isolation of bovine papular stomatitis virus from humans. 19724338982
bovine papular stomatitis, first report of the disease in a herd of 120 two to eight months old calves kept at a mexican government experimental station in ajuchitlan, querétaro, weight loss and ptialism were observed. upon a clinical examination, it was found that 31 (25.8%) of the animals disclosed papules in the oral and perioral regions. biopsies from the affected tissues were studied with the light and electron microscopes. serological studies and isolation of the virus were also carried out. a pox virus was identified (240 x 100 x 150 +/- 7% n ...19806247120
characterization of sealpox virus, a separate member of the parapoxviruses.a disease outbreak characterized by lesions of the skin and mucosa of the oral cavity was recognized in harbor seals ( phoca vitulina) from the german north sea. using electron microscopy typical parapoxvirus particles were observed. the presence of parapoxvirus was confirmed by pcr and nucleotide sequencing of part of the putative major envelope protein coding gene. comparative sequence analysis revealed that the virus from seal is significantly different from the established parapoxvirus speci ...200212111424
characterization of parapoxviruses circulating among wild japanese serows (capricornis crispus).we antigenically and molecularly compared 5 parapoxvirus isolates and 7 viral dna samples from clinical lesions of japanese serows with 3 viruses from sheep and goats. all isolates from japanese serows except one, ishikawa-s, reacted with six monoclonal antibodies to orf virus (orfv). restriction endonuclease analysis using amplified viral dna showed the orfv-specific pattern in all samples except ishikawa-s, which showed a bovine papular stomatitis virus (bpsv)-specific pattern. partial nucleot ...200212363024
genomes of the parapoxviruses orf virus and bovine papular stomatitis virus.bovine papular stomatitis virus (bpsv) and orf virus (orfv), members of the genus parapoxvirus of the poxviridae, are etiologic agents of worldwide diseases affecting cattle and small ruminants, respectively. here we report the genomic sequences and comparative analysis of bpsv strain bv-ar02 and orfv strains ov-sa00, isolated from a goat, and ov-ia82, isolated from a sheep. parapoxvirus (ppv) bv-ar02, ov-sa00, and ov-ia82 genomes range in size from 134 to 139 kbp, with an average nucleotide com ...200414671098
genetic characterization of orf viruses isolated from various ruminant species of a the present study, an outbreak of proliferative dermatitis in musk ox (ovibos moschatus), sichuan takin (budorcas taxicolor tibetana) and domestic shetland sheep (ovis aries) in a zoo is described. skin lesions consisted of severe, persistent, multifocal, proliferative dermatitis in musk ox, and mild, transient, focal, dermatitis in the sichuan takin and shetland sheep. parapoxviruses were isolated from skin lesions, and characterized by restriction enzyme analysis and partial gene sequencing ...200415019099
pathology and preliminary characterization of a parapoxvirus isolated from a california sea lion (zalophus californianus).cutaneous pox-like lesions are a common complication in the rehabilitation of pinnipeds. however, the exact identity, taxonomy, and host range of pinniped parapoxviruses remain unknown. during a poxvirus outbreak in may 2003 in california sea lions (zalophus californianus) at a marine mammal rehabilitation facility, multiple raised, firm, 1-3-cm skin nodules from the head, neck, and thorax of one sea lion weanling pup that spontaneously died were collected. histologically, the nodules were chara ...200616699145
unusual bovine papular stomatitis virus infection in a british dairy cow. 200919136690
diagnosis of bovine-associated parapoxvirus infections in humans: molecular and epidemiological evidence.orf virus, pseudocowpox virus and bovine papular stomatitis virus, are parapoxviruses, associated with domestic ruminants, which are capable of causing cutaneous infections in humans. owing to virtually identical appearances in humans, clinical differentiation of these viruses is difficult. we discuss three recent occurrences of parapoxvirus infection, involving contact with domestic bovine and use a combination of molecular and epidemiological data in the diagnosis. these cases underscore the u ...201020163577
severe oesophagitis in an adult bull caused by bovine papular stomatitis virus. 201121926143
Zoonotic transmission of bovine papular stomatitis virus. 201121873394
recombinase polymerase amplification assay for rapid detection of lumpy skin disease virus.lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) is a capripoxvirus infecting cattle and buffalos. lumpy skin disease (lsd) leads to significant economic losses due to hide damage, reduction of milk production, mastitis, infertility and mortalities (10 %). early detection of the virus is crucial to start appropriate outbreak control measures. veterinarians rely on the presence of the characteristic clinical signs of lsd. laboratory diagnostics including virus isolation, sequencing and real-time polymerase chain ...201627806722
detection of multiple viral infections in cattle and buffalo with suspected vesicular disease in brazil.vesicular diseases are of high importance for livestock, primarily because of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), which is a high-morbidity disease that generates direct losses caused by low milk production, weight loss, and indirect losses because of the need for sanitary barriers. other vesicular diseases are also of importance for livestock because of direct impacts or because their clinical signs may be confused with those of fmd. we report herein the detection of multiple infections in cattle wit ...201627154321
Original findings associated with two cases of bovine papular stomatitis.Bovine papular stomatitis virus was isolated from two calves in an animal house with biosafety level 3 confinement. The hypotheses on the origin of the infection, the interesting features of the partial amino acid sequences of the major envelope viral protein, and the importance of diagnostic tools available for animal diseases that are not listed by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) are discussed.201121976753
the genome of pseudocowpoxvirus: comparison of a reindeer isolate and a reference strain.parapoxviruses (ppv), of the family poxviridae, cause a pustular cutaneous disease in sheep and goats (orf virus, orfv) and cattle (pseudocowpoxvirus, pcpv and bovine papular stomatitis virus, bpsv). here, we present the first genomic sequence of a reference strain of pcpv (vr634) along with the genomic sequence of a ppv (f00.120r) isolated in finland from reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus). the f00.120r and vr634 genomes are 135 and 145 kb in length and contain 131 and 134 putative genes, re ...201020107016
severe dermatitis on cattle teats caused by bovine papular stomatitis virus. 200919270325
conservation and variation of the parapoxvirus gm-csf-inhibitory factor (gif) proteins.the gif protein of orf virus (orfv) binds and inhibits the ovine cytokines granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (gm-csf) and interleukin-2 (il-2). an equivalent protein has so far not been found in any of the other poxvirus genera and we therefore investigated whether it was conserved in the parapoxviruses. the corresponding genes from both the bovine-specific pseudocowpox virus (pcpv) and bovine papular stomatitis virus (bpsv) were cloned and sequenced. the predicted amino acid sequ ...200919264672
development of methodology based on commercialized sers-active substrates for rapid discrimination of poxviridae virions.surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy (sers) can be made an attractive approach for identification of raman-active compounds and biological materials (i.e., toxins, viruses, or intact bacterial cells/spores) through development of reproducible, spatially uniform sers-active substrates. recently, reproducible (from substrate-to-substrate), spatially homogeneous (over large areas) sers-active substrates have been commercialized and are now available in the marketplace. we have utilized these pattern ...200818303918
bovine papular stomatitis virus encodes a functionally distinct vegf that binds both vegfr-1 and vegfr-2.bovine papular stomatitis virus (bpsv), a member of the genus parapoxvirus, causes proliferative dermatitis in cattle and humans. other species of the genus cause similar lesions, the nature of which has been attributed, at least in part, to a viral-encoded vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) that induces vascularization and dermal oedema through vegf receptor-2 (vegfr-2). the results of this study showed that bpsv strain v660 encodes a novel vegf and that the predicted bpsv protein showed ...200717325350
orf virus infection and host immunity.a summary of recent advances in our knowledge of the biology of orf virus is presented to illustrate the interaction of a zoonotic pathogen with host skin. this is providing novel and interesting data on the viral mechanism of skin infection and the host response.200616514336
real-time pcr detection of parapoxvirus dna.detection of parapoxviruses is important in various animals as well as in humans as zoonotic infections. reliable detection of parapoxviruses is fundamental for the exclusion of other rash-causing illnesses, for both veterinarians and medical practitioners. to date, however, no real-time pcr assay for the detection of parapoxviruses has been reported.200616449215
the morphology of bovine papular stomatitis virus. 196214477956
spread of poxviruses in livestock in brazil associated with cases of double and triple infection.the objective of this work is to describe the distribution of outbreaks of vaccinia virus (vacv), pseudocowpox virus (pcpv), and bovine papular stomatitis virus (bspv) in brazil. the official laboratory of the brazilian ministry of agriculture received 89 samples from different locations in brazil in 2015 and 2016 for diagnosis of vesicular and exanthematous disease. poxvirus coinfections occurred in 11 out of 33 outbreaks, including the first reported triple infection by bpsv, pcpv, and vacv. t ...201728516287
outbreaks of bovine herpesvirus 2 infections in calves causing ear and facial skin lesions.we describe 3 outbreaks of superficial dermatitis caused by bovine herpesvirus 2 (bohv-2) in dairy breed calves. clinically, all of the affected calves were 12-26 d of age, had alopecia and crusts on the face and ears, and were non-pruritic and afebrile. affected animals recovered spontaneously without any treatment within 2-4 wk after onset of clinical signs based on 1 herd with follow up. histologic examination of all skin crust or tissue samples identified neutrophilic inflammation, mild hype ...201728423989
parapoxviral vulvovaginitis in holstein cows.a group of holstein first-calved heifers developed small pustules and ulcers on the vulva and in the vagina during the first 1-4 wk postpartum. the lesions varied from small red pinpoint foci to pustules and ulcers, 3-5 mm diameter. some ulcers coalesced to form large ulcerated areas up to 15 mm diameter. in some animals, these ulcers progressed to become deep ulceration of the vaginal and vulvar mucosa with >50% of the mucosa involved. vaginal biopsies from 4 heifers and vaginal individual swab ...201829429402
characterization of a north american orf virus isolated from a goat with persistent, proliferative dermatitis.the characterization of an orf virus (ov) isolated from skin lesions of a goat kid with severe, persistent, proliferative dermatitis, and designated orf virus-san angelo 2000 (ov-sa00) strain, is described. the identity of ov-sa00 was confirmed by a combination of methods, including electron microscopy, amplification of specific fragments of viral dna by polymerase chain reaction, restriction enzyme analysis of viral dna and gene sequencing. restriction endonuclease analyses of viral dna and the ...200312782365
relatedness and heterogeneity at the near-terminal end of the genome of a parapoxvirus bovis 1 strain (b177) compared with parapoxvirus ovis (orf virus).the present study provides for the first time an extended investigation of individual genes located at the near-terminal right end of the genome of parapoxvirus bovis 1, bovine papular stomatitis virus (bpsv) strain b177 and orf virus (orfv). comparison of the respective dna sequences of orfv strain d1701 (9.9 kbp) and bpsv b177 (7.7 kbp) revealed a very similar organization of closely related genes transcribed in a rightward orientation. the most salient findings of this study were: (i) the abs ...200312692275
genetic heterogeneity among parapoxviruses isolated from sheep, cattle and japanese serows (capricornis crispus).standard strains of four parapoxviruses and seven unclassified japanese strains isolated from sheep, cattle and wild japanese serows (capricornis crispus) were compared molecularly. restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis of viral dna, indirect immunofluorescence assays using monoclonal antibodies, partial nucleotide sequencing of the envelope gene, phylogenetic analysis and pcr-rflp were carried out. these analyses revealed that the parapoxviruses were divided into four groups ...200111297696
molecular genetic analyses of parapoxviruses pathogenic for humans.the current members of the genus parapoxvirus are orf virus (orfv), bovine papular stomatitis virus (bpsv), pseudocowpoxvirus (pcpv) and parapoxvirus of red deer in new zealand (pvnz). bpsv and pcpv are maintained in cattle while orfv is maintained in sheep and goats, but all three are zoonoses. only the recently reported pvnz has yet to be recorded as infecting humans. tentative members of the genus are camel contagious ecthyma virus, chamois contagious ecthyma virus and sealpoxvirus. the separ ...19979413523
differentiation of parapoxviruses by application of orf virus-specific monoclonal antibodies against cell surface proteins.monoclonal antibodies were produced against orf virus-specified cell surface proteins in an attempt to develop reagents capable of differentiating between members of the parapoxviridae. two immunization protocols were used to induce an anti-orf response in balb/c mice, one of which resulted in virus replication in the recipient. the monoclonal antibodies produced were tested for crossreactivity with bovine papular stomatitis virus (bps) and milker's node virus (mnv) by indirect immunofluorescenc ...19911719690
detection and diagnosis of parapoxvirus by the polymerase chain reaction.the genus parapoxvirus includes four members, bovine papular stomatitis virus (bpsv), pseudocowpox virus (pcpv), orf virus (orfv) and parapoxvirus of red deer in new zealand (pvnz). a set of primers for polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was designed to detect viral dna from cells infected with each of the four parapoxviruses. the set of primers resulted in the amplification of appropriately sized products from cells infected with bpsv, pcpv, orfv and pvnz, respectively. the pcr method was applied ...200010680970
specific qpcr assays for the detection of orf virus, pseudocowpox virus and bovine papular stomatitis virus.the genus parapoxvirus (papv) is comprised traditionally of orf virus (orfv), pseudocowpox virus (pcpv) and bovine papular stomatitis virus (bpsv), which cause infections of ruminants and their handlers in the u.s. and worldwide. unlike orthopoxvirus infections, which can cause systemic or localized infections, papv infections present normally as benign, self-limited and localized skin lesions; infections do not confer lifelong immunity. in recent years, related potentially to enhanced awareness ...201324035807
comparative and retrospective molecular analysis of parapoxvirus (ppv) isolates.species members of the genus parapoxvirus (ppv) within the family poxviridae cause contagious pustular dermatitis in small ruminants (orf virus, orfv) and mostly mild localized inflammation in cattle (bovine papular stomatitis virus, bpsv and pseudocowpox virus, pcpv). all ppvs are known to be zoonotic, leading to circumscribed skin lesions in humans, historically known as milker's nodules. human ppv isolates are often ill defined concerning their allocation to an animal origin. here we present ...201424373950
zoonotic parapoxviruses detected in symptomatic cattle in bangladesh.application of molecular diagnostic methods to the determination of etiology in suspected poxvirus-associated infections of bovines is important both for the diagnosis of the individual case and to form a more complete understanding of patterns of strain occurrence and spread. the objective of this study was to identify and characterize bovine-associated zoonotic poxviruses in bangladesh which are relevant to animal and human health.201425410770
effect of a broad-specificity chemokine-binding protein on brain leukocyte infiltration and infarct development.expression of numerous chemokine-related genes is increased in the brain after ischemic stroke. here, we tested whether post-stroke administration of a chemokine-binding protein (cbp), derived from the parapoxvirus bovine papular stomatitis virus, might reduce infiltration of leukocytes into the brain and consequently limit infarct development.201525538201
comparative sequence analysis of double stranded rna binding protein encoding gene of parapoxviruses from indian camels.the dsrna binding protein (rbp) encoding gene of parapoxviruses (ppvs) from the dromedary camels, inhabitating different geographical region of rajasthan, india were amplified by polymerase chain reaction using the primers of pseudocowpoxvirus (pcpv) from finnish reindeer and cloned into pgem-t for sequence analysis. analysis of rbp encoding gene revealed that ppv dna from bikaner shared 98.3% and 76.6% sequence identity at the amino acid level, with pali and udaipur ppv dna, respectively. refer ...201425685494
coinfection with multiple strains of bovine papular stomatitis virus.bovine papular stomatitis virus (bpsv) infects cattle and, occupationally, humans. prevalent subclinical infections, frequent reinfections, and virus persistence in healthy animals compound a poorly understood, but likely complex, scenario of bpsv perpetuation and transmission in nature. here, we report the isolation of multiple bpsv strains coinfecting a single animal. whole-genome analysis of isolated bpsv strains revealed genomic variability likely affecting virus virulence and infectivity. f ...201525804193
a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid and sensitive detection of bovine papular stomatitis virus.bovine papular stomatitis virus (bpsv) causes pustular cutaneous disease in cattle worldwide. this paper describes the development of a specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay to detect bpsv which did not cross-react with other parapoxviruses. to assess analytical sensitivity of this lamp assay, dna was extracted from serially diluted bpsv from which the infectious titer was determined by a novel assay based on calf kidney epithelial cells. the lamp assay had equivalent anal ...201627751948
detection of pseudocowpox virus in water buffalo (bubalus bubalis) with vesicular disease in the state of são paulo, brazil, in 2016.parapoxviruses are zoonotic viruses that infect cattle, goats and sheep; there have also been reports of infections in camels, domestic cats and seals.201727774853
a broad-spectrum chemokine-binding protein of bovine papular stomatitis virus inhibits neutrophil and monocyte infiltration in inflammatory and wound models of mouse skin.bovine papular stomatitis virus (bpsv) is a parapoxvirus that induces acute pustular skin lesions in cattle and is transmissible to humans. previous studies have shown that bpsv encodes a distinctive chemokine-binding protein (cbp). chemokines are critically involved in the trafficking of immune cells to sites of inflammation and infected tissue, suggesting that the cbp plays a role in immune evasion by preventing immune cells reaching sites of infection. we hypothesised that the bpsv-cbp binds ...201627936239
a novel hrm assay for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of eight poxviruses of medical and veterinary importance.poxviruses belonging to the orthopoxvirus, capripoxvirus and parapoxvirus genera share common host species and create a challenge for diagnosis. here, we developed a novel multiplex pcr method for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of eight poxviruses, belonging to three genera: cowpox virus (cpxv) and camelpox virus (cmlv) [genus orthopoxvirus]; goatpox virus (gtpv), sheeppox virus (sppv) and lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) [genus capripoxvirus]; orf virus (orfv), pseudocowpox virus ...201728216667
molecular analysis of parapoxvirus detected in eight calves in japan.molecular analysis of parapoxvirus envelope genes was performed. parapoxvirus dna was detected in eight calves from eight farms in iwate prefecture, japan, between april and september 2010. seven of the detected viruses were identified as bovine papular stomatitis virus (bpsv) by sequencing, because their nucleotide identity was more than 96.8% similar compared with bpsv strain v660. among them, two formed a subgroup, because their amplicons were digested with xmn i (a marker for bpsv) and hinc ...201323748974
coinfection by vaccinia virus and an orf virus-like parapoxvirus in an outbreak of vesicular disease in dairy cows in midwestern brazil.the current report describes an outbreak of vesicular disease affecting dairy cows in midwestern brazil in which a coinfection with 2 poxviruses-vaccinia virus (vacv) and a parapoxvirus-was demonstrated. milking cows presented vesicles, painful reddish or whitish papules, and scabby proliferative lesions in the teats and udder, in a clinical course of approximately 10-21 days. histologically, multifocal areas of moderate to severe acanthosis, spongiosis, hypergranulosis, and parakeratotic or ort ...201323404478
surveillance of parapoxvirus among ruminants in virginia and 2008, two deer hunters in virginia and connecticut were infected with a unique strain of pseudocowpox virus, a parapoxvirus. to estimate the prevalence of this virus, and in an attempt to define the reservoir, parapoxvirus surveillance was undertaken between november 2009 and january 2010. 125 samples from four ruminant species (cows, goat, sheep and white-tailed deer) were collected in virginia, and nine samples from white-tailed deer were collected in connecticut. we found no evidence that ...201323398718
bovine papular stomatitis virus (bpsv) infections in korean native outbreak of a disease with parapox-like symptoms was reported in south korea in april 2012. three of 45 korean native cattle, age 20-24 months, were affected. parapoxviruses were detected and identified by electron microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (pcr). to determine the genetic characteristics of the korean strains, the sequence of the major envelope protein (b2l) was determined and compared with published reference sequences. phylogenetic analysis revealed that the parapoxvirus stra ...201323292127
acute bovine viral diarrhea associated with extensive mucosal lesions, high morbidity, and mortality in a commercial 2008, a northwest texas feedlot underwent an outbreak of bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) causing high morbidity and mortality involving 2 lots of calves (lots a and b). severe mucosal surface lesions were observed grossly in the oral cavity, larynx, and esophagus. mucosal lesions varied from small (1-3 mm) infrequent mucosal ulcerations to large (5 mm to 1 cm) and coalescing ulcerations. necrotic debris was present in ulcerations of some mortalities with some having plaque-like debris, but ...201222379057
an outbreak of pseudocowpox in fattening calves in southern brazil.pseudocowpox virus is a parapoxvirus frequently associated with papulovesicular and scabby lesions on the teats and udders of milking cows and is often transmitted to human beings. an unusual outbreak of skin disease in fattening calves in southern brazil is described. fourteen of 17 male cattle (82%), aged 6-48 months, feeding on grass pastures were affected. animals developed papules, vesicles, and scabby proliferative lesions on the muzzle in a clinical course of approximately 10-15 days. the ...201222362537
putative parapoxvirus-associated foot disease in the endangered huemul deer (hippocamelus bisulcus) in bernardo o'higgins national park, chile.the huemul (hippocamelus bisulcus) is an endangered cervid endemic to southern argentina and chile. here we report foot lesions in 24 huemul from bernardo o'higgins national park, chile, between 2005 and 2010. affected deer displayed variably severe clinical signs, including lameness and soft tissue swelling of the limbs proximal to the hoof or in the interdigital space, ulceration of the swollen tissues, and some developed severe proliferative tissue changes that caused various types of abnorma ...201930995215
identification and phylogenetic analysis of contagious ecthyma virus from camels (<i>camelus dromedarius</i>) in iran.contagious ecthyma is a highly contagious disease affecting domestic and wild ruminants such as sheep, goats and camels. the identification and characterisation of a parapoxvirus (ppv) infecting camels is described here. the virus was detected in dromedary camels (camelus dromedarius) from kerman and shiraz in iran. ppv-specific amplification by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) further confirmed that the disease was associated with ppv infection. phylogenetic analysis of orf011 (b2l) gene sequenc ...201728397518
bovine papular stomatitis affecting dairy cows and milkers in midwestern brazil.bovine papular stomatitis virus (bpsv) is a parapoxvirus associated with papular and erosive lesions on the muzzle, lips, and oral mucosa of cattle. teats of milking cows are occasionally affected, and the infection is frequently transmitted to human beings. the present report describes an outbreak of bpsv infection affecting cows in midwestern brazil, with human involvement. the disease was observed in neighboring small hand-milking farms, affecting 20 milking cows. the signs included painful r ...201222362531
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