Publications

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hematology of the hibernating bat: myotis daubentoni.1. hematological parameters in the male and female bats differ only with respect to number and volume of erythrocytes: larger number of smaller cells found in males corresponds to smaller number of larger red blood cells in females, with hemoglobin level and hematocrit values remaining similar in both sexes. 2. six-month-old bats have significantly higher numbers of lymphocytes when compared with adults. 3. there are no significant differences in hemograms (complete blood counts) for bats identi ...19872892639
polychromophilus murinus: a malarial parasite of bats: life-history and ultrastructural studies.polychromophilus murinus, a malaria parasite of chiroptera is reported from myotis daubentoni in england. the vector was suspected to be the ectoparasitic nycteribiid fly, nycteribia kolenatii. n. kolenatii collected from wild-caught m. daubentoni were found to have oocysts on the midgut and sporozoites in the salivary glands. wild-caught n. kolenatii were maintained on two wild-caught m. daubentoni harbouring heavy (patent) infections of p. murinus; both oocysts and sporozoites were found in th ...19883136420
[the experimental infection of bats with lyssavirus serotypes 1 and 4].the results of intramuscular inoculation of 111 bats (myotis daubentoni, myotis brandtii) with three strains of lyssaviruses--yuli, stade, and 1150 are presented. bats were found to have low susceptibility, especially to strains of serotype 4. after infection with serotype 4 viruses, fewer bats died but within shorter periods than after infection with serotype 1. after inoculation with strain 1150, 60% of bats yielded virus, whereas only 9-24% did after inoculation with type 4 strains. the survi ...19921471342
ten-year survey of british bats for the existence of rabies.in 1985, a notable increase in the number of recorded cases of rabies in european bats was observed, indicating a possible spread of the rabies virus in these bats. because of concern that the disease could be introduced into the united kingdom by bats crossing from mainland europe, a programme of screening dead bats for the presence of rabies and rabies-related viruses was initiated at the rabies research and diagnostic unit at the central veterinary laboratory. over a period of 10 years (janua ...19968950819
wide distribution of short interspersed elements among eukaryotic genomes.most short interspersed elements (sines) in eukaryotic genomes originate from trna and have internal promoters for rna polymerase iii. the promoter contains two boxes (a and b) spaced by approximately 33 bp. we used oligonucleotide primers specific to these boxes to detect sines in the genomic dna by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). appropriate dna fragments were revealed by pcr in 30 out of 35 eukaryotic species suggesting the wide distribution of sines. the pcr products were used for hybridiza ...199910471819
echolocation behaviour and prey-capture success in foraging bats: laboratory and field experiments on myotis daubentonii.during prey-capture attempts, many echolocating bats emit a 'terminal buzz', when pulse repetition rate is increased and pulse duration and interpulse interval are shortened. the buzz is followed by a silent interval (the post-buzz pause). we investigated whether variation in the structure of the terminal buzz, and the calls and silent periods following it, may provide information about whether the capture attempt was successful and about the size of prey detected - detail that is valuable in st ...199910359682
continuous hair cell turnover in the inner ear vestibular organs of a mammal, the daubenton's bat (myotis daubentonii).in both humans and mice the number of hair cells in the inner ear sensory epithelia declines with age, indicating cell death (park et al. 1987; rosenhall 1973). however, recent reports demonstrate the ability of the vestibular sensory epithelia to regenerate after injury (forge et al. 1993, 1998; kuntz and oesterle 1998; li and forge 1997; rubel et al. 1995; tanyeri et al. 1995). still, a continuous hair cell turnover in the vestibular epithelia has not previously been demonstrated in mature mam ...200010663140
first isolation of a rabies-related virus from a daubenton's bat in the united kingdom.on may 30, 1996, a sick daubenton's bat (myotis daubentonii) was recovered from the cellar of a public house in newhaven, east sussex. its condition deteriorated rapidly, and it was euthanased and examined. positive results, establishing the presence of a rabies or rabies-related virus in its brain, were obtained from the fluorescent antibody test, the rabies tissue culture isolation test, and a hemi-nested reverse-transcription pcr. the complete sequence of the nucleoprotein gene was determined ...200011073000
morphological study of the heart innervation of bats myotis daubentoni and eptesicus serotinus (microchiroptera: vespertilionidae) during hibernation.the capability of bats to have heart rates fewer than 10 beats/min during hibernation and greater than 700 beats/min during flight surprises biologists and cardiologists. cardioacceleration of hibernating bats is considered to be a function of their intracardiac nervous system. in the present study we investigated the morphology of the heart innervation of ten m. daubentoni and four e. serotinus bats during their natural hibernation in order to determine which intracardiac structures may be invo ...200010916173
the inner ear macular sensory epithelia of the daubenton's bat.the inner ear macular sensory epithelia of the daubenton's bat were examined quantitatively to estimate the area and total number of hair cells. ultrastructural examination of the sensory epithelium reveals two main types of hair cells: the chalice-innervated hair cell and the bouton-innervated hair cell. the existence of an intermediate type, with a nerve ending covering the lateral side of the hair cell, indicates that the chalice-innervated hair cells are derived from bouton-innervated hair c ...200111559899
intensity control during target approach in echolocating bats; stereotypical sensori-motor behaviour in daubenton's bats, myotis daubentonii.when approaching a prey target, bats have been found to decrease the intensity of their emitted echolocation pulses, called intensity compensation. in this paper we examine whether intensity compensation in the echolocation of bats is flexible or stereotyped. we recorded the echolocation calls of daubenton's bats (myotis daubentonii) while the animals attacked targets of different dimensions. myotis daubentonii reduced the peak sound pressure level emitted by about 4db for each halving of distan ...200212177150
isolation of a european bat lyssavirus type 2 from a daubenton's bat in the united kingdom.european bat lyssavirus type 2 (eblv-2) has been isolated once previously from a bat in the uk in june 1996. in september 2002, a daubenton's bat (myotis daubentonii) found in lancashire developed abnormal behaviour, including unprovoked aggression, while it was in captivity. brain samples from the bat were tested for virus of the lyssavirus genus, which includes eblv-2 (genotype 6), and classical rabies virus (genotype 1). a positive fluorescent antibody test confirmed that it was infected with ...200312696703
detection of antibodies to eblv-2 in daubenton's bats in the uk. 200415005453
identification of a european bat lyssavirus type 2 in a daubenton's bat found in staines, surrey, uk. 200415508848
identification of a european bat lyssavirus type 2 in a daubenton's bat found in lancashire. 200415573955
on the taxonomical status of myotis abei yoshikura, 1944 (chiroptera, vespertilionidae).the type specimen of myotis abei yoshikura, 1944 was examined and compared with species of subgenera leuconoe and selysius from japan and adjacent territories. the analysis of external characters and measurements indicated that m. abei should be recognised as a junior synonym of myotis daubentoni (kuhl, 1817).200415459455
sex and segregation in temperate bats.many temperate insectivorous bats show marked sexual segregation during the summer, but in spectacular, pre-hibernation swarming, gather at caves to mate. in many species, sexual segregation is probably due to a gradient in aerial insect availability that confines females to lower elevations, where high reproductive costs are met by an abundant and reliable food supply. in the hawking and trawling myotis daubentonii, we show that alongside inter-sexual segregation, there is intra-male segregatio ...200516271970
[lissavirus in bats residing in the south of west siberia].we caught, 2002-2003 in caves of novosibirsk region and altai territory, 52 bats (myotis daubentoni, myotis brandtii, murina leucogaster, plecotus auritus). examinations of the animals' brain samples by fluorescence antibody microscopy and rt-pcr revealed lyssaviruses, genotype 1, which were close to strains provoking rabies in the local animals. according to the results, bats can be involved in keeping alive the rabies foci in western siberia, which must be taken into account in antiepizootic m ...200515747869
european bat lyssavirus in scottish bats.we report the first seroprevalence study of the occurrence of specific antibodies to european bat lyssavirus type 2 (eblv-2) in daubenton's bats. bats were captured from 19 sites across eastern and southern scotland. samples from 198 daubenton's bats, 20 natterer's bats, and 6 pipistrelle's bats were tested for eblv-2. blood samples (n = 94) were subjected to a modified fluorescent antibody virus neutralization test to determine antibody titer. from 0.05% to 3.8% (95% confidence interval) of dau ...200515829196
european bat lyssavirus type 2 rna in myotis daubentonii.organ distribution of european bat lyssavirus type 2 viral rna in its reservoir host, myotis daubentonii (daubenton's bat), was measured with a novel quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. high levels of genomic rna were found in the brain and were also detectable in the tongue, bladder, and stomach.200616836837
occupational lyssavirus risks and post-vaccination monitoring.in the uk, rabies pre-exposure vaccination involves a 3-dose course (do, 7 & 28) and reinforcing doses at a 2-3 year intervals. this booster schedule had been implemented following scientific evidence indicating that a reduction in the previous regime interval of 3-5 years was warranted. the regime changes were particularly relevant to high risk groups that may encounter rabies virus. those at known high risk of exposure to rabies and other lyssaviruses include laboratory staff and a diverse gro ...200616878474
eblv-2 prevalence in the united kingdom as determined by surveillance testing.five cases of eblv-2 have been detected in the uk since 1996, with all wildlife cases in the daubenton's bat: one on the south coast in sussex in 1996, one in lancashire in 2002, another in 2003, one in surrey in 2004 and a human fatality in angus, scotland, in 2002. as a result of the human case, a seroprevalence study, aimed primarily at the daubenton's bat was conducted in 2003 in scotland and at some sites in england. in scotland, 198 daubenton's, 20 natterer's and 6 pipistrelles were caught ...200616878484
passive surveillance (1987 to 2004) of united kingdom bats for european bat lyssaviruses.passive surveillance for european bat lyssaviruses (eblvs) in the uk began in 1987, and between 1987 and 2004, 4,883 bats of european origin (4,871 belonging to 17 uk resident species and 12 belonging to seven non-uk resident species) were tested. the proportions and numbers of each species submitted from different regions varied considerably, partly owing to inherent biases in the passive surveillance, and there were seasonal variations in the numbers, sex and age of the bats. contact with cats ...200617012608
isolation of eblv-2 in a daubenton's bat (myotis daubentonii) found in oxfordshire. 200617041069
development of a real-time, differential rt-pcr taqman assay for lyssavirus genotypes 1, 5 and 6.a number of rt-pcr methods have been reported for the detection of rabies and rabies-related viruses. here, a single, closed tube, non-nested rt-pcr taqman assay to distinguish between classical rabies virus and european bat lyssaviruses 1 and 2 in real time is described. the taqman assay is rapid, sensitive, specific and allows for the genotyping of unknown isolates concomitant with the rt-pcr. it can be applied quantitatively and the use of an internal control enables the quality of the isolat ...200617058499
relationships between the parasitic mite spinturnix andegavinus (acari: spinturnicidae) and its bat host, myotis daubentonii (chiroptera: vespertilionidae): seasonal, sex- and age-related variation in infestation and possible impact of the parasite on the host condition and roosting behaviour.host-parasite relationships between the daubenton's bat, myotis daubentonii kuhl, 1817 (chiroptera: vespertilionidae), and its haematophagous ectoparasite, the mite spinturnix andegavinus kolenati, 1857 (acari: spintumicidae), were subjected to analyses based on data gathered during a six-year study (1999-2004) within a single study area in south bohemia, czech republic. seven hundred and fifty-one daubenton's bats were examined by screening wing membranes with an intensive light source, resulti ...200616898129
seasonal changes in daily torpor patterns of free-ranging female and male daubenton's bats (myotis daubentonii).daily torpor can provide significant energy and water savings in bats during cold ambient temperatures and food scarcity. however, it may reduce rates of foetal and juvenile development. therefore, reproductive females should optimize development by minimizing times in torpor. to test this hypothesis, the use of torpor by female and male free-ranging daubenton's bats (myotis daubentonii) during reproduction (gestation, lactation, and post-lactation period) was investigated in 1998 and 1999. temp ...200616322980
european bat lyssaviruses: distribution, prevalence and implications for conservation.worldwide, there are more than 1100 species of the order chiroptera, 45 of which are present in europe, and 16 in the uk. bats are reservoirs of, or can be infected by, several viral diseases, including rabies virus strains (in the lyssavirus genus). within this genus are bat variants that have been recorded in europe; european bat lyssavirus 1 (eblv-1), european bat lyssavirus 2 (eblv-2) and, four currently unclassified isolates. since 1977, 783 cases of eblvs (by isolation of viral rna) have b ...200632226078
host sex and ectoparasites choice: preference for, and higher survival on female hosts.1. sex differences in levels of parasite infection are a common rule in a wide range of mammals, with males usually more susceptible than females. sex-specific exposure to parasites, e.g. mediated through distinct modes of social aggregation between and within genders, as well as negative relationships between androgen levels and immune defences are thought to play a major role in this pattern. 2. reproductive female bats live in close association within clusters at maternity roosts, whereas non ...200717584376
isolation of european bat lyssavirus type 2 from a daubenton's bat (myotis daubentonii) in shropshire. 200717873269
flight and echolocation behaviour of three vespertilionid bat species while commuting on flyways.this study compares the flight and echolocation behaviour of three vespertilionid bat species while they commute on flyways. we measured the bats' spatial position relative to vertical background contours and relative to the ground while recording their echolocation behaviour. in myotis daubentonii, we found a significant influence of spatial context on the position and dimensions of flyways as well as on echolocation behaviour. in gap situations, flyways tended to be narrower and located closer ...200717885759
first isolation of eblv-2 in germany.in europe, rabies in bats is caused by european bat lyssavirus (eblv) type 1 (eblv-1) or type 2 (eblv-2) which form two distinct genotypes (gt 5 and 6) within the genus lyssavirus of the family of rhadoviridae. spill-over infections of eblv in humans have caused fatal rabies encephalitis and highlighted the relevance of this wildlife disease for public health. the vast majority of the 831 european bat rabies cases reported between 1977 and 2006 were identified as eblv-1. only few virus isolates ...200818424021
spatial distribution of mitochondrial and microsatellite dna variation in daubenton's bat within scotland.daubenton's bat (myotis daubentonii) is a known reservoir for european bat lyssavirus type 2 (eblv-2). an appreciation of the potential for epidemiological spread and disease risk requires an understanding of the dispersal of the primary host, and any large-scale geographical barriers that may impede gene flow. the spatial pattern of microsatellite and mitochondrial dna variation was examined to infer patterns of dispersal of bats among 35 populations across scotland. dna sequence variation at t ...200818565113
the application of genetic markers for eblv surveillance in european bat species.the united kingdom has performed passive surveillance for european bat lyssaviruses (eblvs) since 1987, and species-targeted surveillance since 2003. one critical component of these studies is the accurate identification of bats either submitted for testing or sampled in the field. identification is dependent on numerous morphological characteristics. whilst this is an effective means of bat identification, a number of problems remain with this approach. it relies on the experience of bat specia ...200818634497
experimental study of european bat lyssavirus type-2 infection in daubenton's bats (myotis daubentonii).european bat lyssavirus type 2 (eblv-2) can be transmitted from daubenton's bats to humans and cause rabies. eblv-2 has been repeatedly isolated from daubenton's bats in the uk but appears to be present at a low level within the native bat population. this has prompted us to investigate the disease in its natural host under experimental conditions, to assess its virulence, dissemination and likely means of transmission between insectivorous bats. with the exception of direct intracranial inocula ...200818931061
[spatial structure of the community of bats (chiroptera: vespertilionidae) hibernating in artificial caves of samarskaya luka].specific features of the spatial distribution and localization of bats have been studied during their hibernation in artificial caves of samarskaya luka. the proportion of cave area occupied by bats varies from 70 to 93% in large caves (> 60000 m2), decreasing to 50% in medium-sized caves (10000-60000 m2) and to less than 30% in small caves (< 10000 m2). approximately 9% of bats choose sites near cave openings, up to 25% prefer central parts, but most bats (about 66%) concentrate in the deepest ...200818946997
european bat lyssavirus type 2 in a daubenton's bat in scotland. 200919783855
repeated detection of european bat lyssavirus type 2 in dead bats found at a single roost site in the uk.in august 2007, european bat lyssavirus type 2 (eblv-2) was isolated from a daubenton's bat found at stokesay castle. in september 2008, another bat from the same vicinity of stokesay castle also tested positive for eblv-2. this is the first occurrence of repeated detection of eblv-2 from a single site. here, we report the detection of low levels of viral rna in various bat organs by qrt-pcr and detection of viral antigen by immunohistochemistry. we also report sequence data from both cases and ...200919841859
targeted surveillance for european bat lyssaviruses in english bats (2003-06).in 2003-06, targeted (active) surveillance for european bat lyssaviruses (eblvs) was undertaken throughout england, focusing on two species most likely to host these viruses, myotis daubentonii and eptesicus serotinus. blood was sampled for the detection of eblv-specific neutralizing antibodies and oropharyngeal swabs were taken for the detection of viral rna or infectious virus in saliva. between 2003 and 2006, 273 e. serotinus and 363 m. daubentonii blood samples were tested by the eblv-1 or e ...200919901379
bat rabies--a gordian knot?although classical rabies is one of the earliest identified and best studied infectious diseases, there is still limited knowledge about lyssaviruses and their major natural hosts, bats. focussing on bat rabies in europe caused by european bat lyssaviruses 1 (eblv-1) and 2, for instance the association of eblv-1 to eptesicus bats and eblv-2 to myotis daubentonii and m. dasycneme together with an apparent clustering of cases is one question still to be answered. furthermore, the question whether ...200919999377
echolocating bats emit a highly directional sonar sound beam in the field.bats use echolocation or biosonar to navigate and find prey at night. they emit short ultrasonic calls and listen for reflected echoes. the beam width of the calls is central to the function of the sonar, but directionality of echolocation calls has never been measured from bats flying in the wild. we used a microphone array to record sounds and determine horizontal directionality for echolocation calls of the trawling daubenton's bat, myotis daubentonii, flying over a pond in its natural habita ...200919129126
circulation of group 2 coronaviruses in a bat species common to urban areas in western europe.fecal samples of 211 bats representing 13 different bat species from 31 locations in the netherlands were analyzed for the presence of coronaviruses (cov) using a genus-wide reverse transcription (rt)-polymerase chain reaction. covs are known for their high potential for interspecies transmission, including zoonotic transmission with bats as reservoir hosts. for the first time, a group 2 cov was found in a bat, pipistrellus pipistrellus, in europe. this is of particular interest for public healt ...201020055576
first encounter of european bat lyssavirus type 2 (eblv-2) in a bat in finland.in finland, rabies in bats was suspected for the first time in 1985 when a bat researcher, who had multiple bat bites, died in helsinki. the virus isolated from the researcher proved to be antigenically related to rabies viruses previously detected in german bats. later, the virus was typed as eblv-2b. despite an epidemiological study in bats 1986 and subsequent rabies surveillance, rabies in bats was not detected in finland until the first case in a daubenton's bat (myotis daubentonii) was conf ...201020196902
angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ace2) proteins of different bat species confer variable susceptibility to sars-cov entry.the discovery of sars-like coronavirus in bats suggests that bats could be the natural reservoir of sars-cov. however, previous studies indicated the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ace2) protein, a known sars-cov receptor, from a horseshoe bat was unable to act as a functional receptor for sars-cov. here, we extended our previous study to ace2 molecules from seven additional bat species and tested their interactions with human sars-cov spike protein using both hiv-based pseudotype and live sar ...201020567988
surveillance for european bat lyssavirus in swiss bats.most countries in western europe are currently free of rabies in terrestrial mammals. nevertheless, rabies remains a residual risk to public health due to the natural circulation of bat-specific viruses, such as european bat lyssaviruses (eblvs). european bat lyssavirus types 1 and 2 (eblv-1 and eblv-2) are widely distributed throughout europe, but little is known of their true prevalence and epidemiology. we report that only three out of 837 brains taken from bats submitted to the swiss rabies ...201020803042
heavy metals and metallothionein in vespertilionid bats foraging over aquatic habitats in the czech republic.there has been growing interest in the study and conservation of bats throughout the world. declines in their absolute numbers in recent decades are due, in part, to the fact that insectivorous bats may bioaccumulate toxic pollutants. the purpose of the present study was to quantify heavy metal concentrations in kidney, liver, and pectoral muscle samples in relation to metallothionein (mt) levels. in total, 106 bats belonging to 11 european species (i.e., myotis myotis, myotis daubentonii, myoti ...201020821471
bat population genetics and lyssavirus presence in great britain.summarymost lyssaviruses appear to have bat species as reservoir hosts. in europe, of around 800 reported cases in bats, most were of european bat lyssavirus type 1 (eblv-1) in eptesicus serotinus (where the bat species was identified). about 20 cases of eblv-2 were recorded, and these were in myotis daubentonii and m. dasycneme. through a passive surveillance scheme, britain reports about one case a year of eblv-2, but no cases of the more prevalent eblv-1. an analysis of e. serotinus and m. da ...201021205436
vespertilionid bats control the width of their biosonar sound beam dynamically during prey pursuit.animals using sound for communication emit directional signals, focusing most acoustic energy in one direction. echolocating bats are listening for soft echoes from insects. therefore, a directional biosonar sound beam greatly increases detection probability in the forward direction and decreases off-axis echoes. however, high directionality has context-specific disadvantages: at close range the detection space will be vastly reduced, making a broad beam favorable. hence, a flexible system would ...201020643943
a method for estimating the orientation of a directional sound source from source directivity and multi-microphone recordings: principles and application.taking into account directivity of real sound sources makes it possible to try solving an interesting and biologically relevant problem: estimating the orientation in three-dimensional space of a directional sound source. the source, of known directivity, produces a broadband signal (in the ultrasonic range, in this application) that is recorded by microphones whose position with respect to source is known. an analytical method to process the recorded signals and estimate source orientation is d ...201121361460
[characteristic of reproductive structure in the hemipopulation of a bat-parasitizing nematode thominx neopulchra (nematoda, capillariidae)].features of reproductive structure of the thominx neopulchra hemipopulation from daubenton's bat from zhiguli state reserve are studied. it is established, that females and males of th. neopulchra have different dynamics of coming in the host population. males of the parasite invade the of daubenton's bat population during all the year, while females infest the host only from may to november. maturing of helminthes become slowed in winter period. only about a half of of the host population is in ...201121309148
[variability of the dimensional structure in the hemipopulation of thominx neopulchra (nematoda: capillariidae) females from bats of the genus myotis (chiroptera: vespertilionidae)].variability of the dimensional structure in the hemipopulation thominx neopulchra females from 3 species of the genus myotis bats in the zhiguli state reserve was examined. the size of t. neopulchra from different bat species varied within the limits constituting 10.17-13.41 mm. it was demonstrated that the variability of the dimensional structure in the subpopulation group t. neopulchra from daubenton's bats did not depend on the number of parasites in the host and the season and is probably de ...201222586922
impact of pit tagging on recapture rates, body condition and reproductive success of wild daubenton's bats (myotis daubentonii).a successful and safe methodology for the subcutaneous insertion of passive integrated transponder (pit) tags in a small- to medium-sized bat (average mass 9 g) under isoflurane-induced anaesthesia is described. passive integrated transponder (pit) tagging had no significant impact on the rate of recapture, body condition index (bci) (bodyweight/forearm length) and reproductive success of tagged individuals, and no visible injuries or health problems were observed in any of the recaptured bats. ...201222090155
detection of european bat lyssavirus 2 (eblv-2) in a daubenton's bat (myotis daubentonii) from magdeburg, germany.in europe bat rabies in daubenton's bats (myotisdaubentonii) and in pond bats (myotis dasycneme) caused by the european bat lyssavirus 2 (eblv-2) has been confirmed in less than 20 cases to date. here we report the second encounter of this virus species in germany. a daubenton's bat found grounded in the zoological garden in magdeburg died shortly after. in the frame of a retrospective study the bat carcass was eventually transferred to the national reference laboratory for rabies at the friedri ...201222712424
[demonstration of nycteribia kolenati (diptera, nycteribiidae) in west germany and west berlin].19 records of n. kolenatii from 10 different localities are given. the bat species myotis daubentoni, m. mystacinus, pipistrellus pipistrellus and nyctalus noctula were found as hosts.20123425966
ecological factors associated with european bat lyssavirus seroprevalence in spanish bats.bats have been proposed as major reservoirs for diverse emerging infectious viral diseases, with rabies being the best known in europe. however, studies exploring the ecological interaction between lyssaviruses and their natural hosts are scarce. this study completes our active surveillance work on spanish bat colonies that began in 1992. herein, we analyzed ecological factors that might affect the infection dynamics observed in those colonies. between 2001 and 2011, we collected and tested 2,39 ...201323700480
molecular epidemiology of bat lyssaviruses in europe.bat rabies cases in europe are principally attributed to two lyssaviruses, namely european bat lyssavirus type 1 (eblv-1) and european bat lyssavirus type 2 (eblv-2). between 1977 and 2011, 961 cases of bat rabies were reported to rabies bulletin europe, with the vast majority (>97%) being attributed to eblv-1. there have been 25 suspected cases of eblv-2, of which 22 have been confirmed. in addition, two single isolations of unique lyssaviruses from european insectivorous bats were reported in ...201322937876
bat rabies surveillance in finland.in 1985, a bat researcher in finland died of rabies encephalitis caused by european bat lyssavirus type 2 (eblv-2), but an epidemiological study in 1986 did not reveal eblv-infected bats. in 2009, an eblv-2-positive daubenton's bat was detected. the eblv-2 isolate from the human case in 1985 and the isolate from the bat in 2009 were genetically closely related. in order to assess the prevalence of eblvs in finnish bat populations and to gain a better understanding of the public health risk that ...201324011337
bat rabies surveillance in europe.rabies is the oldest known zoonotic disease and was also the first recognized bat associated infection in humans. to date, four different lyssavirus species are the causative agents of rabies in european bats: the european bat lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (eblv-1, eblv-2), the recently discovered putative new lyssavirus species bokeloh bat lyssavirus (bblv) and the west caucasian bat virus (wcbv). unlike in the new world, bat rabies cases in europe are comparatively less frequent, possibly as a res ...201322963584
next generation sequencing of fecal dna reveals the dietary diversity of the widespread insectivorous predator daubenton's bat (myotis daubentonii) in southwestern finland.understanding predator-prey dynamics is a fundamental task in the evaluation of the adaptive capacities of species. however, direct observations or morphological identification of fecal remains do not offer an effective way to study the dietary ecology of elusive species, such as nocturnal insectivorous bats. however, recent advances in molecular techniques have opened a new method for identifying prey species from fecal samples. in this study, we amplified species-specific mitochondrial coi fra ...201324312405
insectivorous bats digest chitin in the stomach using acidic mammalian chitinase.the gastrointestinal tract of animals is adapted to their primary source of food to optimize resource use and energy intake. temperate bat species mainly feed on arthropods. these contain the energy-rich carbohydrate chitin, which is indigestible for the endogenous enzymes of a typical mammalian gastrointestinal tract. however, the gastrointestinal tract of bat species should be adapted to their diet and be able to digest chitin. we hypothesized that (i) european vespertilionid bat species have ...201324019876
balancing the energy budget in free-ranging male myotis daubentonii bats.mammals use five main, mutually nonexclusive mechanisms to balance energy budgets: torpor, metabolic compensation, change in activity patterns, change in ingested energy, and/or variability in digestive efficiency. bats, as small and actively flying mammals, have a high mass-specific energy demand; therefore, balancing mechanisms should be pronounced in this group. we found that male myotis daubentonii exhibited marked variation in the relative importance of these different mechanisms during the ...201323629886
trawling bats exploit an echo-acoustic ground effect.a water surface acts not only as an optic mirror but also as an acoustic mirror. echolocation calls emitted by bats at low heights above water are reflected away from the bat, and hence the background clutter is reduced. moreover, targets on the surface create an enhanced echo. here, we formally quantified the effect of the surface and target height on both target detection and -discrimination in a combined laboratory and field approach with myotis daubentonii. in a two-alternative, forced-choic ...201323576990
resistance to oxidative damage but not immunosuppression by organic tin compounds in natural populations of daubenton's bats (myotis daubentonii).the acute toxicity of organic tin compounds (otcs) has been studied in detail. however, due to their complex nature, very little is known about species-specific methods of accumulation and consequences for food-webs. chironomids, on which e.g. daubenton's bats feed, may act as vectors for the transport of organic tin compounds from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems. bats are prone to environmental toxins because of their longevity and their ecological role as top predators. organic tin compounds ...201323369694
sexual segregation and flexible mating patterns in temperate bats.social structure evolves from a trade-off between the costs and benefits of group-living, which are in turn dependent upon the distribution of key resources such as food and shelter. males and females, or juveniles and adults, may have different priorities when selecting habitat due to differences in physiological or behavioural imperatives, leading to complex patterns in group composition. we studied social structure and mating behaviour in the insectivorous bat myotis daubentonii along an alti ...201323365652
bat rabies, public health and european bat conservation.most records of european bat lyssaviruses (eblvs) are confined to three species - the serotine bat for eblv1 (900 records) and daubenton's bat and the pond bat for eblv2 (25 records). high levels of seroprevalence, which may vary from year to year, are also recorded. all bat vectors of eblvs are synanthropic, some exclusively so. despite this, there have been only five cases of human rabies resulting from eblv infection in the 590 million people of greater europe during the last 35 years. these ...201322909028
epidemiological traits of the malaria-like parasite polychromophilus murinus in the daubenton's bat myotis daubentonii.the great diversity of bat haemosporidians is being uncovered with the help of molecular tools. yet most of these studies provide only snapshots in time of the parasites discovered. polychromophilus murinus, a malaria-like blood parasite, specialised on temperate-zone bats is a species that is being 'rediscovered'. this study describes the infection dynamics over time and between host sex and age classes.201425487126
sympatric woodland myotis bats form tight-knit social groups with exclusive roost home ranges.the structuring of wild animal populations can influence population dynamics, disease spread, and information transfer. social network analysis potentially offers insights into these processes but is rarely, if ever, used to investigate more than one species in a community. we therefore compared the social, temporal and spatial networks of sympatric myotis bats (m. nattereri (natterer's bats) and m. daubentonii (daubenton's bats)), and asked: (1) are there long-lasting social associations within ...201425356770
interspecific variation in redox status regulation and immune defence in five bat species: the role of ectoparasites.harmful reactive oxygen species (ros) produced during metabolism and immune responses are neutralized in part by a powerful enzymatic antioxidant system. inter-species variability in the baseline activity of antioxidant enzymes may be explained by a variety of life history traits. for instance, ectoparasites can elicit repeated immune responses, thus increasing the production of reactive oxygen species. the bat species studied so far have been acknowledged to have effective antioxidant defences. ...201424839093
enhanced passive bat rabies surveillance in indigenous bat species from germany--a retrospective study.in germany, rabies in bats is a notifiable zoonotic disease, which is caused by european bat lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (eblv-1 and 2), and the recently discovered new lyssavirus species bokeloh bat lyssavirus (bblv). as the understanding of bat rabies in insectivorous bat species is limited, in addition to routine bat rabies diagnosis, an enhanced passive surveillance study, i.e. the retrospective investigation of dead bats that had not been tested for rabies, was initiated in 1998 to study the ...201424784117
lyssavirus distribution in naturally infected bats from germany.in germany, to date three different lyssavirus species are responsible for bat rabies in indigenous bats: the european bat lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (eblv-1, eblv-2) and the bokeloh bat lyssavirus (bblv) for which eptesicus serotinus, myotis daubentonii and myotis nattereri, respectively, are primary hosts. lyssavirus maintenance, evolution, and epidemiology are still insufficiently explored. moreover, the small number of bats infected, the nocturnal habits of bats and the limited experimental d ...201424440375
bats as reservoir hosts of human bacterial pathogen, bartonella mayotimonensis.a plethora of pathogenic viruses colonize bats. however, bat bacterial flora and its zoonotic threat remain ill defined. in a study initially conducted as a quantitative metagenomic analysis of the fecal bacterial flora of the daubenton's bat in finland, we unexpectedly detected dna of several hemotrophic and ectoparasite-transmitted bacterial genera, including bartonella. bartonella spp. also were either detected or isolated from the peripheral blood of daubenton's, northern, and whiskered bats ...201424856523
an integrative approach to detect subtle trophic niche differentiation in the sympatric trawling bat species myotis dasycneme and myotis daubentonii.bats are well known for species richness and ecological diversity, and thus, they provide a good opportunity to study relationships and interaction between species. to assess interactions, we consider distinct traits that are probably to be triggered by niche shape and evolutionary processes. we present data on the trophic niche differentiation between two sympatric european trawling bat species, myotis dasycneme and myotis daubentonii, incorporating a wide spectrum of methodological approaches. ...201424164379
molecular detection of candidatus bartonella hemsundetiensis in bats.although bats have been implicated as reservoir hosts for a number of zoonotic and life-threatening viruses, the bat bacterial flora and its zoonotic threat remain elusive. however, members of the vector-borne bacterial genera bartonella causing various human as well as animal diseases have recently been isolated or detected from bats and their ectoparasites. in this study, we sampled 124 insectivorous microbats (daubenton's bat, myotis daubentonii) for peripheral blood in southwestern finland i ...201526501463
how to be a male at different elevations: ecology of intra-sexual segregation in the trawling bat myotis daubentonii.intra-sexual segregation is a form of social segregation widespread among vertebrates. in the bat myotis daubentonii, males are disproportionately abundant at higher elevations, while females are restricted to lower altitude. intra-male segregation is also known to occur yet its ecological and behavioural determinants are unclear. we studied male segregation along a river in central italy where we tested the following predictions: 1. upstream ( > 1000 m a.s.l.) males will rely on scarcer prey; 2 ...201526230548
dynamics of the echolocation beam during prey pursuit in aerial hawking bats.in the evolutionary arms race between prey and predator, measures and countermeasures continuously evolve to increase survival on both sides. bats and moths are prime examples. when exposed to intense ultrasound, eared moths perform dramatic escape behaviors. vespertilionid and rhinolophid bats broaden their echolocation beam in the final stage of pursuit, presumably as a countermeasure to keep evading moths within their "acoustic field of view." in this study, we investigated if dynamic beam br ...201526080398
how anthropogenic noise affects foraging.the influence of human activity on the biosphere is increasing. while direct damage (e.g. habitat destruction) is relatively well understood, many activities affect wildlife in less apparent ways. here, we investigate how anthropogenic noise impairs foraging, which has direct consequences for animal survival and reproductive success. noise can disturb foraging via several mechanisms that may operate simultaneously, and thus, their effects could not be disentangled hitherto. we developed a diagno ...201526046451
trace metal concentrations in hairs of three bat species from an urbanized area in germany.metal-contaminated soils and sediments are widespread in urbanized areas due to atmospheric deposition close to emission sources. these metals are bio-available for organisms, e.g., insects, and accumulate in food chains of insectivorous mammals. especially bats, which live in urban regions and ingest large amounts of food relative to their body mass, are at risk of being poisoned due to the accumulation of trace metals. to determine species-specific trace metal contents in bats from urban envir ...201525968272
fast sensory-motor reactions in echolocating bats to sudden changes during the final buzz and prey intercept.echolocation is an active sense enabling bats and toothed whales to orient in darkness through echo returns from their ultrasonic signals. immediately before prey capture, both bats and whales emit a buzz with such high emission rates (≥ 180 hz) and overall duration so short that its functional significance remains an enigma. to investigate sensory-motor control during the buzz of the insectivorous bat myotis daubentonii, we removed prey, suspended in air or on water, before expected capture. th ...201525775538
[new records of ectoparasites of the eastern water bat myotis petax hollister, 1912 (vespertilionidae, chiroptera) and the revision of the previous material collected from myotis daubentonii s. lato in eastern palaearctic].new findings of ectoparasites from the eastern water bat myotis petax hollister, 1912, belonging to the siberian-russian far eastern complex and earlier attributed as a subspecies of the daubenton's bat myotis daubentonii s. lato, is given. fourteen species of bloodsucking arthropods feed on m. petax; these species include 4, 3, and 7 species of gamasid mites, fleas, and bloodsucking flies, respectively.201525702504
clutter and conspecifics: a comparison of their influence on echolocation and flight behaviour in daubenton's bat, myotis daubentonii.we compared the influence of conspecifics and clutter on echolocation and flight speed in the bat myotis daubentonii. in a large room, actual pairs of bats exhibited greater disparity in peak frequency (pf), minimum frequency (f min) and call period compared to virtual pairs of bats, each flying alone. greater inter-individual disparity in pf and f min may reduce acoustic interference and/or increase signal self-recognition in the presence of conspecifics. bats flying alone in a smaller flight r ...201525552318
first confirmation of pseudogymnoascus destructans in british bats and hibernacula.white-nose syndrome (wns) is a fatal fungal infection of bats in north america caused by pseudogymnoascus destructans. p. destructans has been confirmed in continental europe but not associated with mass mortality. its presence in great britain was unknown. opportunistic sampling of bats in gb began during the winter of 2009. any dead bats or samples from live bats with visible fungal growths were submitted to the animal health and veterinary laboratories agency for culture. active surveillance ...201525968064
pseudogymnoascus destructans: evidence of virulent skin invasion for bats under natural conditions, europe.while pseudogymnoascus destructans has been responsible for mass bat mortalities from white-nose syndrome (wns) in north america, its virulence in europe has been questioned. to shed the light on the issue of host-pathogen interaction between european bats and p. destructans, we examined seventeen bats emerging from the fungus-positive underground hibernacula in the czech republic during early spring 2013. dual wing-membrane biopsies were taken from barbastella barbastellus (1), myotis daubenton ...201525268034
the aerodynamic cost of head morphology in bats: maybe not as bad as it seems.at first sight, echolocating bats face a difficult trade-off. as flying animals, they would benefit from a streamlined geometric shape to reduce aerodynamic drag and increase flight efficiency. however, as echolocating animals, their pinnae generate the acoustic cues necessary for navigation and foraging. moreover, species emitting sound through their nostrils often feature elaborate noseleaves that help in focussing the emitted echolocation pulses. both pinnae and noseleaves reduce the streamli ...201525739038
sequencing and molecular modeling identifies candidate members of caliciviridae family in bats.emerging viral diseases represent an ongoing challenge for globalized world and bats constitute an immense, partially explored, reservoir of potentially zoonotic viruses. caliciviruses are important human and animal pathogens and, as observed for human noroviruses, they may impact on human health on a global scale. by screening fecal samples of bats in hungary, calicivirus rna was identified in the samples of myotis daubentonii and eptesicus serotinus bats. in order to characterize more in detai ...201627085289
bats increase the number of cultivable airborne fungi in the "nietoperek" bat reserve in western poland.the "nietoperek" bat reserve located in western poland is one of the largest bat hibernation sites in the european union with nearly 38,000 bats from 12 species. nietoperek is part of a built underground fortification system from wwii. the aims of the study were (1) to determine the fungal species composition and changes during hibernation season in relation to bat number and microclimatic conditions and (2) evaluate the potential threat of fungi for bat assemblages and humans visiting the compl ...201627084554
lyssavirus-reactive antibodies in swedish bats.to study the presence of european bat lyssavirus (eblv) infections in bat reservoirs in sweden, active surveillance was performed during the summers from 2008 to 2013.201627974131
two eblv-2 infected daubenton's bats detected in the north of england. 201627660356
description of the male and the larva of ixodes ariadnae hornok, 2014.ixodes ariadnae is a tick species of bats so far reported only in central europe, with its description based on the female and nymph. this study describes the male and larva in order to complete the description of the species. male ticks collected from cave walls in hungary showed a different morphology from those of i. vespertilionis and i. simplex. molecular analysis of the cytochrome oxidase subunit i (coi) gene of these ticks verified them as conspecific to i. ariadnae. in addition, a larva ...201627473852
sonar sound groups and increased terminal buzz duration reflect task complexity in hunting bats.more difficult tasks are generally regarded as such because they demand greater attention. echolocators provide rare insight into this relationship because biosonar signals can be monitored. here we show that bats produce longer terminal buzzes and more sonar sound groups during their approach to prey under presumably more difficult conditions. specifically, we found daubenton's bats, myotis daubentonii, produced longer buzzes when aerial-hawking versus water-trawling prey, but that bats taking ...201626857019
what you need is what you eat? prey selection by the bat myotis daubentonii.optimal foraging theory predicts that predators are selective when faced with abundant prey, but become less picky when prey gets sparse. insectivorous bats in temperate regions are faced with the challenge of building up fat reserves vital for hibernation during a period of decreasing arthropod abundances. according to optimal foraging theory, prehibernating bats should adopt a less selective feeding behavior--yet empirical studies have revealed many apparently generalized species to be compose ...201626841188
reduction of metal exposure of daubenton's bats (myotis daubentonii) following remediation of pond sediment as evidenced by metal concentrations in hair.transfer of contaminants from freshwater sediments via aquatic insects to terrestrial predators is well documented in spiders and birds. here, we analyzed the metal exposure of myotis daubentonii using an urban pond as their preferred foraging area before and after a remediation measure (sediment dredging) at this pond. six metal elements (zn, cu, cr, cd, pb and ni) were measured in the sediment of the pond, in edta extracts of the sediment and in hair samples of m. daubentonii foraging at the p ...201626780144
detection of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and spotted fever group rickettsiae in hard ticks (acari, ixodidae) parasitizing bats in poland.a total of 491 ixodes vespertilionis and 8 ixodes ricinus collected from bats and cave walls in southern poland between 2010 and 2012 were examined by the polymerase chain reaction for tick-transmitted pathogens. pcr analysis for borrelia burgdorferi s.l., rickettsia spp., and anaplasma phagocytophilum yielded negative results for all i. vespertilionis. dna of rickettsia helvetica was detected in three specimens of i. ricinus attached to rhinolophus hipposideros or myotis myotis, while borrelia ...201626833325
insectivorous bats carry host specific astroviruses and coronaviruses across different regions in germany.recently several infectious agents with a zoonotic potential have been detected in different bat species. however, there is still a lack of knowledge on the transmission dynamics within and between bat species, as well as from bats to other mammals. to better understand these processes, it is important to compare the phylogenetic relationships between different agents to that of their respective hosts. in this study, we analysed more than 950 urine, faeces and oral swab samples collected from 65 ...201626584511
[possibilities for identification of cryptic species of chiroptera using host-specific ectoparasites].the possibility of identification of the sibling species of chiroptera by the example of myotis daubentonii kuhl, 1817 and myotis petax hollister, 1912 by their host-specific ectoparasitic fauna is discussed. their habitat limits are defined.201623662469
second case of european bat lyssavirus type 2 detected in a daubenton's bat in finland.european bat lyssavirus type 2 (eblv-2) was detected in finland in a daubenton's bat (myotis daubentonii) found in the municipality of inkoo (60°02'45″n, 024°00'20″e). the bat showed neurological signs and was later found dead. the laboratory analysis revealed the presence of lyssavirus, and the virus was characterized as eblv-2. this isolation of eblv-2 was the second time that the virus has been detected in a daubenton's bat in finland. this provides additional proof that eblv-2 is endemic in ...201728946904
mercury in fur of daubenton's bat (myotis daubentonii) in southern sweden and comparison to ecotoxicological thresholds.to characterise mercury (hg) exposure in daubenton's bat (myotis daubentonii, kuhl 1817) in southern sweden, 17 specimens were captured in 2013 and back fur samples were taken for analysis to determine hg concentrations. the fur hg levels determined [1.15 ± 0.27 (mean ± standard deviation, n = 17) µg hg g-1 fresh weight (fw)] represent a baseline for comparison in future assessments of hg exposure in bat populations in northern europe. mercury concentrations were close to those reported in fur f ...201729128886
white-nose syndrome pathology grading in nearctic and palearctic bats.while white-nose syndrome (wns) has decimated hibernating bat populations in the nearctic, species from the palearctic appear to cope better with the fungal skin infection causing wns. this has encouraged multiple hypotheses on the mechanisms leading to differential survival of species exposed to the same pathogen. to facilitate intercontinental comparisons, we proposed a novel pathogenesis-based grading scheme consistent with wns diagnosis histopathology criteria. uv light-guided collection was ...201728767673
passive surveillance of united kingdom bats for lyssaviruses (2005-2015).passive surveillance for lyssaviruses in uk bats has been ongoing since 1987 and has identified 13 cases of eblv-2 from a single species; myotis daubentonii. no other lyssavirus species has been detected. between 2005 and 2015, 10 656 bats were submitted, representing 18 species, creating a spatially and temporally uneven sample of british bat fauna. uniquely, three uk cases originate from a roost at stokesay castle in shropshire, england, where daily checks for grounded and dead bats are undert ...201728737119
first detection of european bat lyssavirus type 2 (eblv-2) in norway.in europe, bat rabies is primarily attributed to european bat lyssavirus type 1 (eblv-1) and european bat lyssavirus type 2 (eblv-2) which are both strongly host-specific. approximately thirty cases of infection with eblv-2 in daubenton's bats (myotis daubentonii) and pond bats (m. dasycneme) have been reported. two human cases of rabies caused by eblv-2 have also been confirmed during the last thirty years, while natural spill-over to other non-flying mammals has never been reported. rabies has ...201728693578
host social organization and mating system shape parasite transmission opportunities in three european bat species.for non-mobile parasites living on social hosts, infection dynamics are strongly influenced by host life history and social system. we explore the impact of host social systems on parasite population dynamics by comparing the infection intensity and transmission opportunities of three mite species of the genus spinturnix across their three european bat hosts (myotis daubentonii, myotis myotis, myotis nattereri) during the bats' autumn mating season. mites mainly reproduce in host maternity colon ...201727858154
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