertebrates. to investigate the influence of micrornas (mirnas) on newt limb regeneration, the mirnas and mrnas were simultaneously profiled using illumina hiseq 2500 system during limb regeneration of cynops orientalis at 3, 7, 14, 30 and 42 days postamputation. a total of 203 mirnas and 4230 mrnas were identified to be differentially exp ...201930608709
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