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bacillus oleronius sp.nov., a member of the hindgut flora of the termite reticulitermes santonensis (feytaud).a new rod-shaped endospore-forming bacterium is described, which was isolated from the hindgut of the termite reticulitermes santonensis (feytaud). the isolate stains gram negative and its dna has a guanine-plus-cytosine content of 35 mol%. despite the gram-staining reaction, both biochemical and physiological features place the isolate in the genus bacillus and indicate a phenotypic resemblance to the bacillus firmus-lentus group of species. on the basis of comparative 16s rrna analysis and som ...19957553453
culture and phylogenetic characterization of trichomitus trypanoides duboscq & grassè 1924, n. comb.: a trichomonad flagellate isolated from the hindgut of the termite reticulitermes santonensis feytaud.a trichomonad flagellate strain r1 was isolated from the hindgut contents of the termite reticulitermes santonensis feytaud. the flagellate was cultivated at 28 degrees c in anaerobic medium containing yeast extract, minerals and vitamins. the isolate fed on living bacteria. it showed the typical morphological and ultrastructural features of the trichomonads, closely resembling trichomitus trypanoides. in order to determine its phylogenetic position the small subunit ribosomal dna (ssu rdna) of ...19957620462
repellent and toxic effects of plant extracts on subterranean termites (isoptera: rhinotermitidae).the effects of four plant extract formulations on the orientation and survival of subterranean termites were tested. in choice experiments, extract-treated filter paper had a significantly repellent effect on groups of reticulitermes santonensis de feytaud, r. virginicus (banks), coptotermes formosanus shiraki, and schedorhinotermes intermedius breinli. there was no species-specific difference in avoidance behavior toward the tested concentrations. no-choice experiments revealed toxic properties ...200111681685
phylogenetic relationships of nearctic reticulitermes species (isoptera: rhinotermitidae) with particular reference to reticulitermes arenincola goellner.dna sequence comparisons of the mitochondrial coii, 16s, and 12s rrna genes were used to infer phylogenetic relationships among the six known us reticulitermes species (reticulitermes flavipes, reticulitermes arenincola, reticulitermes tibialis, reticulitermes hageni, reticulitermes virginicus, and reticulitermes hesperus) and the closely related european species reticulitermes santonensis. the interspecific pairwise sequence divergence, based on uncorrected "p" distance, varied up to 10% across ...200415012959
"endomicrobia": cytoplasmic symbionts of termite gut protozoa form a separate phylum of prokaryotes.lignocellulose digestion by wood-feeding termites depends on the mutualistic interaction of unusual, flagellate protists located in their hindgut. most of the flagellates harbor numerous prokaryotic endosymbionts of so-far-unknown identity and function. using a full-cycle molecular approach, we show here that the endosymbionts of the larger gut flagellates of reticulitermes santonensis belong to the so-called termite group 1 (tg-1) bacteria, a group of clones previously obtained exclusively from ...200515746350
genetic analysis of the breeding system of an invasive subterranean termite, reticulitermes santonensis, in urban and natural habitats.reticulitermes santonensis is a subterranean termite that invades urban areas in france and elsewhere where it causes damage to human-built structures. we investigated the breeding system, colony and population genetic structure, and mode of dispersal of two french populations of r. santonensis. termite workers were sampled from 43 and 31 collection points, respectively, from a natural population in west-central france (in and around the island of oleron) and an urban population (paris). ten to ...200515813772
expression profiles of fhs (fthfs) genes support the hypothesis that spirochaetes dominate reductive acetogenesis in the hindgut of lower termites.reductive acetogenesis is an important metabolic process in the hindgut of wood-feeding termites. we analysed diversity and expression profiles of the bacterial fhs gene, a marker gene encoding a key enzyme of reductive acetogenesis, formyl tetrahydrofolate synthetase (fthfs), to identify the active homoacetogenic populations in representatives of three different termite families. clone libraries of polymerase chain reaction-amplified fhs genes from hindgut contents of reticulitermes santonensis ...200616817934
characterization of a new β-glucosidase/β-xylosidase from the gut microbiota of the termite (reticulitermes santonensis).the gut of the termite reticulitermes santonensis contains an interesting diversity of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms not found elsewhere. these microorganisms produce many enzyme-digesting lignocellulosic compounds, probably in cooperation with endogenous enzymes. regarding cellulose and hemicellulose digestion in the termite gut, much remains to be learned about the relative contributions of termite enzymes and enzymes produced by different microorganisms. here we grew bacterial col ...201021114521
new glucosidase activities identified by functional screening of a genomic dna library from the gut microbiota of the termite reticulitermes santonensis.ß-glucosidases are widely distributed in living organisms and play a major role in the degradation of wood, hydrolysing cellobiose or cello-oligosaccharides to glucose. termites are among the rare animals capable of digesting wood, thanks to enzyme activities of their own and to enzymes produced by their gut microbiota. many bacteria have been identified in the guts of lower termites, some of which possess cellulolytic or/and hemicellulolytic activity, required for digesting wood. here, having i ...201121324659
emended descriptions of bacillus sporothermodurans and bacillus oleronius with the inclusion of dairy farm isolates of both species.bacillus sporothermodurans is an industrially important micro-organism because of its ability to produce endospores which resist ultra high temperature (uht) and industrial sterilization processes. it was described by pettersson et al. (1996) based on seven genetically homogeneous isolates all from uht-milk. bacillus oleronius, the closest phylogenetic neighbor of b. sporothermodurans, was described by kuhnigk et al. (1995), based on a single strain, isolated from the hindgut of the termite reti ...201121398506
identification and characterization of a new xylanase from gram-positive bacteria isolated from termite gut (reticulitermes santonensis).termites are world champions at digesting lignocellulosic compounds, thanks to cooperation between their own enzymes and exogenous enzymes from microorganisms. prokaryotic cells are responsible for a large part of this lignocellulolytic activity. bacterial enzyme activities have been demonstrated in the higher and the lower termite gut. from five clones of gram-positive bacteria isolated and identified in a previous work, we constructed a genomic dna library and performed functional screening fo ...201222487213
putatively free-living 'endomicrobia'- ancestors of the intracellular symbionts of termite gut flagellates?endomicrobia represent a candidate class in the elusimicrobia phylum (formerly termite group 1) and were originally described as obligate intracellular symbionts of gut flagellates in lower termites. however, 16s rrna gene sequences of endomicrobia have been detected also in the gut of insects that do not possess such flagellates, e.g. higher termites and cockroaches. when we eliminated the large gut flagellates of reticulitermes santonensis by feeding a starch diet, we discovered novel lineages ...201023766225
isolation and cultivation of a xylanolytic bacillus subtilis extracted from the gut of the termite reticulitermes santonensis.the aim of this work was the isolation of xylanolytic microorganisms from the digestive tract of the termite reticulitermes santonensis. the reducing sugars released after the hydrolysis of xylans can be further fermented to provide bioethanol. a xylanolytic strain of bacillus subtilis was isolated from the hindgut of the termite and displayed amylase and xylanase activities. the bacterium was grown on media containing agricultural residues: wheat bran, wheat distiller's grains, and rapeseed oil ...201323828225
isolation of amylolytic, xylanolytic, and cellulolytic microorganisms extracted from the gut of the termite reticulitermes santonensis by means of a micro-aerobic atmosphere.the aim of this work was to isolate enzyme-producing microorganisms from the tract of the termite reticulitermes santonensis. the microorganisms were extracted from the guts and anaerobic (co₂ or co₂/h₂) and micro-aerobic atmospheres were used to stimulate growth. three different strategies were tried out. first, the sample was spread on petri dishes containing solid media with carboxymethylcellulose, microcrystalline cellulose or cellobiose. this technique allowed us to isolate two bacteria: st ...201424353041
isolation and cultivation of xylanolytic and cellulolytic sarocladium kiliense and trichoderma virens from the gut of the termite reticulitermes santonensis.the purpose of this work was the isolation and cultivation of cellulolytic and xylanolytic microorganisms extracted from the gut of the lower termite reticulitermes santonensis. microcrystalline cellulose (with and without lignin) and beech wood xylan were used as diets instead of poplar wood in order to select cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading fungi. the strain sarocladium kiliense (acremonium kiliense) ctgxxyl was isolated from the termites fed on xylan, while the strain trichoderma virens ...201525300185
endomicrobium proavitum, the first isolate of endomicrobia class. nov. (phylum elusimicrobia)--an ultramicrobacterium with an unusual cell cycle that fixes nitrogen with a group iv nitrogenase.the bacterial tree contains many deep-rooting clades without any cultured representatives. one such clade is 'endomicrobia', a class-level lineage in the phylum elusimicrobia represented so far only by intracellular symbionts of termite gut flagellates. here, we report the isolation and characterization of the first free-living member of this clade from sterile-filtered gut homogenate of defaunated (starch-fed) reticulitermes santonensis. strain rsa215 is a strictly anaerobic ultramicrobacterium ...201626119974
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