viruses: agents of coral disease?the potential role of viruses in coral disease has only recently begun to receive attention. here we describe our attempts to determine whether viruses are present in thermally stressed corals pavona danai, acropora formosa and stylophora pistillata and zoanthids zoanthus sp., and their zooxanthellae. heat-shocked p. danai, a. formosa and zoanthus sp. all produced numerous virus-like particles (vlps) that were evident in the animal tissue, zooxanthellae and the surrounding seawater; vlps were al ...200616703772
antagonistic bacteria from live corals, tuticorin coastal waters, southeastern india.the objective of this study is to isolate and production of secondary metabolites with bioactive substances by coral reef (acropora formosa and favia palida) associated bacteria was carried out from the tuticorin coastal waters, southeastern india. the isolated coral associated bacteria were found to have an antagonistic effect against 10 human pathogens. the pathogens were escherichia coli, shigella dysentriae, staphylococcus epidermidis, s. aureus, klebsiella pneumoniae, pseudomonas aerogenosa ...201121454167
increased prevalence of ubiquitous ascomycetes in an acropoid coral (acropora formosa) exhibiting symptoms of brown band syndrome and skeletal eroding band disease.the prevalence of coral-associated fungi was four times higher in diseased acropora formosa colonies than in healthy colonies. since taxonomically related fungal species were isolated from diseased and healthy colonies, we suggest that their association with coral may be constitutive but that their abundance is dependent on coral health.200717308192
monitoring of heavy metal partitioning in reef corals of lakshadweep archipelago, indian ocean.this paper focuses on the partitioning of trace metals in five selected coral species from lakshadweep archipelago, which remains as one of the least studied areas in the indian ocean. based on the morphological features, selected coral species are classified as massive (porites andrewsi), ramose or branching (lobophyllia corymbosa, acropora formosa and psammocora contigua) and foliaceous (montipora digitata). relating trace metal concentrations with morphological features in skeleton, highest c ...200717016753
the ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 3. coral fertilization and adult corals.biodegradable vegetable-derived lubricants (vdl) might be less toxic to marine organisms than mineral-derived oils (mdl) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested. in this laboratory study, adult corals and coral gametes were exposed to various concentrations of a two-stroke vdl-1a and a corresponding mdl to determine which lubricant type was more toxic to each life stage. in the fertilization experiment, gametes from the scleractinian coral acropor ...200414987805
skeletal microstructure of galaxea fascicularis exsert septa: a high-resolution sem study.the deposition of four crystal types at the growth surface of the septa of several color morphs of the coral galaxea fascicularis was investigated over a 24-h period. results suggest that nanocrystals, on denticles at the apices of exsert septa, may be the surface manifestation of centers of calcification. these crystals were also found on the septa of the axial corallite of acropora formosa. the deposition of nanocrystals appears to be independent of diurnal rhythms. internally and proximal to ...200312700145
variation in skeletal microstructure of the coral galaxea fascicularis: effects of an aquarium environment and preparatory compare the crystalline microstructure of exsert septa, polyps of the scleractinian coral galaxea fascicularis were sampled from shallow reef flat colonies, from colonies living at a depth of 9 m, and from colonies kept in a closed-circuit aquarium. septal crystal structure and orientation was markedly different between corals in the field and in aquaria. in samples collected from deep water, acicular crystals were composed of conglomerates of finer crystals, and skeletal filling was consider ...200312700144
nucleotide sequence of a cdna clone encoding the precursor of the peridinin-chlorophyll a-binding protein from the dinoflagellate symbiodinium sp.mrna from the dinoflagellate symbiodinium sp. isolated from the staghorn coral acropora formosa was used for the construction of cdna libraries. a cdna clone was identified which encoded the precursor of peridinin-chlorophyll a-binding protein (pcp), including a 52 amino acid transit peptide and the 313 amino acid mature protein. the deduced amino acid sequence clearly contains an internal duplication, implying that amongst dinoflagellates the m(r) 35,000 form of pcp has arisen by duplication an ...19948155886
nucleotide sequence of the histone gene cluster in the coral acropora formosa (cnidaria; scleractinia): features of histone gene structure and organization are common to diploblastic and triploblastic metazoans.we report the nucleotide sequence of the core histone gene cluster from the cnidarian acropora formosa. this is the first histone gene cluster to be sequenced from a diploblastic organism and the predicted amino acid sequences most resemble those of sea urchin equivalents. each of the cnidarian histone genes has two conserved regions 3' of the coding sequences and these closely resemble those of the metazoan alpha-class histone genes. in a. formosa the core histone genes are arranged as opposed ...19937901422
structural determination of the oligosaccharide side chains from a glycoprotein isolated from the mucus of the coral acropora extracellular mucous glycoprotein has been isolated from the hard coral acropora formosa. the glycoprotein contains sulfated oligosaccharide side chains attached through o-glycosidic linkages to serine and threonine, the principal amino acids (77%) in the polypeptide. the oligosaccharide side chains consist of d-arabinose, d-mannose, and n-acetyl-d-glucosamine with smaller amounts of d-galactose, l-fucose, and n-acetyl-d-galactosamine, but no sialic or uronic acids. alkaline borohydride reduc ...19872890643
nucleotide sequence of the histone h3-encoding gene from the scleractinian coral acropora formosa (cnidaria: scleractinia).the histone h3-encoding gene from the staghorn coral acropora formosa has the 3'-hairpin structure which functions as termination/processing signal in nonpolyadenylated histone mrnas. the predicted amino acid sequence is highly homologous with the major h3 histones of higher metazoans, and has least homology with the corresponding protist and fungal proteins. these data are inconsistent with the phylogenetic position which has been assigned to the cnidaria by partial 18s rrna sequence comparison ...19901977663
genomes of diploblastic organisms contain homeoboxes: sequence of evec, an even-skipped homologue from the cnidarian acropora formosa.we report the nucleotide sequence of evec, a cnidarian eve-class homeobox; this is the first homeobox to be identified in any diploblastic organism, and is only the second eve-class in an invertebrate. similarity between the predicted amino acid sequence of the evec homeodomain and its insect and vertebrate equivalents was approximately 75-80% but, in the case of evec, a role in segmentation can be ruled out. our findings thus support the 'co-option' hypothesis: homeoboxes were an early feature ...19921352890
conserved toxic responses across divergent phylogenetic lineages: a meta-analysis of the neurotoxic effects of rdx among multiple species using military training sites, a variety of pollutants such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (rdx), may contaminate the area originating from used munitions. studies investigating the mechanism of toxicity of rdx have shown that it affects the central nervous system causing seizures in humans and animals. environmental pollutants such as rdx have the potential to affect many different species, therefore it is important to establish how phylogenetically distant species may respond to these ...201121516383
heating rate and symbiont productivity are key factors determining thermal stress in the reef-building coral acropora formosa.the onset of large-scale coral bleaching events is routinely estimated on the basis of the duration and intensity of thermal anomalies determined as degree heating weeks. degree heating weeks, however, do not account for differential rates of heating. this study aimed to explore the relationship between different rates of heating above the documented regional winter threshold, and resultant bleaching of the reef-building coral acropora formosa. under a relatively low light field, rapid heating o ...201020228338
recovery from a near-lethal exposure to ultraviolet-c radiation in a scleractinian coral.hermatypic (reef building) corals live in an environment characterized by high ambient levels of photosynthetically active radiation (par) and ultraviolet radiation (uvr). photoadaptive mechanisms have evolved to protect the sensitive cell structures of the host coral and their photosynthetic, endosymbiotic zooxanthellae. environmental stressors may destabilize the coral-zooxanthellae system resulting in the expulsion of zooxanthellae and/or loss of photosynthetic pigment within zooxanthellae, c ...200919254722
coral lipids and environmental stress.environmental monitoring of coral reefs is presently limited by difficulties in recognising coral stress, other than by monitoring coral mortality over time. a recent report described an experiment demonstrating that a measured lipid index declined in shaded corals. the technique described might have application in monitoring coral health, with a decline in coral lipid index as an indicator of coral stress. the application of the technique as a practical monitoring tool was tested for two coral ...199324225662
coral-zooxanthellae meta-transcriptomics reveals integrated response to pollutant stress.corals represent symbiotic meta-organisms that require harmonization among the coral animal, photosynthetic zooxanthellae and associated microbes to survive environmental stresses. we investigated integrated-responses among coral and zooxanthellae in the scleractinian coral acropora formosa in response to an emerging marine pollutant, the munitions constituent, 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5 triazine (rdx; 5 day exposures to 0 (control), 0.5, 0.9, 1.8, 3.7, and 7.2 mg/l, measured in seawater).201425016412
contrasting light spectra constrain the macro and microstructures of scleractinian corals.the morphological plasticity of scleractinian corals can be influenced by numerous factors in their natural environment. however, it is difficult to identify in situ the relative influence of a single biotic or abiotic factor, due to potential interactions between them. light is considered as a major factor affecting coral skeleton morphology, due to their symbiotic relation with photosynthetic zooxanthellae. nonetheless, most studies addressing the importance of light on coral morphological pla ...201425170981
the presence of biomarker enzymes of selected scleractinian corals of palk bay, southeast coast of india.the health and existence of coral reefs are in danger by an increasing range of environmental and anthropogenic impacts. the causes of coral reef decline include worldwide climate change, shoreline development, habitat destruction, pollution, sedimentation and overexploitation. these disasters have contributed to an estimated loss of 27% of the reefs. if the current pressure continues unabated, the estimated loss of coral reef will be about 60% by the year 2030. therefore, the present study was ...201425215288
coral mucus is a hot spot for viral infections.there is increasing suspicion that viral communities play a pivotal role in maintaining coral health, yet their main ecological traits still remain poorly characterized. in this study, we examined the seasonal distribution and reproduction pathways of viruses inhabiting the mucus of the scleractinians fungia repanda and acropora formosa collected in nha trang bay (vietnam) during an 11-month survey. the strong coupling between epibiotic viral and bacterial abundance suggested that phages are dom ...201526092456
some physical, chemical, and biological parameters of samples of scleractinium coral aquaculture skeleton used for reconstruction/engineering of the bone tissue.physical and chemical (phase and chemical composition, dynamics of resorption, and strength properties), and biological (cytological compatibility and scaffold properties of the surface) properties of samples of scleractinium coral skeletons from aquacultures of three types and corresponding samples of natural coral skeletons (pocillopora verrucosa, acropora formosa, and acropora nobilis) were studied. samples of scleractinium coral aquaculture skeleton of a. nobilis, a. formosa, and p. verrucos ...201526388568
marine steroid derived from acropora formosa enhances mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cells.p53 pathway has been revealed to mediate cellular stress responses and trigger dna repair, cell cycle arrest, senescence, and apoptosis. we isolated 2-ethoxycarbonyl-2-β-hydroxy-a-nor-cholest-5-ene-4one (echc) from butanol extracts of scleractinian coral acropora formosa and reported its potential antioxidant and antimicrobial activity as well as less toxicity against zebrafish danio rerio. in the present study, we intend to explore p53-mediated apoptosis pathway enhanced by echc in a549 human n ...201626852038
additive effects of the herbicide glyphosate and elevated temperature on the branched coral acropora formosa in nha trang, vietnam.the combined effects of the herbicide glyphosate and elevated temperature were studied on the tropical staghorn coral acropora formosa, in nha trang bay, vietnam. the corals were collected from two different reefs, one close to a polluted fish farm and one in a marine-protected area (mpa). in the laboratory, branches of the corals were exposed to the herbicide glyphosate at ambient (28 °c) and at 3 °c elevated water temperatures (31 °c). effects of herbicide and elevated temperature were studied ...201728111719
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