surveillance of avian influenza virus in migratory water birds in eastern hokkaido, japan.the epidemiological information has obtained on avian influenza virus (aiv) in eastern hokkaido, japan, where aiv surveillance has not been performed. cloacal or fecal samples obtained from migratory water birds were screened for aiv both by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to detect the influenza a virus matrix (m) gene and by egg inoculation. between 2007 and 2009, a total of 2,488 samples were collected from various avian species in abashiri, kushiro, nemuro and tokac ...201020948168
canine influenza.canine influenza virus (civ) is a newly identified, highly contagious respiratory pathogen of dogs. the clinical disease has high morbidity and low mortality. diagnosis of canine influenza is based on acute and convalescent serum samples, history, and clinical signs. phylogenetic analysis has shown that the etiologic agent is an influenza a virus that is closely related to the equine influenza a (h3n8) virus. data collected thus far support transmission from horses to dogs with horizontal spread ...201020949424
shedding and serologic responses following primary and secondary inoculation of house sparrows (passer domesticus) and european starlings (sturnus vulgaris) with low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus.waterfowl and shorebirds are well-recognized natural reservoirs of low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (lpaiv); however, little is known about the role of passerines in avian influenza virus ecology. passerines are abundant, widespread, and commonly come into contact with free-ranging birds as well as captive game birds and poultry. we inoculated and subsequently challenged house sparrows (passer domesticus) and european starlings (sturnus vulgaris) with wild-bird origin lpaiv h3n8 to eval ...201020954019
infectivity and pathogenicity of canine h3n8 influenza a virus in horses.equine h3n8 influenza a viruses (eivs) cause respiratory disease in horses and circulate among horses worldwide. in 2004, an outbreak of canine h3n8 influenza a virus (civ) occurred among dogs in florida and has spread among dogs in the united states (us). genetic analyses revealed that this civ is closely related to the recent eivs. although civ-infected dogs could be the source of h3n8 influenza a virus for horses, it remains unclear whether the civ circulating in the united states still maint ...201020958928
the pathogenesis of h3n8 canine influenza virus in chickens, turkeys and ducks.canine influenza virus (civ) of the h3n8 subtype has emerged in dog populations throughout the united states where it has become endemic in kennels and animal shelters in some regions. it has not previously been determined whether the canine-adapted h3n8 influenza virus can be transmitted to chickens, turkeys or ducks which are economically important animals that are susceptible to type a influenza virus from numerous species.201020958929
a comparative antibody study of the potential susceptibility of thoroughbred and non-thoroughbred horse populations in ireland to equine influenza ireland, horses may be protected against equine influenza virus (eiv) as a result of natural exposure or vaccination. current mandatory vaccination programmes are targeted at highly mobile horses. a correlation between antibody levels as measured by single radial haemolysis (srh) and protective immunity against eiv has been established.201020958930
infectivity of equine h3n8 influenza virus in bovine cells and calves.serological evidence for influenza a, subtype h1 and h3 virus infections of bovines, associated with respiratory disease and decreased milk production, has been reported. equine h3n8 influenza virus circulates widely and was responsible for the introduction of h3n8 influenza into canines.201020976994
a diagnostic algorithm for detection of antibodies to influenza a viruses in dogs in italy (2006-2008).since 2004, there have been several reports of influenza a virus (fluav) infection in dogs. dogs have been infected with equine influenza h3n8, avian influenza h3n2 and h5n1, and the pandemic h1n1 virus. because of recent avian and equine influenza outbreaks in italy, the objectives of the present study were to estimate the level of exposure of italian dogs to influenza a viruses and to assess a diagnostic algorithm for detection of fluav exposure in dogs. sera collected from 6,858 dogs from 200 ...201021088175
diagnostic application of h3n8-specific equine influenza real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays for the detection of canine influenza virus in clinical specimens.the objective of the current study was to determine the capability of 3 recently described one-step taqman real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time rt-pcr) assays targeting the nucleoprotein (np), matrix (m), and hemagglutinin (ha) genes of h3n8 equine influenza virus (eiv np, eiv m, and eiv ha3 assays, respectively) to detect canine influenza virus (civ). the assays were initially evaluated with nucleic acid extracted from tissue culture fluid (tcf) containing the a/ ...201021088179
antibody responses induced by japanese whole inactivated vaccines against equine influenza virus (h3n8) belonging to florida sublineage 2010, the world organisation for animal health recommended the inclusion of a florida sublineage clade2 strain of equine influenza virus (h3n8), which is represented by a/equine/richmond/1/07 (richmond07), in equine influenza vaccines. here, we evaluate the antigenic differences between japanese vaccine strains and richmond07 by performing hemagglutination inhibition (hi) assays. ferret antiserum raised to a/equine/la plata/93 (la plata93), which is a japanese vaccine strain, reacted with ric ...201021099188
descriptive epidemiology of equine influenza in india (2008-2009): temporal and spatial trends.equine influenza is a contagious viral disease that affects all members of the family equidae, i.e., horses, donkeys and mules. the authors describe the pattern of equine influenza outbreaks in a number of states of india from july 2008 to june 2009. the disease was first reported in june 2008 in katra (jammu and kashmir) and spread to ten other states within a year. all outbreaks of equine influenza in the various states were confirmed by laboratory investigations (virus isolation and/or serolo ...201021120800
molecular changes associated with adaptation of equine influenza h3n8 virus in embryonated chicken eggs.embryonated chicken eggs (eces) are routinely used to isolate equine influenza virus. propagation of the virus in eces results in selection of variants. in the present study, we determined nucleotide sequences of entire coding regions of parent a/equine/tottori/1/07 (h3n8) and its derivatives that have different passage histories in ece. after 12 passages, nucleotide sequence analysis predicted 3 amino acid substitutions in hemagglutinin (ha; 2 in ha1 and 1 in ha2). the two amino acid substituti ...201021150134
seroprevalence and risk factors for canine h3n8 influenza virus exposure in household dogs in colorado.since 2004, canine influenza virus (civ) has spread throughout the united states. while studies suggest that civ is commonly detected in shelter dogs, little is known about its prevalence in household dogs.201021155162
surveillance of equine respiratory viruses in ontario.the objective of this project was to develop and implement an active surveillance program for the early and rapid detection of equine influenza viruses in ontario. for this purpose, from october 2003 to october 2005, nasopharyngeal swabs and acute and convalescent serum samples were collected from 115 client-owned horses in 23 outbreaks of respiratory disease in ontario. sera were paired and tested for antibody to equine influenza 1 (ae1-h7n7), equine influenza 2 (ae2-h3n8), equine herpesvirus 1 ...201021197227
association between nasal shedding and fever that influenza a (h3n2) induces in dogs.avian origin canine influenza virus was reported in korea. the dog to dog contact transmission of the avian origin canine influenza virus (civ) h3n2 and civ h3n8 was shown by experimental contact transmission. this study was focused on viral excretion and fever in order to elucidate the epidemiological associations which might be helpful to control the disease transmissions in civ outbreak in dogs.201121205327
efficacy of the canine influenza virus h3n8 vaccine to decrease severity of clinical disease after cochallenge with canine influenza virus and streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus.since first emerging in the north american canine population in 2004, canine influenza virus (civ) subtype h3n8 has shown horizontal transmission among dogs, with a high level of adaptation to this species. the severity of disease is variable, and coinfection by other respiratory pathogens is an important factor in the degree of morbidity and mortality. the first influenza vaccine for dogs, an inactivated vaccine containing civ subtype h3n8, was conditionally approved by the u.s. department of a ...201121346059
characterization of influenza a viruses isolated from wild waterfowl in zambia.although the quest to clarify the role of wild birds in the spread of the highly pathogenic h5n1 avian influenza virus (aiv) has yielded considerable data on aivs in wild birds worldwide, information regarding the ecology and epidemiology of aivs in african wild birds is still very limited. during aiv surveillance in zambia (2008-2009), 12 viruses of distinct subtypes (h3n8, h4n6, h6n2, h9n1 and h11n9) were isolated from wild waterfowl. phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that all the isolates we ...201121367986
point seroprevalence of canine influenza virus h3n8 in dogs participating in a flyball tournament in determine the seroprevalence of antibody against canine influenza virus h3n8 in a group of pet dogs that participate in flyball in pennsylvania. design-serologic survey: animals-dogs attending a flyball tournament in downingtown, pa, from november 13 to 14, 2009. procedures-blood samples were collected from dogs following owner consent. medical, travel, and activity history of the dogs for the previous 10.5 months was obtained from owners. serum was harvested and submitted to cornell universi ...201121401429
a comparison of antibody responses to commercial equine influenza vaccines following annual booster vaccination of national hunt horses - a randomised blind against equine influenza virus (eiv) relies largely on the production of circulating antibodies specific for the haemagglutinin (ha) glycoprotein. the objective of this study was to determine the antibody response of national hunt horses in training to booster vaccination. the antibody response to the six equine influenza vaccines available in ireland (three whole inactivated vaccines, two subunit vaccines and a canary pox recombinant vaccine), was monitored by single radial haemolysi ...201121419776
genome-scale evolution and phylodynamics of equine h3n8 influenza a virus.equine influenza viruses (eivs) of the h3n8 and h7n7 subtypes are the causative agents of an important disease of horses. while eiv h7n7 apparently is extinct, h3n8 viruses have circulated for more than 50 years. like human influenza viruses, eiv h3n8 caused a transcontinental pandemic followed by further outbreaks and epidemics, even in populations with high vaccination coverage. recently, eiv h3n8 jumped the species barrier to infect dogs. despite its importance as an agent of infectious disea ...201121430049
replication of low pathogenic avian influenza virus in naturally infected mallard ducks (anas platyrhynchos) causes no morphologic lesions.although the mallard (anas platyrhynchos) is considered an important maintenance host for low pathogenic avian influenza (lpai) viruses, viral cell tropism and pathology in naturally infected birds are largely unknown. in august 2006, we collected 19 free-living hatch-year mallards that were positive for lpai virus by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rrt-pcr) in combined oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs. we investigated virus infection and associated lesions in the diges ...201121441193
development of an antigen-capture elisa for the detection of equine influenza virus antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ac-elisa) was developed for the detection of the equine influenza virus (eiv), employing monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against the a/equine/xingjiang/2007 (h3n8) nucleoprotein (np). immunoglobulin g antibodies were purified and used as capture or detector antibodies. the specificity of the optimized ac-elisa was evaluated using eiv, equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1), equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv-4), equine arteritis virus (eav) and japanese en ...201121536075
genetic analysis of the matrix and non-structural genes of equine influenza virus (h3n8) from epizootic of 2008-2009 in india.india faced an epizootic of equine influenza in 2008-2009. the isolated viruses were typed as h3n8 and grouped with the clade 2 viruses of florida sublineage on the basis of haemagglutinin (ha) gene sequence analysis. this report describes the genetic analysis and selection pressure of matrix (m) and non-structural 1 (ns1) genes of the indian isolates. all isolates shared 98.41% and 99.54% homology with other clade 2 viruses of asian origin for m1 and m2 amino acid (aa) sequences, respectively. ...201121620592
rapid separation and identification of the subtypes of swine and equine influenza a viruses by electromigration techniques with uv and fluorometric detection.influenza a is viral disease, which is a cause of yearly epidemics and, potentially, pandemics. the conventional techniques used today are equipment-demanding, time-consuming and laborious. recently, we have confirmed that the capillary isoelectric focusing is a suitable fast alternative for the verifying of virus purity. in the wide ph gradient of ph range 2.0-7.5 the isoelectric points for subtypes of equine (h3n8) and swine (h1n2) influenza a viruses were determined approximately as 6.6 and 6 ...201121655602
evaluation of infectivity of a canine lineage h3n8 influenza a virus in ponies and in primary equine respiratory epithelial cells.objective-to evaluate whether an equine-derived canine h3n8 influenza a virus was capable of infecting and transmitting disease to ponies. animals-20 influenza virus-seronegative 12- to 24-month-old ponies. procedures-5 ponies were inoculated via aerosol exposure with 10(7) tcid(50) of a/canine/wyoming/86033/07 virus (ca/wy)/pony. a second group of 5 ponies (positive control group) was inoculated via aerosol exposure with a contemporary a/eq/colorado/10/07 virus (eq/co), and 4 sham-inoculated po ...201121801065
phylogenetic and molecular characterization of equine h3n8 influenza viruses from greece (2003 and 2007): evidence for reassortment between evolutionary lineages.abstract: background: for first time in greece equine influenza virus infection was confirmed, by isolation and molecular analysis, as the cause of clinical respiratory disease among unvaccinated horses during 2003 and 2007 outbreaks. methods: equine influenza virus (eivs) h3n8 was isolated in mdck cells from 30 nasal swabs from horses with acute respiratory disease, which were tested positive by directigen flu a. isolation was confirmed by haemagglutination assay and rt-pcr assay of the m, ha a ...201121756308
significant features of the epidemiology of equine influenza in queensland, australia, outbreak of equine influenza (ei) caused by influenza a h3n8 subtype virus occurred in the australian states of queensland and new south wales in august 2007. infection in the australian horse population was associated with the introduction of infection by horses from overseas. the first case of ei in queensland was detected on 25 august 2007 at an equestrian sporting event. infection subsequently spread locally and to other clusters through horse movements prior to the implementation of an o ...201121711297
pathologic lesions caused by coinfection of mycoplasma gallisepticum and h3n8 low pathogenic avian influenza virus in chickens.chickens were infected under experimental conditions with mycoplasma gallisepticum and low pathogenic avian influenza (lpai) strain a/mallard/hungary/19616/07 (h3n8). two groups of chickens were aerosol challenged with m. gallisepticum strain 1226. seven days later, one of these groups and one mycoplasma-free group was challenged with lpai h3n8 virus; one group without challenge remained as negative control. eight days later, the birds were euthanized and examined for gross pathologic and histol ...201121825309
isolation and characterisation of an h3n8 equine influenza virus in australia, 2007.before 2007, equine influenza had never been diagnosed in australia. on 22 august 2007, infection was confirmed in horses at eastern creek animal quarantine station near sydney. the virus subsequently isolated (a/equine/sydney/2888-8/2007) was confirmed by sequence analysis of the haemagglutinin (ha) gene as an h3 virus of the variant american florida lineage that is now referred to as clade 1. the ha sequence of the virus was identical to that of a virus isolated from a contemporaneous outbreak ...201121711282
validation of an influenza virus a 5'taq nuclease assay for the detection of equine influenza virus a rna in nasal swab samples.describe the in-house validation of a previously reported influenza virus type a 5'taq nuclease assay for detecting equine influenza virus a rna in nasal swab material.201121711285
viral replication, persistence in water and genetic characterization of two influenza a viruses isolated from surface lake water.water-borne transmission has been suggested as an important transmission mechanism for influenza a (ia) viruses in wild duck populations; however, relatively few studies have attempted to detect ia viruses from aquatic habitats. water-isolated viruses have rarely been genetically characterized and evaluation for persistence in water and infectivity in natural hosts has never been documented. in this study, we focused on two ia viruses (h3n8 and h4n6 subtypes) isolated from surface lake water in ...201122028909
Serological evidence of H3N8 canine influenza-like virus circulation in USA dogs prior to 2004.H3N8 canine influenza virus (H3N8 CIV) was first reported as a novel canine respiratory pathogen in racing greyhounds and shelter dogs in the USA in 2004. Phylogenetic analyses determined that this host-adapted pathogen originated from interspecies transmission of an equine influenza virus (EIV), but it is unknown when the transmission occurred prior to discovery in 2004. The objective of this study was to determine if racing greyhound and shelter dog sera collected from 1984 to 2004 had serolog ...201122178358
The molecular epidemiology of equine influenza in Ireland from 2007-2010 and its international significance.Reasons for performing the study: Antigenic and genetic drift of equine influenza (EI) virus is monitored annually by the Expert Surveillance Panel (ESP), which make recommendations on the need to update vaccines. Surveillance programmes are essential for this process to operate effectively and to decrease the risk of disease spread through the international movement of subclinically infected vaccinated horses. Not only is surveillance necessary to inform vaccine companies which strains are in c ...201121978127
Characterization of avian influenza viruses isolated from domestic ducks in Vietnam in 2009 and 2010.In the surveillance of avian influenza in Vietnam, 26 H9N2, 1 H3N2, 1 H3N8, 7 H4N6, 3 H11N3, and 1 H11N9 viruses were isolated from tracheal and cloacal swab samples of 300 domestic ducks in April 2009, and 1 H9N6 virus from 300 bird samples in March 2010. Out of the 27 H9 virus isolates, the hemagglutinins of 18 strains were genetically classified as belonging to the sublineage G1, and the other nine belonged to the Korean sublineage. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that one of the 27 H9 viruses ...201122068881
influenza-a viruses in ducks in northwestern minnesota: fine scale spatial and temporal variation in prevalence and subtype diversity.waterfowl from northwestern minnesota were sampled by cloacal swabbing for avian influenza virus (aiv) from july-october in 2007 and 2008. aiv was detected in 222 (9.1%) of 2,441 ducks in 2007 and in 438 (17.9%) of 2,452 ducks in 2008. prevalence of aiv peaked in late summer. we detected 27 aiv subtypes during 2007 and 31 during 2008. ten hemagglutinin (ha) subtypes were detected each year (i.e., h1, 3-8, and 10-12 during 2007; h1-8, 10 and 11 during 2008). all neuraminidase (na) subtypes were d ...201121931636
genetic relationship of h3 subtype avian influenza viruses isolated from domestic ducks and wild birds in korea and their pathogenic potential in chickens and ducks.the h3 subtype avian influenza virus (aiv) is one of the most frequently isolated subtypes in domestic ducks, live poultry markets, and wild birds in korea. in 2002-2009, a total of 45 h3 subtype aivs were isolated from the feces of clinically normal domestic ducks (n=28) and wild birds (n=17). the most prevalent subtypes in domestic ducks were h3n2 (35.7%), h3n6 (35.7%), h3n8 (25.0%), and h3n1 (3.6%, novel subtype in domestic duck in korea). in contrast, h3n8 (70.6%) is the most prevalent subty ...201121955449
Antigenic and genetic evolution of equine influenza A (H3N8) virus from 1968 to 2007.Equine influenza virus is a major respiratory pathogen in horses, and outbreaks of disease often lead to substantial disruption to and economic losses for equestrian industries. The hemagglutinin (HA) protein is of key importance in the control of equine influenza because HA is the primary target of the protective immune response and the main component of currently licensed influenza vaccines. However, the influenza virus HA protein changes over time, a process called antigenic drift, and vaccin ...201121937642
genetic analyses of avian influenza viruses in mongolia, 2007 to 2009, and their relationships with korean isolates from domestic poultry and wild birds.the present study was conducted to monitor wild birds based on the concern that they could disseminate avian influenza virus (aiv) between mongolia and korea, which shares the same migratory flyway. of 1,528 fecal samples analyzed, 21 low-pathogenic aiv were isolated from 2007 to 2009. nineteen aiv-positive fecal samples were identified as anseriformes by dna bar coding. the most frequently isolated subtype was h3 (61.9%), and the most prevalent hemagglutinin/neuraminidase combination was h3n8 ( ...201121934005
development and evaluation of a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for h3n8 equine influenza virus.reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) was applied to the detection of equine influenza virus (eiv). because equine influenza is caused currently by eiv of the h3h8 subtype, the rt-lamp primer set was designed to target the hemagglutinin gene of this subtype. the detection limit of the rt-lamp assay was a virus dilution of 10(-5); which was 10(3) times more sensitive than the espline influenza a&b-n test and 10 times more sensitive than a reverse transcription pol ...201121907240
seroprevalence of canine influenza virus (h3n8) in iditarod racing sled dogs.we conducted a cross-sectional convenience sampling study of dogs racing in the 2010 iditarod to determine the seroprevalence of canine influenza virus (civ) in the sled dog population. questionnaires were completed detailing medical and civ vaccination history, kennel size and location, travel history, and social interactions for each team. a total of 399 dogs were tested for civ antibodies by hemagglutination inhibition assay. none of these, including 39 samples from dogs reported as civ vacci ...201223543928
[characterization of influenza virus reassortants based on new donor strain a/hk/1/68/162/35(h3n2)].influenza reassortant viruses a/spb/hk/09(h1n1), a/astana/hk/2009 (h5n1), a/otar/hk/2010(h3n8), and a/perth/ hk/2011(h3n2), carrying surface antigens of different subtypes, were constructed on the basis of new potential unified donor strain a/hk/1/68/162/35(h3n2). the virulence and reproduction activity of the obtained reassortants were tested. the safety of the candidate live and inactivated influenza vaccines produced from the reassortant viruses was demonstrated. the study demonstrates that a ...201223477254
avian influenza virus wild bird surveillance in the azov and black sea regions of ukraine (2010-2011).the azov and black sea basins are part of the transcontinental wild bird migration routes from northern asia and europe to the mediterranean, africa, and southwest asia. these regions constitute an area of transit, stops during migration, and nesting for many different bird species. from september 2010 to september 2011, a wild bird surveillance study was conducted in these regions to identify avian influenza viruses. biological samples consisting of cloacal and tracheal swabs and fecal samples ...201223402128
effect of different routes of inoculation on infectivity and viral shedding of lpai viruses in mallards.we studied the effect of different routes of inoculation on the infectivity and duration of viral shedding in mallards (anas platyrhynchos) infected with wild bird-origin low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (lpaivs). one-month-old mallards were inoculated with 10(6) median embryo infectious doses of either a/mallard/mn/199106/99 (h3n8) or a/mallard/mn/355779/00 (h5n2) via 1 of 5 different routes: intranasal (in), intratracheal (it), intraocular (io), intracloacal (ic), or intra-ingluvial (ii) ...201223402123
the pathogenesis of low pathogenic avian influenza in mallards.mallards are important natural hosts involved in the epidemiology of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (lpaivs). lpaivs are mainly transmitted by a fecal-oral route and are excreted in high concentrations in the feces. we investigated the pathology, viral antigen distribution, and the expression of alpha2,3 sialic acid (sa) influenza virus receptors in mallards after intranasal inoculation with a/mallard/mn/199106/99 (h3n8) or a/mallard/mn/355779/00 (h5n2). gross lesions were not observed. ...201223402122
surveillance and characterization of avian influenza viruses from migratory water birds in eastern hokkaido, the northern part of japan, 2009-2010.avian influenza virus (aiv) surveillance was conducted around a small pond in obihiro, eastern hokkaido, japan. eleven aivs were isolated from a total of 1,269 fecal samples of migratory wild birds collected during 2009 and 2010. the sample number covered approximately 60 % of the total number of birds observed during sampling periods. the subtypes of the isolates included h3n8 (4 isolates), h5n2 (3), h6n2 (2), h6n1 (1), and h11n2 (1). the h3n8 subtype was most prevalent as in the previous studi ...201223264106
accumulation and inactivation of avian influenza virus by the filter-feeding invertebrate daphnia magna.the principal mode of avian influenza a virus (aiv) transmission among wild birds is thought to occur via an indirect fecal-oral route, whereby individuals are exposed to virus from the environment through contact with virus-contaminated water. aiv can remain viable for an extended time in water; however, little is known regarding the influence of the biotic community (i.e., aquatic invertebrates) on virus persistence and infectivity in aquatic environments. we conducted laboratory experiments t ...201324038705
rapid and sensitive detection of canine distemper virus by one-tube reverse transcription-insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction.canine distemper virus (cdv) has been associated with outbreaks of canine infectious respiratory disease in shelters and boarding kennel environments. pockittm nucleic acid analyzer is a field-deployable device capable of generating automatically interpreted insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (iipcr) results from extracted nucleic acid within one hour. in this study, reverse transcription iipcr (rt-iipcr) was developed to facilitate point-of-need diagnosis of cdv infection.201425200113
influenza virus vaccine for neglected hosts: horses and dogs.this study provides information regarding vaccine research and the epidemiology of influenza virus in neglected hosts (horses and dogs). equine influenza virus (eiv) causes a highly contagious disease in horses and other equids, and outbreaks have occurred worldwide. eiv has resulted in costly damage to the horse industry and has the ability of cross the host species barrier from horses to dogs. canine influenza is a virus of equine or avian origin and infects companion animals that live in clos ...201627489801
influenza a viruses from wild birds in guatemala belong to the north american lineage.the role wild bird species play in the transmission and ecology of avian influenza virus (aiv) is well established; however, there are significant gaps in our understanding of the worldwide distribution of these viruses, specifically about the prevalence and/or significance of aiv in central and south america. as part of an assessment of the ecology of aiv in guatemala, we conducted active surveillance in wild birds on the pacific and atlantic coasts. cloacal and tracheal swab samples taken from ...201222427902
inferring the inter-host transmission of influenza a virus using patterns of intra-host genetic variation.influenza a viruses (iavs) cause acute, highly transmissible infections in a wide range of animal species. understanding how these viruses are transmitted within and between susceptible host populations is critical to the development of effective control strategies. while viral gene sequences have been used to make inferences about iav transmission dynamics at the epidemiological scale, their utility in accurately determining patterns of inter-host transmission in the short-term--i.e. who infect ...201223135678
revelation of influencing factors in overall codon usage bias of equine influenza viruses.equine influenza viruses (eivs) of h3n8 subtype are culprits of severe acute respiratory infections in horses, and are still responsible for significant outbreaks worldwide. adaptability of influenza viruses to a particular host is significantly influenced by their codon usage preference, due to an absolute dependence on the host cellular machinery for their replication. in the present study, we analyzed genome-wide codon usage patterns in 92 eiv strains, including both h3n8 and h7n7 subtypes by ...201627119730
[serological survey of antibodies against viral diseases of public health interest in llamas (lama glama) from jujuy province, argentina].llama population from argentina is mainly concentrated in the andean puna, jujuy. llamas represent an important economic resource for the andean communities. the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of antibodies against viral antigens associated to viral diseases of economic impact (neonatal diarrhea, reproductive and respiratory syndromes). a total of 349 serum samples from adult llamas were analyzed. the obtained antibody prevalence was 100 % for rotavirus a and 70 % for bovine ...201424721276
the optimisation of pseudotyped viruses for the characterisation of immune responses to equine influenza virus.pseudotyped viruses (pvs) produced by co-transfecting cells with plasmids expressing lentiviral core proteins and viral envelope proteins are potentially powerful tools for studying various aspects of equine influenza virus (eiv) biology. the aim of this study was to optimise production of equine influenza pvs. co-transfection of the hat protease to activate the haemagglutinin (ha) yielded a higher titre pv than tmprss2 with the ha from a/equine/richmond/1/2007 (h3n8), whereas for a/equine/newma ...201627983716
pathogens inactivated by low-energy-electron irradiation maintain antigenic properties and induce protective immune responses.inactivated vaccines are commonly produced by incubating pathogens with chemicals such as formaldehyde or β-propiolactone. this is a time-consuming process, the inactivation efficiency displays high variability and extensive downstream procedures are often required. moreover, application of chemicals alters the antigenic components of the viruses or bacteria, resulting in reduced antibody specificity and therefore stimulation of a less effective immune response. an alternative method for inactiv ...201627886076
prevalence of antibodies against influenza virus in non-vaccinated equines from the brazilian pantanal.the prevalence of antibodies against equine influenza virus (eiv) was determined in 529 equines living on ranches in the municipality of poconé, pantanal area of brazil, by means of the hemagglutination inhibition test, using subtype h3n8 as antigen. the distribution and possible association among positive animal and ranches were evaluated by the chi-square test, spatial autoregressive and multiple linear regression models. the prevalence of antibodies against eiv was estimated at 45.2% (95% ci ...201525351542
temperature-sensitive live-attenuated canine influenza virus h3n8 vaccine.canine influenza is a respiratory disease of dogs caused by canine influenza virus (civ). civ subtypes responsible for influenza in dogs include h3n8, which originated from the transfer of h3n8 equine influenza virus to dogs; and the h3n2 civ, which is an avian-origin virus that adapted to infect dogs. influenza infections are most effectively prevented through vaccination to reduce transmission and future infection. currently, only inactivated influenza vaccines (iivs) are available for the pre ...201727928017
attenuation of the virulence of a recombinant influenza virus expressing the naturally truncated ns gene from an h3n8 equine influenza virus in mice.equine influenza virus (eiv) causes a highly contagious disease in horses and other equids. recently, we isolated an h3n8 eiv (a/equine/kyonggi/sa1/2011) from a domestic horse in south korea that exhibited symptoms of respiratory disease, and found that the eiv strain contained a naturally mutated ns gene segment encoding a truncated ns1 protein. in order to determine whether there was an association between the ns gene truncation and viral virulence, a reverse genetics system was applied to gen ...201627846859
molecular epidemiology and spatio-temporal dynamics of the h3n8 equine influenza virus in south america.equine influenza virus (eiv) is considered the most important respiratory pathogen of horses as outbreaks of the disease lead to substantial economic losses. the h3n8 eiv has caused respiratory disease in horses across the world, including south american countries. nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences for the complete haemagglutinin gene of the h3n8 eiv detected in south america since 1963 were analyzed. phylogenetic and bayesian coalescent analyses were carried out to study the origin, t ...201627754468
characterisation of the epidemic strain of h3n8 equine influenza virus responsible for outbreaks in south america in extensive outbreak of equine influenza occurred across multiple countries in south america during 2012. the epidemic was first reported in chile then spread to brazil, uruguay and argentina, where both vaccinated and unvaccinated animals were affected. in brazil, infections were widespread within 3months of the first reported cases. affected horses included animals vaccinated with outdated vaccine antigens, but also with the oie-recommended florida clade 1 strain south africa/4/03.201626993620
design and testing of multiplex rt-pcr primers for the rapid detection of influenza a virus genomic segments: application to equine influenza virus.the avian influenza a virus causes respiratory infections in animal species. it can undergo genomic recombination with newly obtained genetic material through an interspecies transmission. however, the process is an unpredictable event, making it difficult to predict the emergence of a new pandemic virus and distinguish its origin, especially when the virus is the result of multiple infections. therefore, identifying a novel influenza is entirely dependent on sequencing its whole genome. occasio ...201626655588
pathology of equine influenza virus (h3n8) in murine model.equine influenza viruses (eiv)-h3n8 continue to circulate in equine population throughout the world. they evolve by the process of antigenic drift that leads to substantial change in the antigenicity of the virus, thereby necessitating substitution of virus strain in the vaccines. this requires frequent testing of the new vaccines in the in vivo system; however, lack of an appropriate laboratory animal challenge model for testing protective efficacy of equine influenza vaccine candidates hinders ...201526587990
equine and canine influenza h3n8 viruses show minimal biological differences despite phylogenetic divergence.the a/h3n8 canine influenza virus (civ) emerged from a/h3n8 equine influenza virus (eiv) around the year 2000 through the transfer of a single virus from horses to dogs. we defined and compared the biological properties of eiv and civ by examining their genetic variation, infection, and growth in different cell cultures, receptor specificity, hemagglutinin (ha) cleavage, and infection and growth in horse and dog tracheal explant cultures. comparison of sequences of viruses from horses and dogs r ...201525903329
phylogenetically distinct equine influenza viruses show different tropism for the swine respiratory tract.influenza a viruses circulate in a wide range of animals. h3n8 equine influenza virus (eiv) is an avian-origin virus that has established in dogs as canine influenza virus (civ) and has also been isolated from camels and pigs. previous work suggests that mutations acquired during eiv evolution might have played a role in civ emergence. given the potential role of pigs as a source of human infections, we determined the ability of h3n8 eivs to replicate in pig cell lines and in respiratory explant ...201525593159
inefficient transmissibility of ns-truncated h3n8 equine influenza virus in dogs.h3n8 equine influenza virus (eiv) causes respiratory diseases in the horse population, and it has been demonstrated that eiv can transmit into dogs owing to its availability on receptors of canine respiratory epithelial cells. recently, we isolated h3n8 eiv from an eiv-vaccinated horse that showed symptoms of respiratory disease, and which has a partially truncated nonstructural gene (ns). however, it is not clear that the ns-truncated eiv has an ability to cross the host species barrier from ho ...201525315051
an efficient genome sequencing method for equine influenza [h3n8] virus reveals a new polymorphism in the pa-x protein.h3n8 equine influenza virus (eiv) has caused disease outbreaks in horses across the world since its first isolation in 1963. however, unlike human, swine and avian influenza, there is relatively little sequence data available for this virus. the majority of published sequences are for the segment encoding haemagglutinin (ha), one of the two surface glycoproteins, making it difficult to study the evolution of the other gene segments and determine the level of reassortment occurring between sub-li ...201425183201
recent evolution of equine influenza and the origin of canine 2004 an hemagglutinin 3 neuraminidase 8 (h3n8) equine influenza virus was transmitted from horses to dogs in florida and subsequently spread throughout the united states and to europe. to understand the molecular basis of changes in the antigenicity of h3 hemagglutinins (has) that have occurred during virus evolution in horses, and to investigate the role of ha in the equine to canine cross-species transfer, we used x-ray crystallography to determine the structures of the has from two antigen ...201425024224
rapid detection of equine influenza virus h3n8 subtype by insulated isothermal rt-pcr (iirt-pcr) assay using the pockit™ nucleic acid analyzer.equine influenza (ei) is an acute, highly contagious viral respiratory disease of equids. currently, equine influenza virus (eiv) subtype h3n8 continues to be the most important respiratory pathogen of horses in many countries around the world. the need to achieve a rapid diagnosis and to implement effective quarantine and movement restrictions is critical in controlling the spread of eiv. in this study, a novel, inexpensive and user-friendly assay based on an insulated isothermal rt-pcr (iirt-p ...201424992669
complete genome sequences of noncoding regions of korean equine h3n8 influenza virus.we analyzed the complete genome sequence containing the 3' and 5' noncoding regions (ncrs) of the korean h3n8 equine influenza virus (eiv), which will provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis, transmission, and evolution of eiv.201424831153
continuing evolution of equine influenza virus in central asia, 2007-2012.equine influenza (ei) continues to be an important respiratory pathogen of horses worldwide. since 2007 several outbreaks of ei have occurred in central asian countries, including kazakhstan, western mongolia, india and western china. phylogenetic analysis showed that two h3n8 equine influenza virus (eiv) isolates from kazakhstan, a/equine/almaty/26/2007 and a/equine/south kazakhstan/236/12, were related to florida sublineage 2, with high similarity to eivs circulating in the same period in neig ...201424748052
epidemiology and genetic characterization of h3n8 equine influenza virus responsible for clinical disease in algeria in outbreak of equine influenza (ei) was reported in algeria between may and july, 2011. the outbreak started in tiaret, in west province of algeria, and spread to the other parts of the country affecting almost 900 horses in many provinces. the population studied was composed of 325 horses from different groups of age. clinical sign expression was age dependent. indeed, a morbidity rate of 14.9% was observed in horses under 15 months old and a rate of 4.95% in horses over 8 years old. interesti ...201524472362
genetic analysis of the neuraminidase (na) gene of equine influenza virus (h3n8) from epizootic of 2008-2009 in india.the neuraminidase (na) gene sequences of four indian equine influenza viruses (eivs) isolated from epizootic in 2008 and 2009 were analyzed. the phylogenetic relationship and selection pressure of na genes were established in comparison to other eivs circulating worldwide along with the domains and motifs of the encoded protein to find out the significance of mutational changes. among indian isolates, two amino acid (aa) changes each in mysore/12/08 (asn67tyr & asp396gly), gopeshwar/1/09 (ile49v ...201324426284
complete genomic sequences of an h3n8 equine influenza virus strain isolated in china.we report the complete genomic sequence of a/equine/heilongjiang/1/2010, a strain of florida sublineage clade 2 of h3n8 subtype equine influenza virus (eiv) isolated in northern china. this is the first announcement of a complete genomic sequence of eiv of such a clade in china.201323969056
isolation and genetic characterization of naturally ns-truncated h3n8 equine influenza virus in south korea.equine influenza virus (eiv) causes a highly contagious respiratory disease in equids, with confirmed outbreaks in europe, america, north africa, and asia. although china, mongolia, and japan have reported equine influenza outbreaks, korea has not. since 2011, we have conducted a routine surveillance programme to detect eiv at domestic stud farms, and isolated h3n8 eiv from horses showing respiratory disease symptoms. here, we characterized the genetic and biological properties of this novel kor ...201423800580
genetic analysis of the pb1-f2 gene of equine influenza virus.amino acid and phylogenetic analysis showed that pb1-f2 of h7n7 and h3n8 equine influenza virus (eiv) evolved into two and nine clades, respectively. the pb1-f2 gene of h7n7 eiv strains isolated after 1973 was identified as being replaced by that of h3n8 eiv circulating simultaneously. all h7n7 eiv strains before 1973 contained pb1-f2 of 34 aa, while 90 aa after 1973. meanwhile, most h3n8 eiv strains contained pb1-f2 of 90 or 81 aa. evolutionary rate of pb1-f2 of h3n8 eiv was similar with that o ...201323780220
investigation of equine influenza virus in two geographical regions of pakistan.the present study was an attempt to elucidate the seroprevalence of equine influenza virus (h3n8) in two geographically distinct regions of pakistan where vaccination is not routinely practiced.201322923059
pathogenicity of h3n8 influenza viruses isolated from domestic ducks in chickens with or without escherichia coli coinfections.influenza viruses from domestic aquatic birds can be transmitted to chickens, resulting in continued prevalence of the disease. h3 viruses are one of the most frequently identified subtypes in domestic ducks. results from our previous serologic study suggested that h3 virus infections potentially exist in chickens with a wide geographical distribution in china. to better understand their pathogenic potential, two h3n8 influenza viruses isolated from domestic ducks were selected for experimental ...201223050481
little evidence of avian or equine influenza virus infection among a cohort of mongolian adults with animal exposures, 2010-2011.avian (aiv) and equine influenza virus (eiv) have been repeatedly shown to circulate among mongolia's migrating birds or domestic horses. in 2009, 439 mongolian adults, many with occupational exposure to animals, were enrolled in a prospective cohort study of zoonotic influenza transmission. sera were drawn upon enrollment and again at 12 and 24 months. participants were contacted monthly for 24 months and queried regarding episodes of acute influenza-like illnesses (ili). cohort members confirm ...201424465622
a novel reassortant h2n3 influenza virus isolated from analyze the genetic composition of a novel h2n3 virus isolate identified from a duck cage swab in a live poultry market (lpm) in 2009 in guangdong province of china.201424758752
detection of evolutionarily distinct avian influenza a viruses in antarctica.abstract distinct lineages of avian influenza viruses (aivs) are harbored by spatially segregated birds, yet significant surveillance gaps exist around the globe. virtually nothing is known from the antarctic. using virus culture, molecular analysis, full genome sequencing, and serology of samples from adélie penguins in antarctica, we confirmed infection by h11n2 subtype aivs. their genetic segments were distinct from all known contemporary influenza viruses, including south american aivs, sugg ...201424803521
genome sequence of a novel reassortant h3n6 avian influenza virus from domestic mallard ducks in eastern, we report the complete genome sequence of an h3n6 avian influenza virus (aiv) isolated from domestic ducks in jiangsu province of eastern china in 2010. phylogenetic analysis showed that the h3n6 virus is a natural recombinant virus whose genes were derived from h3n8, h4n6, h6n6, h7n7, and h11n2 aivs. this analysis will help to understand the molecular characteristics and evolution of the h3n6 influenza virus in eastern china.201323580714
genome sequence of a novel reassortant h3n2 avian influenza virus from domestic mallard ducks in eastern china.the h3 subtype avian influenza virus (aiv) can provide genes for human influenza virus through gene reassortment, which raises great concerns in terms of its potential threat to human health. here, we report the complete genome sequence of a novel h3n2 aiv isolated from domestic ducks in the jiangsu province of eastern china in 2004, which is a natural recombinant virus whose genes are derived from h3n8, h5n1, h5n2, h11n2, h4n6, and h1n1 aivs. this genome will help to understand the epidemiology ...201323580713
genetically diverse low pathogenicity avian influenza a virus subtypes co-circulate among poultry in bangladesh.influenza virus surveillance, poultry outbreak investigations and genomic sequencing were assessed to understand the ecology and evolution of low pathogenicity avian influenza (lpai) a viruses in bangladesh from 2007 to 2013. we analyzed 506 avian specimens collected from poultry in live bird markets and backyard flocks to identify influenza a viruses. virus isolation-positive specimens (n = 50) were subtyped and their coding-complete genomes were sequenced. the most frequently identified subtyp ...201627010791
the zoonotic potential of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild waterfowl in zambia.whilst remarkable progress in elucidating the mechanisms governing interspecies transmission and pathogenicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (aivs) has been made, similar studies focusing on low-pathogenic aivs isolated from the wild waterfowl reservoir are limited. we previously reported that two aiv strains (subtypes h6n2 and h3n8) isolated from wild waterfowl in zambia harbored some amino acid residues preferentially associated with human influenza virus proteins (so-called hum ...201424862188
molecular and epidemiological characterization of avian influenza viruses from gulls and dabbling ducks in norway.wild aquatic birds constitute the natural reservoir for avian influenza viruses (aivs). separate eurasian and american aiv gene pools exist. here, the prevalence and diversity of aivs in gulls and dabbling ducks in norway were described. the influence of host species and temporal changes on aiv prevalence was examined. five aivs from norway, including three from common gull (larus canus), were analyzed along with 10 available aiv genomes from gulls in eurasia to search for evidence of intraconti ...201323575317
ecology of influenza virus in wild bird populations in central asia.the study provides the results of avian influenza virus surveillance in central asia during 2003-2009. we have analyzed 2604 samples from wild birds. these samples were collected in kazakhstan (279), mongolia (650), and russia (1675). isolated viruses from samples collected in mongolia (13 isolates) and in russia (4 isolates) were described. virological analysis has shown that six isolates belong to the h3n6 subtype and five isolates belong to the h4n6 subtype. two h1n1 influenza viruses, one h1 ...201222545553
adaptive heterosubtypic immunity to low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in experimentally infected mallards.mallards are widely recognized as reservoirs for influenza a viruses (iav); however, host factors that might prompt seasonality and trends in subtype diversity of iav such as adaptive heterosubtypic immunity (hsi) are not well understood. to investigate this, we inoculated mallards with a prevailing h3n8 low pathogenic avian influenza virus (lpaiv) subtype in waterfowl to determine if prior infection with this virus would be protective against heterosubtypic infections with the h4n6, h10n7 and h ...201728107403
a multiplex rt-pcr assay for detection and differentiation of avian-origin canine h3n2, equine-origin h3n8, human-origin h3n2, and h1n1/2009 canine influenza viruses.virological and serological surveys have documented that h1n1/2009, avian-origin canine h3n2 (ch3n2), seasonal human-origin h3n2 (hh3n2), and equine-origin h3n8 influenza viruses are consistently circulating in dogs. in the present study, a multiplex reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (mrt-pcr) assay was developed for simultaneous detection and differentiation of these influenza viruses. four primer sets were designed to target the hemagglutinin genes of h1n1/2009, ch3n2, hh3n2, and ...201728107507
seroprevalence of three influenza a viruses (h1n1, h3n2, and h3n8) in pet dogs presented to veterinary hospital in ohio.the prevalence of canine h3n8 influenza, and human h1n1 and h3n2 influenza in dogs in ohio was estimated by conducting serologic tests on 1,082 canine serum samples; risk factors, such as health status and age were examined. the prevalence of human h1n1, h3n2, and canine h3n8 were 4.0%, 2.4% and 2.3%, respectively, and two samples were seropositive to two subtypes (h1n1 and h3n2; h1n1 and canine influenza virus (civ) h3n8). dogs with respiratory signs were 5.795 times more likely to be seroposit ...201627515265
differential viral fitness between h1n1 and h3n8 avian influenza viruses isolated from mallards (anas platyrhynchos).homosubtypic and heterosubtypic immunity in mallards (anas platyrhynchos) play an important role in the avian influenza virus (aiv) diversity. the mechanisms of aiv replication among wild birds and the role of immunity in aiv diversity have thus not been completely clarified. during the monitoring of ai circulation among wild waterfowl in 2007-2008, two viruses (h3n8 and h1n1) were isolated from ducks caught in a funnel trap located in la hulpe wetland in belgium. h3n8 viruses were revealed to b ...201627309085
differential viral fitness between h1n1 and h3n8 avian influenza viruses isolated from mallards (anas platyrhynchos).homosubtypic and heterosubtypic immunity in mallards (anas platyrhynchos) play an important role in the avian influenza virus (aiv) diversity. the mechanisms of aiv replication among wild birds and the role of immunity in aiv diversity have thus not been completely clarified. during the monitoring of ai circulation among wild waterfowl in 2007-2008, two viruses (h3n8 and h1n1) were isolated from ducks caught in a funnel trap located in la hulpe wetland in belgium. h3n8 viruses were revealed to b ...201526629623
host immunological factors enhancing mortality of young adults during the 1918 influenza pandemic.during the 1918 influenza pandemic, healthy young adults unusually succumbed to infection and were considered more vulnerable than young children and the elderly. the pathogenesis of this pandemic in the young adult population remains poorly understood. as this population is normally the least likely to die during seasonal influenza outbreaks, thought to be due to their appropriate pre-existing and robust immune responses protecting them from infection, we sought to review existing literature fo ...201526347742
genesis and pathogenesis of the 1918 pandemic h1n1 influenza a virus.the source, timing, and geographical origin of the 1918-1920 pandemic influenza a virus have remained tenaciously obscure for nearly a century, as have the reasons for its unusual severity among young adults. here, we reconstruct the origins of the pandemic virus and the classic swine influenza and (postpandemic) seasonal h1n1 lineages using a host-specific molecular clock approach that is demonstrably more accurate than previous methods. our results suggest that the 1918 pandemic virus originat ...201424778238
influenza a virus infections in marine mammals and terrestrial carnivores.influenza a viruses (iav), members of the orthomyxoviridae, cover a wide host spectrum comprising a plethora of avian and, in comparison, a few mammalian species. the viral reservoir and gene pool are kept in metapopulations of aquatic wild birds. the mammalian-adapted iavs originally arose by transspecies transmission from avian sources. in swine, horse and man, species-adapted iav lineages circulate independently of the avian reservoir and cause predominantly respiratory disease of highly vari ...201424511825
reassortment patterns of avian influenza virus internal segments among different subtypes.the segmented rna genome of avian influenza viruses (aiv) allows genetic reassortment between co-infecting viruses, providing an evolutionary pathway to generate genetic innovation. the genetic diversity (16 haemagglutinin and 9 neuraminidase subtypes) of aiv indicates an extensive reservoir of influenza viruses exists in bird populations, but how frequently subtypes reassort with each other is still unknown. here we quantify the reassortment patterns among subtypes in the eurasian avian viral p ...201424456010
a novel m2e based flu vaccine formulation for dogs.the usa 2004 influenza virus outbreak h3n8 in dogs heralded the emergence of a new disease in this species. a new inactivated h3n8 vaccine was developed to control the spread of the disease but, as in humans and swine, it is anticipated that the virus will mutate shift and drift in the dog population. therefore, there is a need for a vaccine that can trigger a broad protection to prevent the spread of the virus and the emergence of new strains.201324098576
evidence of transmission and risk factors for influenza a virus in household dogs and their owners.the possible transmission of influenza a virus between dogs and humans is important, as in mexico city there are approximately 1·2 million dogs. we present the first evidence of influenza a virus infection in household dogs in mexico.201324034782
influenza viruses in adult dogs raised in rural and urban areas in the state of são paulo, 1970, searching for the interspecies transmission of influenza viruses led to the first study on influenza viruses in domestic animals. birds and mammals, including human beings, are their natural hosts; however, other animals may also play a role in the virus epidemiology. the objective was to investigate the incidence of influenza viruses in adult dogs raised in rural (9, 19.56%) and urban (37, 80.43%) areas in the state of são paulo, brazil. dog serum samples were examined for antibodies t ...201223152313
a single dose of an avian h3n8 influenza virus vaccine is highly immunogenic and efficacious against a recently emerged seal influenza virus in mice and ferrets.h3n8 influenza viruses are a commonly found subtype in wild birds, usually causing mild or no disease in infected birds. however, they have crossed the species barrier and have been associated with outbreaks in dogs, pigs, donkeys, and seals and therefore pose a threat to humans. a live attenuated, cold-adapted (ca) h3n8 vaccine virus was generated by reverse genetics using the wild-type (wt) hemagglutinin (ha) and neuraminidase (na) genes from the a/blue-winged teal/texas/sg-00079/2007 (h3n8) ( ...201525903333
a live attenuated equine h3n8 influenza vaccine is highly immunogenic and efficacious in mice and ferrets.equine influenza viruses (eiv) are responsible for rapidly spreading outbreaks of respiratory disease in horses. although natural infections of humans with eiv have not been reported, experimental inoculation of humans with these viruses can lead to a productive infection and elicit a neutralizing antibody response. moreover, eiv have crossed the species barrier to infect dogs, pigs, and camels and therefore may also pose a threat to humans. based on serologic cross-reactivity of h3n8 eiv from d ...201525410860
identification of morphological differences between avian influenza a viruses grown in chicken and duck cells.although wild ducks are considered to be the major reservoirs for most influenza a virus subtypes, they are typically resistant to the effects of the infection. in contrast, certain influenza viruses may be highly pathogenic in other avian hosts such as chickens and turkeys, causing severe illness and death. following in vitro infection of chicken and duck embryo fibroblasts (cef and def) with low pathogenic avian influenza (lpai) viruses, duck cells die more rapidly and produce fewer infectious ...201525613009
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