cytochrome p4501a induction and dna adduct formation in glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus), fed with environmentally contaminated gull eggs.this study indicates that complex mixtures of pollutants found in the arctic marine environment have genotoxic effects in glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus). dna adducts were quantified, by the (32)p-postlabeling technique, in liver samples from gulls fed with hen eggs (controls) and from gulls fed with environmentally contaminated gull eggs (exposed). all birds were grown and fed under laboratory conditions. hepatic homologues to mammalian cytochrome p4501a (cyp1a) proteins were also determined ...200516216630
chromosome aberrations and dna strand breaks in glaucous gull (larus hyperboreus) chicks fed environmentally contaminated gull this present laboratory study, our results suggest that a complex mixture of pollutants found in the marine environment exerts genotoxic effects on glaucous gull (larus hyperboreus) chicks fed environmentally contaminated gull eggs. chromosome aberrations, quantified by cytogenetic analysis of blood cells, and dna strand breaks, quantified by agarose gel electrophoresis and image data analysis, were determined in glaucous gull chicks fed environmentally contaminated gull eggs (exposed group) ...200616291568
organochlorines in antarctic and arctic avian top predators: a comparison between the south polar skua and two species of northern hemisphere gulls.different organochlorine compounds (ocs) were measured in the blood of breeding south polar skuas (catharacta maccormicki) at svarthamaren, dronning maud land (antarctica) and compared to those in two species of northern hemisphere gulls: the arctic glaucous gull (larus hyperboreus) and the subarctic great black-backed gull (larus marinus). the skuas had 8% and 29% of the sigmaoc levels (45 ng/g, wet weight) of glaucous gulls (591 ng/g) and great black-backed gulls (158 ng/g), respectively. poly ...200616683630
the occurrence of organochlorines in marine avian top predators along a latitudinal gradient.the aim of this study was to determine the role of cold condensation and fractionation on the occurrence of organochlorine contaminants (ocs) in avian marine top predators along a latitudinal gradient. we measured 24 polychlorinated biphenyl (pcb) congeners and six pesticide ocs in blood of great black-backed gulls (larus marinus) from the norwegian coast (58 degrees n-70 degrees n) and glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus) from bjornoya in the norwegian arctic (74 degrees n). glaucous gulls had up ...200616955919
regional and species specific bioaccumulation of major and trace elements in arctic seabirds.twenty-five essential and nonessential elements were analyzed in arctic seabirds to study the influence of phylogeny, tissue, arctic region, and diet on avian element accumulation and to identify co-occurrence among metals. muscle and liver concentrations were positively correlated, generally being higher in liver than in muscle, and generally did not differ by sex. zinc showed the highest absolute concentrations in all samples (mean, 11.2-26.7 microg/g in muscle, depending on species and area), ...200617089716
[on a helminthofauna of seabirds of the archangelskaya bay ( northern island of novaya zemlya)].in the archangelskaya bay (north island of novaya zemlya), 25 specimens of sea birds have been collected: 5 kittiwakes, 5 murres, 5 little auks, 4 common eiders, 4 purple sandpipers, and 2 glaucous gulls. following numbers of helminth parasite species have been recovered in this material: trematodes--1, cestodes--5, proboscic worms--2, and nematodes--2 species. the description of morphological characters of anomotaenia micracantha micracantha (cestoda: dilepididae) from the kittiwake is given. t ...200111548578
organohalogen contaminants and reproductive hormones in incubating glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus) from the norwegian arctic.organohalogen contaminants detected globally in avian wildlife, including populations from the arctic, have been related to various reproductive hormone potencies, and altered hormonal balance and functions. besides legacy organochlorine (oc) substances, that is, polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) and oc pesticides and by-products, endocrine-disruptive properties have been defined for chemicals of new and emerging environmental concern, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes) and metabolica ...200617089723
trace element and metallothionein concentrations in seabirds from the canadian arctic.livers and kidneys were collected for five seabird species from the canadian arctic during the 1983 and 1991 to 1993 breeding seasons. livers were analyzed for cd, hg, pb, and se, and kidneys were analyzed for cd, cu, zn, and metallothionein (mt). concentrations of the essential elements, cu and zn, were in agreement with those previously published in the literature. thick-billed murres (uria lomvia) from ivujivik on the hudson strait/hudson bay coast in northwestern quebec (canada) had the high ...200817944549
serosurvey for toxoplasma gondii in arctic foxes and possible sources of infection in the high arctic of svalbard.samples (blood or tissue fluid) from 594 arctic foxes (alopex lagopus), 390 svalbard reindeer (rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus), 361 sibling voles (microtus rossiaemeridionalis), 17 walruses (odobenus rosmarus), 149 barnacle geese (branta leucopsis), 58 kittiwakes (rissa tridactyla), and 27 glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus) from svalbard and nearby waters were assayed for antibodies against toxoplasma gondii using a direct agglutination test. the proportion of seropositive animals was 43% in ar ...200717950534
maternal transfer of organohalogen contaminants and metabolites to eggs of arctic-breeding glaucous gulls.eggs of seabirds have routinely been used as indicators of environmental pollution in the arctic. however, the variability in organohalogen concentration and composition associated with the laying sequence, have not been defined. we examined a suite of pcbs, organochlorine (oc) pesticides and by-products, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes), polybrominated biphenyls (pbbs) and methylsulfonyl- (meso2) pcbs in complete 3-egg clutches of glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus), and plasma samples of ...200616563578
organohalogen contamination in breeding glaucous gulls from the norwegian arctic: associations with basal metabolism and circulating thyroid hormones.exposure to organohalogens in endotherms has been suggested to impose chemically induced stress by affecting functions related to maintenance energy requirements. effects on basal metabolic rate (bmr) have been suggested to be, in part, mediated through interactions with the thyroid hormones (ths). we investigated the relationships between plasma concentrations of major organochlorines, pbdes, hydroxylated (oh)- and methoxylated (meo)-pbdes and oh-pcbs, circulating th levels and bmr in breeding ...200716713050
perfluorinated alkyl substances in plasma, liver, brain, and eggs of glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus) from the norwegian arctic.recent environmental surveys have ascertained the widespread occurrence of perfluorinated alkyl substances (pfas) in tissues of wildlife from the arctic. in the present study, we investigated the distribution of a suite of pfas in plasma, liver, brain, and egg samples from adult glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus), an apex scavenger-predator seabird breeding in the norwegian arctic. perfluorooctane sulfonate (pfos) was the predominant pfas in all samples and was present at concentrations that are ...200516245813
validation of water flux and body composition in glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus).water influx rates (wir) measured with tritiated water dilution were compared with direct measures of water and energy intake in glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus). total body water (tbw) measured isotopically was also compared with tbw determined by body composition analysis (bca) of the same birds. seventeen wild gulls were captured and studied in outdoor enclosures at ny-alesund, svalbard, in july 2002. gulls were hand-fed known quantities of arctic cod (boreogadus saida) or given water on th ...200616826510
organohalogen and metabolically-derived contaminants and associations with whole body constituents in norwegian arctic glaucous gulls.comprehensive surveys of organohalogen contaminants have been conducted in various tissues and blood of glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus), a top scavenger-predator species in svalbard in the norwegian arctic. however, the physico-chemical properties of organohalogens (e.g., type and degree of halogenation and the presence or absence of additional phenyl group substituents) that may influence toxicokinetics, and subsequently tissue-specific accumulation, have yet to be studied in this species. w ...200717467797
enterobacter cloacae with a novel variant of act ampc beta-lactamase originating from glaucous gull (larus hyperboreus) in svalbard.we aimed at escherichia coli and enterobacter cloacae isolates resistant to cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones and salmonella isolates in wild birds in arctic svalbard, norway. cloacal swabs of little auks (alle alle, n=215) and samples of faeces of glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus, n=15) were examined. inducible production of ampc enzyme was detected in e. cloacae kw218 isolate. sequence analysis of the 1146 bp pcr product of the ampc gene from this isolate revealed 99% sequence homology with ...201424629772
[a comparative analysis of the helminth fauna of kittiwake rissa tridactyla (linnaeus, 1758) and glaucous gull larus hyperboreus gunnerus, 1767 from different parts of the barents sea].the article is based on the results of helminthological observations made on kittiwake rissa tridactyla and glaucous gull larus hyperboreus in 1991-2001 in different areas of the barents sea (eastern murman coast, franz josef land, novaya zemlya, spitzbergen). 18 helminth species (2 trematodes, 11 cestodes, 4 nematodes, and 2 acanthocephalans) were recorded in the kittiwakes and 19 (3 trematodes, 9 cestodes, 5 nematodes and 2 acanthocephalans) species were recorded in the glaucous gulls. tremato ...200516396393
flame retardants and methoxylated and hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in two norwegian arctic top predators: glaucous gulls and polar bears.the brominated flame retardants have been subject of a particular environmental focus in the arctic. the present study investigated the congener patterns and levels of total hexabromocyclododecane (hbcd), polybrominated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes), as well as methoxylated (meo) and hydroxylated (oh) pbdes in plasma samples of glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus) and polar bears (ursus maritimus) from the norwegian arctic. the analyses revealed the presence of total hbcd (0.07 ...200516173559
contaminant residues in seabird eggs from the canadian arctic. ii. spatial trends and evidence from stable isotopes for intercolony differences.eggs of glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus), black-legged kittiwakes (rissa tridactyla), thick-billed murres (uria lomvia) and black guillemots (cepphus grylle) were collected from several sites throughout the canadian arctic. samples were analyzed for organochlorines as well as mercury and selenium. glaucous gulls breeding at sites in the high arctic showed higher levels of organochlorine contamination than those in the western low arctic. this was likely due to dietary differences among colonie ...200211843528
examination of the bioaccumulation of halogenated dimethyl bipyrroles in an arctic marine food web using stable nitrogen isotope analysis.concentrations of four possibly naturally produced organohalogens--1,1'-dimethyl-3,3',4-tribromo-4,5,5'-trichloro-2,2'-bipyrrole (dbp-br3cl3), 1,1'-dimethyl-3,3',4,4'-tetrabromo-5,5'-dichloro-2,2'-bipyrrole (dbp-br4cl2), 1,1'-dimethyl-3,3',4,4',5-pentabromo-5'-chloro-2,2'-bipyrrole (dbp-br5cl) and 1,1'-dimethyl-3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexabromo-2,2'-bipyrrole (dbp-br6)--were quantitated and the extent of their magnification through an entire arctic marine food web [measured as integrated trophic magnific ...200211808557
gull eggs--food of high organic pollutant content?a wide range and occasionally high levels of persistent organic pollutants (pops) are reported in arctic regions, especially among top predators. polar bears (ursus maritimus), arctic foxes (alopex lagopus) and some gull species (larus spp.) often have high levels of these fat-soluble pollutants. gulls deposit significant levels of these contaminants in their eggs. in northern regions, gull eggs are part of the traditional human diet. in the present study we have investigated the levels of pops ...200515931427
relationships between ecological variables and four organochlorine pollutants in an artic glaucous gull (larus hyperboreus) population.the arctic has become a sink for organochlorine contaminants (ocs) from lower latitudes, and relatively high levels have been found in different biota. recent studies of the glaucous gull, larus hyperboreus, a top predator in the arctic food web, have documented that high blood residues of various ocs are related to lower reproductive performance and reduced adult survival. here we provide additional evidence that ocs are having ecological effects in the glaucous gull population at bear island i ...200515809119
nuclear deviation in hepatic parenchymal cells on sinusoidal surfaces in arctic normal rat and human, most of the nuclei of hepatic parenchymal cells are centrally located in the cytoplasm. however, it is reported that the nuclei of hepatic parenchymal cells are situated at a deviated position on sinusoidal surfaces under pathological situations such as chronic hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, adenomatous hyperplasia, or regeneration. during a study on the mechanism of extreme vitamin a-accumulation in hepatic stellate cells of arctic animals including polar bears, a ...200111482455
biomagnification of organochlorines along a barents sea food trace the biomagnification of organochlorines in marine food chains near svalbard, which may lead to the high organochlorine concentrations in top predators from the area, we compared concentrations and patterns of organochlorines in selected taxa. the pelagic crustaceans, calanus spp. (copepods), thysanoessa spp. (euphausiids), parathemisto libellula (amphipod), and the fish species, boreogadus saida (polar cod) and gadus morhua (cod) were selected to represent the lower trophic levels in th ...200111383336
organochlorines in greenland glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus) and icelandic gulls (larus glaucoides).glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus) and icelandic gulls (larus glaucoides) were sampled in 1994 from four different areas in greenland, three on the west coast and one on the east coast. livers of 93 glaucous gulls and seven icelandic gulls were analysed for polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs, iupac nos. 28, 31, 52, 101, 105, 118, 138, 153, 156 and 180), ddts (p,p'-dde, p,p'-ddd, p,p'-ddt), hexachlorocyclohexanes (alpha-, beta- and gamma-hch), hexachlorobenzene (hcb) and trans-nonachlor (tnc). the o ...200010682360
extended-spectrum β-lactamases in escherichia coli and klebsiella pneumoniae in gulls, alaska, usa. 201424750592
chlordane components and metabolites in seven species of arctic seabirds from the northwater polynya: relationships with stable isotopes of nitrogen and enantiomeric fractions of chiral components.the northwater polynya (now) is a large area of year-round open water found in the high arctic between ellesmere island and greenland. now has high biological productivity compared with other arctic marine areas, and supports large populations of several seabird species. seven species of seabirds, dovekie (alle alle, dove), thick-billed murre (uria lomvia, tbmu), black guillemot (cepphus grylle, blgu), black-legged kittiwake (rissa tridactyla, blki), ivory gull (pagophila eburnea, ivgu), glaucou ...200111383340
monitoring organic contaminants in eggs of glaucous and glaucous-winged gulls (larus hyperboreus and larus glaucescens) from alaska.gull eggs have been used to monitor contaminants in many parts of the world. the seabird tissue archival and monitoring project (stamp) is a long-term program designed to track trends in pollutants in northern marine environments using seabird eggs. glaucous and glaucous-winged gull (larus hyperboreus and larus glaucescens) eggs collected in 2005 from seven alaskan colonies were analyzed for organic contaminants. concentrations ranged from below detection limits to 322 ng g(-1) wet mass in one e ...200919110348
trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane in eggs of canadian arctic seabirds reflect changing use patterns.due to the substantial use and release of polybrominated diphenyl ether (pbde) flame retardants in north america, pbde concentrations in north american marine biota are among the highest in the world. in this study, we compared pbde concentrations and congener patterns in eggs of five seabird species (thick-billed murres, northern fulmars, black guillemots, glaucous gulls, black-legged kittiwakes) breeding at a colony in the canadian arctic in 1993, 2008 and 2013. temporal trends of pbdes (1975- ...201526342589
evidence of weak contaminant-related oxidative stress in glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus) from the canadian arctic.environmental contaminants are transported over great distances to arctic ecosystems, where they can accumulate in wildlife. whether contaminant concentrations in wildlife are sufficient to produce adverse effects remains poorly understood. exposure to contaminants elevates oxidative stress with possible fitness consequences. the glaucous gull (larus hyperboreus), an arctic top predator, was used as a bioindicator for investigating relationships between contaminant levels (organochlorines and po ...201020526953
maternally derived testosterone and 17beta-estradiol in the eggs of arctic-breeding glaucous gulls in relation to persistent organic is largely unknown if and how persistent organic pollutants (pops) affect the transfer of maternal hormones to eggs. this occurs despite an increasing number of studies relating environmental conditions experienced by female birds at the time of egg formation to maternal hormonal effects. here we report the concentrations of maternal testosterone, 17beta-estradiol and major classes of pops (organochlorines, brominated flame retardants and metabolically-derived products) in the yolk of unincub ...200818550446
chiral organochlorine contaminants in blood and eggs of glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus) from the norwegian arctic.glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus) and their eggs from svalbard (norwegian arctic) have been used as biomonitors of contaminants in the marine environment. in this study, the enantiomer fractions (efs) of chiral chlordanes and atropisomeric polychlorinated biphenyl (pcb) congeners were determined in the blood plasma of adult male and female glaucous gulls from three breeding colonies in svalbard. plasma efs were similar in magnitude and direction to efs previously reported in glaucous gulls from ...200818939544
the toxic effects of multiple persistent organic pollutant exposures on the post-hatch immunity maturation of glaucous gulls.this study tested whether the immune system of the glaucous gull (larus hyperboreus) chicks became affected by existing environmental contaminants. an experimental group was given food that mimicked the natural contaminant mixture found in food from the north atlantic marine environment, while the control group was given the equivalent of nearly clean food. all chicks were immunized with herpes virus (ehv), reovirus (reo), influenza virus (eiv), and tetanus toxoid (tet) in order to test their ab ...200919557615
fluorinated organic compounds in an eastern arctic marine food eastern arctic marine food web was analyzed for perfluorooctanesulfonate (pfos, c8f17so3-), perfluorooctanoate (pfoa, c7f15coo-), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (pfosa, c8f17so2nh2), and n-ethylperfluorooctane sulfonamide (n-etpfosa, c8f17so2nhch2ch3) to examine the extent of bioaccumulation. pfos was detected in all species analyzed, and mean concentrations ranged from 0.28 +/- 0.09 ng/g (arithmetic mean +/- 1 standard error, wet wt, whole body) in clams (mya truncata) to 20.2 +/- 3.9 ng/g (wet ...200415669302
effects of organochlorine contaminants on thyroid hormone levels in arctic breeding glaucous gulls, larus hyperboreus.studies on glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus) breeding in the barents sea have reported that high blood levels of halogenated organic contaminants in this species might cause reproductive, behavioral, and developmental stress. however, potential endocrine system modulation caused by contaminant exposure has yet not been reported in this arctic apical predator. in this present study we aimed to investigate whether the current levels of a selection of organochlorines (ocs) were associated with alt ...200415064156
environmental pollutants in the swedish marine ecosystem, with special emphasis on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbde).levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes), polybrominated biphenyls (pbbs), polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (ddt) and perfluorinated organic compounds (pfcs) were analysed in whole herring (clupea harengus) and sprat (sprattus sprattus), eggs from common eider (somateria mollissima) and eggs and livers from herring gull (larus argentatus) from the swedish west coast. the contaminant values obtained were compared with published values from the arctic marin ...201121220151
genetic structure of pacific flyway avian influenza viruses is shaped by geographic location, host species, and sampling period.the eight gene segments of avian influenza virus (aiv) reassort frequently and rapidly to generate novel genotypes and subtypes that are transmissible to a broad range of hosts. there is evidence that aiv can have a restricted host range and can segregate in space and time. host-virus relationships at the species, geographic, and spatial scales have not been fully defined for aiv populations of the pacific flyway, particularly among the diverse waterfowl that occupy the flyway in alaska and cali ...201222222690
polychlorinated camphenes (toxaphenes), polybrominated diphenylethers and other halogenated organic pollutants in glaucous gull (larus hyperboreus) from svalbard and bjørnøya (bear island).the levels of polychlorinated camphenes (toxaphenes) were investigated in liver samples from 18 glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus) from bjørnøya (74 degrees n, 19 degrees e) and four individuals from longyearbyen (78 degrees n, 15 degrees e). additionally brominated flame retardants (bfrs), pcbs and chlorinated pesticides were investigated in liver and intestinal contents of 15 of the glaucous gulls from bjørnøya. of the analysed bfrs only 2,2',4,4'-tetra- and 2,2',4,4',5-pentabrominated dipheny ...200312521115
an assessment of the toxicological significance of anthropogenic contaminants in canadian arctic wildlife.anthropogenic contaminants have been a concern in the canadian arctic for over 30 years due to relatively high concentrations of bioaccumulating and biomagnifying organochlorine contaminants (ocs) and toxic metals found in some arctic biota and humans. however, few studies have addressed the potential effects of these contaminants in canadian arctic wildlife. prior to 1997, biological effects data were minimal and insufficient at any level of biological organization. the present review summarize ...200516154621
organochlorines in top predators at svalbard--occurrence, levels and effects.alarmingly high polychlorinated biphenyl (pcb) levels have been found in the top predators such as glaucous gull (larus hyperboreus) and polar bear (ursus maritimus) at svalbard [gabrielsen, g.w., skaare, j.u., polder, a., bakken, v., 1995. chlorinated hydrocarbons in glaucous gull (larus hyperboreus). sci. total environ. 160/161, 337-346; bernhoft, a., skaare, j.u., wiig, o., 1997. organochlorines in polar bears (ursus maritimus) at svalbard. environ. pollut. 95, 159-175; henriksen, e.o., gabri ...200010720718
organotins in marine mammals and seabirds from norwegian increasing number of studies indicate that marine mammals and some seabirds are exposed to organotins. however, results from northern and arctic areas are few. here results from analysis of tributyltin (tbt), dibutyltin (dbt), monobutyltin (mbt), triphenyltin (tpht), diphenyltin (dpht) and monophenyltin (mpht) in harbour porpoise (phocoena phocoena), common seal (phoca vitulina), ringed seal (phoca hispida) and glaucous gull (larus hyperboreus) from norwegian territory are presented. relative ...200414760453
recombinant albumin and transthyretin transport proteins from two gull species and human: chlorinated and brominated contaminant binding and thyroid hormones.environmentally relevant concentrations of selected polychlorinated biphenyl (pcb) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (pbde) flame retardant congeners and their hydroxylated (oh) and methoxylated (meo) analogues that can perturb thyroid hormone-dependent processes were comparatively examined with respect to competitive binding with thyroxine (t(4)) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (t(3)) thyroid hormones (ths) on recombinant human and gull albumin and transthyretin transport proteins. the liver tissue ...201020039755
intraspecific variation in trophic feeding levels and organochlorine concentrations in glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus) from bjørnøya, the barents sea.biomagnification contributes to high concentrations of persistent organochlorines (oc) in some arctic vertebrates. glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus) on bjørnøya in the western barents sea were studied to compare the intraspecific variation in oc concentration with variation in trophic feeding levels, estimated from ratios of nitrogen isotopes. liver tissue samples from 40 adult glaucous gulls were analysed for hexachlorobenzene (hcb), oxychlordane, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (ddt) and ...200211990768
persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals and parasites in the glaucous gull (larus hyperboreus) on spitsbergen.the prediction of a higher parasite infection as a consequence of an impaired immune system with increasing persistent organic pollution (pop) and heavy metal levels were investigated in adult glaucous gull (larus hyperboreus) from svalbard. the levels of chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs), toxaphenes and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes) were measured in liver. copper, cadmium, lead, mercury, selenium and zinc were measured in kidney samples. an elevated ratio of pcb- ...201319364623
brominated flame retardants in glaucous gulls from the norwegian arctic: more than just an issue of polybrominated diphenyl ethers.several, unregulated, current-use brominated flame retardants (bfrs), including hexabromobenzene (hbb), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (btbpe), pentabromoethylbenzene (pbeb), pentabromotoluene (pbt), and hexabromocyclododecane (as total-(alpha)-hbcd), were examined in egg yolk and plasma of male and female glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus) from the norwegian arctic. also examined were bde209 and 38 tri- to nona-bde congeners and brominated biphenyl (bb) 101. the hbb, btbpe, pbeb, and pbt ...200717711204
exposure and effects assessment of persistent organohalogen contaminants in arctic wildlife and fish.persistent organic pollutants (pops) encompass an array of anthropogenic organic and elemental substances and their degradation and metabolic byproducts that have been found in the tissues of exposed animals, especially pops categorized as organohalogen contaminants (ohcs). ohcs have been of concern in the circumpolar arctic for decades. for example, as a consequence of bioaccumulation and in some cases biomagnification of legacy (e.g., chlorinated pcbs, ddts and chls) and emerging (e.g., bromin ...201019910021
pinpointing potential causative agents in mixtures of persistent organic pollutants in observational field studies: a review of glaucous gull studies.since different organochlorine contaminants (ocs) are often highly correlated in biota, a major challenge in observational field studies is to establish whether some ocs are potentially important causative agents of adverse effects. a possible solution to this problem is to compare the strength of the effects of different ocs on a number of outcome parameters, and then examine if some compounds are more consistently reliable predictors of adverse effects. in this analysis the four most common oc ...200616291564
organochlorines and possible biochemical effects in glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus) from bjørnøya, the barents study possible biochemical effects of organochlorine contaminants (ocs) in glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus), 40 adult individuals were collected from colonies on bjornoya in the barents sea. ocs (four pesticides and nine pcb congeners), microsomal 7-ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (erod) activity, microsomal testosterone hydroxylation, highly carboxylated porphyrins (hcps), retinol, and retinyl palmitate were quantified in liver samples. the hepatic vitamin a stores in glaucous gulls were larg ...200010629287
validation of a screening method based on liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry for analysis of perfluoroalkylated substances in biota.a screening method for analysis of perfluoroalkylated substances (pfas) in biota samples has been developed and validated using liver samples from polar cod (boreogadus saida) and glaucous gull (larus hyperboreus). the method was based on extraction of target compounds from homogenised samples into the solvent mixture used as mobile phase in high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc), i.e. methanol/water (50:50; 2 mm ammonium acetate). the extract was filtered and directly injected into a hpl ...200516038211
lead, cadmium, mercury and selenium in greenland marine biota and sediments during amap phase 1.lead, cadmium, mercury and selenium levels in the greenland marine environment from the first phase of the amap are presented. samples were collected in 1994-1995 covering four widely separated regions in greenland. samples included sediments, soft tissue of blue mussel; and liver of polar cod, shorthorn sculpin, glaucous gull, iceland gull and ringed seal. concentrations of lead were found to increase with the size of blue mussel, but not with the age of gulls or ringed seal. both cadmium and m ...200010682352
dissimilar effects of organohalogenated compounds on thyroid hormones in glaucous gulls.the glaucous gull (larus hyperboreus) is an arctic top predator and scavenger exposed to high levels of mixtures of organohalogenated contaminants (ohcs) of which many interfere with the thyroid hormone (th) system. in the present study, we applied statistical modeling to investigate the potential combined influence of the mixture of chlorinated, brominated and perfluorinated organic compounds in plasma of glaucous gulls on their plasma th concentrations. in females, there were significant negat ...201728683408
endosulfan, short-chain chlorinated paraffins (sccps) and octachlorostyrene in wildlife from greenland: levels, trends and methodological challenges.besides globally banned "legacy" persistent organic pollutants, other compounds might be present in arctic wildlife, for which regulation was introduced recently (the insecticide endosulfan), is considered (short-chain chlorinated paraffins, sccps) or does not exist (octachlorostyrene, ocs, a byproduct of manufacturing and combustion processes involving chlorine). the purpose of this study was to analyze the time trend of endosulfan (1986-2012) in ringed seals and to address the levels of sccps ...201728667423
whole blood concentrations of organochlorines as a dose metric for studies of the glaucous gull (larus hyperboreus).in order to examine if whole blood concentrations of organochlorines (ocs) is an appropriate dosimetric parameter for use in ecotoxicological studies of free-living birds, a number of incubating glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus) were repeatedly sampled within and between subsequent breeding seasons. the wet weight concentrations of selected ocs, differing in persistence and fat solubility, were compared and it was assessed to what extent present concentrations could be predicted from concentrat ...200111337867
mercury concentrations in feathers of marine birds in arctic canada.mercury (hg) concentrations are a concern in the canadian arctic, because they are relatively high compared to background levels and to similar species farther south, and are increasing in many wildlife species. among marine birds breeding in the canadian arctic, hg concentrations have been monitored regularly in eggs and intermittently in livers, but feathers have generally not been used as an indicator of hg exposure or burden. we examined hg concentrations in six marine bird species in the ca ...201526130527
novel brominated flame retardants and dechlorane plus in greenland air and biota.following the ban of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, other halogenated flame retardants (frs) might be used increasingly. this study has analyzed hexabromocyclododecane (hbcd), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)-ethane (btbpe), 2,3-dibromopropyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (dpte) and dechloraneplus (dp) in greenland air over the course of a year. moreover, btbpe, dpte, dp, 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (tbb), bis(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (tbph) and decabromodiphenylethane (dbdpe) w ...201525463724
persistent organic pollution in a high-arctic top predator: sex-dependent thresholds in adult long-lived species, any negative effect of pollution on adult survival may pose serious hazards to breeding populations. in this study, we measured concentrations of various organochlorines (ocs) (polychlorinated biphenyl and oc pesticides) in the blood of a large number of adult glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus) breeding on bjørnøya (bear island) in the norwegian arctic, and modelled their local survival using capture-recapture analysis. survival was negatively associated with concentration ...201323966640
a two-dimensional hplc separation for the enantioselective determination of hexabromocyclododecane (hbcd) isomers in biota samples.a new method for enantioselective analysis of isomers of hexabromocyclododecane (hbcd) is described, using a two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) approach to avoid coelution, in particular between (+) α-hbcd, (+) β-hbcd, or (+) γ-hbcd. after isomer separation on a conventional column, the single isomers are transferred to an enantioselective hplc column using heart cuts. two enantioseparations are conducted in two separate partial chromatograms: one for α-hbcd and one fo ...201323831754
brominated flame retardants in the arctic environment--trends and new candidates.polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes) containing two to 10 bromines are ubiquitous in the arctic, in both abiotic and biotic samples. hexabromocyclododecane (hbcd) is also ubiquitous in the arctic, with the gamma-hbcd isomer predominating in air, the alpha-hbcd isomer predominating in biota and similar concentrations of alpha-, beta- and gamma-hbcd found in marine sediments. other brominated flame retardants (bfrs) found in some arctic samples are polybrominated biphenyls (pbbs), tetrabromobisp ...201019815253
species-specific time trends and enantiomer fractions of hexabromocyclododecane (hbcd) in biota from east greenland.time trends of hexabromocyclododecane (hbcd) isomers were studied for glaucous gull and ringed seal from east greenland. the ringed seal results extended a previous time trend (1986-2008) to 2010. α-hbcd was the only isomer consistently above quantification limits. for glaucous gull liver, annual median values of α-hbcd (1994-2010) ranged from 22 to 120 ng/g lipid weight (lw) with no significant trend, while hbcd in ringed seal blubber from the same area showed a significant increase from 3.9 to ...201222994606
accumulation of vitamin a in the hepatic stellate cell of arctic top predators.we performed a systematic characterization of the hepatic vitamin a storage in mammals and birds of the svalbard archipelago and greenland. the liver of top predators, including polar bear, arctic fox, bearded seal, and glaucous gull, contained about 10-20 times more vitamin a than the liver of all other arctic animals studied, as well as their genetically related continental top predators. the values are also high compared to normal human and experimental animals like mouse and rat. this massiv ...201222907891
climate variability and temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants in the arctic: a study of glaucous gulls.the impact of climate variability on temporal trends (1997-2006) of persistent organic pollutants (pops; polychlorinated biphenyls [pcb], hexachlorobenzene [hcb], and oxychlordane) was assessed in glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus) breeding in the norwegian arctic (n = 240). the arctic oscillation (ao: an index of sea-level pressure variability in the northern hemisphere above 20 degrees n) with different time lags was used as a climate proxy. the estimated concentrations of pops in glaucous gul ...201020297811
the svalbard glaucous gull as bioindicator species in the european arctic: insight from 35 years of contaminants research.biomonitoring survey conducted with glaucous gulls from svalbard have demonstrated that this top-predator-scavenger species accumulates a wide array of chemicals of environmental concern, including organohalogens, trace elements, organometals, and several non-halogenated and non-metallic-compounds. among these contaminants are those subjected to global bans or restrictions in north america and europe (e.g., legacy oc's, penta-, and octa-pbde technical mixtures and mercury). in addition, some cur ...201020044795
adrenocortical function of arctic-breeding glaucous gulls in relation to persistent organic pollutants.unpredictable changes in the environment stimulate the avian hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis to produce corticosterone, which induces behavioural and metabolic changes that enhance survival in the face of adverse environmental conditions. in addition to profound environmental perturbations, such as severe weather conditions and unpredictable food shortages, many arctic-breeding birds are also confronted with chronic exposure to persistent organic pollutants (pops), some of which are known to ...201019932109
age, sex and spatial dependent variations in heavy metals levels in the glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus) from the bjørnøya and jan mayen, arctic.heavy metals (cd, cu, fe, mn and zn) concentrations were determined in different tissues (muscle, kidney, liver, brain, gonads, heart and feathers) of glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus) from bjørnøya and jan mayen. the age and spatial dependent variations in heavy metals were quantified and interpreted in view of the three chemometric techniques, i.e. non-parametric mann-whitney u test, redundancy gradient analysis and detrended correspondence analysis. the glaucous gulls from bjørnøya contained ...201019847662
hybridization of glaucous gull (larus hyperboreus) and herring gull (larus argentatus) in iceland: mitochondrial and microsatellite data.large white-headed gulls provide an interesting group of birds for studies of hybridization. the group is composed of 20 species of recent origin, often with weak reproductive barriers. here we report the results from a study on the glaucous gull larus hyperboreus, an arctic species which has been breeding in iceland for centuries, and the herring gull larus argentatus which has a wide distribution in europe but colonized iceland in 1920s. previous studies, based on morphological variation indic ...200818508755
recombinant transthyretin purification and competitive binding with organohalogen compounds in two gull species (larus argentatus and larus hyperboreus).glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus) from svalbard, norway (marine), and herring gulls (larus argentatus) from the laurentian great lakes (freshwater) of north america are differentially exposed to persistent and bioaccumulative anthropogenic contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (pbde) flame retardants and metabolic products. such compounds can potentially perturb hormone transport via binding interactions with proteins such as transthyretin (ttr ...200919033396
migration and opportunistic feeding increase pcb accumulation in arctic is widely accepted that body concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (pops) tend to increase with trophic level (tl). yet, little attention has been paid to the causes in the underlying differences in pop body concentrations between species occupying similar tls. in this paper we use two modeling approaches to quantify the importance of migration and opportunistic feeding, relative to that of trophic level, in explaining interspecific differences in polychlorinated biphenyl (pcb) body ...201324024972
polychlorinated naphthalenes in polar environments--a review.polychlorinated naphthalenes (pcns) consist of naphthalene substituted with 1-8 chlorines, yielding 75 possible congeners. they were formerly used in industry, occur at trace levels in commercial pcb mixtures, and have current sources in combustion processes. pcns are widespread in arctic air with higher levels in the european arctic. concentrations were higher during the cold months in arctic canada and russia, but no seasonality was noted in subarctic canada and greenland. "marker" congeners i ...201019892388
regional, temporal, and species patterns of mercury in alaskan seabird eggs: mercury sources and cycling or food web effects?mercury concentration ([hg]), δ(15)n, and δ(13)c values were measured in eggs from common murres (uria aalge), thick-billed murres (u. lomvia), glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus), and glaucous-winged gulls (l. glaucescens) collected in alaska from 1999 to 2005. [hg] was normalized to a common trophic level using egg δ(15)n values and published hg trophic magnification factors. egg [hg] was higher in murres from gulf of alaska, cook inlet, and norton sound regions compared to bering sea and berin ...201222522226
introgressive hybridization and the evolutionary history of the herring gull complex revealed by mitochondrial and nuclear dna.based on extensive mitochondrial dna (mtdna) sequence data, we previously showed that the model of speciation among species of herring gull (larus argentatus) complex was not that of a ring species, but most likely due more complex speciation scenario's. we also found that two species, herring gull and glaucous gull (l. hyperboreus) displayed an unexpected biphyletic distribution of their mtdna haplotypes. it was evident that mtdna sequence data alone were far from sufficient to obtain a more ac ...201021067625
changes in prolactin in a highly organohalogen contaminated arctic top predator seabird, the glaucous gull.the factors influencing prolactin (prl) variation in birds and in wildlife in general have rarely been investigated with respect to the physiological impacts of exposure to environmental contaminants. we investigated the associations between circulating baseline prl levels and concentrations of eight persistent organohalogen contaminant (ohc) classes (i.e., major organochlorines and brominated flame retardants, and associated metabolic products) in blood (plasma) of free-ranging glaucous gulls ( ...200818374920
anti-parasite treatment removes negative effects of environmental pollutants on reproduction in an arctic seabird.recent studies have shown that the detrimental effects of anthropogenic pollutants may be worse if organisms are exposed to natural stress. in this study, we examined whether negative effects of organochlorines (ocs) could be influenced by parasites. in two breeding seasons, we administered an anti-helminthic drug to groups of breeding glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus), whereas control groups were placebo treated. in all birds, blood residues of the most important ocs in the study population (h ...200617015342
new organochlorine contaminants and metabolites in plasma and eggs of glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus) from the norwegian arctic.the present study investigated new or lesser-studied and legacy organochlorine (oc) contaminants and metabolites in plasma and eggs of glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus) collected from major breeding colonies on bear island in the norwegian arctic. hexachlorobutadiene was below the method limit of detection (< 0.07 ng/g lipid wt) in all samples. the sum (sum) of 20 chlorobornane congener concentrations ranged between 294 and 986 ng/g lipid weight and 104 and 1,121 ng/g lipid weight in plasma and ...200516268150
immune function and organochlorine pollutants in arctic breeding glaucous gulls.organochlorine contaminants (ocs) are known to affect the immune systems of wildlife, and in this study we assessed the relationship between blood concentration of different ocs and measurements relevant to immune status and function in arctic breeding glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus). in 1997 and 2001, we counted white blood cells (heterophils and lymphocytes) from blood smears, and in 2000 and 2001 we injected two novel nonpathogenic antigens (diphtheria and tetanus toxoids) into the pectora ...200415499504
age and accumulation of persistent organochlorines: a study of arctic-breeding glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus).we studied the relationship between increasing age and blood concentrations of four persistent organochlorines (ocs), hexachlorbenzene (hcb), oxychlordane, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (dde), and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorbiphenyl (pcb-153), in arctic-breeding glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus). we measured oc concentrations in 31 individuals of known age and took repeated blood samples of 64 individuals in different years, either one year apart or three or four years apart. the age of in ...200312959547
food web magnificaton of persistent organic pollutants in poikilotherms and web magnification of persistent organic pollutants (pops) was determined for the barents sea food web using 615n as a continuous variable for assessing trophic levels (tl). the food web investigated comprised zooplankton, ice fauna and fish (poikilotherms, tl 1.7-3.3), and seabirds and seals (homeotherms, tl 3.3-4.2), with zooplankton representing the lowest and glaucous gull the highest trophic level. concentrations of lipophilic and persistent organochlorines were orders of magnitude high ...200212099454
ecotoxicological risk assessment of environmental pollutants in the arctic.concentrations of such persistent organic pollutants (pops) as polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) are high in certain arctic animal species. the polar bear, arctic fox, and glaucous gull may be exposed to pcb levels above lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level (loael) values for adverse effects on reproduction in mammals and birds. however, the dioxin-like congeners seem to be major contributors to the reproductive effects of pcbs and the relative concentrations of these congeners are low in polar b ...200010720719
temporal trends of cadmium and mercury in greenland marine for cadmium and mercury in greenland marine biota (blue mussels, polar cod, shorthorn sculpin, glaucous gull and ringed seals) over a period of 20 years has been analysed in order to assess temporal changes. most of the comparisons were conducted between tissue samples collected in the mid-1980s and mid-1990s. cadmium data from a few time series obtained at reference sites during monitoring of mining activities were also included. no overall temporal trends in cadmium or mercury concentrati ...200010682355
persistent organic pollutants and mercury in dead and dying glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus) at bjørnøya (svalbard).dead and dying glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus) were collected on bjørnøya in the barents sea in 2003, 2004 and 2005. autopsies of the seabirds only explained a clear cause of death for three (14%) of the 21 birds. a total of 71% of the birds were emaciated. liver and brain samples were analysed for organochlorine pesticides (ocps), polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs), polybrominated diphenyl ether (pbdes), hexabromocyclododecanes (hbcds) and mercury (hg). high levels of sigmaocps, sigmapcbs, sig ...200919735935
organochlorine contaminants in seven species of arctic seabirds from northern baffin bay.organochlorine contaminants (ocs) were determined in liver and fat of seven species of seabirds (alle alle, uria lomvia, cepphus grylle, rissa tridactyla, pagophila eburnea, larus hyperboreus, and fulmaris glacialis) collected in may/june 1998 from the northwater polynya in northern baffin bay. oc concentrations ranged over an order of magnitude between seabird species and oc groups, with pcbs having the highest concentrations followed by ddt, chlordane, hch and clbz. positive relationships betw ...200414720475
cadmium, zinc, copper, arsenic, selenium and mercury in seabirds from the barents sea: levels, inter-specific and geographical differences.trace elements cd, zn, cu, as, se and hg were analysed in muscle and liver of brünnich's guillemot, common guillemot, puffin, black guillemot, little auk, razorbill, common eider, king eider, glaucous gull, herring gull, black-legged kittiwake, northern fulmar and arctic tern collected in 1991-1992 at the main breeding colonies in the barents sea. the highest levels of the most toxic elements cd and hg were found in birds nesting north of spitsbergen. extremely high levels of as were detected in ...200312699923
perfluorinated sulfonate and carboxylate compounds in eggs of seabirds breeding in the canadian arctic: temporal trends (1975-2011) and interspecies comparison.perfluorinated sulfonates (pfsas) and perfluorinated carboxylates (pfcas), as well as selected precursor compounds, were measured in eggs of thick-billed murres (uria lomvia) and northern fulmars (fulmarus glacialis) from prince leopold island in the canadian arctic between 1975 and 2011 as well as in eggs of three additional species (black guillemot cepphus grylle, black-legged kittiwake rissa tridactyla, glaucous gull larus hyperboreus) sampled in 2008. σpfca concentrations increased significa ...201323215357
bioaccumulation of per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (pfas) in selected species from the barents sea food web.the present study reports concentrations and biomagnification potential of per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (pfas) in species from the barents sea food web. the examined species included sea ice amphipod (gammarus wilkitzkii), polar cod (boreogadus saida), black guillemot (cepphus grylle) and glaucous gull (larus hyperboreus). these were analyzed for pfas, polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (ddts) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes). perfluorooctan ...200717258363
temporal trends of mercury in eggs of five sympatrically breeding seabird species in the canadian arctic.we compared temporal trends of total mercury (hg) in eggs of five seabird species breeding at prince leopold island in the canadian high arctic. as changes in trophic position over time have the potential to influence contaminant temporal trends, hg concentrations were adjusted for trophic position (measured as δ(15)n). adjusted hg concentrations in eggs of thick-billed murres (uria lomvia) and northern fulmars (fulmarus glacialis) increased from 1975 to the 1990s, followed by a plateauing of le ...201627074200
persistent organic pollutant and mercury concentrations in eggs of ground-nesting marine birds in the canadian high arctic.we collected eggs of eight marine bird species from several colony sites in the canadian high arctic located at approximately 76°n and analyzed them for concentrations of legacy persistent organic pollutants (pops) and mercury. we provide the first report on concentrations of pops in eggs of three arctic species (thayer's gull larus thayeri, sabine's gull xema sabini, ross's gull rhodostethia rosea), and we found significant differences in each of the pop profiles among the five species with suf ...201626971212
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