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the sensibility of the nocturnal long-eared owl in the spectrum.infrared radiation (750-1500 mmicro) produces no iris contraction in the typically nocturnal long-eared owl even when the energy content is millions of times greater than that of green light which easily elicits a pupil change. the energies in different parts of the visible spectrum required for a minimal iris response yield a spectral visibility curve for the owl which is the same as the human visibility curve at low light intensities. functionally, the owl's vision thus corresponds to the pred ...194019873186
chemical composition of uropygial gland secretions of owls.the compositions of the uropygial gland secretions of the long-eared owl, eagle owl, and barn owl have been determined. the waxes of the first two owls, which are closely related, are composed of 2-alkyl-substituted fatty acids and n- or monomethyl-branched alcohols with even-numbered branching positions. in addition, some dimethyl-substituted alkanols were observed. in contrast to these waxes, the secretion of the barn owl is composed of 3-methyl- and 3,5-, 3,7-, 3,9-, 3,11-, 3,13-, and 3,15-di ...19744827914
 in the biggest forest of west berlin, the grunewald, with an area of 3100 ha, the yellow-necked field mouse (apodemus flavicollis) is the most abundant vertebrate. from 1952 to 1973 i collected owl pellets (9/10 of which were tawny owl pellets) from the west berlin area, and found in them 35041 vertebrates. during the investigation it was found that the actual percentage of apodemus flavicollis in the total prey from the nesting tawny olws (strix aluco) in the grunewald showed a noticeable peak ...197528308703
herpersvirus strigis: host spectrum and distribution in infected owls.herpesvirus strigis, a new species of the genus herpesvirus, is a pathogen for several species of owls in the order srigiformes. natural infection has been observed in the eagle owl (bubo bubo l.), long-eared owl (asio otus l.) and snowy owl (nyctea scandiaca l.) in addition the little owl (athene noctua scopolic) and tengmalms owl (aegolius funereus l.) was experimentally infected. on the other hand the tawny owl (strix aluco l.) and barn owl (tyto albo scopoli) proved resistant to a massive ex ...1975167204
the use of a steriod anaesthetic in a long-eared owl (asio otus). 1977906233
contribution to the problem of cyst-producing coccidians.the problem of life cycles of cyst-producing coccidians, mainly those of the genus sarcocystis, from carnivorous birds has been discussed. oocysts of the "sarcocystic" type have been recovered from 9 species of birds of prey and owls from czechoslovakia. the course of experimental infection in a group of birds consisting of the species tyto alba, asio otus, strix aluco, buteo buteo has been described. we inoculated these birds with cystic stages of the genus sarcocystis obtained from white labor ...1978416999
synchronous population fluctuations in voles, small game, owls, and tularemia in northern sweden.1. the population fluctuations in time in northern sweden are examined for the following species: voles, mountain hare, willow grouse, black grouse, capercaillie, hazel hen, red fox, long-eared owl, tengmalm's owl, and tularemia. necessary population data have been obtained from the period 1963-1975/76 as revealed by catches, literature survey, hunting statistics, bird ringing, and obligatory reporting of tularemia in man. 2. the populations of the species under consideration are found to fluctu ...197828309394
residency, migration and a compromise: adaptations to nest-site scarcity and food specialization in three fennoscandian owl species.fennoscandian owl species differ, among other things, with respect to nest-site, food, clutch size, mate and territory fidelity, sexual size dimorphism and longevity. all these life characteristics help shaping the pattern of mobility and wintering strategies found in owl species, but it seems justifiable to regard food abundance and nest-site availability as the most prominent ones.the ural owl is a generalist feeder and nests in tree cavities which are scarce. the pair is faithful to their ter ...197928309764
cyclic population changes in three mouse species in the same woodland.in two forest areas of west berlin the population-changes in three mouse species have been investigated over 28 years (1952-1979). significant changes in absolute density have been established for the short-tailed vole (microtus agrestis) at 5-year intervals, for the common vole (microtus arvalis) at 4-year intervals, and for the yellow-necked field mouse (apodemus flavicollis) at 3-year intervals. the investigations were based on a total of 43,535 small vertebrates, 90% of which had been found ...198128309926
[parasite fauna of austrian owls (strigiformes)].during the examination of 182 owls--asio otus (51), strix aluco (44), bubo bubo (34), nyctea scandiaca (15), athene noctua (14), otus scops (9), tyto alba (4), aegolius funereus (3), glaucidium passerinum (2), asio flammeus (2), indigenous "owls" (4)--5 protozoan species, 3 trematode species, 1 cestode species, 6 nematode species, 3 acanthocephalan species, 2 acaride species and 7 insect species could be discovered. dermanyssus hirundinis was proved on the long-eared owl and carnus hemapterus on ...19827165130
the role of birds as definitive hosts and intermediate hosts of heteroxenous coccidians.sarcocystis-like oocysts-sporocysts were found in four species of owls (asio otus, bubo bubo, strix aluco, and tyto alba) and in five species of predatory birds (accipiter gentilis, accipiter nisus, buteo buteo, circus aeruginosus, falco tinnunculus). in addition, the muscles of 15 of 41 (36.5%) pheasants (phasianus colchicus) and one of two jays (garrulus glandarius) were found to harbor three types of sarcocystis. three of 15 (20%) infected pheasants had type i cystozoites (6-8 x 2 microns) in ...19846439858
predation by three owl species on northern pocket gophers of different body mass.we examined the estimated sizes of thomomys talpoides in the diets of bubo virginianus (1,505 g), tyto alba (437 g), and asio otus (245 g) in north-central oregon between 1973 and 1982. the three owl species tended to consume t. talpoides of different size and responded differently to predicted seasonal body mass changes in the t. talpoides population. on an annual basis b. virginianus preyed upon the largest individuals (x = 67.9 g), whereas a. otus preyed upon the smallest (x = 41.0 g). when c ...198528309848
mouse (mus musculus) as intermediate host of sarcocystis sp. from the goshawk (accipiter gentilis).sporocysts from the goshawk (accipiter gentilis) were experimentally transferred to the mouse (mus musculus). it was found that the goshawk is the host of one of the sarcosporidians inducing muscle sarcocystosis in mice. thin-walled, sporulated oocysts expelled by the goshawk measured 16.5-19.0 x 12.0-13.0 micron. those which measured 12.0-13.5 x 8.2-9.0 micron were widely elliptical, with rounded poles. no asexual reproduction of parasites was detected in the viscera of mice. the cysts started ...19863084365
dietary shifts, niche relationships and reproductive output of coexisting kestrels and long-eared owls.food samples of breeding kestrels (falco tinnunculus) and long-eared owls (asio otus) were collected in the peak and low phase of their preferred prey (microtus voles) in western finland. diets of pairs that bred as neighbours (≤1 km) with interspecifics were compared with those of non-neighbours. in both species, neighbouring pairs fed less on microtus voles and more on alternative prey than did non-neighbours. competition theory predicts that diet overlap should be lower during prey shortage a ...198728312002
resource partitioning among forest owls in the river of no return wilderness, idaho.we studied resource partitioning among the forest owls in the river of no return wilderness, idaho, during the winter and spring of 1980 and 1981. the owl assemblage consisted of five abundant species: pygmy (glaucidium gnoma), saw-whet (aegolius acadicus), boreal (a. funereus), western screech (otus kennicottii), and great-horned (bubo virginianus). long-eared (asio otus) and flammulated (o. flammeolus) owls were rarely observed. information from the literature supplemented our data to describe ...198828310843
comparative physiology of sound localization in four species of owls.bilateral ear asymmetry is found in some, but not all, species of owls. we investigated the neural basis of sound localization in symmetrical and asymmetrical species, to deduce how ear asymmetry might have evolved from the ancestral condition, by comparing the response properties of neurons in the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (icx) of the symmetrical burrowing owl and asymmetrical long-eared owl with previous findings in the symmetrical great horned owl and asymmetrical barn owl. ...19902279234
prevalence of encysted toxoplasma gondii in raptors from alabama.little is known about the prevalence of encysted toxoplasma gondii in wild birds. we examined the hearts and breast muscles from 101 raptors for encysted t. gondii. all of the raptors had been submitted for necropsy to the state veterinary diagnostic laboratory, auburn, alabama. tissues were digested in acid-pepsin solution and inoculated into groups of 3-5 laboratory mice. toxoplasma gondii was isolated from 27 of 101 (26.7%) raptors: 8 of 12 (66.7%) red-shouldered hawks (buteo lineatus), 13 of ...19938277379
safety study of the sag2 rabies virus mutant in several non-target species with a view to its future use for the immunization of foxes in europe.the safety of the sag2 virus, a low virulence mutant of the sad strain, was investigated in ten species of mammals and seven species of birds liable to consume vaccine baits. these species are the western hedgehog (erinaceus europaeus), the meadow vole (microtus arvalis), the bank vole (clethrionomys glareolus), the water vole (arvicola terrestris), the field mouse (apodemus flavicollis or a. sylvaticus), the norway rat (rattus norvegicus), the european badger (meles meles), the domestic ferret ...19969014291
heteroxenous coccidia increase the predation risk of parasitized rodents.we have investigated the influence of heteroxenous coccidia (apicomplexa: eimeriorina) on the predation risk of intermediate hosts. voles infected with frenkelia spp. were found more frequently in buzzards' (buteo buteo) prey than among snap-trapped rodents. to eliminate the possibility of traps selecting for uninfected rodents, a laboratory experiment was performed. mice experimentally infected with sarcocystis dispersa seemed to be more likely caught by the final host, the long-eared owl (asio ...19989881375
prevalence of encysted apicomplexans in muscles of raptors.an acid-pepsin digestion technique was used to examine portions of breast muscle and heart from raptors for encysted protozoans. apicomplexan zoites were present in 52 (45.6%) of the 114 samples examined: 11 of 12 (91.7%) red-shouldered hawks (buteo lineatus), 20 of 34 (58.8%) red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis), two of seven (28.6%) cooper's hawks (accipiter cooperi), three of four (75%) sharp-shinned hawks (accipiter striatus), one (100%) mississippi kites (ictinia misisippiensis), one of two ...19999950339
[occurrence of parasites in indigenous birds of prey and owls].in the present paper a general overview on parasites in birds of prey and owls is given. this part is followed by a study investigating the prevalences and species of parasites in free-ranging birds of prey and owls in berlin and brandenburg state, germany. over a one year period, 84 birds of prey and owls of the following species were examined for the presence of endo- and ectoparasites: common buzzard (buteo buteo) (n = 32), kestrel (falco tinnunculus) (n = 20), sparrowhawk (accipiter nisus) ( ...200211852683
the complete mitochondrial genomes sequences of asio flammeus and asio otus and comparative analysis.the complete mitochondrial genomes of asio flammeus and asio otus were sequenced and found to span 18858 bp and 18493 bp, respectively. it is surprising to find the former to be the largest among all avian mitochondrial genomes sequenced so far. the two genomes have very similar gene order with that of gallus gallus, neither contains the pseudo control region, but both have a single extra base, namely cytidine, at position 174 in nd3 gene. the control regions of asio flammeus and asio otus' mito ...200415620107
helminth fauna of falconiform and strigiform birds of prey in galicia, northwest spain.this is a survey of the helminth fauna of 285 individuals of 14 species of birds of prey (falconiformes and strigiformes) from galicia (northwest spain), namely buteo buteo, accipiter nisus, a. gentilis, milvus migrans, m. milvus, pernis apivorus, circus pygargus, falco tinnunculus, f. peregrinus, f. subbuteo, tyto alba, strix aluco, asio otus and athene noctua. a total of 15 helminth species were detected, namely 8 nematodes ( eucoleus dispar, capillaria tenuissima, synhimantus laticeps, microt ...200414714181
comparative analysis of complete mitochondrial dna control region of four species of strigiformes.the sequence of the whole mitochondrial (mt) dna control region (cr) of four species of strigiformes was obtained. length of the cr was 3,290 bp, 2,848 bp, 2,444 bp, and 1,771 bp for asio flammeus, asio otus, athene noctua, and strix aluco, respectively. interestingly, the length of the control region was maximum in asio flammeus among all the avian mtdna control regions sequenced thus far. in addition, the base composition and organization of mtdna cr of asio flammeus were identical to those re ...200617112967
[acoustically guided behavior in the early ontogeny of the long-eared owl: the development of hearing sensitivity].the development of hearing sensitivity was studied in 15 nestlings and 7 adult long eared owls by cochlear recording potentials. the dynamic of frequency threshold characteristics of cochlear microphonic, action potential of cochlear nerve, and electromyogram of reflectory contraction of middle ear muscle were followed from the 1st to 40 day posthatching. the upper limit of hearing determined by cochlear microphonic, was about 3 khz on the 1st day after hatching, 7 khz on the 6th day, and 10 khz ...20068726565
[acoustically guided behavior in the early ontogeny of the long-eared owl: the characteristics of its feeding behavior and the parameters of the acoustic signal important for its stimulation].feeding behaviour of nestlings of long-eared owls (asio otus) is manifested as a complex of two components, i. e., the vocal reaction (uttering of begging calls) and specific motor response. exposure to the appropriate acoustic signals resulted in an increase in the number of begging calls and approaching reaction to the source of acoustic signals. the range of monotonal signals effective for eliciting feeding behaviour was 0.2--1.5 khz, the most effective were the tones of 0.3--0.7 khz. the app ...20068693798
ultrasonographic and computed tomographic examinations of the avian eye: physiologic appearance, pathologic findings, and comparative biometric measurement.ultrasonography (us) and computed tomography (ct) were performed after routine ophthalmologic and ophthalmoscopic examinations in 190 eyes of six various diurnal (common buzzard [buteo buteo l., 1758], n = 20; common kestrel [tinnunculus tinnunculus l., 1758], n = 20) and nocturnal raptor species (barn owl [tyto alba l., 1758], n = 22; tawny owl [strix aluco l., 1758], n = 8; long-eared owl [asio otus l., 1758], n = 5; horned owl [bubo bubo l., 1758], n = 1); and domestic pigeons (columba livia, ...200617009515
polybrominated diphenyl ethers in birds of prey from northern china.birds of prey from northern china (beijing area) were examined for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes). a total of 47 specimens from eight different species were analyzed. muscle and liver were analyzed separately for each bird. kidneys were pooled by species. common kestrels exhibited the highest pbde levels (mean muscle and liver concentrations of 12300 and 12200 ng/g lipid weight, respectively), with maxima in an individual bird of 31700 in muscle and 40900 ng/g lw in liver. congener profi ...200717410771
predatory bird species show different patterns of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (ho-pcbs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs).hydroxylated metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (ho-pcbs) have previously been associated with endocrine disrupting effects. since metabolic capacity may differ among species, we investigated the levels and profiles of ho-pcbs and pcbs in livers of four predatory bird species from belgium. maximum concentrations for sum ho-pcbs were found in the common buzzard (buteo buteo) up to 13 700 pg/g wet weight (ww). the most prominent ho-pcb congener in all bird species was 4-ho-cb 187 (up to 6420 ...200818522135
chewing lice (phthiraptera) species on wild birds in cappadocia region, turkey.objective: this study was performed on 70 injured wild birds belonging to 7 different species in the cappadocia region between 2005 and 2009. all birds were inspected for ectoparasites and 29 of 70 (41.4%) birds were found to be infested by at least one chewing louse species. methods: all lice were cleared in 10% koh, mounted in canada balsam on slides and identified under a light microscope. results: the lice were identified as laemobothrion maximum, craspedorrhynchus platystomus, degeeriella f ...201021391187
accuracy and reproducibility of the tonovet rebound tonometer in birds of prey.to examine the accuracy and reproducibility of intraocular pressure (iop) measurements obtained by the tonovet rebound tonometer. animals studied  freshly enucleated healthy eyes of 44 free-ranging birds of prey out of the species haliaeetus albicilla, accipiter gentilis, accipiter nisus, buteo buteo, falco tinnunculus, strix aluco, asio otus and tyto alba euthanized because of unrelated health problems.201020840094
[chewing-lice species (phthiraptera) found on domestic and wild birds in turkey.]this study was carried out 48 domestic and wild bird samples belonging to 15 different species. birds that were killed by traffic on the roads as well as birds that were ill or injured were brought for investigation to the veterinary faculty or animal keeping house of konya municipal. firstly, all of them were inspected macroscopically for ectoparasites. then, they were treated with an insecticidal drug, propoxur in a cartoon box. one long-eared owl, one eurasian buzzard, four long-legged buzzar ...201020340090
avian mycobacteriosis in free-living raptors in majorca island, spain.avian mycobacteriosis is a chronic, infectious disease caused by different species of mycobacteria, usually belonging to the mycobacterium avium complex. from 2004 to 2007, 589 raptors brought dead or sick to a wildlife rehabilitation centre in majorca (balearic islands, spain) were necropsied. the birds belonged to 12 different species, chiefly common kestrel (falco tinnunculus) (n=297), scops owl (otus scops) (n=109), barn owl (tyto alba) (n=75), long-eared owl (asio otus) (n=58), peregrine fa ...201020390529
reference intervals for intraocular pressure measured by rebound tonometry in ten raptor species and factors affecting the intraocular pressure.intraocular pressure (iop) was measured with the tonovet rebound tonometer in 10 raptor species, and possible factors affecting iop were investigated. a complete ophthalmic examination was performed, and iop was assessed in 2 positions, upright and dorsal recumbency, in 237 birds belonging to the families accipitridae, falconidae, strigidae, and tytonidae. mean iop values of healthy eyes were calculated for each species, and differences between families, species, age, sex, left and right eye, as ...201122216716
seropositivity and risk factors associated with toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds from spain.toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution that infects many species of warm-blooded animals, including birds. to date, there is scant information about the seropositivity of t. gondii and the risk factors associated with t. gondii infection in wild bird populations. in the present study, t. gondii infection was evaluated on sera obtained from 1079 wild birds belonging to 56 species (including falconiformes (n = 610), strigiformes (n = 260), ciconi ...201122216311
the morphology of juvenile stages of bubophilus aluconis nattress and skoracki, 2009 (acari: syringophilidae) with a description of a male.the morphology of juvenile and adult stages of the quill mite bubophilus aluconis nattress and skoracki, 2009 parasitizing the long-eared owl asio otus (linnaeus) (aves: strigiformes) in poland is described and illustrated. poland is a new location and a. otus is a new host species for b. aluconis. a description of the male is presented for the first time for this quill mite species.201223094335
high exposure rates of anticoagulant rodenticides in predatory bird species in intensively managed landscapes in denmark.the extensive use of anticoagulant rodenticides (ars) for rodent control has led to widespread secondary exposure in nontarget predatory wildlife species. we investigated exposure rates and concentrations of five ars in liver samples from five raptors and six owls from denmark. a total of 430 birds were analysed. ars were detected in 84-100 % of individual birds within each species. multiple ar exposure was detected in 73 % of all birds. average number of substances detected in individual birds ...201222588365
assessment of anticoagulant rodenticide exposure in six raptor species from the canary islands (spain).anticoagulant rodenticides are highly toxic compounds that are widely used for pest control of rodents, but that also may threaten the wildlife's health. this work aimed to assess the exposure to first- and second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (ars) in six birds of prey species from the canary islands (spain). the concentrations of seven widely used ars were determined by lc-ms/ms in 104 liver samples of six species of birds of prey (buteo buteo, accipiter nisus, falco pelegrinoides, fal ...201424742545
genetic characterization of oropharyngeal trichomonad isolates from wild birds indicates that genotype is associated with host species, diet and presence of pathognomonic lesions.oropharyngeal trichomonad isolates of wild birds from spain were studied. a total of 1688 samples (1214 of predator birds and 474 of prey species) from wildlife recovery centres and scientific bird-ringing campaigns were analysed from 2011 to 2013. the overall infection prevalence was 20.3% (11.4% in predator birds and 43.3% in prey species). pathognomonic lesions were present in 26% of the infected birds (57.3% in predator birds and 4.9% in prey species). the most commonly parasitized species w ...201425262786
laboratory blood analysis in strigiformes-part ii: plasma biochemistry reference intervals and agreement between the abaxis vetscan v2 and the roche cobas c501.limited plasma biochemical information is available in strigiformes. only one study investigated the agreement between a point-of-care with a reference laboratory analyzer for biochemistry variables in birds.201525613649
laboratory blood analysis in strigiformes-part i: hematologic reference intervals and agreement between manual blood cell counting techniques.while hematologic reference intervals (ri) are available for multiple raptorial species of the order accipitriformes and falconiformes, there is a lack of valuable hematologic information in strigiformes that can be used for diagnostic and health monitoring purposes.201525627556
bats as the main prey of wintering long-eared owl (asio otus) in beijing: integrating biodiversity protection and urban management.the loss of biodiversity from urbanized areas is a major environmental problem challenging policy-makers throughout the world. solutions to this problem are urgently required in china. we carried out a case study of wintering long-eared owls (asio otus) and their main prey to illustrate the negative effects of urbanization combined with ineffective conservation of biodiversity in beijing. field monitoring of owl numbers at two roosting sites from 2004 to 2012 showed that the owl population had f ...201525316405
observations on the right ovary of birds of prey: a histological and immunohistochemical study.in most avian species, only the left ovary and oviduct are developed in the adult bird. right ovaries and oviducts usually do not mature further after hatching and remain only rudimentary. however, occurrence of a functional right ovary is frequently found in several species of birds of prey. in this study, we investigated the occurrence of the right ovaries and their morphology in these bird species. four examined wild bird species possessed a right ovary: long-eared owl, common buzzard, sparro ...201524895012
biting midges (culicoides, diptera) transmit haemoproteus parasites of owls: evidence from sporogony and molecular phylogeny.haemoproteus parasites are widespread, and several species cause diseases both in birds and blood-sucking insects. these pathogens are transmitted by dipterans belonging to the ceratopogonidae and hippoboscidae, however certain vector species remain unknown for the majority of haemoproteus spp. owls are often infected by haemoproteus parasites, but experimental studies on vectors of these infections are lacking. the aim of this study was to investigate sporogonic development of two widespread ha ...201526041656
acanthocephalans of the genus centrorhynchus (palaeacanthocephala: centrorhynchidae) of birds of prey (falconiformes) and owls (strigiformes) in slovakia.three species of thorny-headed worms of the genus centrorhynchus were found to parasitize birds of prey and owls in the territory of the slovakia during the years 2012-2014. out of 286 examined bird individuals belonging to 23 species, only buteo buteo, buteo rufinus, falco tinnunculus (falconiformes), asio otus, strix aluco, strix uralensis and tyto alba (strigiformes) were infected by acanthocephalans. all the bird species except for s. aluco represent new host records for slovakia. the most p ...201525786606
prioritizing avian species for their risk of population-level consequences from wind energy development.recent growth in the wind energy industry has increased concerns about its impacts on wildlife populations. direct impacts of wind energy include bird and bat collisions with turbines whereas indirect impacts include changes in wildlife habitat and behavior. although many species may withstand these effects, species that are long-lived with low rates of reproduction, have specialized habitat preferences, or are attracted to turbines may be more prone to declines in population abundance. we devel ...201626963254
causes of admission for raptors to the tafira wildlife rehabilitation center, gran canaria island, spain: 2003-13.we report the causes of morbidity of 2,458 free-living raptors admitted to the tafira wildlife rehabilitation center on gran canaria island, spain, during 2003-13. the seasonal cumulative incidences were investigated while considering estimates of the wild populations in the region. these methods were used as a more accurate approach to assess the potential ecologic impact of different causes of morbidity. the most frequently admitted species were the eurasian kestrel ( falco tinnunculus ; 53.0% ...201627243151
hematologic reference intervals and age effect in european strigiformes.the clinical importance of hematologic testing in avian veterinary medicine is reflected in the increasing number of studies for the establishment of hematologic ris of strigiformes and other species. age is an important physiologic factor in birds and the effect on hematology variable should be understood.201728712138
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