defective influenza a virus generated entirely from plasmids: its rna is expressed in infected mouse lung and modulates disease.naturally produced defective influenza virus has antiviral activity and, in sufficient amount, can protect mice from lethal influenza, irrespective of the virus subtype causing the disease. however, such defective virus preparations contain many undefined defective rna sequences, and it is thus not possible to establish dose-response relationships. to address this situation, we have transfected dna encoding a cloned defective rna into vero cells along with the 17 a/wsn (h1n1) plasmids required f ...200312565156
diagnostic methods applied to analysis of an outbreak of equine influenza in a riding school in which vaccine failure outbreak of equine influenza h3n8 in a riding school is described retrospectively with emphasis on diagnosis and putative vaccine failure. in march 1995 an outbreak of equine influenza occurred among 11 horses in a riding school, where most horses had received basic primary immunizations and several booster vaccinations against influenza. six of the 11 diseased horses had received their last booster vaccination within 5 months of the outbreak. nevertheless, the influenza infection spread rapi ...200312713892
experimental infection of ponies with equine influenza a2 (h3n8) virus strains of different pathogenicity elicits varying interferon and interleukin-6 responses.the production of interferon (ifn), interleukin-6 (il-6), and tumor necrosis factor (tnf) was monitored in horses during the course of influenza a2 virus infections. the effects of two virus strains, newmarket/2/93 and sussex/89, were compared, of which the latter is considered the more pathogenic in terms of clinical signs. ten naive ponies were infected with influenza a/equine/sussex/89 and 10 with influenza a/equine/newmarket/2/93, respectively. as expected ponies infected with sussex/89 show ...200312725689
comparison of hamster and pony challenge models for evaluation of effect of antigenic drift on cross protection afforded by equine influenza vaccines.vaccination and challenge studies in ponies are the most relevant experimental system for predicting whether strains included in equine influenza vaccines are relevant, but they are difficult to perform.200312875323
efficacy and duration of immunity of a combined equine influenza and equine herpesvirus vaccine against challenge with an american-like equine influenza virus (a/equi-2/kentucky/95).it has been recommended that modern equine influenza vaccines should contain an a/equi-1 strain and a/equi-2 strains of the american and european-like subtype. we describe here the efficacy of a modern updated inactivated equine influenza-herpesvirus combination vaccine against challenge with a recent american-like isolate of equine influenza (a/equine-2/kentucky/95 (h3n8). the vaccine contains inactivated influenza strains a-equine-1/prague'56, a-equine-2/newmarket-1/'93 (american lineage) and ...200414975389
alternate circulation of recent equine-2 influenza viruses (h3n8) from two distinct lineages in the united states.phylogenetic and antigenic analyses indicate that recent circulating equine-2 influenza viruses in the united states have been alternating between two genetic and antigenic distinct lineages since 1996. the evolution rates for these two lineages, the kentucky and the florida lineage, are very similar. for the earlier isolates in the kentucky lineage, there are multiple and sequential nonsynonymous substitutions at antigenic sites b and d. however, there are no changes at any of these antigenic s ...200415019234
influenza surveillance in birds in italian wetlands (1992-1998): is there a host restricted circulation of influenza viruses in sympatric ducks and coots?we report the results of a 6-year serological and virological monitoring performed in ducks and coots in italy, in order to assess the degree of influenza a virus circulation in these birds during wintering. a total of 1039 sera collected from 1992 to 1998 was screened by a double antibody sandwich blocking elisa (np-elisa): seroprevalence of antibodies to influenza a viruses was significantly higher in ducks compared to coots (52.2% vs. 7.1%, respectively). the hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) ...200415036528
current perspectives on control of equine influenza.influenza a viruses of the h3n8 subtype are a major cause of respiratory disease in horses. subclinical infection with virus shedding can occur in vaccinated horses, particularly where there is a mismatch between the vaccine strains and the virus strains circulating in the field. such infections contribute to the spread of the disease. rapid diagnostic techniques are available for detection of virus antigen and can be used as an aid in control programmes. improvements have been made to methods o ...200415236674
evidence supporting the inclusion of strains from each of the two co-circulating lineages of h3n8 equine influenza virus in vaccines.two lineages of antigenically distinct equine influenza a h3n8 subtype viruses, american and european, co-circulate. experiments were conducted in ponies to investigate the protection induced by vaccines containing virus from one lineage against challenge infection with homologous or heterologous virus. regression analysis showed that vaccinated ponies with average pre-challenge single radial haemolysis (srh) antibody levels (i.e. 45-190mm2) had a higher probability of becoming infected if they ...200415364463
immune responses and protective efficacy in ponies immunised with an equine influenza iscom vaccine containing an 'american lineage' h3n8 virus.protective responses generated by vaccination with an immuno-stimulating complex (iscom)-based vaccine for equine influenza (equip f), containing a new 'american lineage' h3n8 virus, were studied. seven ponies in the vaccine group received two intramuscular injections of equip f given 6 weeks apart. aerosol challenge with an a/eq/newmarket/1/93 reference strain 4 weeks after booster vaccination resulted in clinical signs of infection and viral shedding in 7 influenza-naive control animals wherea ...200415530689
stability of intracellular influenza virus nucleocapsid protein oligomers.stability of a/duck/ukrainae/63 (h3n8) influenza virus intracellular np oligomers was studied using reducing agents, denaturants, detergents, salts, various ph and a range of temperatures. the results obtained indicate that influenza virus np oligomers are noncovalently stabilized, and np subunits are not linked by disulfide bonds. np oligomers are thermostable and sds resistant. urea and high ionic strength also do not dissociate avian influenza virus intracellular np oligomers. however, np oli ...200515645379
mathematical model of influenza a virus production in large-scale microcarrier culture.a mathematical model that describes the replication of influenza a virus in animal cells in large-scale microcarrier culture is presented. the virus is produced in a two-step process, which begins with the growth of adherent madin-darby canine kidney (mdck) cells. after several washing steps serum-free virus maintenance medium is added, and the cells are infected with equine influenza virus (a/equi 2 (h3n8), newmarket 1/93). a time-delayed model is considered that has three state variables: the ...200515736163
postreassortment changes in a model system: ha-na adjustment in an h3n2 avian-human reassortant influenza our previous studies we described the postreassortment changes in the hemagglutinin (ha) of h2n1, h3n1, h4n1 and h13n1 influenza a virus reassortants with has derived from avian viruses and low-functional neuraminidase (na) of a human parent virus a/ussr/90/77 (h1n1). the changes involved amino acid substitutions that increased the negative local charge in the vicinity of the receptor-binding pocket and decreased the affinity of ha to sialic acid receptors. in the present report we describe t ...200515789269
characterisation of three equine influenza a h3n8 viruses from germany (2000 and 2002): evidence for frozen evolution.reported here are the results of antigenic and genetic characterisation of equine influenza strains causing local outbreaks reported to the equine diagnostic centre in berlin, germany. in 2000, equine influenza virus was detected in a nasal swab from a non-vaccinated horse using a rapid diagnostic kit, but was not successfully isolated. partial direct sequencing of the haemagglutinin (ha1) gene, indicated that the virus was a european lineage h3n8 subtype strain representative of strains isolate ...200515795074
[equine influenza in chile (1963-1992): a possible human case].in chile equine influenza has been strongly related to continental epizootics. first outbreak was described in 1963; main outbreaks were reported in 1977, 1985 and 1992. equine influenza virus was isolated in three opportunities: h7n7 (a/equi/1/santiago, chile/1977); h3n8 (a/equi/2/santiago, chile/1985) and h3n8 (a/equi/2/quillota, chile/1992). the most serious outbreak was caused by strain h7n7 in 1977. since 1992 equine influenza has not been reported in our country. in 1973 was described a ca ...200515798869
efficacy of a recombinant equine influenza vaccine against challenge with an american lineage h3n8 influenza virus responsible for the 2003 outbreak in the united kingdom.fifteen influenza-naive welsh mountain ponies were randomly assigned to three groups of five. a single dose of a recombinant alvac vaccine was administered intramuscularly to five of the ponies, two doses, administered five weeks apart, were administered to five, and the other five served as unvaccinated, challenge controls. two weeks after the completion of the vaccination programme, the ponies were all challenged by exposure to an aerosol of influenza virus a/eq/newmarket/5/03. their clinical ...200515816180
an epizootic of equine influenza in upper egypt in 2000.this study describes an epizootic of respiratory tract disease caused by influenza virus infection in a large population of equines in luxor and aswan, upper egypt, during the winter of 2000. the epizootic started in january and the infection rate reached its peak in february before gradually decreasing until the end of april, 2000. horses, donkeys and mules of all ages and both sexes were affected. free movement of the infected equines and direct contact between the animals at markets facilitat ...200415861887
isolation, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin, neuraminidase and nucleoprotein genes of the chilean equine influenza virus subtypes h7n7 and h3n8.we report here on the isolation and sequencing of the hemagglutinin, neuraminidase and nucleoprotein genes of the chilean equine influenza virus subtypes h7n7 (a/equi-1/santiago/77, sa77) and h3n8 (a/equi-2/santiago/85, sa85). the sequences obtained allowed a variability analysis, which indicated significant differences when compared with other isolates. we found that chilean isolates are more similar to the north american variety than to european isolates. isolate sa77 is a good candidate for i ...200515977411
downstream processing of mdck cell-derived equine influenza virus.a microcarrier-based process was used to produce equine influenza virus (a/equi 2 (h3n8), newmarket 1/93) in madin darby canine kidney (mdck) cells. the virus was purified in a sequence of downstream processing steps comprising of depth filtration, inactivation, ultrafiltration (uf) and gel filtration. in the ultrafiltration step, the hemagglutinin (ha) was recovered to 100%. a high increase of neuraminidase (na) activity indicated the removal of some inhibitory compounds during this step. at th ...200516009601
the use of a systemic prime/mucosal boost strategy with an equine influenza iscom vaccine to induce protective immunity in horses, natural infection confers long lasting protective immunity characterised by mucosal iga and humoral igga and iggb responses. in order to investigate the potential of locally administered vaccine to induce a protective iga response, responses generated by vaccination with an immunostimulating complex (iscom)-based vaccine for equine influenza (equip f) containing a/eq/newmarket/77 (h7n7), a/eq/borlänge/91 (h3n8) and a/eq/kentucky/98 (h3n8) using a systemic prime/mucosal boost strategy ...200516098611
transmission of equine influenza virus to dogs.molecular and antigenic analyses of three influenza viruses isolated from outbreaks of severe respiratory disease in racing greyhounds revealed that they are closely related to h3n8 equine influenza virus. phylogenetic analysis indicated that the canine influenza virus genomes form a monophyletic group, consistent with a single interspecies virus transfer. molecular changes in the hemagglutinin suggested adaptive evolution in the new host. the etiologic role of this virus in respiratory disease ...200516186182
screening of feral pigeon (colomba livia), mallard (anas platyrhynchos) and graylag goose (anser anser) populations for campylobacter spp., salmonella spp., avian influenza virus and avian paramyxovirus.a total of 119 fresh faecal samples were collected from graylag geese migrating northwards in april. also, cloacal swabs were taken from 100 carcasses of graylag geese shot during the hunting season in august. in addition, samples were taken from 200 feral pigeons and five mallards. the cultivation of bacteria detected campylobacter jejuni jejuni in six of the pigeons, and in one of the mallards. salmonella diarizona 14: k: z53 was detected in one graylag goose, while all pigeons and mallards we ...200516398331
phylogenetic analyses of genes from south african lpai viruses isolated in 2004 from wild aquatic birds suggests introduction by eurasian 2004, south africa experienced its first recorded outbreak of a highly pathogenic notifiable avian influenza (hpnai) viral strain of the h5n2 subtype in ostriches in the eastern cape province. the traditional ostrich-farming areas in the western cape province report almost yearly outbreaks of low pathogenicity avian influenza (lpai) in ostriches, which is attributed to introduction by wild birds and certain climatic patterns. during the winter of 2004, lpai h3n8, h4n8, h5n2 and h5n1 avian inf ...200616447511
description of the outbreak of equine influenza (h3n8) in the united kingdom in 2003, during which recently vaccinated horses in newmarket developed respiratory disease.between march and may 2003, equine influenza virus infection was confirmed as the cause of clinical respiratory disease among both vaccinated and unvaccinated horses of different breeds and types in at least 12 locations in the uk. in the largest outbreak, 21 thoroughbred training yards in newmarket, with more than 1300 racehorses, were affected, with the horses showing signs of coughing and nasal discharge during a period of nine weeks. many of the infected horses had been vaccinated during the ...200616474051
antibody and ifn-gamma responses induced by a recombinant canarypox vaccine and challenge infection with equine influenza horses, equine influenza virus (eiv) is a leading cause of respiratory disease. conventional inactivated vaccines induce a short-lived immune response. by comparison, natural infection confers a long-term immunity to re-infection. an aim of new equine influenza vaccines is to more closely mimic natural infection in order to achieve a better quality of immunity. a new live recombinant vaccine derived from the canarypox virus vector and expressing haemagglutinin genes of eiv (subtype h3n8) has ...200616621023
interfering vaccine (defective interfering influenza a virus) protects ferrets from influenza, and allows them to develop solid immunity to reinfection.defective interfering (di) virus rnas result from major deletions in full-length viral rnas that occur spontaneously during de novo rna synthesis. these rnas are packaged into virions that are by definition non-infectious, and are delivered to cells normally targeted by the virion. di rnas can only replicate with the aid of a coinfecting infectious helper virus, but the small size of di rna allows more copies of it to be made than of its full-length counterpart, so the cell produces defective vi ...200616621180
inability of kaolin treatment to remove nonspecific inhibitors from equine serum for the hemagglutination inhibition test against equine h7n7 influenza virus.the hemagglutination inhibition test is used by many diagnostic and surveillance laboratories for detection of antibodies to influenza viruses. it is well known that the hemagglutination inhibition test is affected by nonspecific inhibitors present in equine serum. several serum treatments are in use to remove these inhibitors, including treatment with kaolin. discrepant results were observed in the authors' laboratories when using kaolin treatment before testing equine sera for antibodies again ...200616789714
inhibition of multiple subtypes of influenza a virus in cell cultures with morpholino oligomers.peptide-conjugated phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (p-pmo) are single-stranded nucleic acid-like antisense agents that can reduce gene expression by sterically blocking complementary rna sequence. p-pmo are water soluble and nuclease resistant, and they readily achieve uptake into cells in culture under standard conditions. eight p-pmo, each 20 to 22 bases in length, were evaluated for their ability to inhibit influenza a virus (fluav) a/pr/8/34 (h1n1) replication in cell culture. the p- ...200616966399
efficacy of oseltamivir phosphate to horses inoculated with equine influenza a virus.we investigated the efficacy of the oral administration of oseltamivir phosphate (op) in horses experimentally infected with equine influenza a virus (h3n8). nine horses were divided into three horses each of control, treatment and prophylaxis groups. an administration protocol for the treatment group (2 mg/kg of body weight, twice a day for five days) was started immediately after the onset of pyrexia (above 38.9 degrees c). an administration protocol for the prophylaxis group (2 mg/kg of body ...200617019060
an outbreak of avian influenza subtype h9n8 among chickens in south korea.low pathogenic avian influenza subtype h9n8 was diagnosed on a korean native chicken farm in gyeonggi province, south korea, in late april 2004. clinical signs included moderate respiratory distress, depression, mild diarrhoea, loss of appetite and a slightly elevated mortality (1.4% in 5 days). pathologically, mucopurulent tracheitis and air sacculitis were prominently found with urate renal deposition. the isolated a/chicken/kr/164/04 (h9n8) had an ala-ser-gly-arg (a/s/g/r) motif at the cleava ...200617121732
an outbreak of equine influenza virus in vaccinated horses in italy is due to an h3n8 strain closely related to recent north american representatives of the florida december 2005, equine influenza virus infection was confirmed as the cause of clinical respiratory disease in vaccinated horses in apulia, italy. the infected horses had been vaccinated with a vaccine that contained strains representatives from both the european (a/eq/suffolk/89) and american (a/eq/newmarket/1/93) h3n8 influenza virus lineages, and the h7n7 strain a/eq/praga/56. genetic characterization of the hemagglutinin (ha) and neuraminidase (na) genes of the virus from the outbreak, ind ...200717197135
highly pathogenic avian influenza h5n1 virus in cats and other carnivores.the asian lineage highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) h5n1 virus is a known pathogen of birds. only recently, the virus has been reported to cause sporadic fatal disease in carnivores, and its zoonotic potential has been dominating the popular media. attention to felids was drawn by two outbreaks with high mortality in tigers, leopards and other exotic felids in thailand. subsequently, domestic cats were found naturally infected and experimentally susceptible to h5n1 virus. a high susceptib ...200717250978
efficacy of a canarypox-vectored recombinant vaccine expressing the hemagglutinin gene of equine influenza h3n8 virus in the protection of ponies from viral determine onset and duration of immunity provided by a 2- or 3-dose series of a new canarypox-vectored recombinant vaccine for equine influenza virus (rcp-eiv vaccine) expressing the hemagglutinin genes of influenza h3n8 virus strains a/eq/kentucky/94 and a/eq/newmarket/2/93 in ponies.200717269889
avian influenza virus screening in wild waterfowl in norway, 2005.the prevalence of influenza a virus infection, and the distribution of different subtypes of the virus, were studied in 604 geese and ducks shot during ordinary hunting 2005. the study was based upon molecular screening of cloacal swabs taken by the hunters. the sampling included the following species: greylag (anser anser), mallard (anas platyrhynchos), wigeon (anas penelope), teal (anas crecca), goosander (mergus merganser), tufted duck (aythya fuligula), common scoter (melanitta nigra), golde ...200717494599
using rrt-pcr analysis and virus isolation to determine the prevalence of avian influenza virus infections in ducks at minto flats state game refuge, alaska, during august 2005.this study describes surveillance for avian influenza viruses (aiv) in the minto flats state game refuge, high-density waterfowl breeding grounds in alaska. five hundred paired cloacal samples from dabbling ducks (northern pintail, mallard, green wing teal, and widgeon) were placed into ethanol and viral transport medium (vtm). additional ethanol-preserved samples were taken. of the ethanol-preserved samples, 25.6% were aiv rna-positive by real-time rt-pcr. the hemagglutinin (ha) and neuraminida ...200717541700
effective priming of foals born to immune dams against influenza by a canarypox-vectored recombinant influenza h3n8 vaccine.a classical limitation of early life immunization is the interference by maternally derived antibodies, which are known to inhibit the immune response to modified-live and killed vaccines. several studies have convincingly shown that even minute amounts of maternally derived antibodies against equine influenza can strongly interfere with successful vaccination of foals born to immune mares. in this study we evaluated the response of foals born to vaccinated mares to immunization with a canarypox ...200717559865
avian influenza a viruses in birds of the order psittaciformes: reports on virus isolations, transmission experiments and vaccinations and initial studies on innocuity and efficacy of oseltamivir in ovo.birds of the order psittaciformes are - besides chickens, turkeys and other birds - also susceptible to infection with avian influenza a viruses (aiv) and succumb following severe disease within one week. published data prove that various parakeets, amazons, cockatoos, african grey parrots and budgerigars (genera barnardius, psittacula, cacatua, eolophus, amazona, myiopsitta, psittacus and melopsittacus) were found dead following natural infections. natural infections of highly pathogenic avian ...200717724934
detection of a north american lineage h5 avian influenza virus in a south african wild h5-coinfection of a sample from wild ducks from which an h3n8 virus was isolated in 2004 was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr). sequence analysis of the partial h5 gene revealed that the strain was of low pathogenicity according to the amino acid sequence pqrtglf at the ho cleavage site. phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the partial h5 gene sequence fell within the american h5 lineage and shared 99.6% nucleotide sequence identity with the a/mallard duc ...200717883204
equine influenza vaccine containing older h3n8 strains offers protection against a/eq/south africa/4/03 (h3n8) strain in a short-term vaccine efficacy study.surveillance of equine influenza viruses has suggested that strains included in currently licensed vaccines are a poor match for those predominantly circulating in the field.200717910270
origin of highly pathogenic h5n1 avian influenza virus in china and genetic characterization of donor and recipient viruses.genetic analysis of all eight genes of two nanchang avian influenza viruses, a/duck/nanchang/1681/92 (h3n8-1681) and a/duck/nanchang/1904/92 (h7n1-1904), isolated from jiangxi province, china, in 1992, showed that six internal genes of h3n8-1681 virus and five internal (except ns gene) genes of h7n1-1904 virus were closely similar to a/goose/guangdong/1/96 (h5n1) virus, the first highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) virus of subtype h5n1 isolated in asia. the neuraminidase (na) gene of gs/gd ...200717947535
[complex environmental and virological monitoring in the primorye territory in 2003-2006].the paper presents the results of monitoring of viruses of western nile (wn), japanese encephalitis (je), tick-borne encephalitis (tbe), geta, influenza a, as well as avian paramicroviruses type i (virus of newcastle disease (nd)) and type 6 (apmv-6) in the primorye territory in 2003-2006. totally throughout the period, specific antibodies to the viruses were detected by neutralization test in wild birds (7.3%, wn; 8.0%, geta; 0.7% batai; 2.8%, alpine hare (lepus timidus); by hemagglutination-in ...200718041224
protection, systemic ifngamma, and antibody responses induced by an iscom-based vaccine against a recent equine influenza virus in its natural the horse, conventional inactivated or subunit vaccines against equine influenza virus (eiv) induce a short-lived antibody-based immunity to infection. alternative strategies of vaccination have been subsequently developed to mimic the long-term protection induced by natural infection with the virus. one of these approaches is the use of immune-stimulating complex (iscom)-based vaccines. iscom vaccines induce a strong antibody response and protection against influenza in horses, humans, and a ...200818252187
orthomyxo-, paramyxo- and flavivirus infections in wild waterfowl in finland.screening wild birds for viral pathogens has become increasingly important. we tested a screening approach based on blood and cloacal and tracheal swabs collected by hunters to study the prevalence of influenza a, paramyxo-, flavi-, and alphaviruses in finnish wild waterfowl, which has been previously unknown. we studied 310 blood samples and 115 mixed tracheal and cloacal swabs collected from hunted waterfowl in 2006. samples were screened by rt-pcr and serologically by hemagglutination inhibit ...200818307758
transmission of equine influenza virus to english foxhounds.we retrospectively demonstrated that an outbreak of severe respiratory disease in a pack of english foxhounds in the united kingdom in september 2002 was caused by an equine influenza a virus (h3n8). we also demonstrated that canine respiratory tissue possesses the relevant receptors for infection with equine influenza virus.200818325262
inhibition of influenza a h3n8 virus infections in mice by morpholino methods to combat influenza a virus (fluav) in humans and animals are needed. the h3n8 subtype virus was the cause of the pandemic of 1890 and has recently undergone cross-species transmission from horses to dogs in the usa. in 2007 h3n8 spread to australia, a continent previously devoid of equine influenza. here, we show that antisense-peptide-conjugated phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (ppmos), delivered by intranasal administration, are able to inhibit the replication of fluav a/eq ...200818369525
evaluation of a vectored equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) vaccine expressing h3 haemagglutinin in the protection of dogs against canine 2004, canine influenza virus (civ) was identified as a respiratory pathogen of dogs for the first time and found to be closely related to h3n8 equine influenza virus (eiv). we generated a recombinant vectored vaccine that expresses h3 of a recent isolate of eiv using equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) as the delivery vehicle. this ehv-1 vectored vaccine exhibited robust and stable eiv h3 expression and induced a strong influenza virus-specific response in both mice and dogs upon intranasal or ...200818407383
collaborative study for the establishment of a candidate equine influenza subtype 2 american-like strain a/eq/south africa/4/03 - horse antiserum biological reference 2004, the office international des epizooties (oie) expert surveillance panel on equine influenza recommended that the american lineage component (h3n8) of equine influenza vaccines (a/eq/newmarket/1/93-like) be updated to an a/eq/south africa/4/03-like virus. as a consequence the common european pharmacopoeia (ph. eur.) - oie reference for equine influenza subtype 2 american-like antiserum had to be complemented by an antiserum raised in horses against an a/eq/south africa/4/03 strain. an in ...200718413133
flow cytometric monitoring of influenza a virus infection in mdck cells during vaccine cell culture-based influenza vaccine production the monitoring of virus titres and cell physiology during infection is of great importance for process characterisation and optimisation. while conventional virus quantification methods give only virus titres in the culture broth, data obtained by fluorescence labelling of intracellular virus proteins provide additional information on infection dynamics. flow cytometry represents a valuable tool to investigate the influences of cultivation condi ...200818447925
influenza a virus (h3n8) in dogs with respiratory disease, 2004, canine influenza virus subtype h3n8 emerged in greyhounds in the united states. subsequent serologic evidence indicated virus circulation in dog breeds other than greyhounds, but the virus had not been isolated from affected animals. in 2005, we conducted virologic investigation of 7 nongreyhound dogs that died from respiratory disease in florida and isolated influenza subtype h3n8 virus. antigenic and genetic analysis of a/canine/jacksonville/2005 (h3n8) and a/canine/miami/2005 (h3n8) ...200818507900
monitoring influenza virus content in vaccine production: precise assays for the quantitation of hemagglutination and neuraminidase activity.robust and precise quantitation of influenza virus is a premise for the efficient development of vaccine production processes. in this article, revised assays for the determination of hemagglutination (ha) and neuraminidase (na) activity are presented. bias of traditional discontinuous ha assays and operator dependency was overcome by introduction of a regression procedure. at little effort, a continuous assay result is obtained with repeatability as good as +29%/-22% in the best case (95% confi ...200818561375
influenza virus protecting rna: an effective prophylactic and therapeutic antiviral.another influenza pandemic is inevitable, and new measures to combat this and seasonal influenza are urgently needed. here we describe a new concept in antivirals based on a defined, naturally occurring defective influenza virus rna that has the potential to protect against any influenza a virus in any animal host. this "protecting rna" (244 rna) is incorporated into virions which, although noninfectious, deliver the rna to those cells of the respiratory tract that are naturally targeted by infe ...200818579602
vaccine failure caused an outbreak of equine influenza in april 2004 an outbreak of equine influenza occurred at the zagreb hippodrome, croatia. clinical respiratory disease of the same intensity was recorded in vaccinated and non-vaccinated horses. the equine influenza vaccine used in croatia at the time of the outbreak contained the strains a/equine/miami/63 (h3n8), a/equine/fontainebleau/79 (h3n8) and a/equine/prague/56 (h7n7). at the same time, the usual strains in vaccines used in europe were, in accordance with the recommendation of the world ...200918632226
gene segment reassortment between american and asian lineages of avian influenza virus from waterfowl in the beringia area.since prehistoric times, the bering strait area (beringia) has served as an avenue of dispersal between the old and the new worlds. on a field expedition to this area, we collected fecal samples from dabbling ducks, geese, shorebirds, and gulls on the chukchi peninsula, siberia, and pt. barrow, alaska, and characterized the subtypes of avian influenza virus present in them. four of 202 samples (2%) from alaska were positive for influenza a virus rna in two independent polymerase chain reaction ( ...200818637721
genetic analyses of an h3n8 influenza virus isolate, causative strain of the outbreak of equine influenza at the kanazawa racecourse in japan in august 2007, an outbreak of equine influenza occurred among vaccinated racehorses with japanese commercial equine influenza vaccine at kanazawa racecourse in ishikawa prefecture in japan. apparent symptoms were pyrexia (38.2-41.0 degrees c) and nasal discharge with or without coughing, although approximately half of the infected horses were subclinical. all horses had been shot with a vaccine that contained two inactivated h3n8 influenza virus strains [a/equine/la plata/93 (la plata/93) of am ...200818840963
genetic analysis of h3 subtype influenza viruses isolated from domestic ducks in northern china during 2004-2005.the broad distribution and prevalence of h3 subtype influenza viruses in avian and mammalian hosts constitutes a global threat to both human and veterinary health. in this present study, six h3n8 influenza viruses isolated from domestic ducks during 2004-2005 in northern china were genetically and phylogenetically characterized. sequence analysis showed that ha, na, and m genes of all the six h3n8 isolates had a close relationship with those of equine/jilin/1/89 (h3n8) virus, which once caused o ...200919067150
real-time rt-pcr for detection of equine influenza and evaluation using samples from horses infected with a/equine/sydney/2007 (h3n8).equine influenza (ei) virus (h3n8) was identified in the australian horse population for the first time in august 2007. the principal molecular diagnostic tool used for detection was a taqman real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions (rt-pcr) assay specific for the matrix (ma) gene of influenza virus type a (iva). as this assay is not specific for ei, we developed a new ei h3-specific taqman assay targeting the haemagglutinin (ha) gene of all recent ei h3 strains. the iva and th ...200919153018
[distribution of avian influenza virus subtypes among domestic ducks in eastern china].to identify the distribution of avian influenza virus subtypes among domestic ducks in eastern china.200819160806
[monitoring influenza a virus and newcastle disease virus in migratory waterfowls in sanjiang natural reserve of heilongjiang province].in order to monitor the present situation of avian influenza virus (aiv) and newcastle disease virus (ndv) in migratory waterfowls effectively, 158 tracheal and cloacal swab samples for wild birds were collected from sanjiang natural reserve during migratory seasons in october 2005, april 2006 and october 2006.200819160826
isolation and characterization of the equine influenza virus causing the 2006 outbreak in chile.the equine influenza virus is the causal agent of influenza in horses. in july 2006, horses from various regions of chile presented fever, serious nasal discharge, dry cough, anorexia and depression. here we describe the isolation and characterization of the virus responsible for this outbreak. the virus was identified as equine influenza virus h3n8, since haemagglutination was inhibited by an anti-a/equi/1/h3n8 serum, but not by an anti-a/equi/1/h7n7 serum. the isolate was named a/equi/2/lonqué ...200919179022
influenza in dogs and cats.influenza has been long absent from the list of infectious diseases considered as possibilities in dogs and cats. with the discovery that avian influenza h5n1 can infect cats and dogs, and the appearance of canine influenza h3n8, small animal veterinarians have an important role to play in detection of influenza virus strains that may become zoonotic. small animal veterinarians must educate staff and clients about influenza to improve understanding as to when and where influenza infection is pos ...200919185192
acquisition of a polybasic hemagglutinin cleavage site by a low-pathogenic avian influenza virus is not sufficient for immediate transformation into a highly pathogenic strain.highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (hpaiv) differ from all other strains by a polybasic cleavage site in their hemagglutinin. all these hpaiv share the h5 or h7 subtype. in order to investigate whether the acquisition of a polybasic cleavage site by an avirulent avian influenza virus strain with a hemagglutinin other than h5 or h7 is sufficient for immediate transformation into an hpaiv, we adapted the hemagglutinin cleavage site of a/duck/ukraine/1/1963 (h3n8) to that of the hpaiv a/chic ...200919297482
antigenic and genetic variations in european and north american equine influenza virus strains (h3n8) isolated from 2006 to 2007.equine influenza virus (eiv) surveillance is important in the management of equine influenza. it provides data on circulating and newly emerging strains for vaccine strain selection. to this end, antigenic characterisation by haemaggluttination inhibition (hi) assay and phylogenetic analysis was carried out on 28 eiv strains isolated in north america and europe during 2006 and 2007. in the uk, 20 viruses were isolated from 28 nasopharyngeal swabs that tested positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbe ...200919346084
isolation and molecular characterization of equine h3n8 influenza viruses from pigs in china.during 2004-2006 swine influenza virus surveillance, two strains of h3n8 influenza viruses were isolated from pigs in central china. sequence and phylogenetic analyses of eight gene segments revealed that the two swine isolates were of equine origin and most closely related to european equine h3n8 influenza viruses from the early 1990s. comparison of hemagglutinin (ha) amino acid sequences showed several important substitutions. one substitution caused the loss of a potential glycosylation site, ...200919396578
amplification of four genes of influenza a viruses using a degenerate primer set in a one step rt-pcr method.we designed a degenerate primer set that yielded full-length amplification of hemagglutinin (ha), neuraminidase (na), matrix (m), and non-structural protein (nsp) genes of influenza a viruses in a single reaction mixture. these four genes were amplified from 15 ha (1-15) and 9 na (1-9) subtypes of influenza a viruses of avian (n=16) origin. in addition, 272 field isolates of avian origin were tested by this method. full-length amplification of ha, na, m, and nsp genes was obtained in 242 (88.9%) ...200919447141
[an update on viral diseases of the dog and cat].in this review, recent developments in the field of viral diseases of the dog and the cat are discussed. in the dog, infection with the coronavirus type 2 is associated with respiratory signs, while infection of a highly pathogenic strain of the coronavirus type 1 has been identified as the cause of mortality in puppies. a new strain of the canine parvovirus is identified, from which the pathogenicity is not yet completely clarified. infection with west nile virus is associated with progressive ...200919462619
protective immunization of horses with a recombinant canarypox virus vectored vaccine co-expressing genes encoding the outer capsid proteins of african horse sickness virus.we describe the development and preliminary characterization of a recombinant canarypox virus vectored (alvac) vaccine for protective immunization of equids against african horse sickness virus (ahsv) infection. horses (n=8) immunized with either of two concentrations of recombinant canarypox virus vector (alvac-ahsv) co-expressing synthetic genes encoding the outer capsid proteins (vp2 and vp5) of ahsv serotype 4 (ahsv-4) developed variable titres (<10-80) of virus-specific neutralizing antibod ...200919490959
avian influenza in wild birds, central coast of determine genotypes of avian influenza virus circulating among wild birds in south america, we collected and tested environmental fecal samples from birds along the coast of peru, june 2006-december 2007. the 9 isolates recovered represented 4 low-pathogenicity avian influenza strains: subtypes h3n8, h4n5, h10n9, and h13n2.200919523296
australian surveillance for avian influenza viruses in wild birds between july 2005 and june identify and gain an understanding of the influenza viruses circulating in wild birds in australia.200919573149
interspecies transmission of equine influenza virus (h3n8) to dogs by close contact with experimentally infected horse populations, influenza a virus subtype h3n8 (equine influenza virus, eiv) is a very important pathogen that leads to acute respiratory disease. recently, eiv has emerged in dogs, and has become widespread among the canine population in the united states. the interspecies transmission route had thus far remained unclear. here, we tested whether the interspecies transmission of eiv to dogs could occur as a result of close contact with experimentally eiv-infected horses. three pairs consis ...200919596528
the first safe inactivated equine influenza vaccine formulation adjuvanted with iscom-matrix that closes the immunity gap.equine influenza is a contagious diseases caused by equine influenza viruses which belong to the orthomyxovirus family. outbreaks of equine influenza cause severe economic loses to the horse industry and consequently competition horses are required to be regularly vaccinated against equine influenza. currently available inactivated vaccines are only able to induce protection against clinical disease and virus excretion after a primary vaccination course consisting of three vaccine applications a ...200919607950
filter-feeding bivalves can remove avian influenza viruses from water and reduce infectivity.avian influenza (ai) viruses are believed to be transmitted within wild aquatic bird populations through an indirect faecal-oral route involving contaminated water. this study examined the influence of filter-feeding bivalves, corbicula fluminea, on the infectivity of ai virus in water. clams were placed into individual flasks with distilled water inoculated 1:100 with a low pathogenic (lp) ai virus (a/mallard/mn/190/99 (h3n8)). viral titres in water with clams were significantly lower at 24 and ...200919656788
experimental reproduction of canine influenza virus h3n8 infection in young puppies.canine influenza virus (civ) subtype h3n8 has emerged as a new pathogen with sustained transmission in the dog population in the united states. in this study, we report the experimental induction of respiratory disease in dogs using three civ field isolates. young (14 to 15 weeks of age) civ-seronegative pups were challenged with one of three civ isolates and monitored for clinical signs of respiratory disease, nasal virus shedding, seroconversion, lung lesions, and virus isolation from the lowe ...200919742446
development and evaluation of one-step taqman real-time reverse transcription-pcr assays targeting nucleoprotein, matrix, and hemagglutinin genes of equine influenza virus.the objective of this study was to develop and evaluate new taqman real-time reverse transcription-pcr (rrt-pcr) assays by the use of the minor groove binding probe to detect a wide range of equine influenza virus (eiv) strains comprising both subtypes of the virus (h3n8 and h7n7). a total of eight rrt-pcr assays were developed, targeting the nucleoprotein (np), matrix (m), and hemagglutinin (ha) genes of the two eiv subtypes. none of the eight assays cross-reacted with any of the other known eq ...200919846644
influenza virus infections in dogs and cats.during the last decade reports of influenza a virus infections in dogs and cats draw considerable attention to veterinary practitioners and scientists in the fields of virology and epidemiology. earlier experimental studies showed that dogs and cats are susceptible to influenza a virus infection, but animals did not develop clinical signs. in recent years transmission of influenza virus of subtype h3n8 from horses to dogs, however, was accompanied by severe clinical signs and the infection was s ...201019896216
a vectored equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) vaccine elicits protective immune responses against ehv-1 and h3n8 equine influenza virus.vaccination is commonly used to control equine respiratory pathogens such as equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) and equine influenza virus (eiv). here, we describe the generation and characterization of a recombinant ehv-1 modified live virus vaccine (mlv) based on a recent abortogenic ehv-1 strain, ny03. the immunogenicity and efficacy of the mlv was tested in horses in an ehv-1 vaccination/challenge experiment using the highly virulent neurovirulent ehv-1 strain oh03. induction of a robust ehv- ...201019897066
onset and duration of immunity to equine influenza virus resulting from canarypox-vectored (alvac) vaccination.equine influenza virus remains an important problem in horses despite extensive use of vaccination. efficacy of equine influenza vaccination depends on the onset and duration of protective immunity, and appropriate strain specificity of the immune response. this study was designed to test the protective immunity resulting from vaccination with the north american commercial alvac equine influenza vaccine (recombitek influenza, merial, usa)(1) against challenge with american lineage influenza viru ...201020018384
evaluation of the efficacy of a canine influenza virus (h3n8) vaccine in dogs following experimental challenge.canine influenza virus (civ) subtype h3n8 is an emerging pathogen with sustained horizontal transmission in the dog population in the united states. this study evaluated the efficacy of an inactivated civ vaccine in 6- to 8-week-old beagle pups challenged with virulent civ. one group of civ-seronegative pups was vaccinated with two doses of a civ vaccine 3 weeks apart; a second group of pups received adjuvanted placebo as a control. blood samples were collected at various times to determine anti ...200920037964
equine influenza outbreak in india (2008-09): virus isolation, sero-epidemiology and phylogenetic analysis of ha outbreak of equine influenza (ei) was reported in india in june, 2008 after a gap of two decades. the outbreak started from jammu and kashmir (katra), northern state of india and spread to the other parts of the country affecting equines in 11 states. the virus (h3n8) was isolated from nasal swabs obtained from clinical cases in various locations in the country including katra (jammu and kashmir), mysore (karnataka) and ahmedabad (gujarat) using embryonated chicken eggs. the virus isolates we ...201020053509
complete genome amplification of equine influenza virus subtype 2.this work reports a method for rapid amplification of the complete genome of equine influenza virus subtype 2 (h3n8). a thermoscript reverse transcriptase instead of the avian myeloblastosis virus reverse transcriptase or moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase was used. this enzyme has demonstrated higher thermal stability and is described as suitable to make long cdna with a complex secondary structure. the product obtained by this method can be cloned, used in later sequencing rea ...200920085182
isolation and genetic characterization of h3n8 equine influenza virus from donkeys in china.during the 2007 outbreak of equine influenza (eiv) in china, an influenza virus designated a/donkey/xinjiang/5/2007 (donkey/xinjiang/2007) was isolated from a symptomatic donkey in xinjiang uygur autonomous region, china. to analyze the genetic evolution of the new isolate, the hemagglutinin (ha) gene of donkey/xinjiang/2007 was amplified and sequenced. sequence alignment, prediction of glycosylation sites and phylogenetic analysis of the ha1 protein of donkey/xinjiang/2007 showed most similarit ...201020153940
a two-tiered model for simulating the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of rapidly evolving viruses, with an application to influenza.understanding the epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of rapidly evolving pathogens is one of the most challenging problems facing disease ecologists today. to date, many mathematical and individual-based models have provided key insights into the factors that may regulate these dynamics. however, in many of these models, abstractions have been made to the simulated sequences that limit an effective interface with empirical data. this is especially the case for rapidly evolving viruses in ...201020335193
transmission of canine influenza virus (h3n8) among susceptible dogs.canine influenza virus (civ) is an emerging pathogen that causes acute respiratory disease in dogs. as with any communicable disease, dog-to-dog transmission of civ occurs when infected dogs come in contact with other susceptible dogs. we demonstrate that civ transmission occurs readily from civ-infected dogs to susceptible dogs following co-mingling. four experimentally infected dogs were co-mingled with a group of eight civ-negative dogs at 1 day post-infection and both groups were observed fo ...201020347235
influenza virus transmission from horses to dogs, australia.during the 2007 equine influenza outbreak in australia, respiratory disease in dogs in close contact with infected horses was noted; influenza (h3n8) virus infection was confirmed. nucleotide sequence of the virus from dogs was identical to that from horses. no evidence of dog-to-dog transmission or virus persistence in dogs was found.201020350392
canine h3n8 influenza virus infection in dogs and h3n8 influenza virus closely related to equine influenza virus was identified in racing greyhound dogs with respiratory disease in 2004 and subsequently identified in shelter and pet dogs. pathologic findings in dogs spontaneously infected with canine influenza virus were compared with lesions induced in beagle and mongrel dogs following experimental inoculation with influenza a/canine/florida/43/2004. balb/c mice were inoculated with canine influenza virus to assess their suitability as an e ...201020351357
characterization of two low pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated in hungary in 2007.two low pathogenic (lp) avian influenza virus strains, a/mallard/hungary/19616/07 (h3n8) and a/mute swan/hungary/5973/07 (h7n7), isolated as part of the national surveillance program in hungary, were fully sequenced and characterized. the two viruses showed the closest phylogenetic relationship regarding their acidic polymerase genes. the h7n7 hungarian virus and some h5n2 influenza viruses isolated from korean pigs appeared to have their basic polymerase gene 1 from a relatively recent common a ...201020363081
efficacy of a whole inactivated ei vaccine against a recent eiv outbreak isolate and comparative detection of virus outbreak of h3n8 equine influenza virus (eiv) that occurred in vaccinated horses in japan was caused by a genetically divergent eiv isolate of the florida clade 1 sub-lineage. this virus subsequently entered australia where it infected thousands of immunologically naïve horses. the objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of a non-updated whole inactivated equine influenza (ei) vaccine to protect if used in the face of an outbreak induced by a virus similar to the ones circulating ...201020400185
comparison of cloacal and oropharyngeal samples for the detection of avian influenza virus in wild birds.this study was conducted to compare oropharyngeal (op) and cloacal samples of wild birds (n = 137) for the detection and isolation of avian influenza virus (aiv). a total of 39 (28.5%) cloacal and 85 (62.0%) op samples were positive for aiv by real-time reverse transcription-pcr (rrt-pcr). the aiv nucleic acid was detected in both cloacal and op samples from 27 (19.7%) birds, in cloacal samples only from 12 (8.8%) birds, and in op samples only from 58 (42.3%) birds. thus, a total of 97 (70.8%) b ...201020408409
equine and canine influenza: a review of current the past decade, the pandemics of highly pathogenic avian influenza h5n1 and the novel h1n1 influenza have both illustrated the potential of influenza viruses to rapidly emerge and spread widely in animals and people. since both of these viruses are zoonotic, these pandemics have been the driving force behind a renewed commitment by the medical and veterinary professions to practice one world, one health for the control of infectious diseases. the discovery in 2004 that an equine origin h3n8 ...201020426896
survey of influenza a viruses circulating in wild birds in canada 2005 to 2007.a multi-agency, canada-wide survey of influenza a viruses circulating in wild birds, coordinated by the canadian cooperative wildlife health centre, was begun in the summer of 2005. cloacal swab specimens collected from young-of-year ducks were screened for the presence of influenza a nucleic acids by quantitative, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rrt-pcr). specimens that produced positive results underwent further testing for h5 and h7 gene sequences and virus isolatio ...201020521675
studying possible cross-protection of canada geese preexposed to north american low pathogenicity avian influenza virus strains (h3n8, h4n6, and h5n2) against an h5n1 highly pathogenic avian influenza challenge.highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) h5n1 virus infections have caused unprecedented morbidity and mortality in different species of domestic and wild birds in asia, europe, and africa. in our previous study, we demonstrated the susceptibility and potential epidemiologic importance of h5n1 hpai virus infections in canada geese. in this study, we investigated the potential of preexposure with north american lineage h3n8, h4n6, and h5n2 low pathogenicity avian influenza (lpai) viruses to cross ...201020521692
the effect of age on avian influenza viral shedding in mallards (anas platyrhynchos).avian influenza virus (aiv) prevalence in wild aquatic bird populations varies with season, geographic location, host species, and age. it is not clear how age at infection affects the extent of viral shedding. to better understand the influence of age at infection on viral shedding of wild bird-origin low pathogenicity avian influenza (lpai) viruses, mallards (anas platyrhynchos) of increasing age (2 wk, 1 mo, 2 mo, 3 mo, and 4 mo) were experimentally inoculated via choanal cleft with a 10(6) m ...201020521698
continuing evolution and interspecies transmission of influenza viruses in live bird markets in bird markets (lbms) provide an ideal environment for the evolution and interspecies transfer of avian influenza viruses (aivs). in this study, we analyzed aivs present in lbms in korea during the winter seasons of 2006-08. sixty-five aivs that belong to four hemagglutination (ha) subtypes ofaiv (h3, h4, h6, and h9) were isolated from 644 pooled tissue or swab samples collected in lbms. most h9 subtypes of aivs were isolated from galliformes (chickens, silky fowls, pheasants, and guinea fowl ...201020521725
isolation and characterisation of equine influenza viruses (h3n8) from europe and north america from 2008 to other influenza a viruses, equine influenza virus undergoes antigenic drift. it is therefore essential that surveillance is carried out to ensure that recommended strains for inclusion in vaccines are kept up to date. here we report antigenic and genetic characterisation carried out on equine influenza virus strains isolated in north america and europe over a 2-year period from 2008 to 2009. nasopharyngeal swabs were taken from equines showing acute clinical signs and submitted to diagnosti ...201120580170
serologic prevalence of antibodies against canine influenza virus (h3n8) in dogs in a metropolitan animal determine the prevalence of exposure to canine influenza virus (civ) in dogs in a metropolitan animal shelter.201020590497
equine influenza: a review of an unpredictable virus.this review discusses some of the challenges still faced in the control of equine influenza virus h3n8 infection. a widespread outbreak of equine influenza in the united kingdom during 2003 in vaccinated thoroughbred racehorses challenged the current dogma on vaccine strain selection. furthermore, several new developments in the first decade of the 21st century, including transmission to and establishment in dogs, a presumed influenza-associated encephalopathy in horses and an outbreak of equine ...201020685140
duration of immunity induced by an equine influenza and tetanus combination vaccine formulation adjuvanted with iscom-matrix.equine influenza is a contagious disease caused by equine influenza virus which belongs to the orthomyxovirus family. outbreaks of equine influenza cause severe economic loses to the horse industry and consequently horses in competition are required to be regularly vaccinated against equine influenza. unlike the existing inactivated vaccines, equilis prequenza te is the only one able to induce protection against clinical disease and virus excretion after a primary vaccination course consisting o ...201020728523
distribution of influenza virus sialoreceptors on upper and lower respiratory tract in horses and is strongly suspected that equine influenza virus (eiv) is the origin of canine influenza virus (civ, h3n8), which was first isolated in u.s.a. in 2004, on the basis of phylogenetic analyses. although the distribution of influenza virus sialoreceptors seems to be associated with this interspecies transmission, there have been scant data of comparison about distributions of sialoreceptors on the whole respiratory tract between horses and dogs. we examined the histological distribution of influ ...201120805638
in vitro susceptibility of canine influenza a (h3n8) virus to nitazoxanide and tizoxanide.infection of dogs with canine influenza virus (civ) is considered widespread throughout the united states following the first isolation of civ in 2004. while vaccination against influenza a infection is a common and important practice for disease control, antiviral therapy can serve as a valuable adjunct in controlling the impact of the disease. in this study, we examined the antiviral activity of nitazoxanide (ntz) and tizoxanide (tiz) against three civ isolates in vitro. ntz and tiz inhibited ...201020847948
evolution of canine and equine influenza (h3n8) viruses co-circulating between 2005 and 2008.influenza virus, subtype h3n8, was transmitted from horses to greyhound dogs in 2004 and subsequently spread to pet dog populations. the co-circulation of h3n8 viruses in dogs and horses makes bi-directional virus transmission between these animal species possible. to understand the dynamics of viral transmission, we performed virologic surveillance in dogs and horses between 2005 and 2008 in the united states. the genomes of influenza a h3n8 viruses isolated from 36 dogs and horses were sequenc ...201020880564
surveillance and identification of influenza a viruses in wild aquatic birds in the crimea, ukraine (2006-2008).the ecology of avian influenza (ai) viruses in wild aquatic birds of asia is poorly understood, especially for the h5n1 high pathogenicity ai (hpai) viruses. from march 2006 through november 2008, 20 ai viruses were isolated in the crimea region of ukraine with an overall frequency of virus recovery of 3.3%. all the viruses were isolated from three species of dabbling ducks: mallard (anas platyrhynchos), wigeon (anas penelope), and garganey (anas querquedula), making the frequency of virus recov ...201020945793
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