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occurrence of free fatty acids in the phloem sap of different citrus varieties.candidatus liberibacter asiaticus is a phloem restricted bacterium causes citrus greening disease or huanglongbing (hlb), a major treat to commercial citrus production in florida. it is transmitted by the asian citrus psyllid, a phloem sap-feeding insect. studies conducted on the composition of citrus phloem sap revealed the presence amino acids, organic acids and sugars and of low amounts of free fatty acids. in the present study, the phloem sap of twelve citrus varieties with different degrees ...028532234
a plant pathogenic bacterium exploits the tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolic pathway of its insect vector.huanglongbing in citrus is caused by a phloem-limited, uncultivable, gram-negative α-proteobacterium, candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (clas). clas is transmitted by the phloem-sucking insect, diaphorina citri (hemiptera: liviidae), in a persistent, circulative, and propagative manner. in this study, we investigated the metabolomic and respiration rates changes in d. citri upon infection with clas using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc-ms) and gas exchange analysis. the level of glycine ...028594267
biology of diaphorina citri (homoptera: psyllidae) on four host plants.the biology of the citrus psyllid diaphorina citri kuwayama was studied at 25 degrees c on four commonly grown citrus and related plants [rough lemon, citrus jambhiri lush; sour orange, c aurantium l.; grapefruit, c. paradisi macfadyen; and orange jessamine, murraya paniculata (l.) jack] in the laboratory. the biological characteristics of each life stage are described. the average egg incubation periods on orange jessamine, grapefruit, rough lemon, and sour orange varied very little (4.1-4.2 d) ...200011142304
effect of sucrose octanoate on survival of nymphal and adult diaphorina citri (homoptera: psyllidae).asian citrus psylla, diaphorina citri kuwayama (homoptera: psyllidae) was detected for the first time in the united states near delray beach, fl, on 2 june 1998 and is continuing to spread and multiply throughout southern florida. this psyllid is the vector of liberobacter asiaticum, a phloem-limited bacterium that causes citrus greening disease. this pathogen has not been found in the western hemisphere to date. furthermore, high infestation levels of d. citri can impact citrus plant health, fr ...200415279280
citrus huanglongbing in são paulo state, brazil: pcr detection of the 'candidatus' liberibacter species associated with the disease.symptoms of huanglongbing (hlb), one of the most serious diseases of citrus in asia and africa, have been noticed in march 2004 in the araraquara region of são paulo state, brazil. hlb has not been reported previously from america. the causal hlb bacteria, candidatus liberibacter africanus in africa and candidatus liberibacter asiaticus in asia, can be detected in symptomatic citrus leaves by pcr amplification of their 16s rdna with previously described primers. when this technique was applied t ...200515797817
'candidatus liberibacter americanus', associated with citrus huanglongbing (greening disease) in são paulo state, brazil.symptoms of huanglongbing (hlb) were reported in são paulo state (sps), brazil, in march 2004. in asia, hlb is caused by 'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus' and in africa by 'candidatus liberibacter africanus'. detection of the liberibacters is based on pcr amplification of their 16s rrna gene with specific primers. leaves with blotchy mottle symptoms characteristic of hlb were sampled in several farms of sps and tested for the presence of liberibacters. 'ca. l. asiaticus' was detected in a smal ...200516166678
quantitative real-time pcr for detection and identification of candidatus liberibacter species associated with citrus huanglongbing.citrus huanglongbing (hlb, ex greening) is one of the most serious diseases of citrus. different forms of the disease are caused by different candidatus liberobacter species, candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (las), ca. l. africanus (laf) and ca. l. americanus (lam). the pathogen is transmitted by psyllid insects and by budding with contaminated plant materials. the vector psyllid diaphorina citri can transmit both las and lam. establishment of this vector into florida, reports of lam and las in ...200616414133
effects of a particle film on biology and behavior of diaphorina citri (hemiptera: psyllidae) and its infestations in citrus.studies were conducted to investigate the effects of a kaolin-based hydrophilic particle film, surround wp, on the biology and behavior of the psyllid diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae) and to assess population densities of d. citri in citrus subjected to monthly applications of surround wp. laboratory investigations indicated a 3% (wt:vol) suspension of surround wp in water applied directly was not acutely toxic to eggs, older nymphs or adults. presence of the dried particle film ...200717598547
morphological and molecular characterization of a hirsutella species infecting the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae), in florida.the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama, is an invasive pest that vectors citrus greening disease, which recently was detected in florida. mycosed adult d. citri were collected at four sites in central florida between september 2005 and february 2006. observation of the cadavers using scanning electron microscopy revealed that the pathogen had branched synnemata supporting monophiladic conidiogenous cells. a high-fidelity polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay was used to amplify the ...200717382959
morphological characterization of the antennal sensilla of the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae), with reference to their probable functions.the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae), is one of the most significant economic pests of citrus worldwide. this insect vectors three phloem-restricted bacteria in the genus candidatus liberibacter that cause huanglongbing (citrus greening), the most severe disease limiting citrus production worldwide. we examined the external morphology of the antennal sensilla of male and female d. citri using scanning electron microscopy (sem) and determined the putative fun ...200818573664
rate, placement and timing of aldicarb applications to control asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae), in oranges.the asian citrus psyllid (acp), diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae), is a cosmopolitan insect pest of citrus and vectors the bacterium candidatus liberibacter asiaticus, a suspected causal organism of citrus greening or 'huanglongbing' disease. aldicarb 150 g kg(-1) gr (temik((r)) 15 g) was evaluated at three rates, two placements and three timings for acp control in orange trees.200818537108
population ecology and phenology of diaphorina citri (hemiptera: psyllidae) in two florida citrus groves.studies were conducted to assess population densities and phenology of the psyllid diaphorina citri kuwayama at two citrus groves in east-central florida. one grove contained young, irrigated grapefruit trees and the other contained mature, nonirrigated orange trees. the two groves were sampled weekly for eggs, nymphs, and adults on flush shoots; for adults on mature leaves; and for adults captured on yellow sticky card traps. because infestations of immature d. citri develop strictly on young f ...200818801257
sulfur volatiles in guava (psidium guajava l.) leaves: possible defense mechanism.volatiles from crushed and intact guava leaves (psidium guajava l.) were collected using static headspace spme and determined using gc-pfpd, pulsed flame photometric detection, and gc-ms. leaf volatiles from four common citrus culitvars were examined similarly to determine the potential component(s) responsible for guava's protective effect against the asian citrus psyllid (diaphorina citri kuwayama), which is the insect vector of huanglongbing (hlb) or citrus greening disease. seven sulfur vola ...200818778077
dispersion patterns and sampling plans for diaphorina citri (hemiptera: psyllidae) in citrus.the abundance and spatial dispersion of diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae) were studied in 34 grapefruit (citrus paradisi macfad.) and six sweet orange [citrus sinensis (l.) osbeck] orchards from march to august 2006 when the pest is more abundant in southern texas. although flush shoot infestation levels did not vary with host plant species, densities of d. citri eggs, nymphs, and adults were significantly higher on sweet orange than on grapefruit. d. citri immatures also were fou ...200818767763
isolation and characterization of an isaria fumosorosea isolate infecting the asian citrus psyllid in florida.a fungal pathogen that killed adult diaphorina citri kuwayama (asian citrus psyllid) (hemiptera: psyllidae) in florida citrus groves during the fall of 2005 was identified and characterized. investigation of this pathogen is important because d. citri vectors citrus greening disease (huanglongbing), which was reported in florida in 2005. the morphological and genetic data generated herein support identification of the fungus as isaria fumosorosea wize (ifr) (=paecilomyces fumosoroseus) (hypocrea ...200818433768
detection of 'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus' in diaphorina citri and its importance in the management of citrus huanglongbing in florida.citrus huanglongbing (hlb or citrus greening), is a highly destructive disease that has been spreading in both florida and brazil. its psyllid vector, diaphorina citri kuwayama, has spread to texas and mexico, thus threatening the future of citrus production elsewhere in mainland north america. even though sensitive diagnostic methods have been developed for detection of the causal organisms, candidatus liberibacter spp., the pathogen cannot be detected consistently in plants until symptoms deve ...200818944186
antifeedant and sublethal effects of imidacloprid on asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri.asian citrus psyllid (acp), diaphorina citri kuwayama, transmits the causal bacteria of the devastating citrus disease huanglongbing (hlb). because of the variation in spatial and temporal uptake and systemic distribution of imidacloprid applied to citrus trees and its degradation over time in citrus trees, acp adults and nymphs are exposed to concentrations that may not cause immediate mortality but rather sublethal effects. the objective of this laboratory study was to determine the effects of ...200919431217
establishment of asian citrus psyllid (diaphorina citri) primary cultures.the asian citrus psyllid (ascp), diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae), is a highly competent vector of the phloem-inhabiting bacterium candidatus liberibacter asiaticus associated with the citrus disease huanglongbing (hlb). commonly referred to as citrus greening disease in the usa, hlb causes reduced fruit yields, quality, and ultimately tree death and is considered the most serious citrus disease. hlb has become a major limiting factor to the production of citrus worldwide. studie ...200919440802
quantifying dispersal of diaphorina citri (hemiptera: psyllidae) by immunomarking and potential impact of unmanaged groves on commercial citrus management.diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae) is an important pest of citrus. it is an efficient vector of three bacterial pathogens that are the presumptive causal agents of huanglongbing (hlb) or citrus greening disease. the movement patterns and dispersal capabilities of d. citri require study to better understand the spread of hlb and to improve management strategies for d. citri. a recently developed immunomarking technique that uses crude food proteins (chicken egg albumin, bovine casei ...200919689907
comparison of laboratory colonies and field populations of tamarixia radiata, an ectoparasitoid of the asian citrus psyllid, using internal transcribed spacer and cytochrome oxidase subunit i dna sequences.the genetic diversity of tamarixia radiata waterston (hymenoptera: eulophidae) laboratory colonies derived from collections in china, northern vietnam, pakistan, and a mixed colony from taiwan and southern vietnam was evaluated using the internal transcribed spacer (its) region 1, its-2, and the 5' end of the cytochrome oxidase subunit i gene. the strains share the same its sequence, consistent with the morphological hypothesis that the collections represent a single species. the coi marker was ...200920069864
roles of olfactory cues, visual cues, and mating status in orientation of diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae) to four different host plants.diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae) is an important worldwide pest of citrus that vectors bacteria (candidatus liberibacter spp.) responsible for huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). we examined the behavioral responses of mated and unmated d. citri of both sexes to odors from host plants in a y-tube olfactometer, with and without visual cues. the host plants tested were 'duncan' grapefruit (citrus paradisi macfayden), sour orange (citrus aurantium l.), navel orange (c. sinensis ...200919791618
influence of posttreatment temperature on the toxicity of insecticides against diaphorina citri (hemiptera: psyllidae).the psyllid diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae) is one of the most important pests of citrus worldwide because it efficiently vectors three bacteria in the genus candidatus liberibacter that cause the devastating citrus greening disease (huanglongbing). current management practices for this insect pest rely on multiple sprays of foliar insecticides and one or two applications of soil systemic insecticides per season. effective psyllid and disease management in florida requires insec ...200919449650
an assessment of yellow sticky card traps as indicators of the abundance of adult diaphorina citri (hemiptera: psyllidae) in citrus.yellow sticky card traps were assessed as a tool for estimating absolute densities of adult diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae) in citrus. weekly trapping was conducted in young and mature trees with traps deployed directly in trees, one trap per tree. in addition, a comparison was made between one and three traps per tree in the mature trees. solar radiation was positively correlated with numbers of adults trapped per week in both groups of trees. air temperature was positively cor ...200919253667
incidence of invasive diaphorina citri (hemiptera: psyllidae) and its introduced parasitoid tamarixia radiata (hymenoptera: eulophidae) in florida citrus.diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae), vectors the bacterium candidatus liberibacter asiaticus, one of the causal organisms of the devastating citrus disease "huanglongbing" or citrus greening. in the united states, d. citri was first discovered in florida, in 1998. tamarixia radiata waterston (hymenoptera: eulophidae) was imported from asia and released in florida in 1999-2001 to improve biological control of d. citri before citrus greening was detected in florida in 2005. florida ci ...200919253643
unreliable pesticide control of the vector psyllid diaphorina citri (hemiptera: psyllidae) for the reduction of microorganism disease transmission.systemic insecticides and application methods were examined for the control of the vector psyllid of citrus greening disease, diaphorina citri, on grown king mandarin trees in an orchard in southern vietnam from may 2007 to september 2008. leaf spraying of imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and clothianidin attained about 50 % to 70 % mortality of the psyllid for one month after the application and showed decreased efficacy thereafter. imidacloprid was more effective than the other two insecticides, bu ...201020512737
responses of the asian citrus psyllid to volatiles emitted by the flushing shoots of its rutaceous host plants.diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae) carries candidatus liberibacter spp., the putative causal agents of huanglongbing. d. citri reproduces and develops only on the flushing shoots of its rutaceous host plants. here we examined whether d. citri is attracted to host plant odors and a mixture of synthetic terpenes. tests conducted in a vertically oriented y-tube olfactometer showed that both males and females preferentially entered the y-tube arm containing the odor from the young shoo ...201020388295
effective use of neonicotinoids for protection of citrus seedlings from invasion by diaphorina citri (hemiptera: psyllidae).the application of insecticides to control diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae) is a principal component of the current management for citrus greening disease or huanglongbing. it is recommended that growers apply systemic insecticides such as imidacloprid and thiamethoxam every 2 mo after seedling planting, but this practice renders the seedlings insecticide-free and vulnerable to psyllid infestation in the first 2 mo. we evaluated the risk of vector invasion during this period from ...201020214377
the effects of host, geographic origin, and gender on the thermal requirements of diaphorina citri (hemiptera: psyllidae).diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae) is the vector of the bacteria that causes citrus greening and is considered one of the world's most important citrus diseases. we examined how host, geographic region, and gender affect the thermal requirements of d. citri. the insects were reared in climatic chambers at constant temperatures of 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30, and 32 +/- 1 degrees c, 70 +/- 10% rh, and a 14 h photophase. host plants for d. citri included orange (citrus sinensis [rutaceae] ...201020388302
sticky trap and stem-tap sampling protocols for the asian citrus psyllid (hemiptera: psyllidae).sampling statistics were obtained to develop a sampling protocol for estimating numbers of adult diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae) in citrus by using two different sampling methods: yellow sticky traps and stem-tap samples. a 4.0-ha block of mature orange trees was stratified into 100.4-ha strata and sampled using each method seven times over a 7-mo period. one sticky trap was deployed per tree on each of 16 trees randomly selected in each stratum, and numbers of adults on the tra ...201020429472
effect of pyriproxyfen, a juvenile hormone mimic, on egg hatch, nymph development, adult emergence and reproduction of the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama.the asian citrus psyllid (acp), diaphorina citri kuwayama, is a vector of bacteria presumably responsible for huanglongbing (hlb) disease in citrus. in this laboratory study, an investigation was made of the activity of pyriproxyfen, a juvenile hormone mimic, on acp eggs, nymphs and adults to evaluate its potential as a biorational insecticide for inclusion in an integrated pest management (ipm) program for acp.201019937968
transmission parameters for candidatus liberibacter asiaticus by asian citrus psyllid (hemiptera: psyllidae).the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate acquisition and inoculation (together, transmission) efficiency of candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (las), the pathogen associated with citrus huanglongbing (hlb) by the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri (kuwayama) (hemiptera: psyllidae). in laboratory studies, nymphs reared on las infected plants were more likely to acquire the bacterium than adults. acquisition by nymphs ranged from 60 to 100%, whereas acquisition by adults only reached 4 ...201021061950
efficacy and uptake of soil-applied imidacloprid in the control of asian citrus psyllid and a citrus leafminer, two foliar-feeding citrus pests.the systemic neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid, admire pro, was applied to 3- and 4-yr-old nonbearing 'rio red' grapefruit, citrus x paradisi macfad., trees in 2006 and 2007, respectively, to determine its effects in the control of two major citrus pests, the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae), and a citrus leafminer phyllocnistis citrella stainton (lepidoptera: gracillariidae). young flush shoots were randomly collected weekly for 13 and 11 wk in 2006 an ...201021061971
medium for development of bee cell cultures (apis mellifera: hymenoptera: apidae).a media for the production of cell cultures from hymenopteran species such as honey bee, apis mellifera l. (hymenoptera: apidae) was developed. multiple bee cell cultures were produced when using bee larvae and pupae as starting material and modified hert-hunter 70 media. cell culture systems for bees solves an impasse that has hindered efforts to isolate and screen pathogens which may be influencing or causing colony collapse disorder of bees. multiple life stages of maturing larvae to early pu ...201020033792
[ovarian development and analysis of mating effects on ovary maturation of diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae)].as many other insects with a restricted diet, the citrus psyllid diaphorina citri kuwayama, which vector the causing agent of the huanglongbing, the bacteria candidatus liberibacter spp., is intimately associated with symbiotic microorganisms. these mutualist symbionts play a key role on their host nutritional ecology, and are vertically transmitted to the progeny. however, despite the role symbionts play on host development and reproduction, and the growing opportunities of exploitation of the ...201020676515
effects of pymetrozine, an antifeedant of hemiptera, on asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri, feeding behavior, survival and transmission of candidatus liberibacter asiaticus.vector-borne plant disease management can be enhanced by deployment of antifeedants in addition to the use of broad-spectrum neurotoxic insecticides. the effects of pymetrozine on asian citrus psyllid (acp), diaphorina citri kuwayama, feeding behaviour, survival and transmission of candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (las), the presumed causal pathogen of huanglongbing, were investigated.201020960465
effect of candidatus liberibacter asiaticus infection on susceptibility of asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri, to selected insecticides.in the present investigation, the effect of candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (las), a bacterium considered to be responsible for causing huanglongbing (hlb) disease in citrus, on the physiology of its vector, the asian citrus psyllid (acp) diaphorina citri kuwayama, was determined. specifically, the effects of las infection on the susceptibility of acp to selected insecticides were determined. furthermore, total protein content and general esterase activity were quantified in las-infected and u ...201020960471
incidence of candidatus liberibacter asiaticus infection in abandoned citrus occurring in proximity to commercially managed groves.huanglongbing is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus (citrus spp.). one management tactic against huanglongbing is aggressive management of the vector, the asian citrus psyllid (diaphorina citri kuwayama), with insecticide applications. however, d. citri in abandoned groves are not controlled and therefore pose a risk of reinfestation for nearby commercial citrus. these abandoned groves could serve as a reservoir for the vector, as well as a source of the presumed causal agent for hua ...201021309215
insecticide resistance in field populations of asian citrus psyllid in florida.background: asian citrus psyllid (acp), diaphorina citri, is a major pest of citrus because it vectors the putative causal agent of huanglongbing disease. insecticides are currently the basis of psyllid management programs, and the number of annual insecticide applications has increased significantly. in this paper, a series of investigations of insecticide resistance among field populations of adult and immature acp in florida is described. results: in 2009, the highest level of resistance for ...201121538798
Characterization of five CYP4 genes from Asian citrus psyllid and their expression levels in Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus-infected and uninfected psyllids.Previously, we reported that Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las)-infected Diaphorina citri are characterized by lower levels of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases than uninfected counterparts. In the present study, we investigated expression levels of family 4 cytochrome P450 (CYP4) genes in Las-infected and uninfected D.citri adults. Five novel CYP4 genes (CYP4C67, CYP4DA1, CYP4C68, CYP4DB1 and CYP4G70) were identified. Four of the five CYP4 genes were expressed at significantly higher levels i ...201121919983
three homopteran pests of citrus as prey for the convergent lady beetle: suitability and preference.the convergent lady beetle, hippodamia convergens guérin-méneville (coleoptera: coccinellidae), is an important predator of soft-bodied insect pests in many regions of the united states, but generally uncommon in florida citrus. certain citrus producers in florida recently initiated releases of commercially available h. convergens from california against the asian citrus psyllid diaphorina citri kuwayama, vector of huanglongbing or citrus greening disease. however, there is little information o ...201122217767
multimodal cues drive host-plant assessment in asian citrus psyllid (diaphorina citri).asian citrus psyllid (diaphorina citri) transmits the causal agent of huanglongbing, a devastating disease of citrus trees. in this study we measured behavioral responses of d. citri to combinations of visual, olfactory, and gustatory stimuli in test arenas. stimuli were presented to the psyllids in droplets or lines of an emulsified wax formulation in two different arena types in no-choice tests. first, when placed on a colored ring situated halfway between the center and perimeter of a petri ...201122217766
sulfur volatiles from allium spp. affect asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae), response to citrus volatiles.the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama, vectors candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (las) and candidatus liberibacter americanus (lam), the presumed causal agents of huanglongbing. d. citri generally rely on olfaction and vision for detection of host cues. plant volatiles from allium spp. (alliaceae) are known to repel several arthropod species. we examined the effect of garlic chive (a. tuberosum rottl.) and wild onion (a. canadense l.) volatiles on d. citri behaviour in a two-port d ...201120609277
oral delivery of double-stranded rnas and sirnas induces rnai effects in the potato/tomato psyllid, bactericerca cockerelli.the potato/tomato psyllid, bactericerca cockerelli (b. cockerelli), and the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri (d. citri), are very important plant pests, but they are also vectors of phloem-limited bacteria that are associated with two devastating plant diseases. b. cockerelli is the vector of candidatus liberibacter psyllaurous (solanacearum), which is associated with zebra chip disease of potatoes, and d. citri is the vector of ca. liberibacter asiaticus, which is associated with the huan ...201122110747
temperature studies with the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri: cold hardiness and temperature thresholds for oviposition.this study was conducted to obtain information on the cold hardiness of the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae), in florida and to assess upper and lower temperature thresholds for oviposition. the psyllid is an important pest in citrus because it transmits the bacterial pathogens responsible for citrus greening disease, huanglongbing, considered the most serious citrus disease worldwide. d. citri was first found in florida during 1998, and the disease was disc ...201121870969
sexual transmission of a plant pathogenic bacterium, candidatus liberibacter asiaticus, between conspecific insect vectors during mating.candidatus liberibacter asiaticus is a fastidious, phloem-inhabiting, gram-negative bacterium transmitted by asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae). the bacterium is the presumed causal agent of huanglongbing (hlb), one of the most destructive and economically important diseases of citrus. we investigated whether las is transmitted between infected and uninfected d. citri adults during courtship. our results indicate that las was sexually transmitted from las-infe ...201122216209
Morphological description of the mouthparts of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).Scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy were used to elucidate the morphology of the rostrum, as well as the mandibular and maxillary stylets of the psyllid Diaphorina citri, vector of phloem-inhabiting bacteria associated with citrus huanglongbing (HLB) disease. D. citri has a cone-shaped rostrum that extends behind the pair of prothoracic coxae. The stylet bundle comprises a pair of mandibular (Md) and maxillary (Mx) stylets with a mean length of 513.3 µm; when retracted, the ...201221982382
survey of endosymbionts in the diaphorina citri metagenome and assembly of a wolbachia wdi draft genome.diaphorina citri (hemiptera: psyllidae), the asian citrus psyllid, is the insect vector of ca. liberibacter asiaticus, the causal agent of citrus greening disease. sequencing of the d. citri metagenome has been initiated to gain better understanding of the biology of this organism and the potential roles of its bacterial endosymbionts. to corroborate candidate endosymbionts previously identified by rdna amplification, raw reads from the d. citri metagenome sequence were mapped to reference genom ...201223166822
molecular characterization of wolbachia strains associated with the invasive asian citrus psyllid diaphorina citri in brazil.wolbachia is a symbiont intensively studied due to its ability to interfere with their host's reproduction, and it has been recently proposed as an alternative tool to control insect pests or vectors of diseases. the asian citrus psyllid diaphorina citri is an important pest of citrus since it vectors the bacterium that causes the "huanglongbing" disease in citrus. the frequency and diversity of wolbachia associated with d. citri is unknown, limiting the utilization of wolbachia as an alternativ ...201223269454
biochemical basis of organophosphate and carbamate resistance in asian citrus psyllid.the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama, is a worldwide pest of citrus, which vectors the putative causal pathogen of huanglongbing. current management practices warrant continuous monitoring of field populations for insecticide resistance. baseline activities of acetylcholinesterase (ache), general esterase, and glutathione s-transferase as well as sensitivity of ache to selected organophosphate and carbamate insecticides were established for a susceptible laboratory strain (lab) an ...201222606825
effects of soil-applied imidacloprid on asian citrus psyllid (hemiptera: psyllidae) feeding behavior.the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae), is one of the most important pests of citrus (citrus spp.) because of its status as a vector of candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (las), the bacterium associated with citrus greening disease. the use of insecticides for vector control is the primary method of managing the spread of this pathogen. imidacloprid is an insecticide commonly applied to the root zone of young citrus trees to provide systemic protection from pes ...201223156142
overview of worldwide diversity of diaphorina citri kuwayama mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 haplotypes: two old world lineages and a new world invasion.relationships among worldwide collections of diaphorina citri (asian citrus psyllid) were analyzed using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase i (mtcoi) haplotypes from novel primers. sequences were produced from pcr amplicons of an 821bp portion of the mtcoi gene using d. citri specific primers, derived from an existing est library. an alignment was constructed using 612bps of this fragment and consisted of 212 individuals from 52 collections representing 15 countries. there were a total of eight po ...201222717059
effects of buprofezin and diflubenzuron on various developmental stages of asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri.diaphorina citri populations in florida are developing resistance to commonly used neurotoxic insecticides. alternatives to neurotoxins, such as insect growth regulators, are needed to control this season-long subtropical pest to prevent or delay development of insecticide resistance. in the present investigation, two insect growth regulators (igrs), buprofezin and diflubenzuron, were evaluated against various developmental stages of d. citri.201222653617
impacts of horticultural mineral oils and two insecticide practices on population fluctuation of diaphorina citri and spread of huanglongbing in a citrus orchard in sarawak.aspects of the incidence and spread of the citrus disease huanglongbing (hlb) in relation to the vector diaphorina citri population fluctuation were studied from january 1999 to december 2001 seasons in a 0.8 ha citrus orchard at jemukan (1° 33'n, 110° 41'e), southwest sarawak in malaysia. in relation to insecticide and horticultural mineral oils (hmos) use, levels of hlb infection rose quite rapidly over the next 3 years in the unsprayed control and less rapidly in the other treatments such as ...201222629178
life table of tamarixia radiata (hymenoptera: eulophidae) on diaphorina citri (hemiptera: psyllidae) at different temperatures.tamarixia radiata (waterston, 1922) is the main parasitoid of diaphorina citri (kuwayama, 1907), and has been used in classical biological control programs in several countries. the current study investigated the biology and determined the fertility life table of t. radiata in different temperatures, to obtain information to support the establishment of a biological control program for d. citri in brazil. fifth-instar nymphs of d. citri were offered to females of t. radiata for parasitism, for 2 ...201222606801
characterization of the relative abundance of the citrus pathogen ca. liberibacter asiaticus in the microbiome of its insect vector, diaphorina citri, using high throughput 16s rrna sequencing.the relationship between the causal agent of huanglongbing (hlb), ca. liberibacter asiaticus(las), and the naturally occurring endosymbiotic community of its insect vector, the asian citrus psyllid (acp), diaphorina citri, was studied. variation was observed in the titer of las within an acp population feeding on the same material. the cause of this disparity is unknown, and has implications for las transmission and the spread of hlb. this study utilizes culture independent methods to establish ...201222529882
induced release of a plant-defense volatile 'deceptively' attracts insect vectors to plants infected with a bacterial pathogen.transmission of plant pathogens by insect vectors is a complex biological process involving interactions between the plant, insect, and pathogen. pathogen-induced plant responses can include changes in volatile and nonvolatile secondary metabolites as well as major plant nutrients. experiments were conducted to understand how a plant pathogenic bacterium, candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (las), affects host preference behavior of its psyllid (diaphorina citri kuwayama) vector. d. citri were att ...201222457628
improved real-time pcr detection of 'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus' from citrus and psyllid hosts by targeting the intragenic tandem-repeats of its prophage genes.'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus' (clas) is a gram-negative α-proteobacterium, and the prominent species of liberibacter associated with a devastating worldwide citrus disease known as huanglongbing (hlb). this fastidious bacterium resides in phloem sieve cells of host plants and is vectored by the asian citrus psyllid (diaphorina citri). due to its uneven distribution in planta and highly variable bacterial titers, detection of hlb bacteria can be challenging. here we demonstrated a new utili ...201222245034
chemical and behavioral analysis of the cuticular hydrocarbons from asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri.huanglongbing (hlb) is the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide. the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae), is the vector of the phloem-inhabiting bacterium, candidatus liberibacter asiaticus, which is presumed to cause hlb in florida citrus. laboratory and field studies were conducted to examine the behavioral responses of male and female d. citri to their cuticular extracts. in olfactometer assays, more male d. citri were attracted to one, five, or 10 f ...201323955888
herbivory by the insect diaphorina citri induces greater change in citrus plant volatile profile than does infection by the bacterium, candidatus liberibacter asiaticus.the volatile organic compound (voc) profile in plant leaves often changes after biotic and abiotic stresses. monitoring changes in vocs in plant leaves could provide valuable information about multitrophic interactions. in the current study, we investigated the effect of asian citrus psyllid (acp) infestation, citrus greening pathogen (candidatus liberibacter asiaticus [clas]) infection, and simultaneous attack by acp and clas on the voc content of citrus leaves. leaf volatiles were extracted us ...201323857364
defensive bacteriome symbiont with a drastically reduced genome.diverse insect species harbor symbiotic bacteria, which play important roles such as provisioning nutrients and providing defense against natural enemies [1-6]. whereas nutritional symbioses are often indispensable for both partners, defensive symbioses tend to be of a facultative nature [1-12]. the asian citrus psyllid diaphorina citri is a notorious agricultural pest that transmits liberibacter spp. (alphaproteobacteria), causing the devastating citrus greening disease or huanglongbing [13, 14 ...201323850282
behavioral, ultrastructural and chemical studies on the honeydew and waxy secretions by nymphs and adults of the asian citrus psyllid diaphorina citri (hemiptera: psyllidae).the asian citrus psyllid (acp), diaphorina citri (hemiptera: psyllidae) is the primary vector of the bacterium causing citrus huanglongbing (citrus greening), the most serious disease of citrus worldwide. psyllids and other hemipterans produce large amounts of honeydew, which has been used previously as an indicator of phloem sap composition and insect feeding or metabolism. behavioral, ultrastructural and chemical studies on acp, its honeydew and waxy secretions showed important differences bet ...201323762268
silencing abnormal wing disc gene of the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri disrupts adult wing development and increases nymph mortality.huanglongbing (hlb) causes considerable economic losses to citrus industries worldwide. its management depends on controlling of the asian citrus psyllid (acp), the vector of the bacterium, candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (clas), the causal agent of hlb. silencing genes by rna interference (rnai) is a promising tool to explore gene functions as well as control pests. in the current study, abnormal wing disc (awd) gene associated with wing development in insects is used to interfere with the fl ...201323734251
development of rapid, sensitive and non-radioactive tissue-blot diagnostic method for the detection of citrus greening.citrus huanglongbing (hlb or citrus greening) is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus worldwide. the disease is caused by gram-negative, phloem-limited α-proteobacterium, 'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus', vectored by the psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama. citrus plants infected by the hlb bacterium may not show visible symptoms sometimes for years following infection and non-uniform distribution within the tree makes the detection of the pathogen very difficult. efficient managemen ...201323660459
induced resistance against the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri, by β-aminobutyric acid in citrus.β-aminobutyric acid (baba) is known to induce resistance to microbial pathogens, nematodes and insects in several host plant/pest systems. the present study was undertaken to determine whether a similar effect of baba occurred against the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama, in citrus. a 25 mm drench application of baba significantly reduced the number of eggs/plant as compared with a water control, whereas 200 and 100 mm applications of baba reduced the numbers of nymphs/plant and a ...201323590847
stylet morphometrics and citrus leaf vein structure in relation to feeding behavior of the asian citrus psyllid diaphorina citri, vector of citrus huanglongbing bacterium.the asian citrus psyllid (acp), diaphorina citri (hemiptera: psyllidae), is the primary vector of the phloem-limited bacterium candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (las) associated with huanglongbing (hlb, citrus greening), considered the world's most serious disease of citrus. stylet morphometrics of acp nymphs and adults were studied in relation to citrus vein structure and to their putative (histologically verified) feeding sites on valencia orange leaves. acp nymphs preferred to settle and feed ...201323555830
dynamic insecticide susceptibility changes in florida populations of diaphorina citri (hemiptera: psyllidae).five field populations of diaphorina citri kuwayama from various regions of florida were evaluated in 2011 for resistance to commonly used insecticides. three diagnostic doses (ld50, ld75, and ld95), developed in 2009 using a laboratory susceptible population, were used to measure changes in susceptibility levels of field-collected populations as compared with a susceptible laboratory population. further reductions in the susceptibility levels of d. citri to chlorpyriphos and fenpropathrin were ...201323448056
effects of cyantraniliprole, a novel anthranilic diamide insecticide, against asian citrus psyllid under laboratory and field conditions.the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri (hemiptera: psyllidae), is the most destructive pest of citrus in florida. the development of insecticide resistance in several populations of d. citri has been documented. there is an urgent need to develop and integrate novel tools for the successful management of d. citri and also to prevent the development of insecticide resistance.201323371893
global gene expression changes in candidatus liberibacter asiaticus during the transmission in distinct hosts between plant and insect.huanglongbing (hlb) or citrus greening disease is a destructive disease of citrus worldwide, which is associated with candidatus liberibacter asiaticus. this phloem-limited fastidious pathogen is transmitted by the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri, and appears to be an intracellular pathogen that maintains an intimate association with the psyllid or the plant throughout its life cycle. the molecular basis of the interaction of this pathogen with its hosts is not well understood. we hypothe ...201323336388
biology and management of asian citrus psyllid, vector of the huanglongbing pathogens.the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae), is the most important pest of citrus worldwide because it serves as a vector of "candidatus liberibacter" species (alphaproteobacteria) that cause huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). all commercially cultivated citrus is susceptible and varieties tolerant to disease expression are not yet available. onset of disease occurs following a long latent period after inoculation, and thus the pathogen can spread widely prio ...201323317046
abdominal color of the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri, is associated with susceptibility to various insecticides.color morphs of an insect species are known to vary in activities of detoxifying enzymes and associated susceptibility to insecticides. in diaphorina citri, three color morphs are known to occur. in the present study, susceptibility to four insecticides was compared among gray/brown, blue/green and orange/yellow color morphs of field-collected d. citri.201323193012
competition between honeydew producers in an ant-hemipteran interaction may enhance biological control of an invasive pest.asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: liviidae), is an invasive citrus pest in southern california, which secretes honeydew and has the potential to spread a lethal bacterial disease, huanglongbing, of citrus. in urban citrus, argentine ant, linepithema humile (mayr) (hymenoptera: formicidae), also an invasive pest, tends honeydew-producing hemipterans. we used field data to determine whether the mutualistic relationship between l. humile and six established species of hone ...201323941659
methods for rapid and effective pcr-based detection of 'candidatus liberibacter solanacearum' from the insect vector bactericera cockerelli: streamlining the dna extraction/purification process.this study provides a protocol for rapid dna isolation from psyllid vectors (bactericera cockerelli and diaphorina citri) that can be used directly with dna-based methods for the detection of 'candidatus (ca.) liberibacter solanacearum,' the bacterial causal agent of potato zebra chip disease and eventually for 'ca. liberibacter asiaticus' the causal agent of huanglongbing disease in citrus. the fast dna extraction protocol was designed to work with conventional polymerase chain reaction (cpcr) ...201323865212
geographic distribution of habitat, development, and population growth rates of the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri, in mexico.the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae), is an introduced pest in mexico and a vector of huanglongbing, a lethal citrus disease. estimations of the habitat distribution and population growth rates of d. citri are required to establish regional and areawide management strategies and can be used as a pest risk analysis tools. in this study, the habitat distribution of d. citri in mexico was computed with maxent, an inductive, machine-learning program that uses bi ...201324735280
horizontal gene acquisition of liberibacter plant pathogens from a bacteriome-confined endosymbiont of their psyllid vector.he asian citrus psyllid diaphorina citri is a notorious agricultural pest that transmits the phloem-inhabiting alphaproteobacterial 'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus' and allied plant pathogens, which cause the devastating citrus disease called huanglongbing or greening disease. d. citri harbors two distinct bacterial mutualists in the symbiotic organ called bacteriome: the betaproteobacterium 'candidatus profftella armatura' in the syncytial cytoplasm at the center of the bacteriome, and the g ...201324349319
candidate gene markers for candidatus liberibacter asiaticus for detecting citrus greening disease.citrus huanglongbing (hlb) also known as citrus greening is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus worldwide. the disease is caused by candidatus liberibacter bacterium, vectored by the psyllid diaphorina citri kuwayama and trioza erytreae del guercio. citrus plants infected by the hlb bacterium may not show visible symptoms sometimes for years following infection. the aim of this study was to develop effective gene-specific primer pairs for polymerase chain reaction based method for qui ...201323660656
candidatus liberibacter americanus induces significant reprogramming of the transcriptome of the susceptible citrus genotype.citrus huanglongbing (hlb) disease is caused by endogenous, phloem-restricted, gram negative, uncultured bacteria named candidatus liberibacter africanus (calaf), ca. l. asiaticus (calas), and ca. l. americanus (calam), depending on the continent where the bacteria were first detected. the asian citrus psyllid vector, diaphorina citri, transmits calas and calam and both liberibacter species are present in brazil. several studies of the transcriptional response of citrus plants manifesting hlb sy ...201323586643
compatibility of isaria fumosorosea (hypocreales: cordycipitaceae) blastospores with agricultural chemicals used for management of the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri (hemiptera: liviidae).biorational insecticides are being increasingly emphasized for inclusion in integrated pest management programs for invasive insects. the entomopathogenic fungus, isaria fumosorosea, can be used to help manage the asian citrus psyllid with minimal impact on beneficial arthropods, but its effectiveness may be compromised by agrochemicals used to control concurrent arthropod pests and diseases. we evaluated the compatibility of i. fumosorosea blastospores with a range of spray oils and copper-base ...201326462531
formation of stylet sheaths in āere (in air) from eight species of phytophagous hemipterans from six families (suborders: auchenorrhyncha and sternorrhyncha).stylet sheath formation is a common feature among phytophagous hemipterans. these sheaths are considered essential to promote a successful feeding event. stylet sheath compositions are largely unknown and their mode of solidification remains to be elucidated. this report demonstrates the formation and solidification of in āere (in air) produced stylet sheaths by six hemipteran families: diaphorina citri (psyllidae, asian citrus psyllid), aphis nerii (aphididae, oleander/milkweed aphid), toxopter ...201323638086
new excised-leaf assay method to test inoculativity of asian citrus psyllid (hemiptera: psyllidae) with candidatus liberibacter asiaticus associated with citrus huanglongbing disease.the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae), is the primary vector of candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (las) associated with huanglongbing, or citrus greening, the most devastating citrus (citrus spp.) disease worldwide. here, we developed a new "excised-leaf assay" that can speed up las-inoculativity tests on asian citrus psyllid from the current 3-12 mo (when using whole citrus seedlings for inoculation) to only 2-3 wk. young adults of asian citrus psyllid that ...201323448011
changes in free amino acids and polyamine levels in satsuma leaves in response to asian citrus psyllid infestation and water stress.the effects of biotic and abiotic stresses on changes in amino acids and polyamine levels in satsuma orange (citrus unshiu; cultivar owari) leaves were investigated. asian citrus psyllids diaphorina citri (kuwayama) (acp) infestation was used to induce biotic stress while a water deficit was imposed to induce abiotic stress. potted trees were infested by placing 50 psyllids on 3 citrus leaves enclosed in nylon mesh bags for 5 d. a parallel set of plants were kept water stressed by maintaining th ...201424178691
odor coding in a disease-transmitting herbivorous insect, the asian citrus psyllid.olfactory systems discriminate odorants very efficiently and herbivorous insects use them to find hosts in confounding and complex odor landscapes. the asian citrus psyllid (acp), diaphorina citri, feeds on citrus flush and transmits candidatus liberibacter that causes citrus greening disease globally. here, we perform a systematic analysis of odor detection in the acp antenna using single-unit electrophysiology of rhinarial plate sensilla to a large panel of odorants from plants. we identify ne ...201424904081
odorants for surveillance and control of the asian citrus psyllid (diaphorina citri).the asian citrus psyllid (acp), diaphorina citri, can transmit the bacterium candidatus liberibacter while feeding on citrus flush shoots. this bacterium causes huanglongbing (hlb), a major disease of citrus cultivation worldwide necessitating the development of new tools for acp surveillance and control. the olfactory system of acp is sensitive to variety of odorants released by citrus plants and offers an opportunity to develop new attractants and repellents.201425347318
resistance of citrus and related genera to diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: liviidae).the present study was developed to evaluate the resistance of the following genotypes of citrus and related genera to this pest: 'pera,' 'natal', and 'washington navel' oranges (citrus sinensis), 'marsh seedless' grapefruit (citrus paradisi), hardy orange 'rubidoux' (poncirus trifoliata), kumquat (fortunella margarita swingle), citrumelo 'swingle' (c. paradisi x p. trifoliata), and citrange 'troyer' (p. trifoliata x c. sinensis). the experiments were performed in greenhouses with plants grafted ...201427193957
phenology of asian citrus psyllid (hemiptera: liviidae) and associated parasitoids on two species of citrus, kinnow mandarin and sweet orange, in punjab pakistan.the population phenology of asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama, was monitored weekly for 110 wk on two species of citrus, kinnow mandarin and sweet orange, at two different research sites in faisalabad, punjab pakistan. citrus flush growth patterns were monitored and natural enemy surveys were conducted weekly. flush patterns were similar for kinnow and sweet orange. however, flush on sweet orange was consistently more heavily infested with asian citrus psyllid than kinnow flush; de ...201425198345
temporal progression of 'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus' infection in citrus and acquisition efficiency by diaphorina citri.over the last decade, the plant disease huanglongbing (hlb) has emerged as a primary threat to citrus production worldwide. hlb is associated with infection by phloem-limited bacteria ('candidatus liberibacter' spp.) that are transmitted by the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri. transmission efficiency varies with vector-related aspects (e.g., developmental stage and feeding periods) but there is no information on the effects of host-pathogen interactions. here, acquisition efficiency of 'c ...201424620723
differences in stylet sheath occurrence and the fibrous ring (sclerenchyma) between xcitroncirus plants relatively resistant or susceptible to adults of the asian citrus psyllid diaphorina citri (hemiptera: liviidae).the asian citrus psyllid (acp, diaphorina citri, hemiptera: liviidae), is the principal vector of the phloem-limited bacteria strongly associated with huanglongbing (hlb), the world's most serious disease of citrus. host plant resistance may provide an environmentally safe and sustainable method of controlling acp and/or hlb. two xcitroncirus accessions (hybrids of poncirus trifoliata and citrus spp.), that are relatively resistant (un-3881) or relatively susceptible (troyer-1459) to acp adults ...201425343712
the bacterial communities in plant phloem-sap-feeding insects.the resident microbiota of animals represents an important contribution to the global microbial diversity, but it is poorly known in many animals. this study investigated the bacterial diversity in plant phloem-sap-feeding whiteflies, aphids and psyllids by pyrosequencing bacterial 16s rrna gene amplicons. after correction for sequencing error, just 3-7 bacterial operational taxonomic units were recovered from each insect sample sequenced to sufficient depth for saturation of rarefaction curves. ...201424350573
comparison of potato and asian citrus psyllid adult and nymph transcriptomes identified vector transcripts with potential involvement in circulative, propagative liberibacter transmission.the potato psyllid (pop) bactericera cockerelli (sulc) and asian citrus psyllid (acp) diaphorina citri kuwayama are the insect vectors of the fastidious plant pathogen, candidatus liberibacter solanacearum (clso) and ca. l. asiaticus (clas), respectively. clso causes zebra chip disease of potato and vein-greening in solanaceous species, whereas, clas causes citrus greening disease. the reliance on insecticides for vector management to reduce pathogen transmission has increased interest in altern ...201425436509
citrus tristeza virus-based rnai in citrus plants induces gene silencing in diaphorina citri, a phloem-sap sucking insect vector of citrus greening disease (huanglongbing).a transient expression vector based on citrus tristeza virus (ctv) is unusually stable. because of its stability it is being considered for use in the field to control huanglongbing (hlb), which is caused by candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (clas) and vectored by asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri. in the absence of effective control strategies for clas, emphasis has been on control of d. citri. coincident cohabitation in phloem tissue by clas, d. citri and ctv was exploited to develop a no ...201424572372
botanicals, selective insecticides, and predators to control diaphorina citri (hemiptera: liviidae) in citrus orchards.the asian citrus psyllid (acp) diaphorina citri kuwayama vectors pathogens that cause huanglongbing (hlb) or citrus greening devastating and economically important disease present in most citrus growing regions. young citrus shoots are required for psyllid reproduction and development. during winter citrus trees produce little or no new growth. overwintering adults reproduce in spring on newly emerging shoots also attractive to other pests and beneficial insects. botanicals and relatively select ...201425205398
mosquitocidal carbamates with low toxicity to agricultural pests: an advantageous property for insecticide resistance management.insecticide resistance in the malaria mosquito anopheles gambiae is well documented, and widespread agricultural use of pyrethroids may exacerbate development of resistance when pyrethroids are used in vector control. we have developed carbamate anticholinesterases that possess a high degree of an. gambiae:human selectivity for enzyme inhibition. the purpose of this study was to assess the spectrum of activity of these carbamates against other mosquitoes and agricultural pests.201425185896
the control of invasive species on private property with neighbor-to-neighbor spillovers.invasive pests cross property boundaries. property managers may have private incentives to control invasive species despite not having sufficient incentive to fully internalize the external costs of their role in spreading the invasion. each property manager has a right to future use of his own property, but his property may abut others' properties enabling spread of an invasive species. the incentives for a foresighted property manager to control invasive species have received little attention. ...201425346573
detection of citrus huanglongbing-associated 'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus' in citrus and diaphorina citri in pakistan, seasonal variability, and implications for disease management.we report the detection of the huanglongbing (hlb)-associated bacterium 'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus' from both plants and insects in pakistan and the seasonal variability in the numbers of 'ca. l. asiaticus'-positive psyllid vector, diaphorina citri. our studies showed that 'ca. l. asiaticus' was detectable from trees in areas with maximum temperatures reaching nearly 50°c (average maximum of 42°c). however, the bacterium was present at very low levels in psyllids both in summer (june to ...201424134720
global genetic variation in the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri (hemiptera: liviidae) and the endosymbiont wolbachia: links between iran and the usa detected.the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: liviidae), is one of the most serious pests of citrus in the world, because it transmits the pathogen that causes citrus greening disease. to determine genetic variation among geographic populations of d. citri, microsatellite markers, mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase i (mtcoi) and the wolbachia-diaphorina, wdi, gene wsp sequence data were used to characterize iranian and pakistani populations. also, a bayesian phylogenetic tec ...201424002991
the phloem-sap feeding mealybug (ferrisia virgata) carries 'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus' populations that do not cause disease in host plants.'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus' (las) is the primary causal agent of huanglongbing (hlb), the most devastating disease of citrus worldwide. there are three known insect vectors of the hlb-associated bacteria, and all are members of the hemiptera: diaphorina citri (psyllidae), trioza erytreae (triozidae), and cacopsylla (psylla) citrisuga (psyllidae). in this study, we found that another hemipteran, the striped mealybug ferrisia virgata (cockerell) (hemiptera: pseudococcidae), was able to acq ...201424465578
innate and conditioned responses to chemosensory and visual cues in asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri (hemiptera: liviidae), vector of huanglongbing pathogens.asian citrus psyllid (diaphorina citri) transmits huanglongbing, a devastating disease that threatens citrus trees worldwide. a better understanding of the psyllid's host-plant selection process may lead to the development of more efficient means of monitoring it and predicting its movements. since behavioral adaptations, such as associative learning, may facilitate recognition of suitable host-plants, we examined whether adult d. citri could be conditioned to visual and chemosensory stimuli fro ...201426462949
host range testing of tamarixia radiata (hymenoptera: eulophidae) sourced from the punjab of pakistan for classical biological control of diaphorina citri (hemiptera: liviidae: euphyllurinae: diaphorinini) in california.abstract tests evaluating the host range of tamarixia radiata (waterson) (hymenoptera: eulophidae), a parasitoid of the pestiferous asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: liviidae), sourced from the punjab of pakistan, were conducted in quarantine at the university of california, riverside, ca. seven nontarget psyllid species (five native and two self-introduced species) representing five families were exposed to t radiata under the following three different exposure scenari ...201424665694
characterization of the asian citrus psyllid transcriptome.the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae) is a vector for the causative agents of huanglongbing, which threatens citrus production worldwide. this study reports and discusses the first d. citri transcriptomes, encompassing the three main life stages of d. citri, egg, nymph and adult. the transcriptomes were annotated using gene ontology (go) and insecticide-related genes within each life stage were identified to aid the development of future d. citri insecticides ...201424511328
semiochemical and vibrational cues and signals mediating mate finding and courtship in psylloidea (hemiptera): a synthesis.mate finding and courtship involve complex interactions that require close coordination between individuals of the opposite gender. well-organized signalling systems, sometimes involving a combination of signal modalities, are required to convey species-specific and individual information to members of the opposite gender. previous studies of psyllids have focused on single-signal modalities and have largely ignored the potentially interdependent nature of different types of signals. several stu ...201426462826
the genetic structure of an invasive pest, the asian citrus psyllid diaphorina citri (hemiptera: liviidae).the asian citrus psyllid diaphorina citri is currently the major threat to the citrus industry as it is the vector of candidatus liberibacter, the causal agent of huanglongbing disease (hlb). d. citri is native to asia and now colonizes the americas. although it has been known in some countries for a long time, invasion routes remain undetermined. there are no efficient control methods for the hlb despite the intensive management tools currently in use. we investigated the genetic variability an ...201425545788
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