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[identity of karyotypes of papio papio and macaca mulatta in r, g, c banding and ag-nor]. 1978115371
[observation of a photosensitive syndrome in macaca nemestrina (author's transl)].out of a group of 12 m. nemestrina (originating from malaysia), 9 adults had shown clinical signs induced by ils at 25 c/sec. six of them (3 males, 3 females) were very photosensitive; however, only 2 presented eyelid and/or head jerks after the end of ils (level 4), but never a generalized seizure. tactile periorbital stimuli favoured myoclonus. in all but the two of level 4, the intensity of clinical signs varied from one day to the next. in all implanted adult macaques, spontaneous paroxysmal ...19817323374
insights into the genetic foundation of aggression in papio and the evolution of two length-polymorphisms in the promoter regions of serotonin-related genes (5-httlpr and maoalpr) in papionini.aggressive behaviors are an integral part of competitive interactions. there is considerable variation in aggressiveness among individuals both within and among species. aggressiveness is a quantitative trait that is highly heritable. in modern humans and macaques (macaca spp.), variation in aggressiveness among individuals is associated with polymorphisms in the serotonergic (5-ht) neurotransmitter system. to further investigate the genetics underlying interspecific variation in aggressiveness, ...201627287312
differences between chimpanzee and baboon gastrointestinal parasite communities.cross-species infection among humans, chimpanzees (pan troglodytes) and baboons (papio spp.) is potentially a significant public health issue in africa, and of concern in the conservation of p. troglodytes. however, to date, no statistical comparisons have been made between the prevalence, richness and composition of parasite communities in sympatric populations of baboons and p. troglodytes. we compared parasite communities in sympatric p. troglodytes and papio papio living in a wilderness site ...201525731985
hemispheric lateralisation and global precedence effects in the processing of visual stimuli by humans and baboons (papio papio).this paper examines the effect of global precedence (gpe: navon, 1977) and its lateralisation from a comparative perspective. using a divided field matching-to-sample task with compound stimuli, experiment 1 demonstrated consistent patterns of lateralisation in humans and baboons, corresponding to a right-hemisphere advantage for global processing and a left- but nonsignificant advantage for local processing. species differences emerged in terms of gpe; humans showed a global precedence effect, ...199715513066
human (homo sapiens) and baboon (papio papio) chimeric face processing: right-hemisphere involvement.[correction notice: an erratum for this article was reported in vol 127(3) of journal of comparative psychology (see record 2013-30238-001). in the article, the link to the supplemental material was not included. supplemental material for this article is available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0031494.supp.] the perception and production of facial expressions have traditionally been used to infer hemispheric specialization for emotions in both human and nonhuman primates. the authors examined o ...201323566028
demonstration of gaba immunoreactive cells in the inferior olive of baboons (papio papio and papio anubis).the distribution of gamma-aminobutyric acid (gaba)-like immunoreactivity was studied in semithin sections through the inferior olivary complex in two baboon species. about 5% of the olivary neurons were gaba-immunoreactive. the gaba-immunoreactive neurons differed from the large majority of olivary neurons by their smaller size and their lower contents of aspartate, as judged by analysis of alternate sections labelled with an aspartate antiserum. the present observations raise the possibility th ...19892671810
n-methyl-d-aspartate receptors in the cortex and hippocampus of baboon (papio anubis and papio papio).in vitro autoradiography was used to examine the n-methyl-d-aspartate receptor in the brain of a baboon species, papio anubis, and compared to that of papio papio which exhibits a photosensitive epilepsy. the epilepsy originates in the frontal cortex and is accompanied by an enhanced sensitivity to n-methyl-d-aspartate. in both papio anubis and papio papio, the density of n-methyl-d-aspartate receptors was greatest in the hippocampus, followed by associational areas including frontal cortex, and ...19892573860
speciation in the baboon and its relation to gamma-chain heterogeneity and to the response to induction of hbf by 5-azacytidine.in the baboon (papio species), the two nonallelic gamma-genes produce gamma-chains that differ at a minimum at residue 75, where isoleucine (i gamma-chain) or valine (v gamma) may be present. this situation obtains in baboons that are sometimes designated as papio anubis, papio hamadryas, and papio papio. however, in papio cynocephalus, although the i gamma-chains are identical with those in the above mentioned types, the v gamma-chains have the substitutions ala----gly at residue 9 and ala----v ...19846201212
polymorphism of the ca-i locus of carbonic anhydrase in baboon.polymorphism of erythrocytic carbonic anhydrase was studied by means of the usual technique of starch gel electrophoresis in papio papio, papio hamadryas, papio cynocephalus and papio anubis. in a sample containing both papio cynocephalus and papio anubis, examples of the homozygote ca-ib/ca-ib were found. a study of parental transmission established the ca-ib allelic form.1975804560
distribution of distinct arachidonoyl-specific and non-specific isoenzymes of diacylglycerol kinase in baboon (papio cynocephalus) tissues.we investigated the diacyglycerol kinase species present in several baboon tissues using the substrates sn-1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl diacylglycerol and sn-1,2-didecanoyl diacylglycerol. chromatography of octyl glucoside extracts of the baboon (papio cynocephalus papio) tissues on hydroxyapatite columns revealed the presence of three diacylglycerol kinase species with different substrate preferences. one species markedly 'preferred' the substrate sn-1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoylglycerol, the two othe ...19902155609
amygdaloid kindling in papio cynocephalus and subsequent recurrent spontaneous seizures.three baboons, papio cynocephalus, (two photosensitive and one nonphotosensitive) were subjected to amygdaloid kindling. electroclinical profile of seizure development-developed seizure compares very favourably to that described in photosensitive baboons, papio papio, with rapid seizure progression and ultimate emergence of stage 5 bisymmetrical and bisynchronous generalized convulsive state. in addition, one baboon developed spontaneous recurrent seizures which were identical to the kindled sta ...19846532930
charting the neglected west: the social system of guinea baboons.primate social systems are remarkably diverse, and thus play a central role in understanding social evolution, including the biological origin of human societies. although baboons have been prominently featured in this context, historically little was known about the westernmost member of the genus, the guinea baboon (papio papio).201728105722
sex and friendship in a multilevel society: behavioural patterns and associations between female and male guinea baboons.one key question in social evolution is the identification of factors that promote the formation and maintenance of stable bonds between females and males beyond the mating context. baboons lend themselves to examine this question, as they vary in social organisation and male-female association patterns. we report the results from the first systematic observations of individually identified wild female guinea baboons. guinea baboons live in a multilevel society with female-biased dispersal. alth ...201726900211
population genetic insights into the social organization of guinea baboons (papio papio): evidence for female-biased dispersal.sex differences in philopatry and dispersal have important consequences on the genetic structure of populations, social groups, and social relationships within groups. among mammals, male dispersal and female philopatry are most common and closely related taxa typically exhibit similar dispersal patterns. however, among four well-studied species of baboons, only hamadryas baboons exhibit female dispersal, thus differing from their congenerics, which show female philopatry and close-knit female s ...201525864569
male tolerance and male-male bonds in a multilevel primate society.male relationships in most species of mammals generally are characterized by intense intrasexual competition, with little bonding among unrelated individuals. in contrast, human societies are characterized by high levels of cooperation and strong bonds among both related and unrelated males. the emergence of cooperative male-male relationships has been linked to the multilevel structure of traditional human societies. based on an analysis of the patterns of spatial and social interaction in comb ...201425201960
the influence of social systems on patterns of mitochondrial dna variation in baboons.behavior is influenced by genes but can also shape the genetic structure of natural populations. investigating this link is of great importance because behavioral processes can alter the genetic diversity on which selection acts. gene flow is one of the main determinants of the genetic structure of a population and dispersal is the behavior that mediates gene flow. baboons (genus papio) are among the most intensely studied primate species and serve as a model system to investigate the evolution ...201424523566
fossil papio cranium from !ncumtsa (koanaka) hills, western ngamiland, botswana.three fossils, a cranium of papio, a cercopithecid frontal bone, and a mandible of juvenile papio, have been recovered from cave deposits in the !ncumtsa (koanaka) hills of western ngamiland, botswana. these specimens are significant because well-preserved crania of papio are extremely rare in the fossil record outside of south africa and because this is the first report of fossil primate cranial remains from botswana. thermoluminescence dating of surrounding cave matrix indicates an age of ≥317 ...201222639236
group composition of guinea baboons (papio papio) at a water place suggests a fluid social organization.baboon social systems are among the most studied in primates. solid knowledge of the hamadryas and savannah baboon systems has accumulated, leading to a dichotomic view of baboon social systems. hamadryas baboons live in multilayered troops based on 1-male units whereas savannah baboons live in multimale multifemale groups based on a network of related females. less attention has been paid to their west african congenerics, the guinea baboons, papio papio. to fill this gap, in 2007 we initiated ...201121654901
physiological sleep myoclonus in baboons.physiological sleep myoclonus (sleep onset myoclonus and myoclonus during paradoxical sleep) was recorded from the tails of 6 baboons (2 papio hamadryas and 4 papio papio) and its relationship with spontaneously occurring eeg paroxysmal discharges was studied. it was observed that during light slow wave sleep tail myoclonus (sleep onset myoclonus) was almost always associated with eeg paroxysmal discharges predominating in the fronto-rolandic cortex. during deep slow wave sleep the number of eeg ...19852578368
[generic characteristics and specific characteristics of the ponto-geniculo-occipital spike activity (pgo) in 2 baboons, papio hamadryas and papio papio]. 1975167907
[differential effects of p-chlorophenylalanine on sleep in primates, papio papio and papio hamadryas]. 19744135023
[similarities and differences in the sleep of 2 baboons, papio hamadryas and papio papio]. 19734124615
are baboons learning "orthographic" representations? probably not.the ability of baboons (papio papio) to distinguish between english words and nonwords has been modeled using a deep learning convolutional network model that simulates a ventral pathway in which lexical representations of different granularity develop. however, given that pigeons (columba livia), whose brain morphology is drastically different, can also be trained to distinguish between english words and nonwords, it appears that a less species-specific learning algorithm may be required to exp ...201728859134
the processing of positional information in a two-item sequence limits the emergence of symmetry in baboons (papio papio), but not in humans (homo sapiens).when trained to associate stimulus a to stimulus b, humans can derive the untrained symmetrical b to a relation while nonhuman animals have much more difficulties. urcuioli (2008, journal of the experimental analysis of behavior, 90, 257--282; 2015, conductal, 3, 4--25) proposed that the apparent difficulty of animals in symmetry testing reflects their double encoding of the information on the stimuli (identity and relation) and their positional (i.e., spatial and temporal/ordinal) characteristi ...201728779389
emotion-cognition interaction in nonhuman primates: cognitive avoidance of negative stimuli in baboons (papio papio)it is well established that emotion and cognition interact in humans, but such an interaction has not been extensively studied in nonhuman primates. we investigated whether emotional value can affect nonhuman primates' processing of stimuli that are only mentally represented, not visually available. in a short-term memory task, baboons memorized the location of two target squares of the same color, which were presented with a distractor of a different color. through prior long-term conditioning, ...201728078977
evidence of a vocalic proto-system in the baboon (papio papio) suggests pre-hominin speech precursors.language is a distinguishing characteristic of our species, and the course of its evolution is one of the hardest problems in science. it has long been generally considered that human speech requires a low larynx, and that the high larynx of nonhuman primates should preclude their producing the vowel systems universally found in human language. examining the vocalizations through acoustic analyses, tongue anatomy, and modeling of acoustic potential, we found that baboons (papio papio) produce so ...201728076426
sex differences in inhibitory control in socially-housed baboons (papio papio).inhibitory control is an important component of executive function. an emerging literature in humans suggests that inhibitory control is sexually dimorphic and modulated by sex steroids, but evidence for such a link in nonhuman animals is scarce. in this study, we examined the effects of menstrual cycle and biological sex on response inhibition, as measured by a stop-signal task, in the baboon (papio papio). the monkeys (n=13) were socially-housed, with voluntary access to multiple touchscreen c ...201627321783
categorization does not promote symmetry in guinea baboons (papio papio).humans have the capacity to use stimuli interchangeably by forming equivalence classes, and this ability seems to be supported by our language system. according to sidman and tailby (conditional discrimination vs. matching to sample: an expansion of the testing paradigm. j exp anal behav 37:5-22, 1982), the formation of equivalence classes require that three relations are derived among the class members, and past experiments have shown that one of these relations, i.e., symmetry, corresponding t ...201627278368
genetics of reflex seizures and epilepsies in humans and animals.reflex seizures are epileptic events triggered by specific motor, sensory or cognitive stimulation. this comprehensive narrative review focuses on the role of genetic determinants in humans and animal models of reflex seizures and epilepsies.201626875109
using automated learning devices for monkeys (aldm) to study social networks.social network analysis has become a prominent tool to study animal social life, and there is an increasing need to develop new systems to collect social information automatically, systematically, and reliably. here we explore the use of a freely accessible automated learning device for monkeys (aldm) to collect such social information on a group of 22 captive baboons (papio papio). we compared the social network obtained from the co-presence of the baboons in ten aldm testing booths to the soci ...201726676950
behavioral assessment of combinatorial semantics in baboons (papio papio).combinatorial semantics is a core property of human language whose mechanisms remain poorly known. this study used computerized tasks with touch screens to investigate whether baboons (papio papio) can understand the combination of shape and color labels in order to designate their corresponding colored shape. the baboons were trained either directly with label-pairs (experiment 1) or with individual shape and color labels (experiment 2), before being tested with novel compound labels from which ...201626515889
social behavior and patterns of testosterone and glucocorticoid levels differ between male chacma and guinea baboons.in multi-male, multi-female groups of mammals, males usually compete aggressively over access to females. however, species vary in the intensity of male contest competition, which has been linked to differences in testosterone and glucocorticoid profiles. chacma (papio ursinus) and guinea (p. papio) baboons constitute an intriguing model to examine variation in male competition and male endocrine correlates, because of the differences in their social systems. chacma baboons live in stable female ...201526344413
the temporal dynamics of regularity extraction in non-human primates.extracting the regularities of our environment is one of our core cognitive abilities. to study the fine-grained dynamics of the extraction of embedded regularities, a method combining the advantages of the artificial language paradigm (saffran, aslin, & newport, ) and the serial response time task (nissen & bullemer, ) was used with a group of guinea baboons (papio papio) in a new automatic experimental device (fagot & bonté, ). after a series of random trials, monkeys were exposed to language- ...201626303229
assessment of metacognitive monitoring and control in baboons (papio papio).metacognition refers to the ability of an organism to evaluate its states of knowledge (metacognitive monitoring) and engage in appropriate information-seeking behaviors when a lack of knowledge is detected (metacognitive control). this study assessed metacognitive monitoring and control in three guinea baboons (papio papio). monkeys were required to report on a touchscreen the location of two target stimuli that had previously appeared briefly on a grid. they could either respond directly or us ...201526232908
baboons (papio papio), but not humans, break cognitive set in a visuomotor task.cognitive set can be both helpful and harmful in problem solving. a large set of similar problems may be solved mechanically by applying a single-solution method. however, efficiency might be sacrificed if a better solution exists and is overlooked. despite half a century of research on cognitive set, there have been no attempts to investigate whether it occurs in nonhuman species. the current study utilized a nonverbal, computer task to compare cognitive set between 104 humans and 15 baboons (p ...201526194414
orangutans (pongo spp.) have deeper, more efficient sleep than baboons (papio papio) in captivity.the nightly construction of arboreal sleeping platforms or "nests" has been observed among every great ape population studied to date. however, this behavior has never been reported in any other nonhuman primate and comparisons between ape and monkey sleep illuminate the link between sleeping substrates, positional behavior, and sleep efficiency. here, we compare sleep depth and efficiency and night-time positional behavior between a large-bodied cercopithecoid (papio papio) and a large-bodied h ...201525752676
cultural evolution of systematically structured behaviour in a non-human primate.culture pervades human life and is at the origin of the success of our species. a wide range of other animals have culture too, but often in a limited form that does not complexify through the gradual accumulation of innovations. we developed a new paradigm to study cultural evolution in primates in order to better evaluate our closest relatives' cultural capacities. previous studies using transmission chain experimental paradigms, in which the behavioural output of one individual becomes the ta ...201425377450
baboons' response speed is biased by their moods.the affect-as-information hypothesis (e.g., schwarz & clore, 2003), predicts that the positive or negative valence of our mood differentially affects our processing of the details of the environment. however, this hypothesis has only been tested with mood induction procedures and fairly complex cognitive tasks in humans. here, six baboons (papio papio) living in a social group had free access to a computerized visual search task on which they were over-trained. trials that immediately followed a ...201425061682
age effects on transfer index performance and executive control in baboons (papio papio).reversal performance in the transfer index (ti) task is known to improve from prosimians to apes, suggesting that this task is a marker of cognitive evolution within the primate taxa (rumbaugh, 1970). however, the cognitive processes recruited by this task remain unclear. in the present study, 19 socially-housed baboons (papio papio) from 1.6 to 14.3 years of age were tested on a computerized version of the ti task, using an automated self-testing procedure. age was a significant factor in the l ...201424624114
a visual-familiarity account of evidence for orthographic processing in baboons (papio papio).grainger, dufau, montant, ziegler, and fagot (2012a) taught 6 baboons to discriminate words from nonwords in an analogue of the lexical decision task. the baboons more readily identified novel words than novel nonwords as words, and they had difficulty rejecting nonwords that were orthographically similar to learned words. in a subsequent test (ziegler, hannagan, et al., 2013), responses from the same animals evinced a transposed-letter effect. these three effects, when seen in skilled human rea ...201424503872
effects of training condition on the contribution of specific items to relational processing in baboons (papio papio).relational processing involves learning about the relationship between or among stimuli, transcending the individual stimuli, so that abstract knowledge generalizable to novel situations is acquired. relational processing has been studied in animals as well as in humans, but little attention has been paid to the contribution of specific items to relational thinking or to the factors that may affect that contribution. this study assessed the intertwined effects of item and relational processing i ...201424352791
vocal communication in a complex multi-level society: constrained acoustic structure and flexible call usage in guinea baboons.to understand the evolution of acoustic communication in animals, it is important to distinguish between the structure and the usage of vocal signals, since both aspects are subject to different constraints. in terrestrial mammals, the structure of calls is largely innate, while individuals have a greater ability to actively initiate or withhold calls. in closely related taxa, one would therefore predict a higher flexibility in call usage compared to call structure. in the present study, we inve ...201324059742
effects of freely accessible computerized test systems on the spontaneous behaviors and stress level of guinea baboons (papio papio).fagot and paleressompoulle [fagot and paleressompoulle (2009) behav res methods 41: 396-404] described a new automated learning device for monkeys (aldm) to test the cognitive functions of nonhuman primates within their social groups. however, the impact of the aldm procedure on animal well-being needs to be investigated. the present study assessed the consequences of aldm testing on the behavioral repertoire of guinea baboons (papio papio) and their stress levels as inferred from measurements o ...201424038166
contribution of working memory processes to relational matching-to-sample performance in baboons (papio papio).recent studies of monkeys and apes have shown that these animals can solve relational-matching-to-sample (rmts) problems, suggesting basic abilities for analogical reasoning. however, doubts remain as to the actual cognitive strategies adopted by nonhuman primates in this task. here, we used dual-task paradigms to test 10 baboons in the rmts problem under three conditions of memory load. our three test conditions allowed different predictions, depending on the strategy (i.e., flat memorization o ...201323772798
learning of spatial statistics in nonhuman primates: contextual cueing in baboons (papio papio).a growing number of theories of cognition suggest that many of our behaviors result from the ability to implicitly extract and use statistical redundancies present in complex environments. in an attempt to develop an animal model of statistical learning mechanisms in humans, the current study investigated spatial contextual cueing (cc) in nonhuman primates. twenty-five baboons (papio papio) were trained to search for a target (t) embedded within configurations of distrators (l) that were either ...201323499707
analogical reasoning in baboons (papio papio): flexible reencoding of the source relation depending on the target relation.analogical reasoning is a cornerstone of human cognition, but the extent and limits of analogical reasoning in animals remains unclear. recent studies have demonstrated that apes and monkeys can match relations with relations, suggesting that these species have the basic abilities for analogical reasoning. however, analogical reasoning in humans entails two additional cognitive processes that remain unexplored in animals. these include the ability to (1) flexibly reencode the relations instantia ...201323354955
baboons, like humans, solve analogy by categorical abstraction of relations.reasoning by analogy is one of the most complex and highly adaptive cognitive processes in abstract thinking. for humans, analogical reasoning entails the judgment and conceptual mapping of relations-between-relations and is facilitated by language (gentner in cogn sci 7:155-170, 1983; premack in thought without language, oxford university press, new york, 1986). recent evidence, however, shows that monkeys like "language-trained" apes exhibit similar capacity to match relations-between-relation ...201323334572
social monitoring in a multilevel society: a playback study with male guinea baboons.keeping track of social interactions among conspecifics is a driving force for the evolution of social cognition. how social cognition, such as social knowledge, ties in with a species' social organization is, however, largely unexplored. we investigated the social knowledge of wild guinea baboons (papio papio) ranging in senegal, a species that lives in a fluid multilevel society with overlapping habitat use. using playback experiments, we tested how adult males differentiate between subjects f ...201323293423
community composition, correlations among taxa, prevalence, and richness in gastrointestinal parasites of baboons in senegal, west africa.studies of gastrointestinal parasite prevalence in papio have either focused on a single troop or compared prevalence among troops that share migrants but differ in degree of human contact. little is known about the extent of variation in prevalence where obvious factors that may drive prevalence (e.g., human contact) are absent, so it is difficult to interpret variation when these factors are present. to address this issue, we studied troops of guinea baboons (papio papio) that had almost no co ...201323271438
comment on "orthographic processing in baboons (papio papio)".grainger et al. (reports, 13 april 2012, p. 245) suggest that baboons can discriminate words from nonwords on the basis of two-letter (bigram) frequencies. this ability can also be attributed to baboons being able to recognize specific letters (i.e., shapes) in specific positions in their four-letter words, without reference to letter or bigram frequencies.201222955818
orthographic processing in baboons (papio papio).skilled readers use information about which letters are where in a word (orthographic information) in order to access the sounds and meanings of printed words. we asked whether efficient processing of orthographic information could be achieved in the absence of prior language knowledge. to do so, we trained baboons to discriminate english words from nonsense combinations of letters that resembled real words. the results revealed that the baboons were using orthographic information in order to ef ...201222499949
processing of contour closure by baboons (papio papio).this study investigated the gestalt law of closure in baboons. using a computer-controlled self-testing procedure, we trained baboons (papio papio) to discriminate open versus closed shapes presented on a touch screen with a two-alternative forced choice procedure. ten baboons (open + group) were trained with the open shapes serving as the positive stimulus (s+), and nine others (close + group) were trained with the closed shape serving as s+. the open + group obtained higher discrimination perf ...201122003965
executive control of perceptual features and abstract relations by baboons (papio papio).studies of executive control often reveal significant limitations in nonhuman primate performance relative to that of humans. in the present study, 24 socially housed baboons were tested on a computerized version of the wisconsin card sorting task (wcst) to assess individual differences in executive control. in a second experiment, the same baboons completed a version of the wcst with paired-relational stimuli rather than those that varied on a single dimension to evaluate their set-shifting abi ...201121435356
physiologic effects of simulated + gx orbital reentry in primate models of hemorrhagic shock.while the physiologic effects of space travel are documented in healthy individuals, little is known about its impact on medically ill or injured persons. in this study, hemorrhagic shock in primates was used to model a potentially common pathophysiologic condition during exposure to gravitational forces simulating return from earth orbit. this experiment did not model the effects of cardiovascular deconditioning that normally occur during spaceflight.200717511295
one-male harems and female social dynamics in guinea baboons.little is known about the mating system and social organization of guinea baboons. this study investigated whether guinea baboons have a harem-based mating system similar to that of hamadryas and gelada baboons and whether one-male mating units also correspond to social units. ten adult females in a captive multi-male multi-female group of guinea baboons were focally observed 2 h per week for 12 weeks, and all observed copulations within the group were recorded. some males copulated with a singl ...200717170557
amodal completion by baboons (papio papio): contribution of background depth cues.four baboons (papio papio) were tested in a computerized two-alternative forced choice task in which partially occluded graphic stimuli were shown either on linear perspective backgrounds depicting a corridor or on uniformly black backgrounds. the results indicated that baboons complete partly occluded stimuli and that amodal completion is facilitated by the display of pictorial background depth cues. inter-individual differences emerged in the ability to extrapolate three-dimensional informatio ...200616568234
perception of pictorial eye gaze by baboons (papio papio).pictorial faces looking left or right were presented to baboons (papio papio) before the display of a target letter in the left or right hemifield of a monitor screen. baboons had to provide go or no-go responses taking into account the identity of the target letter. the 1st 6 experiments showed no reliable effect of eye gaze on discrimination speed, using either schematic gazes or pictures of real gazes. experiment 7 showed that eye gazes facilitated target processing when eye cues were perfect ...200212136705
perception of the corridor illusion by baboons (papio papio).the corridor illusion was assessed in four baboons (papio papio) by way of judgmental task implying a comparison between the size of two figures presented on various backgrounds. findings demonstrate that the baboons are sensitive to the corridor illusion.200211853864
same-different conceptualization by baboons (papio papio): the role of entropy.the authors trained 6 baboons (papio papio) to make 1 of 2 report responses to 16-icon same arrays versus 16-icon different arrays. in the same arrays, the icons were all the same as one another, whereas in the different arrays the icons were all different from one another. in experiment 1, the baboons discriminated the same arrays from the different arrays, and they transferred their discriminative responding to arrays of novel icons. in experiments 2 and 3, the baboons exhibited strong sensiti ...200111334218
perception of partly occluded figures by baboons (papio papio).comparative literature provides conflicting findings whether animals experience amodal completion. five experiments were conducted to verify if baboons perceive partly occluded objects as complete. the first three experiments used a go/no-go procedure and a video monitor for stimulus presentation. these experiments failed to reveal amodal completion, suggesting that the stimuli were processed as 2-d images rather than 3-d objects. in contrast, completion was demonstrated in a fourth experiment w ...200011257971
myoclonia in papio papio: are they all "epileptic"? 200010709213
processing of above/below categorical spatial relations by baboons (papiopapio).three video-formatted experiments investigated the categorization of 'above' and 'below' spatial relations in baboons (papio papio). using an identity matching-to-sample task, six baboons correctly matched line-dot stimuli based on the 'above' or 'below' location of the dot relative to the line (experiment 1). positive transfer of performance was then observed when the line-dot distance depicted in the sample stimulus differed from that of the two comparison stimuli (experiment 2). using a go/no ...199924897558
reproductive parameters and paracallosal skin color changes in captive female guinea baboons, papio papio.reproductive data are presented for female papio papio housed in the zoological park of paris and are compared with previously published data from free-ranging populations of other baboon species. the results indicate similar intermenstrual intervals and durations of sexual swelling. sexual swelling and pregnancy are accelerated in captivity, while postpartum amenorrhea and interbirth interval are reduced. interbirth intervals in p. papio were short, approximately 13 months in the case of viable ...19999888723
associative learning in baboons (papio papio) and humans (homo sapiens): species differences in learned attention to visual features.we examined attention shifting in baboons and humans during the learning of visual categories. within a conditional matching-to-sample task, participants of the two species sequentially learned two two-feature categories which shared a common feature. results showed that humans encoded both features of the initially learned category, but predominantly only the distinctive feature of the subsequently learned category. although baboons initially encoded both features of the first category, they ul ...199824399276
[somatosensory evoked potentials: morphology and interareal s1-m1 relationships in the baboon (papio papio)].primary somatosensory potentials (seps) were elicited by electrical stimulation of the medial sciatic (proprioceptive) or sural (cutaneous) nerves. they were detected by contacts on si and mi dura on both cortical sides against a cephalic reference. seps were averaged (n = 20). primary si sep consisted of positive, then negative, pi6/n30 waves. n30 was absent from mi records. local electrocoagulation of the si cortex on one side has entailed some reduction, but not suppression of together the ho ...19969102564
gaba and epilepsy in the photosensitive baboon papio papio. 19968895974
cingulate kindling in senegalese baboons, papio papio.kindling of the cingulate cortex in the senegalese baboon papio papio led to a protracted nonconvulsive seizure state characterized by immobile staring with (anterior cingulate, ac) or without (posterior cingulate, pc) widening of eyelids and neck flexion, followed by postictal visual searching behavior. despite early bilateral spread of eeg discharges, ictal and interictal patterns remained persistently asymmetric. secondary generalization was rapid and predictable once contralateral lower faci ...19957588460
electrographic studies of the effects of rp 60180, a novel kappa agonist, on the photosensitive baboon papio papio.1. the authors describe here the effects of intravenous administration of rp 60180, a novel kappa agonist, on conscious baboons of the species papio papio, which spontaneously present photically induced epileptic responses. 2. animals (n = 2) were chronically implanted with epidural recording electrodes and tested whilst seated in a primate chair. the electrocorticogram (ecog) and electrocardiogram (ecg) were recorded during a control period of at least 30 minutes before the injection of rp 6018 ...19958588066
video-task assessment of stimulus novelty effects on hemispheric lateralization in baboons (papio papio).in a video matching-to-sample task, we examined the effects of stimulus novelty on hemispheric specialization in 6 baboons (papio papio). after familiarization with a set of 8 composite stimuli, baboons were tested with either familiar stimuli paired in a novel way, novel stimuli composed of familiar elements, or novel stimuli differing in structure from the previous stimuli. analyses focused on visual field differences between initial and later trials in each condition. the findings reflected s ...19948026167
stable parkinsonian syndrome and uneven loss of striatal dopamine fibres following chronic mptp administration in baboons.the progressive degeneration of dopamine neurons observed in idiopathic parkinson's disease was mimicked by injecting low doses of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (mptp) to baboons, on a chronic basis. five papio papio baboons were treated on two different regimens (chronic intravenous administration at weekly intervals for 20-21 months or, daily mptp treatment for five days followed five to six months later by chronic weekly injections for 5-21.5 months). all animals were assessed ...19938469305
mirror-image matching and mental rotation problem solving by baboons (papio papio): unilateral input enhances performance.three experiments, using a matching-to-sample procedure, were conducted to examine hemispheric specialization in mirror-image discrimination and mental rotation in baboons (papio papio). in experiment 1, no significant difference was found in discrimination of mirror-image and asymmetric pattern stimuli. in experiment 2, orientation discrimination was assessed within the left (lvf) and right (rvf) visual half-fields. an rvf advantage was found in accuracy for asymmetric patterns, whereas an lvf ...19938440977
the cholinergic system-dependent myoclonus of the baboon papio papio is a reticular reflex myoclonus.neurophysiological studies were performed on four papio papio baboons presenting with nonepileptic myoclonus (a startle response resembling stimulus-sensitive jerk). investigations of the eeg, back-averaged eeg, and somatosensory evoked potentials revealed the absence of cortical correlates preceding the jerks, and exclusion of cerebral cortex involvement. no long-latency reflexes could be recorded in these animals. the jerks were symmetric when evoked by unilateral stimulation in normal baboons ...19938419805
use of stones in a captive group of guinea baboons (papio papio). 19938206422
magnetic resonance imaging to monitor pathology of caudate-putamen after excitotoxin-induced neuronal loss in the nonhuman primate brain.we used mr imaging to locate and monitor in vivo the pathological events taking place 2 to 4 weeks after unilateral striatal injections of ibotenic acid (ia) in the papio papio baboon. as early as 2 weeks after ia injections, excitotoxic lesions in the caudate and the putamen were directly visualized on t1-weighted images as small areas of low signal intensity. on t2-weighted images, the lesion sites were visualized as areas of high-intensity signal, spreading over larger areas than the correspo ...19921397172
in vitro dissolution of uranium oxide by baboon alveolar macrophages.in vitro cellular dissolution tests for insoluble forms of uranium oxide are technically difficult with conventional methodology using adherent alveolar macrophages. the limited number of cells per flask and the slow dissolution rate in a large volume of nutritive medium are obvious restricting factors. macrophages in suspension cannot be substituted because they represent different and poorly reproducible functional subtypes with regard to activation and enzyme secretion. preliminary results on ...19921396447
serotoninergic, noradrenergic, and peptidergic innervation of onuf's nucleus of normal and transected spinal cords of baboons (papio papio).we have investigated with light and electron microscope immunocytochemistry the aminergic and peptidergic innervation of onuf's nucleus in adult baboons. this nucleus, located in the ventrolateral part of the sacral spinal cord (s2 and s3), is considered to control urethral and anal sphincters and penile muscles. by comparison of intact and transected spinal cords, we have found that serotoninergic innervation has two origins: first, supraspinal, innervating the whole nucleus, with a possible pr ...19921374763
in vivo visualization of central muscarinic receptors using [11c]quinuclidinyl benzilate and positron emission tomography in baboons.the muscarinic antagonist, quinuclidinyl benzilate (qnb), labeled with carbon 11 was used as a radioligand to visualize in vivo by positron emission tomography (pet) the central muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (machr) in baboons (papio papio). the binding characteristics of [11c]qnb showed its specific binding to central machr. [11c]qnb brain uptake was high in cerebral cortex and striatum, areas that are rich in machr, whereas it decreased rapidly in cerebellum, evidencing non-specific bindi ...19921521561
role of the corpus callosum in photosensitive seizures of epileptic baboon papio papio. 19921543082
tacrine derivative in the myoclonus b of papio papio baboons. 19911818688
effects of drugs influencing the noradrenergic neurotransmission on nonepileptic myoclonus of papio papio baboon. 19911687862
drugs influencing the gabaergic neurotransmission have no effect on the non-epileptic myoclonus of baboons.in papio papio baboons benzodiazepines can facilitate the appearance of a naturally occurring non-epileptic myoclonus, suggesting a possible role of gabaergic transmission in their physiopathology. nevertheless, as this myoclonus is blocked by physostigmine, the effect of benzodiazepines is probably due to their indirect action on the cholinergic system. therefore, in this study, we report the effects on the non-epileptic myoclonus of drugs influencing gabaergic transmission. systemic injections ...19911713829
language-apparent reflex epilepsy.an adolescent with photosensitive epilepsy had absence seizures reproduced by forced voluntary eye closure in light or in darkness, independent of eyelid immobilization or ocular elevation. attacks preferably occurred while speaking spanish, her second language, mediated through brief, strong, automatic closing of the eyes during difficult word retrieval. complex other multidirectional ocular movements or blinking, cognitive and language tasks were ineffective. frontorolandic cortical epileptoge ...19911908752
anticonvulsant activity of two orally active competitive n-methyl-d-aspartate antagonists, cgp 37849 and cgp 39551, against sound-induced seizures in dba/2 mice and photically induced myoclonus in papio papio.two novel n-methyl-d-aspartate (nmda) antagonists, dl-(e)-2-amino-4-methyl-5-phosphono-3-pentenoic acid cpg 37849 and the corresponding 1-ethyl ester cgp 39551, were tested as anticonvulsants in dba/2 mice and photosensitive senegalese baboons, papio papio. in dba/2 mice, cgp 37849 is more potent than cgp 39551 when administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) or intraperitoneally (i.p.) (ed50 for suppression of clonic seizures at 60 min: i.c.v. 0.038 and 0.21 nmol; i.p. 3.40 and 19.1 mumol/k ...20061678345
reflex reticular myoclonus: relationship to some brainstem pathophysiological mechanisms.two patients with reflex reticular myoclonus [rrm] were tested electrophysiologically and pharmacologically. in one of the cases the underlying disease was chronic lyme borreliosis. in the other, the rrm attacks may have been associated with procarbazine therapy applied for hodgkin's disease. no cortical lesion could be demonstrated either clinically or electrophysiologically [eeg, averaged eeg preceeding the jerks, ssep]. an emg analysis of the jerks revealed the shortest latency in the muscles ...19912048395
effects of pharmacological manipulation on neurotransmitter and other amino acid levels in the csf of the senegalese baboon papio papio.the concentrations of gaba, glutamate, aspartate, glycine, taurine, glutamine, asparagine and alanine were determined in the csf of 10 senegalese baboons (papio papio) following initial ketamine anaesthesia and subsequent administration (4 h later) of different compounds known to alter either inhibitory or excitatory neurotransmission. ketamine itself was apparently without effect as the administration of a second dose of ketamine did not significantly alter the levels of any of the amino acids ...19911673360
effect of dn-1417 on photosensitivity and cortically kindled seizure in senegalese baboons, papio papio.the effect of dn-1417, a thyrotropin-releasing hormone (trh) analogue, on photosensitivity and cortically kindled seizures was examined in seven senegalese baboons (papio papio). intravenous (i.v.) administration of 2 mg/kg had no effect on either photosensitivity or cortically kindled seizures. when this agent was administered intracisternally, both the photomyoclonic response and cortically kindled seizures were suppressed for 4-5 days. a study of the transcallosal response also showed a long- ...20161898719
epileptic manifestations and influence on sleep in the baboon papio papio. 19911760101
myoclonus in papio papio. 19911676136
in vivo benzodiazepine receptor occupancy by cl 218,872 visualized by positron emission tomography in the brain of the living baboon: modulation by gabaergic transmission and relation with anticonvulsant activity.in vivo benzodiazepine receptor occupancy by increasing doses of cl 218,872 has been evaluated in the baboon papio papio, using (11c) ro 15-1788 as specific radioligand and positron emission tomography as external detection system. although bzr heterogeneity has been previously demonstrated in the brain of the living baboon using pet, we did not observe in our studies that cl 218,872 interacts preferentially with one of the bzr subtypes. the monophasic pattern of the dose dependent cl 218,872 di ...19911673661
relationships between benzodiazepine receptors, impairment of gabaergic transmission and convulsant activity of beta-ccm: a pet study in the baboon papio papio.central type benzodiazepine receptors were studied in vivo by positron emission tomography in brain areas of 2 different groups of the baboon papio papio: non-photosensitive (group 1) and those with an allylglycine-induced decrease in gaba-mediated inhibition (group 2). further, a naturally photosensitive papio papio (+3 level of photosensitive response) was compared to both groups. regional brain binding of the specific benzodiazepine receptor ligand, [11c]ro 15-1788, was not significantly diff ...20161647949
gaba withdrawal syndrome: a model of the epilepsia partialis continua.after the chronic infusion of gaba into the cortex of baboon papio papio, a sudden stop of the infusion provoked cortical epileptic discharges around the infused area. and the baboon exhibited partial epilepsy for about 3 days. the result suggested that gaba withdrawal syndrome should be a good model not only to understand the mechanism of epilepsia partialis continua but also partial epilepsy with a circumscribed cortical focus.19902124304
[epithelial and stromal healing after radial keratotomy. scanning electron microscopy analysis].a study of corneal healing after radial keratotomy was conducted under scanning electron microscopy in 28 papio-papio baboons. the appearance of the incisions after follow-ups ranging from one hour to three and a half years postoperatively permits to emit some hypotheses regarding the precise mechanisms of action of radial keratotomy, as well as those governing any functional or anatomical complications susceptible to occur after the operation.20062235013
unexpected potentializing effect of a tacrine derivative (9-amino-7-methoxy-1,2,3,4 tetrahydroacridine) upon the non-epileptic myoclonus in baboons papio papio.1. the influence of 7-methoxytacrine (7-meota) on the non epileptic myoclonus of the papio papio baboon was studied in 5 animals. 2. this type of myoclonus is thought to depend on a cholinergic system dysfunction since it can be induced by atropine and blocked by physostigmine. 3. 7-meota, a tacrine derivative, is believed to display a conspicuous anticholinesterase activity but, surprisingly, it here potentiated the non epileptic myoclonus occuring either spontaneously or induced by atropine. 4 ...19902126145
dopaminergic-cholinergic interaction in a myoclonus of papio papio baboon. 19892517809
supplementary motor area kindling in the photosensitive baboons.two senegalese baboons (papio papio) were subjected to daily electrical stimulation at the sma. when compared with the results of kindling at different frontal cortical sites, adt and gst at the sma were lower than those at other sites. on the other hand, the number of stimulations required for stage 4 asymmetrical generalization was much greater at the sma (mean of 78.0) than that for the pma (22.5). these findings suggest that partial seizure originating from the pma rather than the sma seems ...19892625802
effect of macular and peripheral retina coagulation on photosensitive epilepsy in the forebrain bisected baboon, papio papio.the effects of macular and peripheral retina coagulation were examined in photosensitive baboons, papio papio (pp), with or without forebrain bisection. the temporal part of the macula and surrounding retina of the left eye were coagulated with an argon laser and later confirmed histologically. in forebrain nonbisected baboons, intermittent light stimulation of the operated eye produced bisymmetrical and bisynchronous spikes and waves and self-sustained seizures. in forebrain-bisected baboons in ...20062507308
phosphorylated thiamine derivatives and cortical activity in the baboon papio papio: effect of intermittent light stimulation.the effect of intermittent light stimulation (ils) on the distribution of thiamine derivatives in three brain areas (occipital, motor, and premotor) was compared in photosensitive and nonphotosensitive baboons. ils induces paroxysmal discharges in the motor and premotor areas of photosensitive animals only. in baboons submitted to ils, thiamine triphosphate (ttp) decreases in both photosensitive and nonphotosensitive animals; thiamine monophosphate (tmp) increases in photosensitive animals, whic ...19892723664
role of the forebrain commissure and hemispheric independence in photosensitive response of epileptic baboon, papio papio.the effect of monocular intermittent light stimulation (ils) of either hemivisual field (hvf) of the full visual field (fvf) was examined in papio papio with or without forebrain bisection. ils of the hvf or the fvf in non-bisected baboons produced bisymmetrical and bisynchronous spike and wave which was followed by a self-sustained seizure without eeg evidence of hemispheric independence. ils of the fvf in bisected baboons also produced bilateral spike and wave and self-sustained seizures of a ...19882450734
anatomical atlas of the baboon's brain in the orbito-meatal plane used in experimental positron emission tomography.an anatomical atlas has been constructed of the brain of the baboon (papio papio) in the orbito-meatal plane (om-plane) which is frequently used in experimental positron emission tomography (pet) investigations. the atlas comprises 12 photographic reproductions of histological brain sections separated by 2.5 mm intervals, and covers telencephalic to pontine brain stem levels. the anatomical atlas was used in analysis of some pet scan images obtained after administration of either a benzodiazepin ...19882835124
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