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[hypofunction of the central cholinergic neurons is the cause of stimulus-sensitive myoclonus in the baboon papio papio]. 19863955725
gabaergic agents as anticonvulsants in baboons with photosensitive epilepsy.gabaergic agents have been evaluated for acute anticonvulsant activity in baboons, papio papio with photosensitive epilepsy. the potent gabaa agonists muscimol and thip are proconvulsant. (-)baclofen, 2 mg/kg suppresses myoclonic responses; higher doses facilitate eeg paroxysmal activity. (s) gamma-vinyl gaba, 100-200 mg/kg, suppresses myoclonic responses for more than 24 h. some derivatives of esters of beta-carboline-3-carboxylate that bind to the benzodiazepine receptor, e.g. zk 91296 and zk ...19846089055
limbic kindling in the forebrain-bisected photosensitive baboon, papio papio.when forebrain-bisected photosensitive baboons, papio papio, were kindled from the amygdala or hippocampus, bilateralization of convulsive seizure proved difficult, and the final stage of bisymmetrical and bisynchronous convulsive seizure unique to this species did not develop despite more than twice the number of kindling stimulations required for its development in nonbisected baboons. at the secondary site amygdala, convulsive seizure development was suppressed. findings of the present and pr ...19846723588
cerebrospinal fluid amino acid and monoamine metabolite levels of papio papio: correlation with photosensitivity.several putative neurotransmitter amino acids and monoamine metabolites were measured in the cerebrospinal fluid of spontaneously photosensitive baboons (papio papio) at different periods with varying degrees of photosensitivity in the same animals. at maximum photosensitivity the inhibitory amino acids gamma-aminobutyric acid and taurine were lower, and those of asparagine (metabolite of the excitatory amino acid aspartate) were higher, than when the animals were not photosensitive. thus a decr ...19862417669
the influence of intermittent light stimulation on potentials evoked by single flashes in photosensitive and non-photosensitive papio papio.the effects of intermittent light stimulation (ils) on visual potentials (veps), evoked in different cortical areas, were statistically studied in baboons either naturally photosensitive or made photosensitive by allylglycine at a subconvulsant dose, as well as in non-photosensitive animals. veps were induced by single flashes (paradigm a) or by flashes preceded by trains of ils (paradigm b). in every baboon, photosensitive or not, the veps induced by paradigm b in the striate area show a decrea ...19846201340
phosphorylated thiamine derivatives and cortical activity in the baboon papio papio: effect of intermittent light stimulation.the effect of intermittent light stimulation (ils) on the distribution of thiamine derivatives in three brain areas (occipital, motor, and premotor) was compared in photosensitive and nonphotosensitive baboons. ils induces paroxysmal discharges in the motor and premotor areas of photosensitive animals only. in baboons submitted to ils, thiamine triphosphate (ttp) decreases in both photosensitive and nonphotosensitive animals; thiamine monophosphate (tmp) increases in photosensitive animals, whic ...19892723664
heredofamilial retinal dystrophy in guinea baboons. ii. electron microscopic observations.electron microscopic study of an inherited retinal degeneration in guinea baboons disclosed primary pathologic alterations in photoreceptor cells. these changes were first seen in the perifoveal region. cell death occurred in two forms: hydropic degeneration and densification and/or necrosis. the hydropic type was mainly associated with cone cells, whereas densification and/or necrosis was largely seen in rod cells. lamellar bodies and granular membrane-bound inclusions were noted in the inner s ...19836639434
antiepileptic action of excitatory amino acid antagonists in the photosensitive baboon, papio papio.antagonists of excitation induced by dicarboxylic amino acids have been evaluated for acute anticonvulsant activity in baboons, papio papio, with photosensitive epilepsy. 2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid, 1 mmol/kg, i.v., abolishes myoclonic responses for 5 h. less prolonged protection is seen after cis-2,3-piperidine-dicarboxylic acid, 1-3.3 mmol/kg; 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid, 1-3.3 mmol/kg; or glutamic acid diethyl ester, 1-3.3 mmol/kg. toxic side-effects are prominent after the latter ...19836138738
anticonvulsant action in the photosensitive baboon, papio papio, of a novel beta-carboline derivative, zk 91296.the anticonvulsant action of ethyl-5-benzyloxy-4-methoxymethyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (zk 91296) has been studied in senegalese baboons, papio papio, with photosensitive epilepsy. myoclonic and paroxysmal electroencephalographic responses to stroboscopic stimulation are diminished or abolished for 2-4 h after zk 91296, 0.25-4 mg/kg, i.v. radioreceptor assay of plasma zk 91296 indicates rapid clearance (t 1/2 alpha, 5-20 min and beta, 60-90 min). in this model of generalised epilepsy zk 912 ...19836311579
role of the forebrain commissure and hemispheric independence in photosensitive response of epileptic baboon, papio papio.the effect of monocular intermittent light stimulation (ils) of either hemivisual field (hvf) of the full visual field (fvf) was examined in papio papio with or without forebrain bisection. ils of the hvf or the fvf in non-bisected baboons produced bisymmetrical and bisynchronous spike and wave which was followed by a self-sustained seizure without eeg evidence of hemispheric independence. ils of the fvf in bisected baboons also produced bilateral spike and wave and self-sustained seizures of a ...19882450734
noradrenergic regulation of growth hormone secretion in the baboon.we have investigated the effects of iv administered noradrenergic agonists and antagonists on plasma gh concentration in the adolescent baboon, papio papio, with the aim of defining the relative roles of adrenergic receptor subtypes (alpha 1, alpha 2, beta 1, and beta 2) in the regulation of gh release. clonidine (0.02 mg/kg) or uk-14,304 (0.02 mg/kg), potent centrally acting alpha 2 noradrenergic agonists, were infused into 24 animals pretreated with either saline, or selective alpha 1 and alph ...19836847820
anatomical atlas of the baboon's brain in the orbito-meatal plane used in experimental positron emission tomography.an anatomical atlas has been constructed of the brain of the baboon (papio papio) in the orbito-meatal plane (om-plane) which is frequently used in experimental positron emission tomography (pet) investigations. the atlas comprises 12 photographic reproductions of histological brain sections separated by 2.5 mm intervals, and covers telencephalic to pontine brain stem levels. the anatomical atlas was used in analysis of some pet scan images obtained after administration of either a benzodiazepin ...19882835124
comparative assessment of dopamine agonist aporphines as anticonvulsants in two models of reflex epilepsy.the anticonvulsant action of various aporphine derivatives that act on dopamine receptors has been investigated in two genetically determined animal models--dba/2 mice with sound-induced seizures and baboons papio papio with photically-induced seizures. protection against the clonic and tonic phases of the seizures response in dba/2 mice was seen for 15-60 min after (-)2,10,11-trihydroxy-n-n-propylnoraporphine (1.25 mg/kg) and (-)10,11-methyl-enedioxy-n-n-propylnoraporphine (0.625-1.25 mg/kg) an ...19836415743
epileptic discharges induced by intermittent light stimulation in photosensitive baboons: a current source density study.the current source density (csd) method was applied to the study of paroxysmal discharges (pds) induced by intermittent light stimulation (ils) in papio papio baboons made photosensitive by a subconvulsant dose of allylglycine. csd was studied in the motor and premotor areas (4 and 6). laminar profiles of sinks and sources are similar in both areas. nevertheless, the motor area seems to become involved first since it shows the earliest and most prominent sink in layer iii. such a sink, correlate ...20133197674
action of progabide in the photosensitive baboon, papio papio.progabide is a gaba agonist which is nontoxic and crosses the blood-brain barrier. progabide was tested in naturally and allylglycine-induced photosensitive baboons (papio papio). intravenous injection of various doses (30 to 100 mg/kg) of progabide induced a protective effect against intermittent light stimulation (25 hz) in both test situations. this protection lasted 10 to 120 min. this duration was dose-dependent and was generally shorter in allylglycine-treated than in naturally photosensit ...19827140662
the effects of constant light on eeg and seizure activity in the epileptic baboon.the effects of a change from a standard photoperiod (12:12 ld, 45 fc) to that of constant low level illumination (ll, 5 fc) on electroencephalographic activity (eeg), photic seizures and urine cortisol excretion were investigated in the baboon papio papio. unlike the normal circadian cycle, in which maximal urine cortisol excretion occurred at 08.00 h and minimal at 20.00 h, rhythms in cortisol excretion were free running under constant light, shifting an average of 2 h/week toward an earlier ti ...19826179743
transcallosal response (tcr) in the chronic photosensitive baboon preparation, papio papio. ii. effect of premotor cortical kindling.the chronological pattern of transcallosal response (tcr) and its recovery cycle were studied by single or paired stimulation of the homotopic primary and the secondary (contralateral) cortical site before, during and after primary site premotor cortical kindling in papio papio. prior to kindling, the sequential pattern of tcr was early positive (p1), negative (n1), late small positive (p2) and large negative (n2) components. the recovery cycle of both p1 and n1 showed a marked supernormal phase ...19872445549
the evoked epilepsies.epileptic activity may be strongly influenced by events occurring outside the central nervous system. at least 6% of recurrent seizures are evoked by specific afferent stimuli, and these are reviewed. the commonest environmental stimulus is light; photosensitive epilepsy occurs not only in humans but also in the baboon (papio papio). recognition and hence avoidance of factors which evoke seizures is an important part of the management of the epilepsies.19827079862
characteristics and origin of frontal paroxysmal responses induced by light stimulation in the papio papio under allylglycine.in the papio papio, curarized and rendered photosensitive by injection of a subconvulsant dose of dl-allylglycine, single flashes induce frontal paroxysmal evoked responses on condition that they be preceded by trains of intermittent light stimulation (ils). the characteristics of these responses have been compared to those of non-paroxysmal responses induced in the same cortical area by isolated flashes (not preceded by trains of ils). the paroxysmal responses resemble spikes and waves and cons ...19826177492
transcallosal response (tcr) in the chronic photosensitive baboon preparation, papio papio. i. premotor cortical stimulation, recovery cycle and neurotropic drug effect.transcallosal response (tcr) and its recovery cycle were studied in the chronic photosensitive baboon, papio papio. bipolar premotor intracortical stimulation evoked early positive (p1) and negative (n1) sequences followed by late small positivity (p2) and large negativity (n2) in the contralateral homotopic site. the sequential pattern of p1 and n1 was similar to that previously described in acute preparations. the recovery cycle as measured by means of paired stimuli with varying inter-stimulu ...19872445548
cerebellar nuclear topography of simple and synergistic movements in the alert baboon (papio papio).movements elicited by the stimulation of the cerebellar nuclei were studied in alert baboons chronically prepared. the motor responses were filmed and recorded in eight muscles through chronically implanted electrodes. two types of motor effects were observed: (1) simple movements that concerned the unidirectional displacement of a limb segment. (2) complex movements that involved distinct and frequently noncontiguous muscles were stereotyped and could not be dissociated. these movements are def ...19826889975
[new data from a comparative study of cerebral blood volume and eeg during epileptic seizures in papio papio (author's transl)].a new approach to the cerebral and extracerebral circulation phenomenon, during generalized seizure discharges (gsd) in the baboon is described. it is based upon the measurement of comparative variations of the regional blood volume (rbv) a new technique. first results demonstrate the existence of an extracerebral vascular structure of the face which is quite sensitive to the ictal phenomenon and which we have named the 'nasal region'. on the whole, when bursts of spike/waves occur the mean arte ...19817345492
reciprocal inhibition between seizures induced by intermittent light stimulation and premotor cortical stimulation in senegalese baboons, papio papio.the temporal relationship between the degree of photosensitivity and the intensity of kindling stimulus response was examined in four senegalese baboons, papio papio, kindled at the premotor cortical area. when fully kindled, the intensity of photosensitivity diminished significantly in all the animals. with successive daily intermittent light stimulation, two animals showed partial recovery and the other two showed complete recovery to the prekindling level of photosensitivity. when premotor co ...20063691413
opposite effects of lorazepam on two kinds of myoclonus in the photosensitive papio papio.the action of lorazepam was studied in photosensitive baboons. animals were either naturally very photosensitive or rendered photosensitive by a previous injection of allylglycine. intravenous administration of varying doses, from 0.05 to 0.5 mg/kg, of lorazepam blocked the myoclonus induced by intermittent light stimulation in all the animals. however, in the naturally photosensitive baboon the injection of lorazepam favoured the appearance of spontaneous myoclonus with no important eeg modific ...19816172264
cortical unit activity during intermittent photic stimulation in papio papio. relationship with paroxysmal fronto-rolandic activity.extracellular records have been made in the fronto-rolandic (fr), parietal and occipital cortical areas in papio papio injected with allylglycine and paralysed with a synthetic curarizing agent. the organization of the unit discharges in the absence of intermittent light stimulation (ils) is normal. during ils, unit discharges in the fr cortex are organized in bursts of high frequency that are synchronous with the spikes of the eeg paroxysmal discharges (pd) in the same territory; this burst-org ...19816166452
[type b myoclonus in papio papio: results of the central anticholinergic effect of benzodiazepines]. 19873427649
characterization of a proteoglycan of high electrophoretic mobility.proteoglycans from articular cartilage of young baboons (papio papio) were fractionated on an associative density gradient. material from the top of the gradient was shown to contain a proteoglycan of high electrophoretic mobility on large porosity gels. associated and/or contaminating proteins were removed by ion-exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose and subsequent gel filtration on sepharose 4b in the presence of 0.1% sds. the electrophoretically homogeneous proteoglycan (kd 0.43 on sephar ...19817470505
cerebral and extracerebral blood volume in generalized seizures in the baboon papio papio.relative variations of the cerebral and extracerebral blood volume (cbv) were measured continuously by a novel atraumatic method in baboons to explore the relationship between changes in the systemic circulation and in the cerebral (and extracerebral) vascular responses, before, during and after generalized seizures induced by photic stimulation. major bursts of generalized spikes and waves are accompanied by an increase of the mean arterial pressure and of the cerebral blood volume and a decrea ...19816161785
paroxysmal visual evoked potentials (pveps) in papio papio. ii. evidence for a facilitatory effect of intermittent photic stimulation. 19806160980
paroxysmal visual evoked potentials (pveps) in papio papio. i. morphological and topographical characteristics. comparison with paroxysmal discharges. 19806160979
bidirectional effects of beta-carbolines in reflex epilepsy.derivatives of ethyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate, zk 91296, zk 93423 and zk 95962 have potent anticonvulsant activity against sound-induced seizures in audiogenic dba/2 mice and against photically-induced seizures in the baboon, papio papio. the convulsant beta-carbolines, dmcm and beta-ccm, have proconvulsant and convulsant activity in the same animal models. dmcm and beta-ccm are similar in potency as convulsants in dba/2 mice (ed50 value for dmcm: 1.3 mg/kg; ed50 value for beta-ccm; 0.8 mg/k ...19873119161
a medulloblastoma in a baboon (papio papio).a transitional medulloblastoma was found in the cerebellum of a young female baboon. the primary lesion that permitted its discovery was papillary and retinal edema in the peripapillary zone.19807421118
eeg and anticonvulsant effects of dipropylacetic acid and dipropylacetamide in the baboon papio papio.the ability of dipropylacetic acid (dpa) and dipropylacetamide (dpm) to modify eeg and seizure activity was assessed in 4 female and 3 male papio papio. doses of 30-60 mg/kg of dpa given at intervals over an 8 h period produced blood levels of 19-44 micrograms/ml which were not protective against intermittent light stimulation (ils). administration of 150-200 mg/kg doses at intervals over a 36 h period produced blood levels greater than 150 micrograms/ml and were highly protective against ils. s ...19806158417
circadian periodicity of brain activity and urinary excretion in the epileptic baboon.a 24-h rhythm in the proclivity of the baboon papio papio to exhibit a seizure response to intermittent light stimulation (ils) has been uncovered. seizure response to ils was found to be greatest in the morning at about 0900 h, 2 h after lights on, and least severe in the evening at about 2000 h 1 h after lights off. urine cortisol and potassium excretion rhythms followed the same pattern as seizure susceptibility and sodium rhythms were 3 or 4 delayed. mean values for urine cortisol per 4 h ra ...19806772040
[study of specific binding sites of benzodiazepines using positron emission tomography in live baboons (papio papio)]. 19872831635
effects of the bicyclic gaba agonist, thip, on myoclonic and seizure responses in mice and baboons with reflex epilepsy.thip, 4,5,6,7-tetra hydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridine-3-ol, has been evaluated as an anticonvulsant in dba/2 mice showing audiogenic seizures, and in baboons, papio papio, with photosensitive epilepsy. no protection against seizures was seen after thip, 1-4 mg/kg, intraperitoneally in mice. thip, 8 mg/kg, reduced clonic and subsequent seizure responses at 1 h. it also reduced rectal temperature and impaired posture and spontaneous activity. in baboons thip, 0.25-8 mg/kg, iv, failed to protect agains ...19806767614
experimental study on epileptogenic transference phenomena in kindled senegales baboons, papio papio. 19807216051
liver microsomal oxidations in baboon (papio papio).1. the activity of baboon (papio papio) hepatic microsomes was evaluated using several model substrates. 2. as with other species studied in this laboratory, baboon microsomal enzyme activities were in the decreasing order: aldrin epoxidation greater than p-nitroanisole o-demethylation greater dihydroisodrin hydroxylation greater than benzo(a)pyrene oxidations. 3. substrate, time, protein and cofactor requirements were examined. 4. activities of stored frozen tissue and microsomal pellets remain ...1979117644
benzodiazepine receptors studied in living primates by positron emission tomography: inverse agonist interactions.the convulsant actions of methyl 6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (dmcm) and of methyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta-ccm) were evaluated in the baboon (papio papio). dmcm, 0.6-4 mg/kg, induced epileptic seizures with short latency. dmcm convulsive seizures could be blocked by i.v. administration of the benzodiazepine agonist diazepam (10 mg). similarly, beta-ccm, 0.3-3 mg/kg i.v., provoked generalized seizures in the baboons. these seizures were also reversed by the admini ...19873040433
effects of opiate-like peptides, morphine, and naloxone in the photosensitive baboon, papio papio.the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or systemic injections of met- or leu-enkephalin, beta-endorphin, fk 33.824 (d-ala2, mephe4, met(o5)-ol-enkephalin) and of morphine and naloxone have been studied in baboons, papio papio, which spontaneously show photically induced epileptic responses. animals were chronically implanted with epidural or deep recording electrodes and a cannula in one lateral ventricle, and tested whilst seated in a primate chair. in some animals the natural syndrome ...1979223724
osteosarcoma of the mandible of a baboon (papio papio): morphological and virological (oncornavirus) studies, with a review of neoplasms previously described in baboons. 1979118988
anticonvulsant action of yg 19-256 in baboons with photosensitive epilepsy.yg 19-256, 4-(1,3,4,9b-tetrahydro-5 methyl-2h-indeno[1,2-c]pyridine-2-yl)-2-butanone methane sulphonate, 1-3 mg/kg i.v., abolished or reduced photically-induced myoclonic responses for 1.5-6.5 h in baboons, papio papio, without producing signs of acute neurological toxicity.1979111964
spontaneous hand usage and handedness in a troop of baboons.hand usage was studied in a troop of 18 guinea baboons (10 adults and 8 young) for spontaneous activities. handedness was determined by an analysis of unimanual activities and bimanual asymmetric activities. the distribution of preferential biases gave 5 right-handers and 2 left-handers, other subjects being ambidextrous. main effects were age related: the strength of the preference was greater for adults than for young; moreover, bimanual activities performed by the adult group were more asymme ...19873608520
[desmodonte renewal in baboons (papio papio)].turnover of desmodontal ligament is analysed in the baboon using labeling, biochemical and histological techniques. in baboons, as previously observed in rodents, turnover of proteins labelled by 3h glycine may be described by a single exponential after the ninth day, the half life of which is more than two weeks. biochemical data show that proteins renewed are mostly collagen.1979109222
contribution of dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate to estradiol in baboon pregnancy.the metabolic clearance rates (mcr), conversion ratios (c), interconversion (rho), production rates (pr), secretion rates (sr), and relative contributions of maternal dehydroepiandrosterone (d) and d-sulfate (ds) to serum estradiol (e2) were determined in five pregnant baboons (papio papio; 154-167 days gestation, term = 184 days) by constant intravenous infusion of [3h]ds and [14c]d. mcr-d (mean +/- se) was greater (39.2 +/- 3.3 1/day.kg, p less than 0.001) than mcr-ds (3.1 +/- 0.3 1/day.kg). b ...1978150235
[neurotoxicity and cardiotoxicity of bupivacaine on the papio papio baboon]. 19873434894
mechanisms involved in mandibular condylopathy secondary to intraarticular injections of glucocorticoids.pharmacologic doses of triamcinolone hexacetonide were injected intramuscularly or intraarticularly in immature papio papio baboons. the mandibular condyle served as a model for histologic examinations concerning the effect of glucocorticoid hormone on cartilage and bone. biochemical examinations of blood and urine indicated the development of distinct hypophosphatemia, hypercalcemia followed by hyperphosphaturia, and hypocalciuria. serum alkaline phosphatase activity rose during the initial pha ...1978413894
negative effects of chronic hemicerebellectomy of epileptiform after-discharges elicited by focal cortical stimulation in baboons (papio papio).the influence of chronic hemicerebellectomy on cortical epileptiform after-discharge (ad) induced by focal electrical stimulation was studied in the baboon. these preliminary results include 22 ads elicited from motor cortex and 22 ads elicited from premotor cortex before and after hemicerebellectomy. only full-developed, generalized seizures with postictal silence were considered. eeg morphology, average duration and average current threshold were compared for each set of ictal events. no signi ...197875096
[buccal candidiasis and intestinal invagination in captive baboons, papio papio]. 1978715290
[pharmacologic approach to papio papio photosensitive epilepsy]. 197898965
hpns of baboons during helium-nitrogen-oxygen slow exponential compressions.from the results obtained with the experimental series corasin (fast compression with he-n2-o2), a method of compression has been developed for the baboon (papio papio) to dive deeper than 600 m. this method utilizes an exponential compression profile with stages of 40 min every 100 m and with the introduction of n2 before each stage from 200 m onward to maintain a concentration of 5.5%. between 0 and 800 m, this procedure did not produce myoclonus or epileptic seizures; tremor appeared beyond 4 ...19846469804
increasing fetal adrenal formation of cortisol from pregnenolone during baboon (papio papio) gestation. 1977413590
[temporal variations of excitability in photosensitive papio papio after series of intermittent light flashes (author's transl)].after several trains of intermittent photic stimulation (ips) each lasting 10 seconds and sometimes inducing paroxysmal electrical activity, isolated flashes or salves of 2 or 3 light flashes are capable of inducing bifrontal paroxysmal discharges in photosensitive papio papio, an effect which is augmented by allylglycine or the use of highly photosensitive animals. use of these salves repeated every second enabled the authors to demonstrate two types of changes in cortical excitability after in ...2006417388
[biological and biochemical characterization of a new isolate of baboon papio papio endogenous type c virus].a new strain of baboon papio papio endogeneous type c virus was isolated from the testis of an animal of this species. the strain was characterized biochemically and biologically. it presents a host-range different from that of the prototype strain of the same virus.1977195750
acute dystonia as an idiosyncratic response to neuroleptics in baboons.among 25 baboons, papio papio, 2 consistently showed acute dystonic reactions, with mouthing, compulsive gnawing and limb and trunk dystonia, following the intravenous administration of neuroleptics and related drugs (haloperidol, 0-6-1-2 mg/kg; pimozide 0-5-2-5 mg/kg; chlorpromazine 5-25 mg/kg; metoclopramide 1-5-1-7 mg/kg; oxyperomide 0-25-1-0 mg/kg). the syndrome was not seen after thioridazine (3-7 mg/kg). the dystonic responses occurred within 1-2 h of drug injection and lasted for 2-24 h. ...1977406964
effects of addition of nitrogen during rapid compression of baboons.a series of dives was carried out to depths of 600 and 800 m seawater (msw) using baboons (papio papio). experiments were designed to study the effects of compression and the use of a he-n2-o2 gas mixture on high-pressure nervous syndrome (hpns). when n2 was added to the he-o2 mixture at the beginning of a linear compression (200 msw/h), the symptoms associated with hpns were still seen; in addition, the electroencephalogram (eeg) changes were more severe than those seen without n2. by use of an ...19846469803
[the induction of seizures in "papio papio" following allylglycine alone or in combination with intermittent photic stimulation (author's transl)].allylglycine, an inhibitor of gaba synthesis, produces increased sensitivity to photic stimulation and in convulsant doses spontaneous seizures arising occipitally in the baboon (horton and meldrum, 1973). in this study, convulsant doses of allylglycine induced either sharp wave and polyspike frontorolandic discharges (fr) or critical posterior discharges which then reinforce the fronto-rolandic spikes. a seizure may then arise from the fronto-rolandic region and secondarily spread to the rest o ...2013594466
evidence for neurotransmitter abnormalities related to seizure activity in the epileptic baboon.the experimental evidence that indicates that alterations in neurotransmitter activity exacerbate or diminish seizure responses to intermittent light stimulation in the papio papio model of epilepsy is reviewed. studies of the effects of drugs known to modify the synthesis, storage release, or activity of known or putative neurotransmitters are included. catecholamines, to a lesser extent the indolamine, serotonin, and the inhibitory transmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid all alter seizures as do l ...19846145626
seizure activity in photosensitive baboons following antidepressant drugs and the role of serotoninergic mechanisms.laboratroy and clinical evidence indicates that tricyclic antidepressants lower seizure threshold and in high doses may induce generalised seizures. in baboons with photosensitive epilepsy (papio papio) the effects of 2 tricyclic antidepressants (imipramine and chlorimipramine) and of maprotiline and nomi fensine have been studied (i.v. dose range 1-20 mg/kg. imipramine, chlorimipramine and maprotiline (10 mg/kg i.v.) lowered seizure threshold to a comparable extent, whereas nomifensine (10 mg/k ...1977402667
anticonvulsant actions of ds 103-282. pharmacological studies in rodents and the baboon, papio papio.the anticonvulsant actions of ds 103-282 [5-chloro-4-(2-imidazolin-2-yl-amino)-2,1,3- benzothiadazole , tizanidine], have been evaluated after intraperitoneal administration in dba/2 mice (seizures induced by sound), in swiss s mice (seizures induced by n-methyl-d,l-aspartate; nmdla ) and following intravenous or oral administration in papio papio (seizure responses to intermittent photic stimulation). protection against sound-induced seizures occurred after intraperitoneal administration of ds ...19846377114
influence of cortisone on seizure activity in the papio papio model of epilepsy. 1977408824
a comparison of the effects of chronically administered diazepam and phenobarbital and learning in the papio papio model of epilepsy. 1977408818
the relationship between the anticonvulsant properties of sc-13504 and its plasma levels, measured by polarography, in baboons with photosensitive epilepsy.sc-13504 was given intravenously to baboons with photosensitive epilepsy, papio papio, with and without prior administration of allylglycine. plasma levels of the drug were determined by differential pulse polarography and correlated with behavioural changes and the anticonvulsant action of the drug. protection against photically induced seizures or self-sustaining myoclonic responses was seen 30 to 120 min after sc-13504, 4-8 mg/kg (when plasma levels were 1 mug/ml or greater). eeg and neurolog ...1976827776
epilepsy and sleep organization in the baboon papio papio.effects of different types of epileptic seizure on the sleep organization of baboon were studied through 12 h polygraphic recordings. photically induced myoclonic jerking did not modify sleep organization. photically induced genalized convulsions produced an increase of the waking stage (awa) and reduction of rem stage. pentetrazol-induced generalized convulsions not only increased awa and reduced rem, but also elicited various modifications of stages i, ii and iii. daily generalized convulsions ...197662652
[paroxysmal eeg and emg discharges induced by intermittent photic stimulation in the photosensitive papio papio]. 20041035432
the identification of 3alpha,6beta,11beta,17,21-pentahydroxy-5beta-pregnan-20-one (6beta-hydroxy-thf)--the major urinary steroid of the baboon (papio papio). 1976827658
inhibition of reflex epilepsy by (+/-)-n-n-propylnorapomorphine.in baboons, papio papio, spontaneously showing photosensitive epilepsy, myoclonic responses to intermittent photic stimulation were reduced or abolished for up to four hours by (+/-)-n-n-propylnorapomorphine (npa) 0.05-0.2 mg/kg body weight, given i.v. in animals pretreated with allyglycine, 200 mg/kg, a transient abolition of myoclonic responses followed npa, 0.2 mg/kg. in dba/2 mice, seizures following auditory stimulation were attenuated or abolished by npa 0.025-0.1 mg/kg given intraperitone ...1976824145
naloxone reversal and morphine exacerbation of neurologic deficits secondary to focal cerebral ischemia in baboons.the effects of an opiate agonist (morphine) and antagonist (naloxone) on neurologic function in conditions of acute and subacute focal cerebral ischemia were tested in a baboon model. fourteen baboons (papio papio) underwent unilateral transorbital microsurgical occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (mca). blood pressure, heart rate and core temperature were monitored continuously; frequent arterial blood gas measurements were made. cardiac output, cardiac filling pressures, and regional cereb ...19846692145
effects of drugs modifying brain levels of catecholamines on photically induced epilepsy in papio papio.the behavioral and electrographic effects of dl-amphetamine, disulfiram, fla-63, and propranolol on the photically induced epilepsy of the senegalese baboon were evaluated. amphetamine produced somatic hypokinesia with enhancement of eye movements, diminution of spontaneous paroxysmal activity, and little change in photosensitivity. the acute effects of disulfiram and fla-63 were poor, but the latter was lethal in the days following administration. propranolol showed no consistent effects. parti ...1976976217
measurement of anticonvulsant activity in the papio papio model of epilepsy.the status of papio papio as a model of clinical epilepsy has been reviewed. the anticonvulsant effects of single doses of various classic and experimental agents have been compared against seizures induced in the p. papio by intermittent light stimulation. long-acting but not short-acting barbiturates have been shown fully to control seizures with minor sedative effects. diphenylhydantoin (in chronic doses only) and trimethadione are often effective but not consistently so. diazepam and clonaze ...1976821787
anticonvulsant action of 1,3-dimethyl-5-aminoadamantane. pharmacological studies in rodents and baboon, papio papio.the anticonvulsant actions of memantine (1,3-dimethyl-5-aminoadamantane) have been evaluated in mice (seizures induced by maximal electroshock, pentylenetetrazol, bicuculline, picrotoxin, 3-mercaptopropionic acid and n-methyl-d,l-aspartic acid) and in photosensitive baboons, papio papio (clonic responses to intermittent photic stimulation). memantine, 5-20 mg/kg, raised the threshold for electroconvulsions and protected mice against the tonic hind limb extension in pentylenetetrazol-, bicucullin ...19863951570
the metabolic clearance rates and interconversion of cortisol and cortisone in pregnant and nonpregnant baboons.pregnancy alters the pattern of maternal cortisol (f) metabolism and increases the maternal serum cortisol-binding capacity (cbc) of baboons. to determine whether these changes are associated with alterations in f clearance,the metabolic clearance rate (mcr) and interconversion (p) of f and cortisone (e) were measured by continuous infusion of (3h)f and (14c)e in 9 regularly menstruating and 7 pregnant baboons (papio papio). in nonpregnant animals, the values (x +/- se) for mcr-e (488 +/- 48 1/d ...1976954656
social facilitation in a troop of guinea baboons (papio papio) living in an enclosure.a method is described of assessing whether or not social facilitation occurred in a troop of guinea baboons (papio papio) living in an enclosure. the method did not involve the removal of individuals from the troop. the study revealed an interaction between social facilitation and the quality of social relationship involved; affiliative relationships enhanced the social facilitation of leaving an experimental zone. the theoretical implications of this finding are discussed. the method also discl ...198524896698
cone-rod dystrophy in the guinea baboon.three stages of macular degeneration associated with diffuse cone-rod dystrophy have been described in a guinea baboon (p papio) colony. clinically, the affected animals displayed abnormal behavior associated with decreased vision. ophthalmoscopically, the lesion in the macula was the only change observable in early cases; retinal vessel attenuation and optic disc pallor were seen only in the advanced cases. the hyperfluorescence of the maculae was the result of loss of pigment in the pigmented ...2008822562
serum progesterone in the pregnant baboon (papio papio). 1976819050
[eeg effects of sodium nitroprusside and hemodynamic references].a study was performed on baboons (papio papio) of various hemodynamic and eeg effects of sodium nitroprussiate (snp), substance with powerful vasodilator action. three different procedures of drug injection were used: (1) in isolation, either in doses close to those used in clinical practice or in high doses; (2) after neuroleptanalgesia (nla); (3) after causing vasospasm. with isolated snp, effects on blood pressure were unstable; in certain cases hypotension could be maintained only with toxic ...197656263
[toporaphy of chromosome banding in papio papio].results are given of a study of chromosome banding patterns of papio papio. the 22 chromosomes are described and illustrated and their measurements are given.1976818939
plasma growth hormone responses to microinfusion of noradrenergic agents into or electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus and amygdala in baboons.in nine baboons (papio papio) guide cannulae and electrodes were stereotaxically implanted into the medial basal or lateral hypothalamus, the anterior hypothalamus or the dorsal amygdala. plasma gh responses were measured after microinfusion (1 microliter) of the alpha2 adrenergic agonist, clonidine, or the beta adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, or electrical stimulation, in each of these sites. clonidine, 100 nmol/microliter, infused into the medial basal or lateral hypothalamus elevated plas ...19852995219
biogenic amines and the photomyoclonic syndrome in the baboon, papio papio.the role of biogenic amines in the proclivity of the baboon, papio papio, to exhibit an epileptoid response to flashing light was studied. intraventricular injections of epinephrine and norepinephrine reduced or blocked the photomyoclonic syndrome without modifying ongoing behavior. epinephrine was effective at doses of 100 mg and more, and norepinephrine was effective at doses of 250 mg and more. neither intraventricular injections of as much as 1.5 mg of dopamine and 1.0 mg of serotonin nor ch ...1976812981
differential effects of the benzodiazepine antagonist ro 15-1788 on two types of myoclonus in baboon papio papio.certain benzodiazepines (bzs) like lorazepam, diazepam or clonazepam induce myoclonus jerks in photosensitive and non-photosensitive baboons. papio papio, which are not accompanied by eeg paroxysmal discharges (type b). the effect of the selective bz antagonist r0 15-1788 was evaluated in this myoclonus. ro 15-1788 completely blocked type b myoclonus without decreasing the level of vigilance in the two types of baboons, and reversed the antiepileptic action of the bzs in the photosensitive ones, ...19836136945
proceedings: spontaneous spike and wave with anterior distribution in association with fits induced by photic stimulation in papio papio. report of a case. 197552534
effects of tetrahydrocannabinols on kindled amygdaloid seizures and photogenic seizures in senegalese baboons, papio papio.intraperitoneal injections of delta 8-tetrahydrocannabinol (thc) and delta 9-thc failed to affect myoclonic response to photic stimulation in senegalese baboons (papio papio). however, both isomers of thc exerted dose-related antiepileptic effects upon established kindled convulsions provoked by electrical stimulation of amygdala in the same species. delta 9-thc was more potent than delta 8-thc, in terms of both antiepileptic effects and general toxicity. the antiepileptic effects of the thc iso ...1975810346
[cerebellum and photosensitive epilepsy in papio papio: effects of cerebellar lesions on photosensitivity and visual evoked potentials]. 2004821114
cerebellar control of eye movements studied with injection of harmaline in the trained baboon.1. the alteration of the cortical cerebellar mechanisms resulting from the activation of the olivo-cerebellar pathway by harmaline (h) administered at doses which were subthreshold for skeletomotor tremor (5 mg/kg, im) yields, in the trained baboon (papio papio), a marked decrease of oculomotor system performance. 2. the mean angular excursion of the spontaneous eye movements produced in the dark over a given period of time is increased by 50%. the increase is basically due to an increase of the ...19836847319
[preliminary study of the ontogenesis of activities of the "pgo" spike type in papio papio]. 2003821113
photically induced epilepsy in papio papio as a model for drug studies.neurophysiological studies employing drugs have been undertaken in the natural syndrome of photically induced epilepsy in the senegalese baboon papio papio. gaba-mediated inhibition, both pre- and posysynaptic, plays an important role in the epileptic manifestations seen in this syndrome synapses can significantly modify photically induced epileptic responses, partly as a result of changes in afferent activity. the level of activity in dopaminergic systems can also modify the epileptic signs. am ...19751170711
[spontaneous spikes-waves of anterior predominance with paroxysmal manifestations induced by intermittent photic stimulation in papio papio. reflections on a particular case]. 2004821109
chemical synaptic transmission is not necessary for epileptic seizures to persist in the baboon papio papio.the spread and persistence of epileptic seizures have generally been attributed to chemical synaptic interactions. using ion-sensitive microelectrodes, we showed that in the allylglycine-treated photosensitive baboon, prolonged light-induced generalized seizures were accompanied by abnormally large decreases in the concentration of extracellular calcium ions, reaching values at which chemical synaptic transmission was certainly very reduced or blocked. this feature was observed in all cortical l ...19852988992
serum anticonvulsant levels during chronic administration in the immature epileptic baboon, papio papio. 19854070243
action of suriclone in naturally and allyglycine-induced photosensitive baboons, papio papio.suriclone (sc) is a new anxiolytic compound with a chemical structure different from that of benzodiazepines (bzd) but sc possesses a high affinity for the so-called bzd receptors. sc was tested in the naturally or the allylglycine-treated photosensitive baboon papio papio. as active bzd administered by the intramuscular or oral route, this new compound possesses a marked protective effect against the excessive photosensitivity of the baboons, it blocks myoclonus following eeg spike and waves di ...19846436048
dental microwear and mechanisms in early hominids from laetoli and hadar.the dentition of early hominids from laetoli and hadar provide evidence of "incisal stripping" and a shear-grinding action for c/p3 complex through microscopic examination of wear facets on dental crowns. this masticatory pattern of dental wear resembles that of papio papio and suggests behavioral analogies between early hominids and papio.19846437237
limbic status epilepticus: behaviour and sleep alterations after intra-amygdaloid kainic acid microinjections in papio papio baboons.limbic status epilepticus was produced with single microinjections of kainic acid in the amygdala of baboons (papio papio). long-term studies of the behavioural, electrographic and sleep alterations were performed. during status epilepticus the animals did not display aggressive behaviour. feeding behaviour was diminished. sleep was also deeply disturbed. wakefulness was greatly increased, light slow wave sleep was diminished and deep slow wave sleep and paradoxical sleep was abolished. sleep al ...19826183093
[consequences of pulpectomy followed by canal obturation on the renewal of periodontal ligament in the baboon (papio papio)].endodontic root filling following pulpectomy in baboons was shown to induce diphasic consequences at the level of the periodontal ligament according to the time of the observation. initially the specific activity of previously incorporated 3h glycine decreased and the weight of extractible ligament increased at the same time. later on, the turnover slowed down and, unexpectedly, the weight of the extractible ligament decreased. this could be explained since the periodotal ligament was shown to e ...19826812879
[myoclonus induced by some benzodiazepines in the papio papio. comparison with myoclonus induced by intermittent light stimulation (author's transl)].papio papio may show two different kinds of myoclonus. a first type corresponds to myoclonus induced by photic stimulation (25 hz). this type is always preceded by paroxysmal discharges. another type of myoclonus may be induced, or at least facilitated, by some benzodiazepines, especially lorazepam and, to a lesser extent, diazepam. this type is neither preceded nor accompanied by paroxysmal discharges. a single injection of lorazepam (1 mg/kg i.v.) blocks the first type of myoclonus but favors ...19826125000
[modification of frontal and occipital cortical excitability provoked by trains of flashes in papio papio (author's transl)].the experimental conditions necessary for obtaining an evoked paroxysmal response from the frontal cortex were studied in the baboon papio papio. the trigger stimulus was comprised of an isolated flash preceded by a train of intermittent light stimulation (sli). two conditions were necessary for the appearance of paroxysmal responses: a subconvulsant dose of dl-allylglycine had to be injected at least 3 h previous to recording, and a sufficient number of sli trains had to be presented to the ani ...19817345487
[impairments in initiation and execution of a visually-guided movement in baboon during cooling or after lesion of the internal pallidal segment (author's transl)].in the present experiment, the participation of the internal part of the globus pallidus (gp) in the initiation and the execution of a pointing movement was investigated in four baboons (papio papio). the effects of gp exclusion on the response latency, the movement execution time and the pointing accuracy were analyzed. two different methods were used to exclude the gp. in two cases, cryogenic blockade was induced using a chronic cryoprobe, implanted contralaterally to the operant hand. two oth ...19817230049
sustained limbic seizures induced by intraamygdaloid kainic acid in the baboon: symptomatology and neuropathological consequences.in papio papio baboons chronically prepared for cortical and deep electroencephalographic recording, injection of kainic acid into the amygdala (7 animals) or temporal pole (2 animals) gave rise to focal epileptic discharges lasting 15 to 150 hours. electrographically, the seizure activity spread ipsilaterally and contralaterally within the limbic system but did not become generalized. the principal associated motor signs were arrest of movement and oral automatisms. histological examination aft ...19806254439
proteoglycan populations of baboon (papio papio) cartilages from different anatomical sites: gel electrophoretic analysis of dissociated proteoglycans and of fractions obtained by density gradient centrifugation.proteoglycans extracted by 4 m guanidinium chloride from different cartilages and vertebral discs of young baboons (papio papio) were purified by ion-exchange chromatography and assessed by gel electrophoresis. proteoglycans fractionated by equilibrium density gradient centrifugation under 'dissociative' conditions were similarly purified and assessed. (1) non-fractionated proteoglycans from articular, nasal, laryngeal, tracheal, costal, vertebral plate and ear cartilage and from anulus fibrosus ...19806770906
electroencephalographic and behavioral effects of a gaba agonist (muscimol) on photosensitive epilepsy in the baboon, papio papio.muscimol, 0.25-1.0 mg/kg, i.v., was administered acutely to 4 adolescent baboons, papio papio, that show photically induced epilepsy. on the eeg, slowing of background rhythms was associated with the appearance of spikes, polyspikes, and recurring symmetrical spike-wave complexes. these changes were maximal 0.5-2 hr after muscimol injection. regular testing with intermittent light stimulation showed either no change from control responses or a more severe epileptiform eeg 0.1-3 hr after muscimol ...1979113208
anticonvulsant activity in photosensitive baboons, papio papio, of two new 1,5 benzodiazepines.two new 1,5 benzodiazepines have been evaluated acutely as anticonvulsants in baboons, papio papio, with photosensitive epilepsy. bau 426 (8-chlor-6-[2-chlorphenyl]-4h-s-triazolo-[4,3-a] [1,5-benzodiazepin-5-[6-h]on) and bau 500 (analogue of bau 426 with [2-trifluor methylphenyl] substituted for [2-chlorphenyl]), 0.1--5.0 mg/kg, were administered i.v. to baboons with and without priming with d,l allylglycine. bau 426 or bau 500, 0.1--0.2 mg/kg, produced partial or transient protection against ph ...1979108705
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