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disrupting mating behavior of diaphorina citri (liviidae).severe economic damage from citrus greening disease, caused by 'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus' bacteria, has stimulated development of methods to reduce mating and reproduction in populations of its insect vector, diaphorina citri (hemiptera: liviidae). male d. citri find mating partners by walking on host plants, intermittently producing vibrational calls that stimulate duetting replies by receptive females. the replies provide orientational feedback, assisting the search process. to test a ...201627707945
bionomics of asian citrus psyllid (hemiptera: liviidae) associated with orange jasmine hedges in southeast central florida, with special reference to biological control by tamarixia radiata.the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama, is an important pest in florida because it transmits bacteria responsible for citrus huanglongbing disease. in addition to infesting citrus, orange jasmine (murraya exotica l.) is one of asian citrus psyllid's preferred host plants and is widely grown as an ornamental hedge. we report on asian citrus psyllid bionomics over three years at five urban plantings of orange jasmine and on biological control of asian citrus psyllid by a parasitoid ta ...201526470246
effects of candidatus liberibacter asiaticus on the fitness of the vector diaphorina citri.the asian citrus psyllid (acp), diaphorina citri kuwayama transmits the bacterium 'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus' (las), which causes citrus huanglongbing (hlb) disease. although many studies have been conducted on the biology of acp on different host plants, few have taken the plant, las bacteria and the vector insect within one context to evaluate the effects of las on the fitness of acp under field conditions. understanding the relationship between las and acp is critical for both acp and ...201627667799
diaphorina citri (hemiptera: liviidae) vector competence for the citrus greening pathogen 'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus'.characterizing the vector competence of diaphorina citri kuwayama for 'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus,' the pathogen causing citrus greening, is essential for understanding the epidemiology of this disease that is threatening the u.s. citrus industry. vector competence studies have been difficult because of the biology of d. citri, the inability to culture the pathogen, and the available diagnostic methods used to detect the bacteria in plant and insect tissues. the methods employed in many s ...201526470202
two-spotted ladybeetle adalia bipunctata l. (coleoptera: coccinellidae): a commercially available predator to control asian citrus psyllid diaphorina citri (hemiptera: liviidae).the asian citrus psyllid diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: liviidae) is an economically important pest of citrus because it serves as a vector of the causal pathogens of huanglongbing (hlb) also known as citrus greening disease. the increased use of insecticides for control of d. citri negatively impacts several natural enemies including some effective ladybeetle species which are not available commercially. the two-spotted ladybeetle, adalia bipunctata (coleoptera: coccinellidae) is found i ...201627631730
diaphorina citri (hemiptera: liviidae) abundance in puerto rico declines with elevation.diaphorina citri kuwayama is the primary vector of huanglongbing, the most devastating disease of citrus. d. citri populations in puerto rico were monitored with yellow sticky traps on citrus trees or other psyllid host plants at different elevations, ranging from 10 to 880 m above sea level. trapping was conducted in march through may of 2013 and 2014 when psyllid populations usually are highest. population levels of d. citri, based on the trapping data, varied among the sites, and there was a ...201526470127
complete genome sequence of the largest known flavi-like virus, diaphorina citri flavi-like virus, a novel virus of the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri.a novel flavi-like virus tentatively named diaphorina citri flavi-like virus (dcflv) was identified in field populations of diaphorina citri through small rna and transcriptome sequencing followed by reverse transcription (rt)-pcr. we report here the complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of dcflv, the largest flavi-like virus identified to date.201627609921
a review of techniques for detecting huanglongbing (greening) in citrus.huanglongbing (hlb) is the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide. monitoring of health and detection of diseases in trees is critical for sustainable agriculture. hlb symptoms are virtually the same wherever the disease occurs. the disease is caused by candidatus liberibacter spp., vectored by the psyllids diaphorina citri kuwayama and trioza erytreae. electron microscopy was the first technique used for hlb detection. nowadays, scientists are working on the development of new techniques ...201627590666
a phagostimulant blend for the asian citrus psyllid.chemical cues that elicit orientation by the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: liviidae), are of interest because it is the primary vector of the causal pathogen of citrus greening disease. non-pesticidal control methods for d. citri remain a high priority for the citrus industry. while searching for semiochemicals that may be involved in orientation to host plants, we previously identified a blend of formic and acetic acids that stimulated substrate probing by d. citri ...201627542089
better together: association with 'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus' increases the reproductive fitness of its insect vector, diaphorina citri (hemiptera: liviidae).the duration of the evolutionary association between a pathogen and vector can be inferred based on the strength of their mutualistic interactions. a well-adapted pathogen is likely to confer some benefit or, at a minimum, exhibit low pathogenicity toward its host vector. coevolution of the two toward a mutually beneficial association appears to have occurred between the citrus greening disease pathogen, candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (las), and its insect vector, the asian citrus psyllid, di ...201627418697
protein interaction networks at the host-microbe interface in diaphorina citri, the insect vector of the citrus greening pathogen.the asian citrus psyllid (diaphorina citri) is the insect vector responsible for the worldwide spread of 'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus' (clas), the bacterial pathogen associated with citrus greening disease. developmental changes in the insect vector impact pathogen transmission, such that d. citri transmission of clas is more efficient when bacteria are acquired by nymphs when compared with adults. we hypothesize that expression changes in the d. citri immune system and commensal microbiot ...201728386418
genetic diversity of diaphorina citri and its endosymbionts across east and southeast asia.diaphorina citri is the vector of 'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus', the most widespread pathogen associated huanglongbing, the most serious disease of citrus. to enhance our understanding of the distribution and origin of the psyllid, we investigated the genetic diversity and population structures of 24 populations in asia and one from florida based on the mtcoi gene. simultaneously, genetic diversity and population structures of the primary endosymbiont (p-endosymbiont) 'candidatus carsonell ...201728374537
exposure to guava affects citrus olfactory cues and attractiveness to diaphorina citri (hemiptera: psyllidae).intercropping can reduce agricultural pest incidence, and represents an important sustainable alternative to conventional pest control methods. understanding the ecological mechanisms for intercropping could help optimize its use, particularly in tropical systems which present a large number of intercropping possibilities. citrus is threatened worldwide by greening disease (huanglongbing, hlb) vectored by the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae). control of hlb ...201627247354
imidacloprid extraction from citrus leaves and analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (hplc-ms/ms).a procedure was developed to extract imidacloprid (imd) from newly-flushed and fully-expanded citrus leaves. the extraction was conducted in a bullet blender, using a small sample mass (0.5 g of fresh tissue), stainless-steel beads (24 g), and methanol as extractant (10 ml). the extracts did not require further clean-up before analysis by hplc-ms/ms. the method was validated with control samples from imd-untreated hamlin orange trees. the method limit of detection and limit of quantitation were ...201626988226
phenology of asian citrus psyllid (hemiptera: liviidae), with special reference to biological control by tamarixia radiata, in the residential landscape of southern california.since its discovery in 2008, the pestiferous asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: liviidae), has become widely established in residential citrus trees throughout southern california. in 2011, tamarixia radiata (waterston) (hymenoptera: eulophidae), a host-specific parasitoid of d. citri, sourced from punjab pakistan, was introduced into california as part of a classical biological program aimed at suppressing d. citri populations in urban areas. despite these release effor ...201626957552
the influence of learning on host plant preference in a significant phytopathogen vector, diaphorina citri.although specialist herbivorous insects are guided by innate responses to host plant cues, host plant preference may be influenced by experience and is not dictated by instinct alone. the effect of learning on host plant preference was examined in the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri; vector of the causal agent of citrus greening disease or huanglongbing. we investigated: a) whether development on specific host plant species influenced host plant preference in mature d. citri; and b) the e ...201626930355
inter-population variability of endosymbiont densities in the asian citrus psyllid (diaphorina citri kuwayama).the asian citrus psyllid (diaphorina citri kuwayama) is an insect pest capable of transmitting candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (clas), the causal agent of citrus greening in north america. d. citri also harbors three endosymbionts, wolbachia, candidatus carsonella ruddii, and candidatus profftella armatura, which may influence d. citri physiology and fitness. although genomic researches on these bacteria have been conducted, much remains unclear regarding their ecology and inter-population var ...201626846216
double-stranded rna delivery through soaking mediates silencing of the muscle protein 20 and increases mortality to the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri.asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama, is the most important economic pest of citrus because it transmits candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (clas), the causal agent of huanglongbing (hlb). silencing genes by rna interference (rnai) is a promising approach for controlling d. citri. rnai-based insect management strategies depend on the selection of suitable target genes.201728195429
transmission and propagation of 'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus' by grafting with individual citrus leaves.huanglongbing (hlb) is a chronic, progressive decline disease in citrus associated with a systemic infection by the bacterium 'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus'. transmission of the bacterium in the field is by the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama. experimental propagation of 'ca. l. asiaticus' is done primarily by grafting pieces of bud wood from an infected plant. to produce a small-scale model system for investigation of pathogen biology, we investigated grafting single leaves ...201626807818
disruption of vector host preference with plant volatiles may reduce spread of insect-transmitted plant pathogens.plant pathogens can manipulate the odor of their host; the odor of an infected plant is often attractive to the plant pathogen vector. it has been suggested that this odor-mediated manipulation attracts vectors and may contribute to spread of disease; however, this requires further broad demonstration among vector-pathogen systems. in addition, disruption of this indirect chemical communication between the pathogen and the vector has not been attempted. we present a model that demonstrates how a ...201627193763
influence of abiotic factors on flight initiation by asian citrus psyllid (hemiptera: liviidae).predicting the emergence and arrival of insect pests is paramount for integrated pest management. to achieve this goal, it is important to understand how abiotic factors influence pest dispersal behavior. we investigated the effects of abiotic conditions on flight initiation by the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama. we first explored the effect of barometric pressure changes on flight initiation. we used a custom-made barometric chamber and observed the activity of d. citri as meas ...201728334135
essential oil variation from twenty two genotypes of citrus in brazil-chemometric approach and repellency against diaphorina citri kuwayama.the chemical composition of volatile oils from 22 genotypes of citrus and related genera was poorly differentiated, but chemometric techniques have clarified the relationships between the 22 genotypes, and allowed us to understand their resistance to d. citri. the most convincing similarities include the synthesis of (z)-β-ocimene and (e)-caryophyllene for all 11 genotypes of group a. genotypes of group b are not uniformly characterized by essential oil compounds. when stimulated with odor sourc ...201627338332
characterization of a recombinant cathepsin b-like cysteine peptidase from diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: liviidae): a putative target for control of citrus huanglongbing.huanglonbing (hlb) is one of the most destructive disease affecting citrus plants. the causal agent is associated with the phloem-limited bacterium candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (clas) and the psyllid diaphorina citri, vector of disease, that transmits the bacterium associated with hlb. the control of disease can be achieved by suppressing either the bacterium or the vector. among the control strategies for hlb disease, one of the widely used consists in controlling the enzymes of the diseas ...201526717484
male psyllids differentially learn in the context of copulation.in the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama, stimulatory cuticular hydrocarbons act as sex pheromone attractants. male psyllids locate aggregations of females using those olfactory cues, as well as vibrational communication on the plant surface. although previous research has indicated that learning plays a role in modulating female reproductive behaviors in psyllids, it is unknown whether males similarly use learning to increase the likelihood of copulatory success. we used an olfact ...201728178203
monitoring for insecticide resistance in asian citrus psyllid (hemiptera: psyllidae) populations in florida.the development of insecticide resistance in asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama, populations is a serious threat to the citrus industry. as a contribution to a resistance management strategy, we developed a glass vial technique to monitor field populations of asian citrus psyllid for insecticide resistance. diagnostic concentrations needed to separate susceptible genotypes from resistant individuals were determined for cypermethrin (0.5 μg per vial), malathion (1.0 μg per vial), dia ...201626709293
formic and acetic acids in degradation products of plant volatiles elicit olfactory and behavioral responses from an insect vector.volatile phytochemicals play a role in orientation by phytophagous insects. we studied antennal and behavioral responses of the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri, vector of the citrus greening disease pathogen. little or no response to citrus leaf volatiles was detected by electroantennography. glass cartridges prepared with β-ocimene or citral produced no response initially but became stimulatory after several days. both compounds degraded completely in air to a number of smaller molecules ...201626857741
complete genome sequence of a putative densovirus of the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri.here, we report the complete genome sequence of a putative densovirus of the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri diaphorina citri densovirus (dcdnv) was originally identified through metagenomics, and here, we obtained the complete nucleotide sequence using pcr-based approaches. phylogenetic analysis places dcdnv between viruses of the ambidensovirus and iteradensovirus genera.201627469948
complete genome sequence of diaphorina citri-associated c virus, a novel putative rna virus of the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri.we present here the complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of a novel putative rna virus identified in field populations of the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri, through sequencing of the transcriptome followed by reverse transcription-pcr (rt-pcr). we tentatively named this virus diaphorina citri-associated c virus (dcacv). dcacv is an unclassified positive-sense rna virus.201627445370
diverse array of new viral sequences identified in worldwide populations of the asian citrus psyllid (diaphorina citri) using viral metagenomics.the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri, is the natural vector of the causal agent of huanglongbing (hlb), or citrus greening disease. together; hlb and d. citri represent a major threat to world citrus production. as there is no cure for hlb, insect vector management is considered one strategy to help control the disease, and d. citri viruses might be useful. in this study, we used a metagenomic approach to analyze viral sequences associated with the global population of d. citri. by sequenc ...201526676774
impact of different temperatures on survival and energy metabolism in the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama.temperature influences the life history and metabolic parameters of insects. asian citrus psyllid (acp), diaphorina citri is a tropical and subtropical pest. acp invaded new regions around the world and threatened the citrus industry as a vector for huanglongbing (hlb) disease. acp is widely distributed and can survive high (up to 45 °c) and low temperatures (as low as -6 °c). the precise mechanism of temperature tolerance in acp is poorly understood. we investigated adult survival, cellular ene ...201626603556
metabolic interplay between the asian citrus psyllid and its profftella symbiont: an achilles' heel of the citrus greening insect vector.'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus' (clas), the bacterial pathogen associated with citrus greening disease, is transmitted by diaphorina citri, the asian citrus psyllid. interactions among d. citri and its microbial endosymbionts, including 'candidatus profftella armatura', are likely to impact transmission of clas. we used quantitative mass spectrometry to compare the proteomes of clas(+) and clas(-) populations of d. citri, and found that proteins involved in polyketide biosynthesis by the end ...201526580079
draft genome sequence of "candidatus liberibacter asiaticus" from diaphorina citri in guangdong, china.the draft genome sequence of "candidatus liberibacter asiaticus" strain ycpsy from an asian citrus psyllid (diaphorina citri) in guangdong, china, is reported here. the ycpsy strain has a genome size of 1,233,647 bp, 36.5% g+c content, 1,171 open reading frames (orfs), and 53 rnas.201526543132
whole-genome sequence of "candidatus profftella armatura" from diaphorina citri in guangdong, china.the genome of "candidatus profftella armatura" strain ycpa from diaphorina citri in guangdong, china, was sequenced. the strain has a chromosome of 457,565 bp, 24.3% g+c content, 364 predicted open reading frames (orfs), and 38 rnas, and a plasmid, pycpa54, of 5,458 bp with 23.9% g+c content and 5 orfs.201526543117
characterization of the voltage-gated sodium channel of the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri.the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: liviidae), is an important insect pest of citrus. it is the vector of 'candidatus' liberibacter asiaticus, a phloem-limited bacterium that infects citrus, resulting in the disease huanglongbing (hlb). disease management relies heavily on suppression of d. citri populations with insecticides, including pyrethroids. in recent annual surveys to monitor insecticide resistance, reduced susceptibility to fenpropathrin was identified in se ...201726537022
host range testing of diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (hymenoptera: encyrtidae) for use in classical biological control of diaphorina citri (hemiptera: liviidae) in california.host range tests for diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (shafee, alam, & agarwal) (hymenoptera: encyrtidae), an endoparasitoid of asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: liviidae), sourced from punjab pakistan, were conducted in quarantine at the university of california, riverside, ca. seven nontarget psyllid species representing four psyllid families were exposed to mated d. aligarhensis females in four different treatment types: 1) short sequential no-choice treatments, 2) prolo ...201526470214
effect of cyantraniliprole, a novel insecticide, on the inoculation of candidatus liberibacter asiaticus associated with citrus huanglongbing by the asian citrus psyllid (hemiptera: liviidae).the asian citrus psyllid (diaphorina citri kuwayama) is the principal vector of 'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus' (clas) associated with huanglongbing (hlb), the most serious citrus disease worldwide. new control measures including pesticides are urgently needed to combat hlb, especially to protect young or newly planted citrus trees from clas-inoculation by vector psyllids. here, we tested clas-inoculation by d. citri adults (clas-exposed, reared on infected plants) by feeding them for 7 d on ...201526470150
lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides used on citrus, on the ectoparasitoid tamarixia radiata.huanglongbing (hlb) is a disease associated with the bacteria "candidatus liberibacter spp." and has been devastating citrus orchards around the world. its management involves control of the insect vector, the asian citrus psyllid diaphorina citri kuwayama. however, the indiscriminate use of chemicals has caused pest outbreaks and eliminated the natural enemies of the vector, such as the parasitoid tamarixia radiata (waterston), the main agent for biological control of d. citri. this study asses ...201526132327
geographic distribution of habitat, development, and population growth rates of the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri, in mexico.the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae), is an introduced pest in mexico and a vector of huanglongbing, a lethal citrus disease. estimations of the habitat distribution and population growth rates of d. citri are required to establish regional and areawide management strategies and can be used as a pest risk analysis tools. in this study, the habitat distribution of d. citri in mexico was computed with maxent, an inductive, machine-learning program that uses bi ...201324735280
morphometric comparisons of diaphorina citri (hemiptera: liviidae) populations from iran, usa and pakistan.the asian citrus psyllid (acp), diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: liviidae), vector of citrus greening disease pathogen, huanglongbing (hlb), is considered the most serious pest of citrus in the world. prior molecular based studies have hypothesized a link between the d. citri in iran and the usa (florida). the purpose of this study was to collect morphometric data from d. citri populations from iran (mtcoi haplotype-1), florida (mtcoi haplotype-1), and pakistan (mtcoi haplotype-6), to deter ...201526038715
characterization of the asian citrus psyllid transcriptome.the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae) is a vector for the causative agents of huanglongbing, which threatens citrus production worldwide. this study reports and discusses the first d. citri transcriptomes, encompassing the three main life stages of d. citri, egg, nymph and adult. the transcriptomes were annotated using gene ontology (go) and insecticide-related genes within each life stage were identified to aid the development of future d. citri insecticides ...201424511328
asymptomatic spread of huanglongbing and implications for disease control.huanglongbing (hlb) is a bacterial infection of citrus trees transmitted by the asian citrus psyllid diaphorina citri. mitigation of hlb has focused on spraying of insecticides to reduce the psyllid population and removal of trees when they first show symptoms of the disease. these interventions have been only marginally effective, because symptoms of hlb do not appear on leaves for months to years after initial infection. limited knowledge about disease spread during the asymptomatic phase is e ...201526034273
imidacloprid sorption kinetics, equilibria, and degradation in sandy soils of florida.imidacloprid (imd) is a neonicotinoid insecticide soil-drenched on sandy soils of southwest florida for the control of diaphorina citri kuwayama or asian citrus psyllid (acp). the acp vectors causal pathogens of a devastating citrus disease called citrus greening. understanding the behavior of imd in these soils and plants is critical to its performance against target pests. samples from immokalee fine sand (ifs) were used for sorption kinetics and equilibria experiments. imd kinetics data were ...201525938475
infection density dynamics of the citrus greening bacterium "candidatus liberibacter asiaticus" in field populations of the psyllid diaphorina citri and its relevance to the efficiency of pathogen transmission to citrus plants.huanglongbing, or citrus greening, is a devastating disease of citrus plants recently spreading worldwide, which is caused by an uncultivable bacterial pathogen, "candidatus liberibacter asiaticus," and vectored by a phloem-sucking insect, diaphorina citri. we investigated the infection density dynamics of "ca. liberibacter asiaticus" in field populations of d. citri with experiments using field-collected insects to address how "ca. liberibacter asiaticus" infection density in the vector insect ...201525819961
horizontal gene acquisition of liberibacter plant pathogens from a bacteriome-confined endosymbiont of their psyllid vector.he asian citrus psyllid diaphorina citri is a notorious agricultural pest that transmits the phloem-inhabiting alphaproteobacterial 'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus' and allied plant pathogens, which cause the devastating citrus disease called huanglongbing or greening disease. d. citri harbors two distinct bacterial mutualists in the symbiotic organ called bacteriome: the betaproteobacterium 'candidatus profftella armatura' in the syncytial cytoplasm at the center of the bacteriome, and the g ...201324349319
internal extracellular bacteria of diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae), the asian citrus psyllid.the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae), is an invasive insect pest that transmits candidatus liberibacter spp. this insect/pathogen system was first identified in north america in the early 2000's and has become the top threat to the citrus industry. limited options for management of this problem exist; therefore, innovative pest management strategies are being developed. in this study, we describe the first step toward a paratransgenic approach (also referred ...201525645736
effects of methoprene, a juvenile hormone analog, on survival of various developmental stages, adult emergence, reproduction and behavior of asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama.the asian citrus citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama, transmits a bacterium that causes huanglongbing in citrus. frequent and repeated use of neurotoxic insecticides against d. citri has resulted in the development of insecticide resistance. we evaluated the effects of the juvenile hormone analog methoprene on egg hatch, nymphal development, adult emergence, reproduction and behavior of d. citri.201525583143
chemical and behavioral analysis of the cuticular hydrocarbons from asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri.huanglongbing (hlb) is the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide. the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae), is the vector of the phloem-inhabiting bacterium, candidatus liberibacter asiaticus, which is presumed to cause hlb in florida citrus. laboratory and field studies were conducted to examine the behavioral responses of male and female d. citri to their cuticular extracts. in olfactometer assays, more male d. citri were attracted to one, five, or 10 f ...201323955888
the genetic structure of an invasive pest, the asian citrus psyllid diaphorina citri (hemiptera: liviidae).the asian citrus psyllid diaphorina citri is currently the major threat to the citrus industry as it is the vector of candidatus liberibacter, the causal agent of huanglongbing disease (hlb). d. citri is native to asia and now colonizes the americas. although it has been known in some countries for a long time, invasion routes remain undetermined. there are no efficient control methods for the hlb despite the intensive management tools currently in use. we investigated the genetic variability an ...201425545788
first record of diaphorina citri (hemiptera: psyllidae) in ecuador infesting urban citrus and orange jasmine trees.adults and nymphs of the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae), were collected in the guayaquil, samborondón, and durán cantons in coastal ecuador. psyllids were found in high numbers in citrus (citrus spp., sapindales: rutaceae) and orange jasmine (murraya exotica [l.] jack, sapindales: rutaceae) trees within the guayaquil-samborondon-duran conurbation; however, none was found during scoutings in the main citrus producing areas in coastal ecuador. to the best of ...201425527601
chemical control of the asian citrus psyllid and of huanglongbing disease in citrus.by 2014, huanglongbing (hlb), the most destructive disease of citrus, and its insect vector, the asian citrus psyllid (acp), diaphorina citri (kuwayama), became established in all major citrus-growing regions of the world, including the united states, with the exception of california. at present, application of insecticides is the most widely followed option for reducing acp populations, while application of antibiotics for suppressing hlb disease/symptoms is being practiced in some citrus-growi ...201525491482
insecticidal suppression of asian citrus psyllid diaphorina citri (hemiptera: liviidae) vector of huanglongbing pathogens.diaphorina citri vectors pathogens that cause 'huanglongbing' or citrus greening disease which poses a serious threat to citrus production worldwide. vector suppression is critical to reduce disease spread. efficacy is a main concern when choosing an insecticide. insecticidal treatments of 49 products or 44 active ingredients (a.i) labeled or experimental were field tested between 2005-2013 as foliar sprays (250 treatments, 39 a.i) or soil applications (47 treatments, 9 a.i) to control d. citri ...201425437858
double-stranded rna uptake through topical application, mediates silencing of five cyp4 genes and suppresses insecticide resistance in diaphorina citri.silencing of genes through rna interference (rnai) in insects has gained momentum during the past few years. rnai has been used to cause insect mortality, inhibit insect growth, increase insecticide susceptibility, and prevent the development of insecticide resistance. we investigated the efficacy of topically applied dsrna to induce rnai for five cytochrome p450 genes family 4 (cyp4) in diaphorina citri. we previously reported that these cyp4 genes are associated with the development of insecti ...201425330026
silencing abnormal wing disc gene of the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri disrupts adult wing development and increases nymph mortality.huanglongbing (hlb) causes considerable economic losses to citrus industries worldwide. its management depends on controlling of the asian citrus psyllid (acp), the vector of the bacterium, candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (clas), the causal agent of hlb. silencing genes by rna interference (rnai) is a promising tool to explore gene functions as well as control pests. in the current study, abnormal wing disc (awd) gene associated with wing development in insects is used to interfere with the fl ...201323734251
wolbachia infection density in populations of the asian citrus psyllid (hemiptera: liviidae).the symbiotic relationships between bacteria of the genus wolbachia (order rickettsiales) and their arthropod hosts are diverse and can range from mutualism to parasitism. whereas effects of wolbachia on host biology are well investigated, little is known about diversity and abundance of wolbachia in their natural hosts. the phloem-feeding asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri (kuwayama) (hemiptera: liviidae), is naturally infected with wolbachia (wdi). in the current study, we calculated the w ...201425259690
development of rapid, sensitive and non-radioactive tissue-blot diagnostic method for the detection of citrus greening.citrus huanglongbing (hlb or citrus greening) is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus worldwide. the disease is caused by gram-negative, phloem-limited α-proteobacterium, 'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus', vectored by the psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama. citrus plants infected by the hlb bacterium may not show visible symptoms sometimes for years following infection and non-uniform distribution within the tree makes the detection of the pathogen very difficult. efficient managemen ...201323660459
metalized polyethylene mulch to repel asian citrus psyllid, slow spread of huanglongbing and improve growth of new citrus plantings.greening or huanglongbing (hlb) is a debilitating disease of citrus caused by candidatus liberibactor asiaticus and transmitted by the asian citrus psyllid (acp), diaphorina citri. hlb now occurs worldwide in all major citrus growing regions except the mediterranean and australia. management relies principally on insecticidal control of the acp vector, but is insufficient, even for young trees which are most susceptible to the disease. we tested the ability of metalized polyethylene mulch to rep ...201423616306
the push-pull strategy for citrus psyllid control.the asian citrus psyllid (acp), diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae), is the only natural vector of candidatus liberibacter asiaticus that causes citrus huanglongbing (hlb), a most destructive disease of citrus. currently, no remedial therapy exists for the disease, and so effective control of acp is very important in curbing the transmission of the disease. the push-pull strategy should be thoroughly explored as an approach to acp management. this mini-review summarises the current ...201525256398
stylet morphometrics and citrus leaf vein structure in relation to feeding behavior of the asian citrus psyllid diaphorina citri, vector of citrus huanglongbing bacterium.the asian citrus psyllid (acp), diaphorina citri (hemiptera: psyllidae), is the primary vector of the phloem-limited bacterium candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (las) associated with huanglongbing (hlb, citrus greening), considered the world's most serious disease of citrus. stylet morphometrics of acp nymphs and adults were studied in relation to citrus vein structure and to their putative (histologically verified) feeding sites on valencia orange leaves. acp nymphs preferred to settle and feed ...201323555830
population dynamics and growth rates of endosymbionts during diaphorina citri (hemiptera, liviidae) ontogeny.the infection density of symbionts is among the major parameters to understand their biological effects in host-endosymbionts interactions. diaphorina citri harbors two bacteriome-associated bacterial endosymbionts (candidatus carsonella ruddii and candidatus profftella armatura), besides the intracellular reproductive parasite wolbachia. in this study, the density dynamics of the three endosymbionts associated with the psyllid d. citri was investigated by real-time quantitative pcr (qpcr) at di ...201425037159
effects of cyantraniliprole, a novel anthranilic diamide insecticide, against asian citrus psyllid under laboratory and field conditions.the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri (hemiptera: psyllidae), is the most destructive pest of citrus in florida. the development of insecticide resistance in several populations of d. citri has been documented. there is an urgent need to develop and integrate novel tools for the successful management of d. citri and also to prevent the development of insecticide resistance.201323371893
insecticide sprays, natural enemy assemblages and predation on asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri (hemiptera: psyllidae).the asian citrus psyllid (acp), diaphorina citri kuwayama is considered a key citrus pest due to its role as vector of 'huanglongbing' (hlb) or citrus greening, probably the most economically damaging disease of citrus. insecticidal control of the vector is still considered a cornerstone of hlb management to prevent infection and to reduce reinoculation of infected trees. the severity of hlb has driven implementation of intensive insecticide programs against acp with unknown side effects on bene ...201424830653
biology and management of asian citrus psyllid, vector of the huanglongbing pathogens.the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae), is the most important pest of citrus worldwide because it serves as a vector of "candidatus liberibacter" species (alphaproteobacteria) that cause huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). all commercially cultivated citrus is susceptible and varieties tolerant to disease expression are not yet available. onset of disease occurs following a long latent period after inoculation, and thus the pathogen can spread widely prio ...201323317046
abdominal color of the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri, is associated with susceptibility to various insecticides.color morphs of an insect species are known to vary in activities of detoxifying enzymes and associated susceptibility to insecticides. in diaphorina citri, three color morphs are known to occur. in the present study, susceptibility to four insecticides was compared among gray/brown, blue/green and orange/yellow color morphs of field-collected d. citri.201323193012
biology of the huanglongbing vector diaphorina citri (hemiptera: liviidae) on different host plants.although many studies have been conducted on the development and reproductive potential of diaphorina citri kuwayama, 1908 (hemiptera: liviidae) in different host species, few have evaluated these parameters on different varieties of the same host species. this study evaluated the influence of five commercial varieties of citrus (citrus spp. l.)--hamlin, natal, pêra, ponkan, and valencia-and orange jasmine [murraya exotica (l.) jack] on the development of d. citri. survival rates for the egg sta ...201424772551
overview of worldwide diversity of diaphorina citri kuwayama mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 haplotypes: two old world lineages and a new world invasion.relationships among worldwide collections of diaphorina citri (asian citrus psyllid) were analyzed using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase i (mtcoi) haplotypes from novel primers. sequences were produced from pcr amplicons of an 821bp portion of the mtcoi gene using d. citri specific primers, derived from an existing est library. an alignment was constructed using 612bps of this fragment and consisted of 212 individuals from 52 collections representing 15 countries. there were a total of eight po ...201222717059
effect of uv-blocking plastic films on take-off and host plant finding ability of diaphorina citri (hemiptera: liviidae).the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: liviidae), is a major pest of citrus worldwide due to its ability to transmit the bacteria associated with huanglongbing. vision, behavior, and performance of insect pests can be manipulated by using ultraviolet (uv)-blocking materials. thus, the aim of our study was to evaluate how uv-blocking plastic films may affect the take-off and host plant finding ability of d. citri. to assess the effect of a uv-deficient environment on take ...201526470126
impacts of horticultural mineral oils and two insecticide practices on population fluctuation of diaphorina citri and spread of huanglongbing in a citrus orchard in sarawak.aspects of the incidence and spread of the citrus disease huanglongbing (hlb) in relation to the vector diaphorina citri population fluctuation were studied from january 1999 to december 2001 seasons in a 0.8 ha citrus orchard at jemukan (1° 33'n, 110° 41'e), southwest sarawak in malaysia. in relation to insecticide and horticultural mineral oils (hmos) use, levels of hlb infection rose quite rapidly over the next 3 years in the unsprayed control and less rapidly in the other treatments such as ...201222629178
biochemical basis of organophosphate and carbamate resistance in asian citrus psyllid.the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama, is a worldwide pest of citrus, which vectors the putative causal pathogen of huanglongbing. current management practices warrant continuous monitoring of field populations for insecticide resistance. baseline activities of acetylcholinesterase (ache), general esterase, and glutathione s-transferase as well as sensitivity of ache to selected organophosphate and carbamate insecticides were established for a susceptible laboratory strain (lab) an ...201222606825
seasonal movement patterns and long-range dispersal of asian citrus psyllid in florida citrus.the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama, is the vector of the bacterial pathogen, candidatus liberibacter asiaticus, which is the causal agent of huanglongbing (hlb) in the united states. both short-range and long-range dispersal of d. citri adults affect the spread of hlb; however, little is known about the long-range dispersal capabilities of d. citri in the field or the seasonality of flight behavior. in the present study, an in situ protein marking technique was used to determine ...201526470097
huanglongbing: an overview of a complex pathosystem ravaging the world's citrus.citrus huanglongbing (hlb) has become a major disease and limiting factor of production in citrus areas that have become infected. the destruction to the affected citrus industries has resulted in a tremendous increase to support research that in return has resulted in significant information on both applied and basic knowledge concerning this important disease to the global citrus industry. recent research indicates the relationship between citrus and the causal agent of hlb is shaped by multip ...201626466921
lethal and sublethal impacts of acaricides on tamarixia radiata (hemiptera: eulophidae), an important ectoparasitoid of diaphorina citri (hemiptera: liviidae).the use of synthetic acaricides for management of pest mites may alter the efficacy of the ectoparasitoid tamarixia radiata (waterston) in biological control of diaphorina citri kuwayama, the vector of the bacteria associated with huanglongbing (hlb) in citrus orchards. we evaluated the toxicity of 16 acaricides that are recommended for the control of citrus-pest mites to t. radiata. acrinathrin, bifenthrin, carbosulfan, and fenpropathrin caused high acute toxicity and were considered harmful (m ...201526453716
improved real-time pcr detection of 'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus' from citrus and psyllid hosts by targeting the intragenic tandem-repeats of its prophage genes.'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus' (clas) is a gram-negative α-proteobacterium, and the prominent species of liberibacter associated with a devastating worldwide citrus disease known as huanglongbing (hlb). this fastidious bacterium resides in phloem sieve cells of host plants and is vectored by the asian citrus psyllid (diaphorina citri). due to its uneven distribution in planta and highly variable bacterial titers, detection of hlb bacteria can be challenging. here we demonstrated a new utili ...201222245034
changes in variable number of tandem repeats in 'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus' through insect transmission.citrus greening (huanglongbing) is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. the disease is associated with three species of 'candidatus liberibacter' among which 'ca. liberibacter asiaticus' has the widest distribution. 'ca. l. asiaticus' is commonly transmitted by a phloem-feeding insect vector, the asian citrus psyllid diaphorina citri. a previous study showed that isolates of 'ca. l. asiaticus' were clearly differentiated by variable number of tandem repeat (vntr) profiles at four loci ...201526402645
efficacy of essential oil of piper aduncum against nymphs and adults of diaphorina citri.insecticide application is the main way to control diaphorina citri. however, it causes environmental contamination, has a negative impact on beneficial organisms and leads to psyllid resistance. the essential oil of piper aduncum has low toxicity towards the environment and contains dillapiol, which has proven to be effective against several crop pests. here, we studied its efficacy against nymphs and adults of d. citri under laboratory conditions. oils with three concentrations of dillapiol (6 ...201626331551
sampling methods for detection and monitoring of the asian citrus psyllid (hemiptera: psyllidae).the asian citrus psyllid (acp), diaphorina citri kuwayama is a key pest of citrus due to its role as vector of citrus greening disease or "huanglongbing." acp monitoring is considered an indispensable tool for management of vector and disease. in the present study, datasets collected between 2009 and 2013 from 245 citrus blocks were used to evaluate precision, sensitivity for detection, and efficiency of five sampling methods. the number of samples needed to reach a 0.25 standard error-mean rati ...201526313984
host range testing of tamarixia radiata (hymenoptera: eulophidae) sourced from the punjab of pakistan for classical biological control of diaphorina citri (hemiptera: liviidae: euphyllurinae: diaphorinini) in california.abstract tests evaluating the host range of tamarixia radiata (waterson) (hymenoptera: eulophidae), a parasitoid of the pestiferous asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: liviidae), sourced from the punjab of pakistan, were conducted in quarantine at the university of california, riverside, ca. seven nontarget psyllid species (five native and two self-introduced species) representing five families were exposed to t radiata under the following three different exposure scenari ...201424665694
the phloem-sap feeding mealybug (ferrisia virgata) carries 'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus' populations that do not cause disease in host plants.'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus' (las) is the primary causal agent of huanglongbing (hlb), the most devastating disease of citrus worldwide. there are three known insect vectors of the hlb-associated bacteria, and all are members of the hemiptera: diaphorina citri (psyllidae), trioza erytreae (triozidae), and cacopsylla (psylla) citrisuga (psyllidae). in this study, we found that another hemipteran, the striped mealybug ferrisia virgata (cockerell) (hemiptera: pseudococcidae), was able to acq ...201424465578
innate and conditioned responses to chemosensory and visual cues in asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri (hemiptera: liviidae), vector of huanglongbing pathogens.asian citrus psyllid (diaphorina citri) transmits huanglongbing, a devastating disease that threatens citrus trees worldwide. a better understanding of the psyllid's host-plant selection process may lead to the development of more efficient means of monitoring it and predicting its movements. since behavioral adaptations, such as associative learning, may facilitate recognition of suitable host-plants, we examined whether adult d. citri could be conditioned to visual and chemosensory stimuli fro ...201426462949
semiochemical and vibrational cues and signals mediating mate finding and courtship in psylloidea (hemiptera): a synthesis.mate finding and courtship involve complex interactions that require close coordination between individuals of the opposite gender. well-organized signalling systems, sometimes involving a combination of signal modalities, are required to convey species-specific and individual information to members of the opposite gender. previous studies of psyllids have focused on single-signal modalities and have largely ignored the potentially interdependent nature of different types of signals. several stu ...201426462826
detection of citrus huanglongbing-associated 'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus' in citrus and diaphorina citri in pakistan, seasonal variability, and implications for disease management.we report the detection of the huanglongbing (hlb)-associated bacterium 'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus' from both plants and insects in pakistan and the seasonal variability in the numbers of 'ca. l. asiaticus'-positive psyllid vector, diaphorina citri. our studies showed that 'ca. l. asiaticus' was detectable from trees in areas with maximum temperatures reaching nearly 50°c (average maximum of 42°c). however, the bacterium was present at very low levels in psyllids both in summer (june to ...201424134720
global genetic variation in the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri (hemiptera: liviidae) and the endosymbiont wolbachia: links between iran and the usa detected.the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: liviidae), is one of the most serious pests of citrus in the world, because it transmits the pathogen that causes citrus greening disease. to determine genetic variation among geographic populations of d. citri, microsatellite markers, mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase i (mtcoi) and the wolbachia-diaphorina, wdi, gene wsp sequence data were used to characterize iranian and pakistani populations. also, a bayesian phylogenetic tec ...201424002991
competition between honeydew producers in an ant-hemipteran interaction may enhance biological control of an invasive pest.asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: liviidae), is an invasive citrus pest in southern california, which secretes honeydew and has the potential to spread a lethal bacterial disease, huanglongbing, of citrus. in urban citrus, argentine ant, linepithema humile (mayr) (hymenoptera: formicidae), also an invasive pest, tends honeydew-producing hemipterans. we used field data to determine whether the mutualistic relationship between l. humile and six established species of hone ...201323941659
methods for rapid and effective pcr-based detection of 'candidatus liberibacter solanacearum' from the insect vector bactericera cockerelli: streamlining the dna extraction/purification process.this study provides a protocol for rapid dna isolation from psyllid vectors (bactericera cockerelli and diaphorina citri) that can be used directly with dna-based methods for the detection of 'candidatus (ca.) liberibacter solanacearum,' the bacterial causal agent of potato zebra chip disease and eventually for 'ca. liberibacter asiaticus' the causal agent of huanglongbing disease in citrus. the fast dna extraction protocol was designed to work with conventional polymerase chain reaction (cpcr) ...201323865212
herbivory by the insect diaphorina citri induces greater change in citrus plant volatile profile than does infection by the bacterium, candidatus liberibacter asiaticus.the volatile organic compound (voc) profile in plant leaves often changes after biotic and abiotic stresses. monitoring changes in vocs in plant leaves could provide valuable information about multitrophic interactions. in the current study, we investigated the effect of asian citrus psyllid (acp) infestation, citrus greening pathogen (candidatus liberibacter asiaticus [clas]) infection, and simultaneous attack by acp and clas on the voc content of citrus leaves. leaf volatiles were extracted us ...201323857364
defensive bacteriome symbiont with a drastically reduced genome.diverse insect species harbor symbiotic bacteria, which play important roles such as provisioning nutrients and providing defense against natural enemies [1-6]. whereas nutritional symbioses are often indispensable for both partners, defensive symbioses tend to be of a facultative nature [1-12]. the asian citrus psyllid diaphorina citri is a notorious agricultural pest that transmits liberibacter spp. (alphaproteobacteria), causing the devastating citrus greening disease or huanglongbing [13, 14 ...201323850282
behavioral, ultrastructural and chemical studies on the honeydew and waxy secretions by nymphs and adults of the asian citrus psyllid diaphorina citri (hemiptera: psyllidae).the asian citrus psyllid (acp), diaphorina citri (hemiptera: psyllidae) is the primary vector of the bacterium causing citrus huanglongbing (citrus greening), the most serious disease of citrus worldwide. psyllids and other hemipterans produce large amounts of honeydew, which has been used previously as an indicator of phloem sap composition and insect feeding or metabolism. behavioral, ultrastructural and chemical studies on acp, its honeydew and waxy secretions showed important differences bet ...201323762268
candidate gene markers for candidatus liberibacter asiaticus for detecting citrus greening disease.citrus huanglongbing (hlb) also known as citrus greening is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus worldwide. the disease is caused by candidatus liberibacter bacterium, vectored by the psyllid diaphorina citri kuwayama and trioza erytreae del guercio. citrus plants infected by the hlb bacterium may not show visible symptoms sometimes for years following infection. the aim of this study was to develop effective gene-specific primer pairs for polymerase chain reaction based method for qui ...201323660656
induced resistance against the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri, by β-aminobutyric acid in citrus.β-aminobutyric acid (baba) is known to induce resistance to microbial pathogens, nematodes and insects in several host plant/pest systems. the present study was undertaken to determine whether a similar effect of baba occurred against the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama, in citrus. a 25 mm drench application of baba significantly reduced the number of eggs/plant as compared with a water control, whereas 200 and 100 mm applications of baba reduced the numbers of nymphs/plant and a ...201323590847
dynamic insecticide susceptibility changes in florida populations of diaphorina citri (hemiptera: psyllidae).five field populations of diaphorina citri kuwayama from various regions of florida were evaluated in 2011 for resistance to commonly used insecticides. three diagnostic doses (ld50, ld75, and ld95), developed in 2009 using a laboratory susceptible population, were used to measure changes in susceptibility levels of field-collected populations as compared with a susceptible laboratory population. further reductions in the susceptibility levels of d. citri to chlorpyriphos and fenpropathrin were ...201323448056
global gene expression changes in candidatus liberibacter asiaticus during the transmission in distinct hosts between plant and insect.huanglongbing (hlb) or citrus greening disease is a destructive disease of citrus worldwide, which is associated with candidatus liberibacter asiaticus. this phloem-limited fastidious pathogen is transmitted by the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri, and appears to be an intracellular pathogen that maintains an intimate association with the psyllid or the plant throughout its life cycle. the molecular basis of the interaction of this pathogen with its hosts is not well understood. we hypothe ...201323336388
effects of soil-applied imidacloprid on asian citrus psyllid (hemiptera: psyllidae) feeding behavior.the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae), is one of the most important pests of citrus (citrus spp.) because of its status as a vector of candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (las), the bacterium associated with citrus greening disease. the use of insecticides for vector control is the primary method of managing the spread of this pathogen. imidacloprid is an insecticide commonly applied to the root zone of young citrus trees to provide systemic protection from pes ...201223156142
effects of buprofezin and diflubenzuron on various developmental stages of asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri.diaphorina citri populations in florida are developing resistance to commonly used neurotoxic insecticides. alternatives to neurotoxins, such as insect growth regulators, are needed to control this season-long subtropical pest to prevent or delay development of insecticide resistance. in the present investigation, two insect growth regulators (igrs), buprofezin and diflubenzuron, were evaluated against various developmental stages of d. citri.201222653617
nested-quantitative pcr approach with improved sensitivity for the detection of low titer levels of candidatus liberibacter asiaticus in the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama.candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (clas) is a phloem-limited bacterium transmitted by the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri, and the presumptive causal agent of citrus greening disease. the current method of detection for clas within plant and insect samples is by a presence/absence qpcr assay using the clas 16s rdna gene target. although qpcr is highly sensitive, low bacterial titers or suboptimal qpcr conditions can result in false-negatives. using a nested qpcr assay, we determined the f ...201424769405
life table of tamarixia radiata (hymenoptera: eulophidae) on diaphorina citri (hemiptera: psyllidae) at different temperatures.tamarixia radiata (waterston, 1922) is the main parasitoid of diaphorina citri (kuwayama, 1907), and has been used in classical biological control programs in several countries. the current study investigated the biology and determined the fertility life table of t. radiata in different temperatures, to obtain information to support the establishment of a biological control program for d. citri in brazil. fifth-instar nymphs of d. citri were offered to females of t. radiata for parasitism, for 2 ...201222606801
characterization of the relative abundance of the citrus pathogen ca. liberibacter asiaticus in the microbiome of its insect vector, diaphorina citri, using high throughput 16s rrna sequencing.the relationship between the causal agent of huanglongbing (hlb), ca. liberibacter asiaticus(las), and the naturally occurring endosymbiotic community of its insect vector, the asian citrus psyllid (acp), diaphorina citri, was studied. variation was observed in the titer of las within an acp population feeding on the same material. the cause of this disparity is unknown, and has implications for las transmission and the spread of hlb. this study utilizes culture independent methods to establish ...201222529882
induced release of a plant-defense volatile 'deceptively' attracts insect vectors to plants infected with a bacterial pathogen.transmission of plant pathogens by insect vectors is a complex biological process involving interactions between the plant, insect, and pathogen. pathogen-induced plant responses can include changes in volatile and nonvolatile secondary metabolites as well as major plant nutrients. experiments were conducted to understand how a plant pathogenic bacterium, candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (las), affects host preference behavior of its psyllid (diaphorina citri kuwayama) vector. d. citri were att ...201222457628
effects of different temperature regimes on survival of diaphorina citri and its endosymbiotic bacterial communities.the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri, is a major pest of citrus and vector of citrus greening (huanglongbing) in asian. in our field-collected psyllid samples, we discovered that fuzhou (china) and faisalabad (pakistan), populations harbored an obligate primary endosymbiont candidatus carsonella (gen. nov.) with a single species, candidatus carsonella ruddii (sp. nov.) and a secondary endosymbiont, wolbachia surface proteins (wsp) which are intracellular endosymbionts residing in the bacte ...201728618183
acute toxicity of fresh and aged residues of pesticides to the parasitoid tamarixia radiata and to the hlb-bacteria vector diaphorina citri.one method for controlling the asian citrus psyllid (acp) diaphorina citri kuwayama, the vector of the putative causal agent of huanglongbing, uses the parasitoid tamarixia radiata (waterston). however, the general intensive use of insecticides has reduced the numbers of this parasitoid. this study evaluated the effect of the residual action of 24 insecticides on t. radiata and also determined the differential toxicity of insecticides to d. citri and t. radiata, using three bioassays. in the fir ...201729222706
contrasting amino acid profiles among permissive and non-permissive hosts of candidatus liberibacter asiaticus, putative causal agent of huanglongbing.huanglongbing is a devastating disease of citrus. in this study, a comprehensive profile of phloem sap amino acids (aa) in four permissive host plants of candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (clas) and three non-permissive rutaceae plants was conducted to gain a better understanding of host factors that may promote or suppress the bacterium. the aa profiles of diaphorina citri nymphs and adults were similarly analyzed. a total of 38 unique aas were detected in phloem sap of the various plants and d ...201729236706
innate immune system capabilities of the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri.citrus production worldwide is currently threatened by huanglongbing, or citrus greening disease. the associated pathogen, candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (clas), is transmitted by the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri. annotation of the d. citri genome revealed a reduced innate immune system lacking a number of antimicrobial peptides and the imd pathway associated with defense against gram-negative bacteria. we characterized this apparent immune reduction in survival assays in which d. c ...201728624621
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