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preliminary phytochemical and pharmacological studies on ficus racemosa (gular). 19695356661
preliminary observations on leukaemia specific agglutinins from seeds.semipurified saline extracts of seeds from crotolaria juncea, cassia marginata, ficus racemosa, cicer arietinum (l-532), gossipium indicum (g-27), melia composita, acacia lenticularis, meletia ovalifolia, acacia catechu and peltophorum ferrenginium were tested for leukoagglutinating activity against whole leukocytes and mononuclear cells from patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (34), acute myeloblastic leukaemia (5), acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (7), chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (3), vario ...19902347609
physical characterization of the tinctures of ficus racemosa l.tinctures of ficus racemosa linn leaves were prepared by maceration process. 70% alcohol of 21 days maceration showed maximum total solid 2.07% deep greenish brown colour and of 7.1 ph.199722556792
screening of anti-diarrhoeal profile of some plant extracts of a specific region of west bengal, india.ethanol extract of four different plants of the khatra region of the bankura district of west bengal, india were evaluated for anti-diarrhoeal activity against different experimental models of diarrhoea in rats. the extracts of ficus bengalensis linn. (hanging roots), eugenia jambolana lam. (bark), ficus racemosa linn. (bark) and leucas lavandulaefolia rees (aerial parts) showed significant inhibitory activity against castor oil induced diarrhoea and pge2 induced enteropooling in rats. these ext ...19989533436
hepatoprotective activity of ficus racemosa leaf extract on liver damage caused by carbon tetrachloride in rats.an extract of the leaves of ficus racemosa linn. (moraceae) was evaluated for hepatoprotective activity in rats by inducing chronic liver damage by subcutaneous injection of 50% v/v carbon tetrachloride in liquid paraffin at a dose of 3 ml/kg on alternate days for a period of 4 weeks. the biochemical parameters sgot, sgpt, serum bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase were estimated to assess the liver function. the activity of extract was also comparable to a standard liver tonic (neutrosec).199910441787
studies on some pharmacognostical profile of ficus racemosa linn (fam. moraceae) leaves.the macroscopic character of the leaves ash values, extractive values, behaviors on treatment with different chemical reagents, fluorescence characters under ultra violet light after treatment with different chemical reagents of the powdered leaves of ficus racemosa linn (fam. moraceae) were studied to fix some pharmacognostical parameters. preliminary phytochemical studies on different extractives of the leaves were also performed. these studies will help in future for identifying this plant fo ...199922556888
studies on antibacterial activity of ficus racemosa linn. leaf extract.extracts of ficus racemosa linn. leaves were tested for antibacterial potential against escherichia coli atcc 10536, basillus pumilis atcc 14884, bacillus subtilis atcc 6633, pseudomonas aeruginosa atcc 25619 and staphylococcus aureus atcc 29737. the effects produced by the extracts were significant and were compared with chloramphenicol. the petroleum ether extract was the most effective against the tested organisms.200010861973
anti-inflammatory evaluation of ficus racemosa linn. leaf extract.the anti-inflammatory activity of ficus racemosa extract was evaluated on carrageenin, serotonin, histamine and dextran-induced rat hind paw oedema models. the extract at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg has been found to possess significant anti-inflammatory activity on the tested experimental models. the extract (400 mg/kg) exhibited maximum anti-inflammatory effect, that is 30.4, 32.2, 33.9 and 32.0% at the end of 3 h with carrageenin, serotonin, histamine, dextran-induced rat paw oedema, respectiv ...200010967458
glucose lowering efficacy of ficus racemosa bark extract in normal and alloxan diabetic rats.the glucose-lowering efficacy of a methanol extract of the stem bark of ficus racemosa linn. (mebfr) (family moraceae) was evaluated both in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. the mebfr at the doses examined (200 and 400 mg/kg p.o.) exhibited significant hypoglycaemic activity in both experimental animal models when compared with the control group. the activity was also comparable to that of the effect produced by a standard antidiabetic agent, glibenclamide 10 mg/kg. the present investig ...200212237822
evaluation of anti-pyretic potential of ficus racemosa bark.a study was carried out to evaluate the anti-pyretic effect of a methanol extract of stem bark of ficus racemosa linn. (mefr) on normal body temperature and yeast-induced pyrexia in albino rats. a yeast suspension (10 ml/kg body wt.) increased rectal temperature 19 h after subcutaneous injection. the mefr, at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body wt. p.o., showed significant dose-dependent reduction in normal body temperature and yeast-provoked elevated temperature. the effect extended up to 5 h ...200212587694
antidiuretic activity of aqueous bark extract of sri lankan ficus racemosa in rats.the decoction (d) of the bark of ficus racemosa linn (family: moraceae) is claimed as an antidiuretic by some sri lankan traditional practitioners. however, the validity of this claim has not been scientifically proven or refuted. the aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiuretic potential of d of the bark of f. racemosa (made as specified in traditional use) in rats using three doses (250, 500 or 1000 mg/kg) following oral administration. the reference drug used was adh. the results demons ...200314711039
[structure and biodiversity of insect community on syconia fruits of ficus racemosa in tropical rainforest of xishuangbanna, china].ficus racemosa is a keystone plant in tropical rainforest of xishuangbanna, yunnan. the structure, dynamic and biodiversity of insect community on its syconia fruits were investigated in different plots located in menglun nature reserve, ravine rainforest in the botanical garden, and secondary forest by luosuo river. the results showed that the total number of collected insects were 184 264, belonging to 5 order, 19 families, 36 genera, and 51 species. hymenoptera was the most dominant group, ac ...200314986371
a cross-cultural study: anti-inflammatory activity of australian and chinese plants.in this study, in vitro inhibitory effects of 33 ethanol extracts obtained from 24 plant species (representing 11 different families) on cyclooxygenase-1 (cox-1) were evaluated. the plant materials selected for this study have been used in aboriginal medicine in australia and traditional medicine in china for the treatment of various diseases that are considered as inflammation in nature, e.g. asthma, arthritis, rheumatism, fever, edema, infections, snakebite and related inflammatory diseases. a ...200312576199
plant medicines of indian origin for wound healing activity: a review.research on wound healing drugs is a developing area in modern biomedical sciences. scientists who are trying to develop newer drugs from natural resources are looking toward the ayurveda, the indian traditional system of medicine. several drugs of plant, mineral, and animal origin are described in the ayurveda for their wound healing properties under the term vranaropaka. most of these drugs are derived from plant origin. some of these plants have been screened scientifically for the evaluation ...200315866825
antitussive potential of methanol extract of stem bark of ficus racemosa linn.the methanol extract of ficus racemosa linn (moraceae) (stem bark) (mefr) was tested for its antitussive potential against a cough induced model by sulphur dioxide gas in mice. the extract demonstrated significant (p < 0.001) antitussive activity at all tested dose levels when compared with the control. the antitussive activity of the extract was comparable to that of codeine phosphate (10 mg), a standard antitussive agent. the extract exhibited maximum inhibition of 56.9% at a dose of 200 mg/kg ...200314595600
a new anti-inflammatory glucoside from ficus racemosa l.bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract of ficus racemosa resulted in the identification of a new compound (rel)-4,6-dihydroxy-5-[3-methyl-(e)-propenoic acid-3-yl]-7-beta-glucopyranosyl-[2alpha,3beta-dihydrobenzofuran]-(3,2: b)-[4alpha,5beta-dihydroxy-6alpha-hydroxymethyltetrahydropyran] (racemosic acid). racemosic acid showed potent inhibitory activity against cox-1 and 5-lox in vitro with ic50 values of 90 and 18 microm, respectively. racemosic acid also demonstrated a strong anti ...200415124086
[comparison of habitats and seasonally differentiated distribution patterns of fig wasp populations associated with ficus racemosa in xishuangbanna].the population distribution patterns of fig wasps associated with ficus racemosa in xishuangbanna were studied by using several indexes. the results indicated that the distribution patterns of 6 fig wasp species were all clump. the aggregative intensity of pollinating wasp (ceratosolen fusciceps) population at primeval rain forest was nearly equal to that at seriously disturbed site, whereas they were both much higher than that at moderately disturbed site. in the meanwhile, the population aggre ...200415334959
potential antifilarial activity of fruit extracts of ficus racemosa linn. against setaria cervi in vitro.effect of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the fruits of f. racemosa linn., on the spontaneous movements of both the whole worm and nerve muscle preparation of setaria cervi and on the survival of microfilariae in vitro was studied. alcoholic as well as aqueous extracts caused inhibition of spontaneous motility of whole worm and nerve muscle preparation of setaria cervi characterized by increase in amplitude and tone of contractions. initial stimulatory effect was not observed with aqueous extr ...200515875719
chemomodulatory effect of ficus racemosa extract against chemically induced renal carcinogenesis and oxidative damage response in wistar rats.ferric nitrilotriacetate (fe-nta) is a well-known renal carcinogen. in this communication, we show the chemopreventive effect of ficus racemosa extract against fe-nta-induced renal oxidative stress, hyperproliferative response and renal carcinogenesis in rats. fe-nta (9 mg fe/kg body weight, intraperitoneally) enhances renal lipid peroxidation, xanthine oxidase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and hydrogen peroxide (h(2)o(2)) generation with reduction in renal glutathione content, antioxidant enzy ...200515885707
modulatory effect of ficus racemosa: diminution of potassium bromate-induced renal oxidative injury and cell proliferation response.the aim of the present study was to determine the potential beneficial effects of ficus racemosa extract. potassium bromate (kbro3), a potent nephrotoxic agent that induces renal carcinogenesis and acts as tumour promoter in carcinogen-initiated animals was used as a model to induce renal injury. in this study, we show the chemopreventive effect of ficus racemosa extract (moraceae) on kbro3-mediated renal oxidative stress and cell promotion response in rats. kbro3 (125 mg/kg body weight, intrape ...200516236139
hypolipidemic activities of ficus racemosa linn. bark in alloxan induced diabetic rats.ficus racemosa (moraceae family) is used in traditional system of medicine for the treatment of several disorders including diabetes mellitus. the aim of the study was to investigate the antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of ethanolic extract of ficus racemosa bark (frebet) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. a total number of 30 animals were divided into 5 groups of six each. diabetes mellitus was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of freshly prepared solution of alloxan mono ...200720161890
mosquito larvicidal activity of gluanol acetate, a tetracyclic triterpenes derived from ficus racemosa linn.the larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, acetone, and methanol extracts of the leaf and bark of ficus racemosa (moraceae) was assayed for their toxicity against the early fourth-instar larvae of culex quinquefasciatus (diptera: culicidae). the larval mortality was observed after 24-h exposure. all extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in bark acetone extract of f. racemosa. in the present study, bioassay-guide ...200818437423
trade-off between reciprocal mutualists: local resource availability-oriented interaction in fig/fig wasp mutualism.1. the mechanisms that prevent competition (conflict) between the recipient and co-operative actor in co-operative systems remain one of the greatest problems for evolutionary biology. previous hypotheses suggest that self-restraint, dispersal or spatial constraints can prevent direct competition for local resources or any other common resources, thereby maintaining stable co-operation interactions. in this study, we use the obligate fig-fig-wasp mutualism to examine whether the above mechanisms ...200818266694
an unusual thermostable aspartic protease from the latex of ficus racemosa (l.).the most extensively studied ficins have been isolated from the latex of ficus glabrata and ficus carica. however the proteases (ficins) from other species are less known. the purification and characterization of a protease from the latex of ficus racemosa is reported. the enzyme purified to homogeneity is a single polypeptide chain of molecular weight of 44,500+/-500da as determined by maldi-tof. the enzyme exhibited a broad spectrum of ph optima between ph 4.5-6.5 and showed maximum activity a ...200817936863
interference competition and high temperatures reduce the virulence of fig wasps and stabilize a fig-wasp mutualism.fig trees are pollinated by fig wasps, which also oviposit in female flowers. the wasp larvae gall and eat developing seeds. although fig trees benefit from allowing wasps to oviposit, because the wasp offspring disperse pollen, figs must prevent wasps from ovipositing in all flowers, or seed production would cease, and the mutualism would go extinct. in ficus racemosa, we find that syconia ('figs') that have few foundresses (ovipositing wasps) are underexploited in the summer (few seeds, few ga ...200919915668
ficus racemosa stem bark extract: a potent antioxidant and a probable natural radioprotector.ethanol extract (fre) and water extract (frw) of ficus racemosa (family: moraceae) were subjected to free radical scavenging both by steady state and time resolved methods such as nanosecond pulse radiolysis and stopped-flow spectrophotometric analyses. fre exhibited significantly higher steady state antioxidant activity than frw. fre exhibited concentration dependent dpph, abts(*-), hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical scavenging and inhibition of lipid peroxidation with ic(50) comparable wi ...200918955240
synthesis of alpha-amyrin derivatives and their in vivo antihyperglycemic activity.ficus racemosa belongs to the family of moraceae and is commonly known as 'gular' in north india. bio-activity guided isolation work on the fruits of f. racemosa resulted in the identification of antidiabetic active principle, alpha-amyrin acetate 7. compound 7 lowered the blood glucose levels by 18.4 and 17.0% at 5 and 24 h, respectively, in sucrose challenged streptozotocin induced diabetic rat (stz-s) model at the dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. fifteen novel derivatives viz, 9-21, 24, 25 of a ...200918947904
hypoglycaemic and antioxidant activities of ficus racemosa linn. fruits.the effects of ficus racemosa linn. fruit extract and fraction on fasting serum glucose levels of normal, type 1 and type 2 diabetic model rats are presented. the aqueous 80% etoh extract and its water soluble fraction of f. racemosa fruit did not show any serum glucose lowering effect on non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic rats at the fasting condition, whereas the extract showed significant hypoglycaemic effect on the type 1 diabetic model rats. both the extract and fraction were consistently act ...200919296381
isolation and characterization of microsatellite primers for ceratosolen fusciceps, the fig-pollinating wasp of ficus racemosa, and amplification in two populations.ten microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized for ceratosolen fusciceps, the pollinating wasp of ficus racemosa, based on individuals from xishuangbanna (china) and chiangmai (thailand). high levels of variation were found among loci for both populations; allelic number varied from two to 18 (respectively from two to 22), expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.362 to 0.890 (respectively from 0.430 to 0.930).200921564857
in vitro studies on the hypoglycemic potential of ficus racemosa stem bark.medicinal plants have been reported to play an important role in modulating glycemic responses and have preventive and therapeutic implications. several mechanisms have been proposed for the antidiabetic effect of medicinal plants such as inhibition of carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes, manipulation of glucose transporters, beta-cell regeneration and enhancing insulin-releasing activity. the present investigation evaluated the possible mechanism of action through which ficus racemosa stem bark ( ...201020355059
diffusive coevolution and mutualism maintenance mechanisms in a fig-fig wasp system.in reciprocal mutualism systems, the exploitation events by exploiters might disrupt the reciprocal mutualism, wherein one exploiter species might even exclude other coexisting exploiter species over an evolutionary time frame. what remains unclear is how such a community is maintained. niche partitioning, or spatial heterogeneity among the mutualists and exploiters, is generally believed to enable stability within a mutualistic system. however, our examination of a reciprocal mutualism between ...201020503864
ficus racemosa is pollinated by a single population of a single agaonid wasp species in continental south-east asia.high specificity in the ficus-agaonid wasp mutualism has lead to the assumption of a mostly 'one-to-one' relationship, albeit with some exceptions. this view has been challenged by new molecular data in recent years, but surprisingly little is known about local and spatial genetic structuring of agaonid wasp populations. using microsatellite markers, we analysed genetic structuring of ceratosolen fusciceps, the fig wasp pollinating ficus racemosa, a fig tree species widely distributed from india ...201020561201
radical scavenging and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activities of standardized extracts of ficus racemosa stem bark.the present study evaluated the radical scavenging and angiotensin converting enzyme (ace) inhibitory activity of cold and hot aqueous extracts of ficus racemosa (moraceae) stem bark. the extracts were standardized using hplc. radical scavenging activity was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity using rabbit lung and partially purified porcine kidney ace. hplc profiles of cold aqueous extract (frc) showed the presence of berg ...201020564493
traditional uses, medicinal properties, and phytopharmacology of ficus racemosa: a review.ficus racemosa linn. (moraceae) is a popular medicinal plant in india, which has long been used in ayurveda, the ancient system of indian medicine, for various diseases/disorders including diabetes, liver disorders, diarrhea, inflammatory conditions, hemorrhoids, respiratory, and urinary diseases. f. racemosa is pharmacologically studied for various activities including antidiabetic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antitussive, hepatoprotective, and antimicrobial activities. a wide range of phyt ...201020645741
effect of ficus racemosa stem bark on the activities of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes: an in vitro study.herbal medicines have been used since prehistoric times by different cultures worldwide for the treatment of diabetes. the present investigation evaluated the effect of ficus racemosa linn. (moraceae) stem bark on carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, viz., porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase, rat intestinal alpha-glucosidase, sucrase, and almond beta-glucosidase, using in vitro model systems. in addition, the effect of heat treatment was also studied. untreated f. racemosa bark (frb) significantly inh ...201020645793
hepatoprotective effects of ficus racemosa stem bark against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in albino rats.in the present study, the hepatoprotective effects of petroleum ether (frpe) and methanol (frme) extract of ficus racemosa linn. (moraceae) stem bark were studied using the model of hepatotoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride (ccl(4)) in rats. ccl(4) administration induced a significant decrease in serum total protein, albumin, urea and a significant increase (p <or= 0.01) in total bilirubin associated with a marked elevation in the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (ast), alanine amin ...201020645843
anticholinesterase activities of cold and hot aqueous extracts of f. racemosa stem bark.the present study evaluated the anticholinesterase activity of cold and hot aqueous extracts of ficus racemosa stem bark against rat brain acetylcholinesterase in vitro. both the cold aqueous extract (frc) and the hot aqueous extract (frh) exhibited a dose dependent inhibition of rat brain acetylcholinesterase. frh showed significantly higher (p </= 0.001) cholinesterase inhibitory activity compared to frc; however, both the extracts did not show 50% inhibition of ache at the doses tested (200-1 ...201020668582
cardioprotective activity of standardized extract of ficus racemosa stem bark against doxorubicin-induced toxicity.context: ficus racemosa linn. (moraceae) bark is a rich source of phenolic compounds having diverse biological properties including antioxidant activity. the present study evaluated the cardioprotective activity of sequential acetone extract of ficus racemosa bark against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. materials and methods: the extract was standardized by high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) and subjected to acute toxicological evaluation in mice. cardiotoxicity was indu ...201122136326
estimation of phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of underutilized fruits of andaman islands (india).the present study aimed to determine the antioxidant activity and phytochemical contents in 10 underutilized fruits of andaman islands (india) namely malpighia glabra l., mangifera andamanica l., morinda citrifolia l., syzygium aqueum (burm.f) alst., annona squamosa l., averrhoa carambola l., averrhoa bilimbi l., dillenia indica l., annona muricata l. and ficus racemosa l. the antioxidant activity varied from 74.27% to 98.77%, and the methanol extract of m. glabra showed the highest antioxidant ...201122080844
nature's swiss army knives: ovipositor structure mirrors ecology in a multitrophic fig wasp community.resource partitioning is facilitated by adaptations along niche dimensions that range from morphology to behaviour. the exploitation of hidden resources may require specially adapted morphological or sensory tools for resource location and utilisation. differences in tool diversity and complexity can determine not only how many species can utilize these hidden resources but also how they do so.201121909352
antihyperglycemic activity of ficus racemosa bark extract in type 2 diabetic individuals. 201121848813
acetylcholine and memory-enhancing activity of ficus racemosa bark.alzheimer's disease (ad) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder resulting in dementia and enhancement of acetylcholine (ach) levels in brain using acetylcholinesterase inhibitors is one of the most important approaches for the treatment of ad.201122224047
platelet aggregation inducing activity of ficus racemosa stem bark extracts. 201223326106
interspecific variation in compensatory regrowth to herbivory associated with soil nutrients in three ficus (moraceae) saplings.plant compensatory regrowth is an induced process that enhances plant tolerance to herbivory. plant behavior against herbivores differs between species and depends on resource availability, thus making general predictions related to plant compensatory regrowth difficult. to understand how soil nutrients determine the degree of compensatory regrowth for different plant species, we selected saplings of three ficus species and treated with herbivore insects and artificial injury in both glasshouse ...201222984616
protective effect of tannins from ficus racemosa in hypercholesterolemia and diabetes induced vascular tissue damage in rats.to evaluate the protective effect of tannins from ficus racemosa (f. racemosa) on the lipid profile and antioxidant parameters in high fat meal and streptozotocin induced hypercholesteremia associated diabetes model in rats.201222546653
antidiabetic effect of ficus racemosa linn. stem bark in high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats: a mechanistic study.the present study was designed to investigate the effects of the ethanol extract of ficus racemosa (fre) on biochemical parameters in type 2-like diabetes, induced by a combination of standardised high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin (25mgkg(-1), i.p.) in rats. to elucidate the mode of action of fre, its effects on a battery of targets involved in glucose homeostasis was evaluated. fre (200 and 400mgkg(-1), p.o.), in a dose-dependent manner, altered the biochemical parameters and significan ...201226434279
nutrient content, in vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics and methane reduction potential of tropical tannin-containing leaves.plant tannins as rumen modifiers are better than chemicals or antibiotic-based modifiers since these compounds are natural products which are environmentally friendly and therefore have a better acceptance with regard to feed safety issues. tropical plants containing phenols such as tannins were found to suppress or eliminate protozoa from the rumen and reduce methane and ammonia production. the screening of these plants is an important step in the identification of new compounds and feed additi ...201222522493
enhancement of wound healing with roots of ficus racemosa l. in albino rats.to establish the wound healing activity of aqueous and ethanolic extract of roots of ficus racemosa (f. racemosa).201223569913
evaluation of the antidiarrheal activity of the plant extracts of ficus species.the khandesh region of jalgaon district, india has a dense forest with plenty of medicinal plants which have been used as folklore medicines by the local people for many years. they use different parts of ficus species to treat and cure diarrhea. depending on the traditional use of some plants as antidiarrheal by local people of that region, the authors have selected three plants (specific parts) to evaluate their antidiarrheal activities in different animal models.201222409926
larvicidal activity of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using bark aqueous extract of ficus racemosa against culex quinquefasciatus and culex gelidus.to investigate the larvicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles (ag nps) utilizing aqueous bark extract of ficus racemosa (f. racemosa) was tested against fourth instar larvae of filariasis vector, culex quinquefasciatus (cx. quinquefasciatus) and japanese encephalitis vectors, culex gelidus (cx. gelidus).201323339909
traditional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in rural and urban areas of dhaka, bangladesh--an ethnobotanical survey.the usage of medicinal plants is traditionally rooted in bangladesh and still an essential part of public healthcare. recently, a dramatically increasing prevalence brought diabetes mellitus and its therapy to the focus of public health interests in bangladesh. we conducted an ethnobotanical survey to identify the traditional medicinal plants being used to treat diabetes in bangladesh and to critically assess their anti-diabetic potentials with focus on evidence-based criteria.201323800215
three new species of reared parasitic wasps (hymenoptera: braconidae: microgastrinae) from india.three new species of parasitic wasps (braconidae: microgastrinae) from southern india are described and illustrated. glyptapanteles clanisae sp. nov., a remarkable gregarious endoparasitoid, was bred from the caterpillar of clanis phalaris cramer (lepidoptera: sphingidae) on the host plant pongamia pinnata (l.) (leguminosae) along with a hyperparasitoid, eurytoma sp. (eurytomidae). glyptapanteles trilochae sp. nov., was reared from parasitized caterpillar of trilocha varians (walker) (lepidopter ...201326191590
protective effects of ficus racemosa stem bark against doxorubucin-induced renal and testicular toxicity.ficus racemosa linn. (moraceae) bark is a rich source of phenolic compounds known to possess potential antioxidant activity offering numerous health benefits.201323772108
diel variation in fig volatiles across syconium development: making sense of scents.plants produce volatile organic compounds (vocs) in a variety of contexts that include response to abiotic and biotic stresses, attraction of pollinators and parasitoids, and repulsion of herbivores. some of these vocs may also exhibit diel variation in emission. in ficus racemosa, we examined variation in vocs released by fig syconia throughout syconium development and between day and night. syconia are globular enclosed inflorescences that serve as developing nurseries for pollinating and para ...201323609162
inhibitory effect on β -hexosaminidase release from rbl-2h3 cells of extracts and some pure constituents of benchalokawichian, a thai herbal remedy, used for allergic disorders.introduction. benchalokawichian (bcw), a thai traditional herbal formulation, has long been used as antipyretic and to treat skin disorders. it comprises roots from five herbs: ficus racemosa, capparis micracantha, clerodendrum petasites, harrisonia perforata, and tiliacora triandra. this polyherbal remedy has recently been included in the thailand national list of essential medicines (herbal products list). methodology. a bioassay-guided fractionation technique was used to evaluate antiallergy ...201425580152
high temperatures result in smaller nurseries which lower reproduction of pollinators and parasites in a brood site pollination mutualism.in a nursery pollination mutualism, we asked whether environmental factors affected reproduction of mutualistic pollinators, non-mutualistic parasites and seed production via seasonal changes in plant traits such as inflorescence size and within-tree reproductive phenology. we examined seasonal variation in reproduction in ficus racemosa community members that utilise enclosed inflorescences called syconia as nurseries. temperature, relative humidity and rainfall defined four seasons: winter; ho ...201425521512
discriminative host sanctions in a fig-wasp mutualism.in some mutualisms, cooperation in symbionts is promoted by hosts sanctioning "cheats," who obtain benefits but fail to reciprocate. in fig-wasp mutualisms, agaonid wasps pollinate the trees (ficus spp.), but are also exploitative by using some flowers as larval food. ficus can sanction cheats that fail to pollinate by aborting some un-pollinated figs. however, in those un-pollinated figs retained by trees, cheats successfully reproduce. when this occurs, wasp broods are reduced, suggesting sanc ...201425000769
a trophic cascade induced by predatory ants in a fig-fig wasp mutualism.a trophic cascade occurs when predators directly decrease the densities, or change the behaviour, of herbivores and thus indirectly increase plant productivity. the predator-herbivore-plant context is well known, but some predators attack species beneficial to plants (e.g. pollinators) and/or enemies of herbivores (e.g. parasites), and their role in the dynamics of mutualisms remains largely unexplored. we surveyed the predatory ant species and studied predation by the dominant ant species, the ...201424666375
hypoglycemic activity of ficus racemosa bark in combination with oral hypoglycemic drug in diabetic human.medicinal herbs, used in indigenous medicines in crude forms for the management of diabetes mellitus, contain both the organic and inorganic constituents. the aim of the study was to find out the hypoglycemic effect of ficus racemosa in a group of diabetic subjects taking oral hypoglycemic drug. twenty five of each, male and female, diabetic patients, selected from fatima jinnah medical college, lahore, pakistan, taking oral hypoglycemic drug were included in this study and were given orally the ...201424383328
useful ethnophytomedicinal recipes of angiosperms used against diabetes in south east asian countries (india, pakistan & sri lanka).this paper is based on data recorded from various literatures pertaining to ethnophytomedicinal recipes used against diabetes in south east asia (india, pakistan and srilanka). traditional plant treatments have been used throughout the world for the therapy of diabetes mellitus. in total 419 useful phytorecipes of 270 plant species belonging to 74 angiospermic families were collected. from the review it was revealed that plants showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belong to the families, cucurb ...201425176368
analysis of glycation induced protein cross-linking inhibitory effects of some antidiabetic plants and spices.protein cross-linking which occurs towards the latter part of protein glycation is implicated in the development of chronic diabetic complications. glycation induced protein cross-linking inhibitory effects of nine antidiabetic plants and three spices were evaluated in this study using a novel, simple, electrophoresis based method.201526055093
plant reproductive traits mediate tritrophic feedback effects within an obligate brood-site pollination mutualism.plants, herbivores and parasitoids affect each other directly and indirectly; however, feedback effects mediated by host plant traits have rarely been demonstrated in these tritrophic interactions. brood-site pollination mutualisms (e.g. those involving figs and fig wasps) represent specialised tritrophic communities where the progeny of mutualistic pollinators and of non-mutualistic gallers (both herbivores) together with that of their parasitoids develop within enclosed inflorescences called s ...201526160003
spatial heterogeneity and host repression in fig-fig wasp mutualism.it is generally believed that physical heterogeneity in common resource or evolutionary restraint can sufficiently prevent direct conflict between host and symbionts in mutualism systems. our data on fig/fig wasp reciprocal mutualism (ficus racemosa), however, show that structural barriers of female flowers or genetic constraints of pollinators previously hypothesized exist, but cannot sufficiently maintain the mutualism stability. the results show that a positive relationship between seed and w ...201525863497
green biochemistry approach for synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using ficus racemosa latex and their ph-dependent binding study with different amino acids using uv/vis absorption spectroscopy.simple and eco-friendly biosynthesis approach was developed to synthesize silver nanoparticles (snps) and gold nanoparticles (gnps) using ficus racemosa latex as reducing agent. the presence of sunlight is utilized with latex and achieved the nanoparticles whose average size was in the range of 50-120 nm for snps and 20-50 nm for gnps. the synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by uv/visible absorption spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and field emission-scanning electron microscopy techniq ...201525618751
dermatoprotective effects of some plant extracts (genus ficus) against experimentally induced toxicological insults in rabbits.present study was conducted to evaluate the dermatoprotective effects of plant extracts (ficus religiosa, ficus benghalensis, and ficus racemosa) against known irritants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (sds), atrazine, and petrol.201523589405
design of experiment approach for the process optimisation of microwave assisted extraction of lupeol from ficus racemosa leaves using response surface methodology.triterpenoids are a group of important phytocomponents from ficus racemosa (syn. ficus glomerata roxb.) that are known to possess diverse pharmacological activities and which have prompted the development of various extraction techniques and strategies for its better utilisation.201623070936
complete chloroplast genome of ficus racemosa (moraceae).ficus racemosa, with immense medicinal value, and known as cluster fig tree, indian fig tree or goolar (gular) figis, is a species of plant which belongs to family moraceae. the complete chloroplast genome of ficus racemosa was obtained by de novo assembly using next-generation sequencing data. the chloroplast genome of f. racemosa was 159 473 bp in length, which consisted of a large single region (88 110 bp), a small single copy region (20 007 bp) and a pair of invert repeat regions (25 678 bp) ...201626709634
investigation of the key pharmacological activities of ficus racemosa and analysis of its major bioactive polyphenols by hplc-dad.objective. oxidative stress leads to numerous physiological disorders including infectious diseases, inflammation, and cancer. the present study was carried out to investigate antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activity of methanol crude extract of leaves and fruits of the ficus racemosa (lcme and fcme, resp.) and to analyse its major bioactive polyphenols by hplc-dad. methods. antioxidant capacity of the extracts was evaluated by dpph free radical scavenging, reducing power, total phenol ...201628105059
selective resource allocation may promote a sex ratio in pollinator fig wasps more beneficial for the host tree.mutualisms play a key role in most ecosystems, yet the mechanisms that prevent overexploitation of the mutualistic relationship are still poorly understood. in the mutualism between fig trees and their pollinating wasps both partners depend on each other. fig trees benefit from female wasps that disperse their pollen, whereas wasps frequently benefit from a higher ratio of male offspring. here we use manipulative field experiments to address whether host trees (ficus racemosa) can influence the ...201627731351
chilocoris capensis n. sp., the first species of the genus chilocoris mayr, 1865 (hemiptera: heteroptera: cydnidae) recorded in the republic of south africa with an annotated checklist of south african burrower bugs.chilocoris capensis n. sp. collected from fallen ripe figs of broom cluster fig ficus sur forsskål, 1775, the first burrower bug species of the genus chilocoris mayr, 1865 recorded in the republic of south africa, is described and compared with chilocoris laevicollis horváth, 1919, the morphologically most closely allied afrotropical species. additionally, an annotated checklist of burrower bug species recorded in the republic of south africa is provided. the known biology of afrotropical chiloc ...201627515635
screening for potential α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory constituents from selected vietnamese plants used to treat type 2 diabetes.the 18 plant species investigated in this study have been used as herbal antidiabetic remedies in vietnamese traditional medicines. this study aimed to evaluate their ability to inhibit α-glucosidase and α-amylase, two key enzymes involved in serum glucose regulation.201627041401
isolated flavonoids from ficus racemosa stem bark possess antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and protective effects in albino wistar rats.ficus racemosa (fr) has been used for thousands of years in ayurvedic system of medicine in india and is closely associated with prevention, treatment and cure of various human ailments like obesity and diabetes. it is popularly known as gular. a vast and wide range of chemical compounds like polyphenols, friedelane-type triterpenes, norfriedelane type triterpene, eudesmane-type sesquiterpene including various glycosides had been isolated from this plant. however, no detail studies related to is ...201626869543
effect of diabetea tea ™ consumption on inflammatory cytokines and metabolic biomarkers in type 2 diabetes patients.diabetea tea™ (dt) is an anti-diabetic alternative medicine in some asian countries. the main constituent of dt is black tea originating from camellia sinensis that is supplemented by 12 other medicinal plants. black tea contains a large amount of the flavonoids catechins especially epigallocatechin gallate (egcg) which has anti-inflammatory and antioxidative capacity. this study was undertaken to evaluate the possible effects of dt intake on inflammatory cytokines, regulatory t cells (tregs) an ...201627989874
antiplasmodial activities of a thai traditional antipyretic formulation, bencha-loga-wichian: a comparative study between the roots and their substitutes, the stems.bencha-loga-wichian (blw) is a polyherbal antipyretic formulation that is comprised of capparis micracantha, clerodendrum indicum, ficus racemosa, harrisonia perforata, and tiliacora triandra. a traditional medical textbook has documented the use of this formulation for the treatment of many types of fever, including malaria-like fever. traditionally, blw is composed of the root parts of those plants. however, in current practice, the stem parts are frequently substituted. thus, this study aimed ...201627396349
an evaluation of the protective role of ficus racemosa linn. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathy with neurodegeneration.ficus racemosa (fr) is one of the herbs mentioned in the scriptures of the ayurveda as udumbara with high medicinal value. the objective of this study was to estimate the protective effect of fr against streptozotocin (stz) induced diabetic neuropathy with neurodegeneration (dnn).201726729951
phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and clinical trial of ficus racemosa.ficus racemosa is an important medicinal plant, found in india, australia, and southeast asia. it is popularly known as 'gular.' it reduces blood glucose concentration due to the presence of β-sitosterol. many active constituents that have been isolated from various parts of this plant possess useful pharmacological activities. the literature survey proposed that it has multiple pharmacological actions that include antidiabetic, antioxidant, antidiarrhoeal, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antifu ...201726009696
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