responses of anopheles minimus to ddt residual spraying in a cleared forested foothill area in central thailand.anopheles balabacensis balabacensis and anopheles minimus are the main malaria vectors in thailand. in a cleared forested foothill area in the central part of the country a. minimus was the most prevalent anopheline species found, only 6 specimens of a. b. balabacensis being collected over a 3-year period. cattle were scarce in the area, tractors being largely used for working in the fields. this situation contributed to high man-vector contact. a minimus occurred throughout the year, with a maj ...197825000
infectivity of falciparum malaria patients for anopheline mosquitoes before and after chloroquine treatment.the infectivity of 25 falciparum malaria patients for anopheles balabacensis and anopheles minimus, before and after chloroquine therapy, was studied in central thailand. the proportion of patients infective for these mosquitoes was not affected by the administration of chloroquine, however, an elevation was observed in the median values for the numbers of oocysts on the guts of the a. balabacensis, but not the a. minimus, fed on infective patients after initiation of treatment.1976795104
the malaria situation and antimalaria program in laos.malaria is endemic in all 17 provinces of laos. transmission is perennial with a "seasonal peak" coinciding with the rainy season. the vectors anopheles minimus and an. balabacensis (=dirus) remain susceptible to ddt. chloroquine-resistance of plasmodium falciparum is at the ri-rii level. multidrug resistance is not yet a problem. major constraints of the antimalaria program involve logistics and operational problems solutions to which are specifically addressed in the recommendations.19921364866
current status of malaria in taiwan from 1966 to 1990.malaria was highly or moderately endemic in about 200 townships among the 360 municipalities in taiwan before the world war ii. during and after the war, annual incidence of malaria was estimated as 1.2 million cases out of 6 million population at that period. in 1952, malaria mortality was reported as 27.5 per 100,000 persons. malaria eradication program in taiwan was successfully carried out during 1947-1965 through a combined effort made by the government, who, unicef and usaid, and by the pa ...19912056557
malaria eradication in taiwan, 1952-1964--some memorable facts.island-wide indoor spraying, at 2 g technical ddt per m2, applied once a year from 1953 through 1957 interrupted the chain of transmission and reduced malaria morbidity to a very low level. the goal of the program was shifted from control to eradication in 1955. the primary vector, anopheles minimus, greatly reduced in number, was still widely distributed in the post-spraying years. an elaborate surveillance operation from 1958 through 1964 eliminated residual foci of transmission and reservoirs ...19912056560
bionomics of anopheles minimus and its role in malaria transmission in thailand.the bionomics of anopheles minimus, one of the main malaria vectors in thailand, were conducted in pakchong district, nakhon ratchasima province, from january 1984 to june 1985. the prevalence of an. minimus was influenced by monthly rainfall, relative humidity, temperature and wind velocity, with a major peak of density from september to november. an. minimus preferred to feed on animal rather than on human, tended to bite human more outdoors than indoors, and thus exhibiting zoophilic and exop ...19883227405
population genetic studies on the anopheles minimus complex in thailand.the population genetic studies on the anopheles minimus complex revealed that an. minimus is a species complex evident by ik value were less than 0.0534 and 0.4163 for the morphotaxonomy and isozyme studies. there are two sibling species in the an. minimus species complex. the first is the typical minimus and its variations described by harrison. esterase-2 alleles 100 and 102 are predominant with a few other alleles of 96 and 104. it is exophagic and zoophilic. it is widely distributed in all p ...19883238486
some entomological observations on malaria transmission in a remote village in northwestern thailand.anopheline mosquitoes and their relation to malaria transmission were studied during the months of march, may and july in the karen village of mae tha waw located in the northwestern mountains of tak province. thirteen species were captured on human bait during 80 man-nights of collecting. four additional species were collected during routine larval surveys. anopheles minimus and an. maculatus comprised 92.5% of the specimens captured biting man. anopheles minimus and an. nivipes were implicated ...19873333058
incrimination of anopheles minimus theobald as a vector of malaria in arunachal pradesh. 19873452549
studies on malaria and responses of anopheles balabacensis balabacensis and anopheles minimus to ddt residual spraying in thailand. i. pre-spraying observations. 19744153083
[experimental study on susceptibility of anopheles minimus and anopheles dirus to plasmodium vivax and plasmodium falciparum]. 19836380800
a preliminary survey of malaria in occidental, mindoro, philippines.a survey of malaria in northwest mindoro, occidental, mindoro, philippines is reported. three species of human plasmodia were identified from 600 blood films examined. the overall prevalence of malaria was 7% (2.8% p. falciparum, 4.3% p. vivax, 0.7% p. malariae). the prevalence of malaria was highest (24%) among children 0 to 15 years of age and only 4 cases (12%) were found among persons over the age of 15. males and females were equally infected. study sites with the highest slide-positivity r ...19826755740
hybridization of anopheles minimus and anopheles aconitus (diptera: culicidae) in thailand. 19827120308
deltamethrin impregnated bednets against anopheles minimus transmitted malaria in assam, india.of the 20 anopheles species caught in villages in sonapur, assam, only an. minimus was incriminated as a malaria vector by finding sporozoites in the salivary glands. it was found to be endophagic and endophilic in assam and because its biting peaked after midnight it was a suitable target for insecticide impregnated bednets. after the withdrawal of ddt spraying and collecting a year's baseline data, deltamethrin impregnated nets were distributed in 3 villages, untreated nets were distributed in ...19957714940
field evaluation of bednets impregnated with deltamethrin for malaria control.trials were undertaken in a hypoendemic area of malaria in an area bordering vietnam, in napo county of guangxi zhuang autonomous region, china. the aim was to compare the relative cost effectiveness of ddt residual spraying and of bednets impregnated with deltamethrin in the malaria control program. the trials were divided into three subgroups: (1) two farming areas and one coal mining area with a total population > 20,000, where the trial consisted of mass bednets impregnated with deltamethrin ...19937939937
[studies on distribution and behavior of anopheles minimus and its role of malaria transmission in hainan province at present].anopheles minimus was once a main malaria vector in hainan island and had been eliminated basically through the campaign of indoor residual spraying launched in 1959. it again became an incriminated vector of some focal malaria outbreaks in recent years. the present study was conducted in a selected county-danxian and a typical hilly area-feibar in the west part of danxian county in 1989-1990. an. minimus was found in 50% and 62.5% of the surveyed sites at mountainous and hilly area of danxian c ...19938174214
anopheles minimus: its bionomics and role in the transmission of malaria in assam, india.indoor, day-resting collections of anopheles minimus mosquitos from human dwellings in the study area in assam, india, indicated that these insects were prevalent throughout the year and that their maximum abundance occurred from march to august. a. minimus was identified as a vector of malaria, and sporozoite infections were recorded every month of the year, with the highest rating occurring in october. the mosquito was highly anthropophilic and fed on human hosts (indoor) all through the night ...19968653817
malaria survey in tarajulie tea estate and adjoining hamlets in sonitpur district, assam.malaria survey in tarajulie tea estate (te) and its adjoining hamlets revealed that pf was the predominant parasite species (79%) and morbidity was alarming. malaria positive cases were recorded in all age groups including infants. however, morbidity was much pronounced in the hamlets than among garden dwellers. mostly anopheles minimus were recorded in the day resting collections from human dwellings (indoor) and in overnight man biting catches in the hamlets. from these collections. an. minimu ...19968690129
observations on nocturnal biting activity and host preference of anophelines collected in southern thailand.over a 13-month period, 5,127 adult female mosquitoes were collected on human bait during multiple collecting periods between 1800 and 0600 h in 5 villages in southern thailand. there were marked differences in the biting activity of different species at each of the villages studied. anopheles maculatus and anopheles sawadwongporni were collected most often at dusk or in the first hours of darkness between 1800 and 2100 h. although specimens of anopheles dirus were collected consistently between ...19968723258
seasonal abundance and parity rates of anopheles species in southern thailand.mosquitoes were collected with human bait, animal bait, and co2-baited light traps during a 13-month period in 5 villages located along the myanmar border in southern thailand. altogether, 11,608 adult females consisting of 21 anopheline species were collected. abundance of species varied according to the village where collections were made. in one village that was studied most intensely, anopheles minimus was the most commonly collected species, representing 55.6, 10.6, and 56.5% of the human b ...19968723262
current insecticide susceptibility status of anopheles minimus theobald in assam. 19968810151
hyperendemic malaria in a forested, hilly myanmar village.a 1-year longitudinal study of hyperendemic malaria was carried out at tha-bye-wa village, oktwin township, situated in the forested bago mountain range in south-central myanmar. mosquito infectivity was assayed using specific, sporozoite enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. anopheles dirus was the predominant vector in the postmonsoon season (october); during the cool-dry season (january), both an. dirus and anopheles minimus were vectors. members of the anopheles culicifacies complex were caugh ...19958825497
larval habitats of malaria vectors and other anopheles mosquitoes around a transmission focus in northwestern thailand.we sampled 199 bodies of water for anopheles larvae around a malaria-endemic village near mae sot, thailand, over 2 years. anopheles dirus species a and d occurred in 54 small, well-shaded, stream and temporary ground pools. the larval habitat of species d is reported for the first time. anopheles minimus species a occurred in 8 samples from slow-moving streams, in 8 from rice fields, and in 2 from ground pools. anopheles pseudowillmori occurred in one sample from a ground pool, in 3 from stream ...19958825502
incrimination of anopheles minimus as a vector of malaria in karbi anglong district of assam. 19958936295
vector incrimination in tamulpur primary health centre, district nalbari, lower assam during malaria outbreak 1995.a widespread outbreak of malaria occurred in different districts of lower assam in april, 1995. entomological investigations were carried out in primary health centre tamulpur, the worst hit area of nalbari district. of the nine anopheline species collected, anopheles minimus was incriminated as the malaria vector with sporozoite rate of 6.5 per cent. the slow moving streamlets were identified as the sole breeding places of an. minimus.19969062040
historical review of mosquito control as a component of malaria eradication program in the ryukyu the ryukyu archipelago, where malaria used to be endemic, eradication of the disease was achieved by the year 1962, as a consequential effect of a planned malaria eradication program in the area. this achievement was facilitated by concerted efforts in controlling vector mosquitos and treatment of all detected and presumptive cases of malaria infections. anopheles minimus theobald and an. sinensis wiedemann were common in all areas endemic for malaria. knowledge of the biology and bionomics o ...19969185260
application of deltamethrin-impregnated bednets for mosquito and malaria control in yunnan, china.the results of research in china in recent years show that: 1) different laboratory sensitivity of adult anopheles minimus, an. sinensis and culex pipiens quinquefasciatus to deltamethrin exist in yunnan. although the range and duration for the use of permethrin and deltamethrin was limited, resistance of an. minimus, an. sinensis and cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus to different extent in some areas existed. 2) on walls built with cement and covered with a thin layer of lime on which deltamethrin a ...19969280005
genetic differentiation among three populations of anopheles minimus of guangxi and yunnan provinces in the people's republic of china.electrophoretic studies were carried out on isozymes of 3 populations of anopheles minimus collected from guangxi and yunnan provinces of the people's republic of china in 1993. eight proteins were analyzed by 5% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the most variable population, 'yunnan-field' (y-f), was highly polymorphic at 14 of 20 loci (p = 0.700) with an average heterozygosity h of 0.340. p values of 0.500 and 0.700, and h values of 0.220 and 0.210 were obtained for each from 'guangxi-lab' ( ...19979444039
thanaka (limonia acidissima) and deet (di-methyl benzamide) mixture as a mosquito repellent for use by karen women.the prevention and treatment of drug-resistant malaria is becoming increasingly difficult. on the thai-myanmar border multi-drug resistant strains of falciparum malaria are increasing and, because the malaria vector anopheles bite outdoors during early evening, insecticide house-spraying or impregnated bednets provide only limited protection. therefore, the protective efficacy of repellent formulations containing di-methyl benzamide (deet) and permethrin against local vectors was estimated, when ...19989737602
entomological and epidemiological investigations of malaria transmission in relation to population movements in forest areas of north-west thailand.transmission of forest-related malaria was observed entomologically and epidemiologically for 2 transmission seasons in 1990 and 1991 in 5 villages of mae sariang district, mae hong son province, north-west thailand. the entomological study included collections of mosquitos and determination of infection rate by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the residential villages and the farm huts. the epidemiological study included fortnightly visits to 30% of the households to interview and rec ...19989740259
identification of two species within the anopheles minimus complex in northern vietnam and their behavioural divergences.elucidating the complex taxonomic status of the major malaria vector taxa and characterising the individual species within each complex is important for understanding the complexity of the vector system in the south-east asian region and will allow to estimate the impact of vector control measures. this applies to countries such as laos, cambodia and vietnam that spend about 60% of their malaria control budget on implementing vector control activities. we used isozyme electrophoresis to clarify ...199910320653
pcr-based methods for identification of species of the anopheles minimus group: allele-specific amplification and single-strand conformation polymorphism.we report two polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based methods for distinguishing morphologically similar species based on amplification of a variable region of the 28s gene of ribosomal dna. the four species we investigated are mosquitoes of the anopheles minimus group: an. aconitus, an. varuna and an. minimus species a and c. the formally named species are vectors of human malaria parasites in south-east asia but are difficult to distinguish with certainty on the basis of morphology. allele-speci ...199910514052
mark-release-recapture experiment with adult anopheles minimus (diptera: culicidae) on ishigaki island, ryukyu archipelago, japan.movement of adult an. minimus theobald between larval habitats and feeding sites was investigated by mark-release-recapture in march 1993 on ishigaki island, ryukyu archipelago, japan. unfed (998 females) and fed (1,485 females) cohorts from a laboratory colony were marked with different colors of fluorescent dye, and released near nishihama stream where larvae were abundant. overall, 42 fed (2.82%) and 13 unfed (1.30%) females were recaptured. among these, 12 females were recaptured at a cowshe ...199910534954
glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in northern vietnam.glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (g6pd) deficiency was evaluated in 1676 schoolboys in northern vietnam. the trait was nearly absent in boys of the kinh (0.5%) and the mong (0.7%) ethnic groups that traditionally have lived outside malaria transmission areas. prevalences among ethnic groups living in the foothills, the breeding area of the main malaria vector anopheles minimus, ranged from 9.7% to 31%. these findings support the hypothesis of a selective advantage of the trait in plasmodium fal ...200010747283
epidemiology of malaria outbreak (april/may, 1999) in titabor primary health centre, district jorhat (assam).an investigation was undertaken of a malaria outbreak in the primary health centre titabor, district jorhat, assam during may/june 1999. the fever rate in the community since march 1999, was 44.4 per cent with an average case load of 2.5 per family. the fever cases peaked in the third week of may. slide positive and slide falciparum rates in mass blood survey, in the study village were 16.1 and 14.5 per cent respectively with 90 per cent infection of plasmodium falciparum. males (spr 17.5%) suff ...200010935318
status of malaria in thailand.despite decades of control success and a competent network of country-wide health infrastructure, malaria remains an important health threat in rural thailand. all 4 known human malaria parasites have been reported present, with plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium vivax predominant. the expansion and intensity of multi-drug resistant plasmodium falciparum is the most serious development to occur the last several decades. members of 3 anopheline species complexes, anopheles dirus, anopheles mini ...200011127318
anthropophily of anophelines in duars of west bengal and other regions of india.attempts have been made to identify the source of blood meals of twenty three anopheline species from various areas of high malaria endemicity in india. anopheles minimus, anopheles fluviatilis and anopheles dirus showed a high propensity for human blood in north-eastern parts of the country while anopheles sundicus was found to be anthropophilic in andaman & nicobar islands. anopheles culicifacies, anopheles maculatus and anopheles philippinensis were found primarily zoophilic in north-eastern ...200011198404
premunition against plasmodium falciparum in a malaria hyperendemic village in myanmar.premunition, naturally acquired protective immunity against plasmodium falciparum, has been described in hyperendemic areas of africa and papua new guinea. however, its occurrence in asia is debatable. in order to elucidate this question, a longitudinal study was undertaken in oo-do, a malaria endemic village in myanmar [burma] in 1995-97. only 2 species, plasmodium falciparum and p. vivax, were detected, with the former predominating. data from 116 subjects showed that all were infected at one ...200111280074
correlation of glutathione s-transferase and ddt dehydrochlorinase activities with ddt susceptibility in anopheles and culex mosquitos from northern thailand.comparative ddt-susceptibility status as well as glutathione s-transferase activity and ddtase activity of anopheles minimus (a). an. annularis and culex quinquefasciatus were investigated to ascertain the role of these enzymes in ddt-resistance. the standard who susceptibility test kits was used to discriminate between resistant and susceptible populations. gst activity was measured in microtiter plates whereas ddtase activity was determined by hplc quantitation of ddt metabolites. this is the ...200011414439
evidence for a new sibling species of anopheles minimus from the ryukyu archipelago, japan.the anopheles minimus complex is known to comprise at least 2 sibling species (a and c) in thailand and vietnam. this study investigated the specific status of an. minimus on ishigaki island, the ryukyu archipelago, japan using morphological and genetic analyses. morphological studies revealed that almost all (99.5%) of the adult mosquitoes are characterized by the humeral pale spot on the costa of their wings, a character that partially differentiates species a and c elsewhere. a high frequency ...200111480828
confirmation of anopheles varuna in vietnam, previously misidentified and mistargeted as the malaria vector anopheles minimus.malaria control programs in southeast asia are faced with several questions concerning vector behavior and species identification, which need to be answered to consolidate and further improve the results of control practices. the vector system in southeast asia is complex because of the number of species potentially involved in malaria transmission. additionally, the follow-up and evaluation of preventive control measures are hampered by the misidentification of vectors due to overlapping morpho ...200111791965
susceptibility of the mosquitoes anopheles minimus, an. sinensis, and an. saperoi (diptera: culicidae) from the ryukyu archipelago, japan, to the rodent malaria plasmodium yoelii nigeriense.the susceptibility of three anopheline mosquitoes, anopheles minimus theobald, an. sinensis wiedemann, and an. saperoi bohart & ingram, from the ryukyu archipelago to the rodent malaria, plasmodium yoelii nigeriense was examined to find new vectors other than an. stephensi liston for rodent malaria studies in the laboratory. the survival rate of the mosquitoes after feeding on mice infected with p. y. nigeriense was also examined. the beech strain of an. stephensi from india was compared with an ...200211931249
an outbreak of plasmodium falciparum malaria due to anopheles minimus in central assam, india.epidemiological investigations were conducted in nellie subcentre, phc jhargaon, under morigaon district (assam). the results of fever cases revealed 68 per cent slide positivity rate (spr) and 40 per cent slide falciparum rate (sfr). the pf proportion was > 87 per cent and remaining cases were p. vivax infections. an. minimus was incriminated as a malaria vector during the study period. the sporozoite rate was 3.08 per cent. the indoor man mosquito contact was 35 per bait/night as against 23 in ...200111963818
[comparison of the morphology of wing spot between anopheles minimus and anopheles fluviatilis].to compare the morphology of wing spot between anophelesminimus theobald, 1901 and anopheles fluviatilis james, 1902 and find out the reliable diagnostic characteristics.199812078229
[hybridization experiments using anopheles minimus from hainan and yunnan].to observe whether there were any intra-species differences between anopheles minimus from hainan(h) and yunnan(y).199912563757
[relationship between the distribution of anopheles virus and anopheles minimus and malaria in the reclamation area of hainan province]. 200112571989
biting behavior and seasonal variation in the abundance of anopheles minimus species a and c in thailand.we measured the seasonal abundance and bloodfeeding behavior of species a and c of the mosquito anopheles minimus theobald 1901 in an endemic malarious area of western thailand. an. minimus s.l. is a major vector of human malarial and filarial parasites in southeast asia. mosquitos were collected once a month for one year using four collection methods: human-baiting indoors, human-baiting outdoors, human-baiting in the forest, and cow-baiting. we found that both species a and c tend to feed from ...200212757212
'a mate or a meal'--pre-gravid behaviour of female anopheles gambiae from the islands of são tomé and príncipe, west africa.malaria prevalence differs between the two islands that comprise the archipelago of são tomé and príncipe. this may be due to differences in the biology of local anopheles gambiae, the only vector on the islands. survival rate and feeding frequency are two factors influencing vectorial capacity. anophelines generally feed just once per gonotrophic (oviposition) cycle. newly emerged insects, however, may feed two or more times during their first oviposition cycle thus increasing the likelihood of ...200312801421
a study of filaria in taiwan monkeys.filarial adult were found in the intermuscular connective tissue of the peritracheal and mandibular region of the taiwan monkey(macaca cyclopis). the microfilariae in the peripheral blood demonstrated a marked nocturnal periodicity with a peak between 2100-0100 hours and a low diurnal minimum between 900 and 1300 hours. staining the microfilaria by various stains demonstrated differences in size. no development of microfilariae was detected in the culex fatigans, culex tritaeniohyncus, aedes alb ...196412913612
intraspecific hybridization of anopheles minimus (diptera: culicidae) species a and c in thailand.hybridization tests of laboratory-raised, isolines of anopheles minimus, species a and c were conducted by induced copulation. the three isolines were established based on three morphological variants of wild-caught, fully engorged females and two distinct types of metaphase chromosomes. they were an. minimus species a: v form (x1,y1), m form (x2,y1); species c: p form (x3,y2). the results of reciprocal and back crosses indicated that the two morphologically variant forms of species a were genet ...200212971469
insecticide susceptibility tests of anopheles minimus s.l., aedes aegypti, aedes albopictus, and culex quinquefasciatus in northern thailand.the susceptibility of anopheles minimus s.l., aedes aegypti, ae. albopictus, and culex quinquefasciatus to insecticide in northern thailand was monitored by using the who standard susceptibility test. one- to two-day old female mosquitos, which were reared from wild caught females or immature stages, were exposed to discriminating dosages of insecticides for recommended exposure periods, and the 24-hour mortality recorded. the results revealed that, in general, an. minimus s.l. was still suscept ...200312971519
transmission by filariasis in the philippine islands by anopheles minimus flavirostris ludlow. 196314096093
[epidemilogical studies on malaria in north vietnam. 3. seasonal variations in the population of anopheles minimus and their relation to climatic factors]. 196514345033
laboratory and field evaluations of the insect repellent 3535 (ethyl butylacetylaminopropionate) and deet against mosquito vectors in thailand.the insect repellents 3535 (ethyl butylacetylaminopropionate or ir3535) and deet (n,n-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) were prepared as 20% solutions in absolute ethanol and evaluated for repellency against many mosquito species in thailand under laboratory and field conditions using human subjects. in the laboratory, 0.1 ml was applied per 30-cm2 of exposed area on a volunteer's forearm (0.66-0.67 mg active ingredient [ai]/ cm2), whereas in the field, volunteers' legs (from knee to ankle, with a surf ...200114529087
raised houses reduce mosquito bites.background: in many parts of continental africa house construction does not appear to impede entry of malaria vectors and, given their generally late biting cycle, the great majority of transmission takes place indoors. in contrast, many houses in são tomé, 140 km off the coast of gabon, are raised on stilts and built of wooden planks. building on stilts is a time-honoured, but largely untested, way of avoiding mosquito bites. exposure may also be affected by mosquito activity times and age comp ...200314667242
evaluation of candidate traps as tools for conducting surveillance for anopheles mosquitoes in a malaria-endemic area in western thailand.the effectiveness of five mosquito traps at sampling anopheline mosquitoes was compared with landing/biting (l/b) collections in western thailand. traps evaluated included a cdc style light trap (cdc lt) with dry ice, the american biophysics corporation (abc) standard light trap (abc lt) with dry ice and octenol, the abc counterflow geometry (cfg) trap with dry ice and octenol, the abc mosquito magnet (mm) trap with octenol, and the nicosia and reinhardt company mosquito attractor device (n&r tr ...200415061272
some entomological observations on temporal and spatial distribution of malaria vectors in three villages in northwestern thailand using a geographic information system.this spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the distribution of anopheles mosquitos were studied during august 2001 to december 2002 in three villages ban khun huay, ban pa dae, and ban tham seau, in northwestern thailand in mae sot district, tak province. the three karen villages are located about 20 km east of the city of mae sot near the myanmar border. twenty-one species were collected on human collections during 68 nights of 17 months. anopheles minimus comprised of 86% of the specimens biti ...200315115120
eco-ethological heterogeneity of the members of the anopheles minimus complex (diptera: culicidae) in southeast asia and its consequences for vector control.the presence of cryptic species within anopheles minimus s.l. theobald, one of the most widespread malaria vectors in southeast asia, was suggested on the basis of behavioral heterogeneities observed within this taxon. subsequently, two species, a and c, were recognized. however, the existence of these cryptic species did not explain all observed behavioral heterogeneities within this complex. besides, data on the behavior of vectors are essential to understand the dynamics of disease transmissi ...200415185937
transmission of malaria and its control in the northeastern region of india.let alone the eradication, malaria control itself has amounted to be a challenge, and is detrimental to the all round development of the northeastern region of india. focal outbreaks are frequent taking heavy tool on human lives. plasmodium falciparum is the predominant parasite species and is solely responsible for increased morbidity and mortality. the region contributes bulk of p. falciparum cases for the rest of india, and its proportions are increasing. efficient vectors like anopheles mini ...200315260392
role of the prevalent anopheles species in the transmission of plasmodium falciparum and p. vivax in assam state, north-eastern north-eastern india, anopheles minimus, an. dirus and an. fluviatilis are considered the three major vectors of the parasites causing human malaria. the role in transmission of the other anopheles species present in this region is not, however, very clear. to examine the vectorial role of the more common anopheline mosquitoes, the heads and thoraces of 4126 female anopheles belonging to 16 species (collected using miniature light traps set in human dwellings in a foothill village in the jorha ...200415324463
a weather-driven model of malaria transmission.climate is a major driving force behind malaria transmission and climate data are often used to account for the spatial, seasonal and interannual variation in malaria transmission.200415350206
infectious reservoir of plasmodium infection in mae hong son province, north-west was unknown whether the main reservoir of plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium vivax, which infects mosquitoes in thailand, was (a) in people feeling sufficiently ill with malaria to come to a clinic or (b) in people who had remained in their home villages with some fever symptoms or with none.200415385050
physiographic and entomologic risk factors of malaria in assam, india.fever surveys were conducted in several districts of the indian state of assam to ascertain the prevalence of malaria in relation to vector abundance, entomologic inoculation rates (eirs), and geographic location of human settlements. anopheles minimus were incriminated, but their relative abundance and biting rates varied among districts, and no significant correlation was observed between these two indicators (r = 0.43, p = 0.34). plasmodium falciparum was the predominant parasite species exce ...200415516642
changes in malaria vector densities over a twenty-three year period in mae hong son province, northern thailand.mae hong son province in northwestern thailand has a long history of malaria. during the last two decades the province has had one of the highest malaria incidences of all provinces in thailand. data were analyzed to determine whether the vector populations were stable or increasing during the last two decades and to determine the seasonal prevalence of the main vectors, and whether or not they were related to the malaria transmission peak, in the wet season. we compiled and analyzed accumulated ...200415691130
crossing experiments of anopheles minimus species c and putative species the anopheles minimus complex, 2 sibling species (a and c) are generally accepted. recently, a 3rd species, provisionally designated an. minimus species e, has been described from the ryukyu archipelago, japan, based on crossing experiments (a and e), dna analysis, mitotic karyotypes, and some morphological characteristics. the present study reports the results of crossing experiments between species c and putative species e. hybridization between the progeny of an. minimus species c from tha ...200515825754
cytochrome p450 genes: molecular cloning and overexpression in a pyrethroid-resistant strain of anopheles minimus mosquito.we previously determined that physiological resistance in a laboratory-selected pyrethroid-resistant anopheles minimus species a theobald mosquito is associated with increased detoxification via a p450-mediated mechanism. a cyp6 gene, cyp6aa3, was subsequently cloned and found overexpressed in 2 resistant mosquito generations (f13 and f19). we report herein the cloning of cyp6p7 and cyp6p8 genes with full coding sequences from the same an. minimus mosquito colony strain. cyp6p7 and cyp6p8 encode ...200515825765
first record of anopheles minimus c and significant decrease of an. minimus a in central vietnam.before august 1998, in the khanh phu commune (central vietnam), anopheles minimus s.l. individuals were identified as species a and showed the typical species a wing form. after a significant decrease over the 3 years 1999-2001, an increase in 2002 of an. minimus s.l. possessing a different wing pattern was observed. to determine the specific status of the an. minimus species collected in 2002 and to follow changes in the species composition, an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction was appl ...200516033115
reappearance of anopheles minimus in singhbum hills of east-central india.anopheles minimus, an important malaria vector of south east asia, has reappeared in the singhbum hills, east-central india where deforestation and ddt residual spraying had reportedly eliminated it during the malaria eradication programme. the species reported has been identified as sibling species a of the an. minimus complex. an. minimus is susceptible to both deltamethrin and ddt. the study shows that the environmental conditions in this region still favour the existence of the species and o ...200516095550
behavioral responses to ddt and pyrethroids between anopheles minimus species a and c, malaria vectors in thailand.behavioral responses of two field populations of anopheles minimus complex species a and c for contact and non-contact actions of chemicals were compared during and after exposure to operational field concentrations of ddt (2 g/m2), deltamethrin (0.02 g/m2), and lambdacyhalothrin (0.03 g/m2) using an excito-repellency escape chamber. the two populations were collected from the mae sot district in tak province (species a) and the tri yok district in kanchanaburi province (species c) in western th ...200516103601
the specific status of anopheles minimus s.l. collected from least three members (species a, c, and e) of the anopheles minimus complex have been described in the orient. this study investigated the specific status of an. minimus collected in the southern part of taiwan by crossing experiments with species a from thailand and species e from japan. crosses between taiwan an. minimus and species a revealed genetic compatibilities. post-zygotic isolation was observed in crosses between taiwan an. minimus and species e. hybrid progeny were only obtained fr ...200516124425
[study on a grey model for evaluation of anopheles minimus density].to establish anopheles minimus density evaluation model based on climate, environmental and remote sensing data.200516296603
[comparative study on the resting habit of anopheles minimus a and anopheles minimus c in yunnan province].to compare the difference of resting habitat between anopheles minimus a and an. minimus c in yunnan province.200516300003
epidemiology of forest malaria in central vietnam: a large scale cross-sectional vietnam, a large proportion of all malaria cases and deaths occurs in the central mountainous and forested part of the country. indeed, forest malaria, despite intensive control activities, is still a major problem which raises several questions about its dynamics.a large-scale malaria morbidity survey to measure malaria endemicity and identify important risk factors was carried out in 43 villages situated in a forested area of ninh thuan province, south central vietnam. four thousand three h ...200516336671
use of a remote sensing-based geographic information system in the characterizing spatial patterns for anopheles minimus a and c breeding habitats in western thailand.a remote sensing (rs)-based geographic information system (gis) was used to characterize the breeding habitats of anopheles minimus species a and c in five different districts of kanchanaburi province in western thailand. the gis and rs were used to monitor the area for the presence and absence of an. minimus a and c in five major land areas, forest, agriculture, urban, water and bare land. the results show that an. minimus a survives both in dense canopy forest and in open fields where agricult ...200516438139
impact of different strategies to control plasmodium infection and anaemia on the island of bioko (equatorial guinea).on the island of bioko (equatorial guinea), insecticide-treated nets (itns) have been the main tool used to control malaria over the last 13 years. in 2004, started an indoor residual spraying (irs) campaign to control malaria. the purpose of this study is to asses the impact of the two control strategies on the island of bioko (equatorial guinea), with regards to plasmodium infection and anaemia in the children under five years of age.200616460558
sequence variation in the t-cell epitopes of the plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein among field isolates is temporally stable: a 5-year longitudinal study in southern an effort to decipher the nature and extent of antigen polymorphisms of malaria parasites in a setting where malaria is hypomesoendemic, we conducted a 5-year longitudinal study (1998 to 2003) by sequencing the th2r and th3r epitopes of the circumsporozoite protein (csp) of 142 plasmodium falciparum field isolates from bao loc, vietnam. samples were collected during the high-transmission season, september through december 1998 (n = 43), as well as from july 2000 to august 2001 (n = 34), septe ...200616597843
deployment of early diagnosis and mefloquine-artesunate treatment of falciparum malaria in thailand: the tak malaria initiative.early diagnosis and treatment with artesunate-mefloquine combination therapy (mas) have reduced the transmission of falciparum malaria dramatically and halted the progression of mefloquine resistance in camps for displaced persons along the thai-burmese border, an area of low and seasonal transmission of multidrug-resistant plasmodium falciparum. we extended the same combination drug strategy to all other communities (estimated population 450,000) living in five border districts of tak province ...200616719547
population dynamics of sporogony for plasmodium vivax parasites from western thailand developing within three species of colonized anopheles mosquitoes.the population dynamics of plasmodium sporogony within mosquitoes consists of an early phase where parasite abundance decreases during the transition from gametocyte to oocyst, an intermediate phase where parasite abundance remains static as oocysts, and a later phase where parasite abundance increases during the release of progeny sporozoites from oocysts. sporogonic development is complete when sporozoites invade the mosquito salivary glands. the dynamics and efficiency of this developmental s ...200616887043
limited diversity of anopheles darlingi in the peruvian amazon region of iquitos.anopheles darlingi is the most important malaria vector in the amazon basin of south america, and is capable of transmitting both plasmodium falciparum and p. vivax. to understand the genetic structure of this vector in the amazonian region of peru, a simple polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based test to identify this species of mosquito was used. a random amplified polymorphic dna-pcr was used to study genetic variation at the micro-geographic level in nine geographically separate populations of ...200616896125
[observation on polytene chromosomes of the ovarian nurse cell of anopheles minimus from yuanjiang].anopheles minimus collected from yuanjiang, yunnan province, were bred with standard methods in lab. the ovarian nurse cells of a.minimus were separated and stained, and the whole polytene chromosomes were photographed under light microscope and compared with a.minimus from guangxi. 365 samples of ovarian nurse cells were observed. the chromosomes included one telocentric sex-chromosome x, two submetacentric autosomes ii (autosome ii right arm, 2r and autosome ii left arm, 2l) and two metacentri ...200617094623
molecular identification of palearctic members of anopheles maculipennis in northern iran.members of anopheles maculipennis complex are effective malaria vectors in europe and the caspian sea region in northern iran, where malaria has been re-introduced since 1994. the current study has been designed in order to provide further evidence on the status of species composition and to identify more accurately the members of the maculipennis complex in northern iran.200717233887
trophic behavior and biting activity of the two sibling species of the anopheles minimus complex in western thailand.the trophic behavior and host preference of two sibling species, anopheles minimus s.s. (= an. minimus species a) and species c, were observed during a two-year period at pu teuy village, sai yok district, kanchanaburi province, western thailand. anopheles minimus s.s. and species c were more prevalent during the hot and wet periods of the year. both species demonstrated exophagic and zoophilic activities. feeding activity of an. minimus c was unique compared to an. minimus sensu lato from other ...200617249342
the anopheles dirus complex: spatial distribution and environmental drivers.the anopheles dirus complex includes efficient malaria vectors of the asian forested zone. studies suggest ecological and biological differences between the species of the complex but variations within species suggest possible environmental influences. behavioural variation might determine vector capacity and adaptation to changing environment. it is thus necessary to clarify the species distributions and the influences of environment on behavioural heterogeneity.200717341297
large-scale malaria survey in cambodia: novel insights on species distribution and risk cambodia, estimates of the malaria burden rely on a public health information system that does not record cases occurring among remote populations, neither malaria cases treated in the private sector nor asymptomatic carriers. a global estimate of the current malaria situation and associated risk factors is, therefore, still lacking.200717389041
molecular characterization and species identification of the anopheles dirus and an. minimus complexes in north-east india using r-dna its-2.the sibling species composition of the anopheles minimus and anopheles dirus complexes is poorly known in the highly malarious north-eastern region of india where these two vector taxa are accountable for most of the malaria transmission among 30.7 million inhabitants. prevalent members of these two complexes in this part of india were identified using sequences for the second internal transcribed spacer (its2) of ribosomal dna. anopheles baimaii (species d) of the an. dirus complex and an. mini ...200617118324
how reliable is the humeral pale spot for identification of cryptic species of the minimus complex?the anopheles minimus complex theobald (diptera: culicidae) is composed of the 3 sibling species a, c, and e. the malaria vectors an. minimus a and c are distributed over the southeast asian region, whereas species e is restricted to the ryukyu japanese islands. because species a and c can be sympatric and present specific behaviors and have a role in malaria transmission, it is important to differentiate them. the literature mentioned the presence of a presector pale spot on the wing costa of a ...200617014058
malaria situation in forest-fringed villages of sonitpur district (assam), india bordering arunachal pradesh during an outbreak.epidemiological and entomological studies were undertaken in forest-fringed villages in sonitpur district (assam) bordering arunachal pradesh, india to assess the malaria situation. blood smears (thick and thin) were collected from the fever cases through door-to-door survey. both the blood smears stained with giemsa were used for malaria parasite detection. slide positivity rate (spr) was recorded as 39.1% with predominance of plasmodium falciparum (97.1%) infections. children between 5 and 14 ...200717896624
behavioral responses of malaria vectors, anopheles minimus complex, to three classes of agrochemicals in thailand.behavioral responses of two wild-caught populations of anopheles minimus complex, species a and c, exposed to operational field doses of three commonly used agricultural insecticides, carbaryl (carbamate), malathion (organophosphate) and cypermethrin (pyrethroid), were characterized using an excito-repellency test system. test populations were collected from different localities in kanchanaburi province, western thailand. both populations showed strong irritancy by quickly escaping test chambers ...200718047203
continuous exposure to plasmodium results in decreased susceptibility and transcriptomic divergence of the anopheles gambiae immune system.plasmodium infection has been shown to compromise the fitness of the mosquito vector, reducing its fecundity and longevity. however, from an evolutionary perspective, the impact of plasmodium infection as a selective pressure on the mosquito is largely unknown.200718053261
distribution of anopheles in vietnam, with particular attention to malaria vectors of the anopheles minimus complex.the distribution of anopheline mosquitoes in vietnam was examined, with a particular interest for the two sibling species of the anopheles minimus complex (cellia: myzomyia), an. minimus and anopheles harrisoni, respectively former species a and c. because the morphological identification of both sibling species is difficult and may lead to misidentifications, accurate data on their respective distribution are missing. this is of fundamental importance since the two species seem to exhibit diffe ...200818190697
detection of malaria parasites in mosquitoes from the malaria-endemic area of chakaria, bangladesh.malaria is one of the major public health problems of bangladesh. we investigated the mosquito populations infected with malaria parasites in a malaria-endemic area chakaria, bangladesh, where anopheles dirus and anopheles minimus are the principal vectors. anopheles mosquitoes were collected with a cdc miniature light trap from inside households in june 2007. a total of 868 mosquitoes were collected, among which females numbered 669 (77.1%). the species of female anopheles mosquitoes were ident ...200818379066
longitudinal study of plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium vivax in a karen population in thailand.clinical case treatment of malaria infections where plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium vivax are sympatric has achieved effective reductions in p. falciparum prevalence and incidence rates, but has been less successful for p. vivax. the high transmissibility of p. vivax and its capacity to relapse have been suggested to make it a harder parasite species to control.200818518964
the resting sites and blood-meal sources of anopheles minimus in taiwan.the who declared taiwan free from malaria in 1965, but in 2003 the reporting of two introduced cases in a rural area suggested a possible local transmission of this disease. therefore, understanding the resting sites and the blood sources of anopheles minimus is crucial in order to provide information for implementing vector control strategies.200818538036
geographical distribution of anopheles minimus species a and c in western thailand.elucidating vector distribution based on an accurate species identification is important to understanding the nature of the species complex in order to achieve vector control. morphologically, an. minimus s.l. is difficult to distinguish from both its species complex and its closely related species. a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (pcr-rflp) technique and a single multiplex-allele specific pcr developed for species identification were applied in this study in ...200516599156
morphological variations of anopheles minimus a in tak province, thailand.anopheles minimus theobald is one of the major vectors of malaria throughout the oriental region, and it's complex consists of at least 2 sibling species (a and c) in thailand. this study aimed to determine the morphological variations of wings of an. minimus a and to clarify the specific status of an. minimus in ban khun huay, ban pa dae, and ban tham seau, mae sot district, tak province, thailand. anopheline larvae were collected from the fields between october 2002 and september 2003, allowed ...200516124426
genetic structure and gene flow of anopheles minimus and anopheles harrisoni in kanchanaburi province, thailand.isozyme frequencies were compared in seven field collections of anopheles minimus complex using starch gel electrophoresis. mosquito collections were sampled from four districts in kanchanaburi province where malaria is endemic. from eight enzyme systems, nine loci and seven polymorphisms were detected, indicating limited genetic differentiation among the seven collections (f(st) = 0.061). the highest percent polymorphic loci were observed in bong ti noi (btn) village (55.6%), whereas the least ...200818697319
border malaria in china: knowledge and use of personal protection by minority populations and implications for malaria control: a questionnaire-based survey.malaria control in remote, forested areas of the mekong region relies on personal protection from mosquito bites. uptake of these methods may be limited by knowledge of the link between mosquitoes and malaria as well as social and economic aspects. understanding barriers to uptake will inform malaria control programmes on targets for improvement of delivery.200818828901
identification of anopheles minimus complex and related species in vietnam.anopheles minimus a and c and several closely related species of mosquitoes have been identified in vietnam, where some have been implicated in malaria transmission. morphological variation within and between anopheles minimus a and c makes identification using alpha taxonomy difficult and several molecular techniques have been developed to separate them. however the difficulties of applying these techniques and the benefits of morphological identification in the field have seen morphological ch ...200819058576
analysis of the relationship between density and dominance of anopheles minimus (diptera: culicidae) with environmental parameters in southern yunnan province, peoples republic of china.the association of environmental factors with fluctuations in the density of the malaria vector anopheles minimus (theobald, 1901) was analyzed in longtang and dongfanghong, two villages in southern yunnan province, peoples republic of china. the distance of trap locations to rice fields and the distance from trap locations to rivulets were negatively correlated to the density of an. minimus. the length of a rivulet within a 1-km buffer around a trap location was positively correlated to the den ...200819058623
rapid decrease of malaria morbidity following the introduction of community-based monitoring in a rural area of central vietnam.despite a successful control programme, malaria has not completely disappeared in vietnam; it remains endemic in remote areas of central vietnam, where standard control activities seem to be less effective. the evolution of malaria prevalence and incidence over two and half years in a rural area of central vietnam, after the introduction of community-based monitoring of malaria cases, is presented.200919123932
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