contamination of hypertonic saline solutions in use by cystic fibrosis patients in israel.treatment of cystic fibrosis (cf) patients with inhaled hypertonic saline (hs) solutions is safe, beneficial and reduces exacerbation rates. we studied contamination of solutions used by israeli cf patients for prolonged periods.201424484849
burkholderia dolosa phenotypic variation during the decline in lung function of a cystic fibrosis patient during 5.5 years of chronic colonization.although rarely isolated from cystic fibrosis (cf) patients, burkholderia dolosa is associated with accelerated lung function decline. during 18 years of epidemiological surveillance in the major portuguese cf centre in lisbon, only one patient was infected with b. dolosa. pulmonary deterioration, associated with the evolution of forced expiratory volume in 1 s, occurred during 5.5 years of colonization with this b. dolosa clone (with the new sequence type st-668). transient co-colonization with ...201424469681
respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis undergoing lung transplantation.cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease characterised by chronic respiratory infections associated with bronchiectasis. lung transplantation has helped to extend the lives of patients with cystic fibrosis who have advanced lung disease. however, persistent, recurrent, and newly acquired infections can be problematic. classic cystic fibrosis-associated organisms, such as staphylococcus aureus and pseudomonas aeruginosa, are generally manageable post-transplantation, and are associated with favour ...201424461904
bacteria that inhibit quorum sensing decrease biofilm formation and virulence in pseudomonas aeruginosa this study, we investigated the biotherapeutic potential of previously isolated quorum quenching (qq) bacteria. some of them produce and secrete small compounds that inhibit quorum sensing (qs), others quench qs by enzymatic degradation of n-acylhomoserine lactones (ahls). the supernatant of cultures of these isolates was tested for inhibitory properties against p. aeruginosa pao1 biofilms. most isolates had a moderate effect on biofilm formation, as shown by viability staining and/or stainin ...201424415453
mechanism of resistance to an antitubercular 2-thiopyridine derivative that is also active against burkholderia cenocepacia.the discovery of new compounds that are able to inhibit the growth of burkholderia cenocepacia is of primary importance for cystic fibrosis patients. here, the mechanism of resistance to a new pyridine derivative already shown to be effective against mycobacterium tuberculosis and to have good activity toward b. cenocepacia was investigated. increased expression of a resistance-nodulation-cell division (rnd) efflux system was detected in the resistant mutants, thus confirming their important rol ...201424395233
antimicrobial properties of an oxidizer produced by burkholderia cenocepacia p525.a compound with both oxidizing properties and antibiotic properties was extracted and purified from broth cultures of burkholderia cenocepacia strain p525. a four step purification procedure was used to increase its specific activity ~400-fold and to yield a hplc-uv chromatogram containing a single major peak. size exclusion chromatography suggests a molecular mass of ~1,150 and uv spectroscopy suggests the presence of a polyene structure consisting of as many as six conjugated double bonds. bio ...201424384626
optimization of resazurin-based viability staining for quantification of microbial biofilms.the resazurin-based viability staining is often used to quantify viable biofilm cells grown in microtiter plates (mtp). the non-fluorescent resazurin is reduced by metabolically active cells to resorufin which is fluorescent. the amount of fluorescence generated is related to the number of viable cells present. unfortunately, the linear range of the method is restricted and the lower limit of quantification is approximately 10(6) colony forming units (cfu) per biofilm. the goal of the present st ...201424365109
kinetic characterization of an oxidative, cooperative hmg-coa reductase from burkholderia cenocepacia.3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme a reductase (hmgr) is a key enzyme in endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis in mammals and isoprenoid biosynthesis via the mevalonate pathway in other eukaryotes, archaea and some eubacteria. in most organisms that express this enzyme, it catalyzes the nad(p)h-dependent reduction of hmg-coa to mevalonate. we have cloned and characterized the 6x-his-tagged hmgr from the opportunistic lung pathogen burkholderia cenocepacia. kinetic characterization shows that the ...201424316250
analysis of genomic characters reveals that four distinct gene clusters are correlated with different functions in burkholderia cenocepacia au 1054.possessing three circular chromosomes is a distinct genomic characteristic of burkholderia cenocepacia au 1054, a clinically important pathogen in cystic fibrosis. in this study, base composition, codon usage and functional role category were analyzed in the b. cenocepacia au 1054 genome. although no bias in the base and codon usage was detected between any two chromosomes, function differences did exist in the genes of each chromosome. similar base composition and differential functional role c ...201424305740
pore-forming pyocin s5 utilizes the fpta ferripyochelin receptor to kill pseudomonas aeruginosa.pyocins are toxic proteins produced by some strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa that are lethal for related strains of the same species. some soluble pyocins (s2, s3 and s4) were previously shown to use the pyoverdine siderophore receptors to enter the cell. the p. aeruginosa pao1 pore-forming pyocin s5 encoding gene (pao985) was cloned into the expression vector pet15b, and the affinity-purified protein product tested for its killing activity against different p. aeruginosa strains. the results, ...201424217175
deciphering the role of burkholderia cenocepacia membrane proteins in antimicrobial properties of chitosan.chitosan, a versatile derivative of chitin, is widely used as an antimicrobial agent either alone or mixed with other natural polymers. burkholderia cenocepacia is a multidrug-resistant bacteria and difficult to eradicate. our previous studies shown that chitosan had strong antibacterial activity against b. cenocepacia. in the current study, we have investigated the molecular aspects for the susceptibility of b. cenocepacia in response to chitosan antibacterial activity. we have conducted rna ex ...201424213809
oxidative stress in cystic fibrosis patients with burkholderia cenocepacia airway colonization: relation of 8-isoprostane concentration in exhaled breath condensate to lung function decline.the association between oxidative stress and neutrophilic inflammation in cystic fibrosis (cf) lung disease is well recognized. 8-isoprostane is a product of non-enzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid. the aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between lung function decline and 8-isoprostane concentrations in exhaled breath condensate (ebc) in cf patients with burkholderia cenocepacia airway colonization. concentrations of 8-isoprostane in ebc were measured in 24 stable cf pat ...201424132725
bdsf inhibits candida albicans adherence to urinary catheters.cis-2-dodecenoic acid (bdsf) is a quorum-sensing signal molecule produced by the opportunistic pathogen burkholderia cenocepacia and suppresses germ tube formation of candida albicans. an in vitro model for biofilm formation evaluated the influence of bdsf on c. albicans. biofilm morphology was observed using scanning electron microscopy, cell adherence was determined using polystyrene plates and siliconized urinary catheters, and the levels of expression of genes involved in adhesion were deter ...201323948468
investigating the role of matrix components in protection of burkholderia cepacia complex biofilms against tobramycin.burkholderia cepacia complex (bcc) organisms produce a wide variety of potential virulence factors, including exopolysaccharides (eps), and exhibit intrinsic resistance towards many antibiotics. in the present study we investigated the contribution of bcc biofilm matrix components, including extracellular dna, cepacian and poly-β-1,6-n-acetylglucosamine, to tobramycin susceptibility.201423932109
efficient production of (r)-(-)-mandelic acid in biphasic system by immobilized recombinant e. coli.the recombinant escherichia coli m15/bcj2315 which harbored a mandelonitrilase from burkholderia cenocepacia j2315 was immobilized via catecholic chitosan and functionalized with magnetism by iron oxide nanoparticles. the immobilized cells showed high activity recovery, enhanced stability and good operability in the enantioselective hydrolysis of mandelonitrile to (r)-(-)-mandelic acid. furthermore, the immobilized cells were reused up to 15 cycles without any activity loss in completely hydroly ...201323906842
efficacy of the biocide steri-7 against the common gram-negative bacterial pathogens (burkholderia cenocepacia, burkholderia gladioli, burkholderia multivorans, pseudomonas aeruginosa and stenotrophomonas maltophilia) associated with cystic fibrosis (cf). 201323888610
chemical communication of antibiotic resistance by a highly resistant subpopulation of bacterial cells.the overall antibiotic resistance of a bacterial population results from the combination of a wide range of susceptibilities displayed by subsets of bacterial cells. bacterial heteroresistance to antibiotics has been documented for several opportunistic gram-negative bacteria, but the mechanism of heteroresistance is unclear. we use burkholderia cenocepacia as a model opportunistic bacterium to investigate the implications of heterogeneity in the response to the antimicrobial peptide polymyxin b ...201323844246
single-molecule atomic force microscopy unravels the binding mechanism of a burkholderia cenocepacia trimeric autotransporter adhesin.trimeric autotransporter adhesins (taas) are bacterial surface proteins that fulfil important functions in pathogenic gram-negative bacteria. prominent examples of taas are found in burkholderia cepacia complex, a group of bacterial species causing severe infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. while there is strong evidence that burkholderia cenocepacia taas mediate adhesion, aggregation and colonization of the respiratory epithelium, we still know very little about the molecular mechanism ...201323796134
fluorescent labeling agents for quorum-sensing receptors (flaqs) in live cells.lighten up: a selective fluorescent-labeling agent for quorum sensing (flaqs) can be used for the visualization of the communication pathway of bacteria in live cells (see figure). this represents a new, operationally simple, fast, and inexpensive tool for the imaging of quorum-sensing receptors by using fluorescently labeled signaling-molecule analogues.201323765553
influence of ligand presentation density on the molecular recognition of mannose-functionalised glyconanoparticles by bacterial lectin bc2l-a.polyvalent carbohydrate-protein interactions play a key role in bio- and pathological processes, including cell-cell communication and pathogen invasion. in order to study, control and manipulate these interactions gold nanoparticles have been employed as a 3d scaffold, presenting carbohydrate ligands in a multivalent fashion for use as high affinity binding partners and a model system for oligosaccharide presentation at biomacromolecular surfaces. in this study, the binding of a series of manno ...201323666402
the use of doripenem in pediatric cystic fibrosis patients in case of meropenem shortages.ceftazidime is the only anti-pseudomonal beta-lactam that has been reported to be administered by extended infusion in pediatric cystic fibrosis (cf) patients. a small pediatric pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic study has been published regarding the use of intermittent extended infusion doripenem in the treatment of an acute pulmonary exacerbation (ape) in pediatric cf patients; however, clinical use of intermittent extended infusion doripenem in pediatric cf patients has not been previously repo ...201423661625
an outbreak of burkholderia cenocepacia associated with contaminated chlorhexidine solutions prepared in the hospital.from october to december 2007, an outbreak of burkholderia cenocepacia occurred in a secondary care hospital. the 19 b cenocepacia isolated from the patients, the chlorhexidine solutions of each different ward, and the purified water that diluted these solutions exhibited an identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern. inadequate preparation of chlorhexidine solutions diluted with contaminated purified water may have resulted in an outbreak of b cenocepacia. adequate preparation of chlorh ...201323608047
podocalyxin is a glycoprotein ligand of the human pluripotent stem cell-specific probe comprehensive glycome analysis with a high-density lectin microarray, we have previously shown that the recombinant n-terminal domain of the lectin bc2l-c from burkholderia cenocepacia (rbc2lcn) binds exclusively to undifferentiated human induced pluripotent stem (ips) cells and embryonic stem (es) cells but not to differentiated somatic cells. here we demonstrate that podocalyxin, a heavily glycosylated type 1 transmembrane protein, is a glycoprotein ligand of rbc2lcn on human ips cells and ...201323526252
novel diagnostic pcr assay for burkholderia cenocepacia epidemic strain st32 and its utility in monitoring infection in cystic fibrosis patients.a highly transmissible burkholderia cenocepacia sequence type (st) 32 strain caused a major outbreak at the prague cystic fibrosis (cf) centre in the late 1990s and early 2000s. because a large number of cf patients were affected by st32, a rapid and easy-to-use diagnostic tool for st32 infection was urgently needed for the detection of new cases as well as for long-term surveillance. the present study sought to identify unique dna sequences within the st32 genome to develop an st32 strain-speci ...201323317764
role of burkholderia cenocepacia afce and afcf genes in determining lipid-metabolism-associated phenotypes.burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen that primarily infects cystic fibrosis patients. previously we have reported that mutations in shvr, a lysr-type transcriptional regulator, and shvr-regulated genes bcas0208 and bcas0201 (designated afce and afcf, respectively) affect colony morphotype, biofilm and pellicle formation and virulence in b. cenocepacia. in this study we investigated the role of afce and afcf in influencing lipid-metabolism-associated phenotypes. as previously rep ...201323306671
genetic similarity of burkholderia cenocepacia from cystic fibrosis patients.burkholderia cenocepacia may cause serious infections in patients with cystic fibrosis, and this microorganism can be highly transmissible. pulsed-field gel electrophoresis is widely used to study the dynamics of strain spread in cystic fibrosis patients. the aim of this work was to perform pulsed-field gel electrophoresis-based molecular typing of b. cenocepacia isolates to evaluate the epidemiology of this species at our hospital. a total of 28 isolates from 23 cystic fibrosis patients were an ...201323287542
analysis of human bronchial epithelial cell proinflammatory response to burkholderia cenocepacia infection: inability to secrete il-1β.burkholderia cenocepacia, the causative agent of cepacia syndrome, primarily affects cystic fibrosis patients, often leading to death. in the lung, epithelial cells serve as the initial barrier to airway infections, yet their responses to b. cenocepacia have not been fully investigated. here, we examined the molecular responses of human airway epithelial cells to b. cenocepacia infection. infection led to early signaling events such as activation of erk, akt, and nf-κb. further, tnfα, il-6, il-8 ...201323269671
quorum sensing systems influence burkholderia cenocepacia virulence.burkholderia cepacia complex strains communicate using n-acyl homoserine lactones and bdsf-dependent quorum sensing (qs) systems. burkholderia cenocepacia qs systems include cepir, cciir, cepr2 and bdsf. analysis of cepr, cciir, cepr2 and rpff (bdsf synthase) qs regulons revealed that these qs systems both independently regulate and coregulate many target genes, often in an opposing manner. the role of qs and several qs-regulated genes in virulence has been determined using vertebrate, invertebr ...201223231487
functional expression of burkholderia cenocepacia xylose isomerase in yeast increases ethanol production from a glucose-xylose blend.this study presents results regarding the successful cloning of the bacterial xylose isomerase gene (xyla) of burkholderia cenocepacia and its functional expression in saccharomyces cerevisiae. the recombinant yeast showed to be competent to efficiently produce ethanol from both glucose and xylose, which are the main sugars in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. the heterologous expression of the gene xyla enabled a laboratorial yeast strain to ferment xylose anaerobically, improving ethanol productio ...201323186665
depletion of the ubiquitin-binding adaptor molecule sqstm1/p62 from macrophages harboring cftr δf508 mutation improves the delivery of burkholderia cenocepacia to the autophagic machinery.cystic fibrosis is the most common inherited lethal disease in caucasians. it is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (cftr), of which the cftr δf508 mutation is the most common. δf508 macrophages are intrinsically defective in autophagy because of the sequestration of essential autophagy molecules within unprocessed cftr aggregates. defective autophagy allows burkholderia cenocepacia (b. cepacia) to survive and replicate in δf508 macrophages. infection ...201323148214
experimental identification of small non-coding regulatory rnas in the opportunistic human pathogen burkholderia cenocepacia j2315.small non-coding regulatory rnas (srnas) play important roles in regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and often require the rna chaperone hfq. the human opportunistic pathogen burkholderia cenocepacia j2315 encodes two distinct rna chaperones, hfq and hfq2. the present work describes the experimental identification and validation of 24 srnas from b. cenocepacia j2315, based on the co-purification of srnas with the bacterium hfq protein, followed by conversion into cdna, c ...201323142676
burkholderia multivorans survival and trafficking within macrophages.cystic fibrosis (cf) patients are at great risk of opportunistic lung infection, particularly by members of the burkholderia cepacia complex (bcc). this group of bacteria can cause damage to the lung tissue of infected patients and are difficult to eradicate due to their high levels of antibiotic resistance. although the highly virulent burkholderia cenocepacia has been the focus of virulence research for the past decade, burkholderia multivorans is emerging as the most prevalent bcc species inf ...201323105020
extracellular glutathione decreases the ability of burkholderia cenocepacia to penetrate into epithelial cells and to induce an inflammatory response.the airway surface liquid (asl) of cystic fibrosis (cf) patients contains a lower concentration of reduced glutathione (gsh) with respect to healthy people. it is not known whether this defect may favor lung colonization by opportunistic pathogens.201223094061
the burkholderia cenocepacia sensor kinase hybrid atsr is a global regulator modulating quorum-sensing signalling.burkholderia cenocepacia is commonly found in the environment and also as an important opportunistic pathogen infecting patients with cystic fibrosis. successful infection by this bacterium requires coordinated expression of virulence factors, which is achieved through different quorum sensing (qs) regulatory systems. biofilm formation and type 6 secretion system (t6ss) expression in b. cenocepacia k56-2 are positively regulated by qs and negatively regulated by the sensor kinase hybrid atsr. th ...201322830644
[mutants of burkholderia cenocepacia with a change in synthesis of n-acyl-homoserine lactones--signal molecules of quorum sensing regulation].by means of plasposon mutagenesis, mutants of burkholderia cenocepacia 370 with the change in production of n-acyl-homoserine lactones (ahl), signal molecules of the quorum sensing system of regulation, were obtained. to localize plasposon insertions in mutant strains, fragments of chromosomal dna containing plasposons were cloned, adjacent dna regions sequenced, and a search for homologous nucleotide sequences in the genebank was initiated. it has been shown that the insertion of plasposon into ...201222830256
the in vivo extracellular life of facultative intracellular bacterial parasites: role in pathogenesis.classically labeled facultative intracellular pathogens are characterized by the ability to have an intracellular phase in the host, which is required for pathogenicity, while capable of extracellular growth in vitro. the ability of these bacteria to replicate in cell-free conditions is usually assessed by culture in artificial bacteriological media. however, the extracellular growth ability of these pathogens may also be expressed by a phase of extracellular infection in the natural setting of ...201322795971
the suhb gene of burkholderia cenocepacia is required for protein secretion, biofilm formation, motility and polymyxin b resistance.burkholderia cenocepacia is a member of the burkholderia cepacia complex (bcc), a group of gram-negative opportunistic pathogens that cause severe lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis and display extreme intrinsic resistance to antibiotics, including antimicrobial peptides. b. cenocepacia bcal2157 encodes a protein homologous to suhb, an inositol-1-monophosphatase from escherichia coli, which was suggested to participate in post-transcriptional control of gene expression. in this wor ...201222767545
burkholderia cenocepacia lectin a binding to heptoses from the bacterial lipopolysaccharide.bacteria from the burkholderia cepacia complex (bcc) cause highly contagious pneumonia among cystic fibrosis (cf) patients. among them, burkholderia cenocepacia is one of the most dangerous in the bcc and is the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in cf patients. indeed, it is responsible of "cepacia syndrome", a deadly exacerbation of infection, that is the main cause of poor outcomes in lung transplantation. burkholderia cenocepacia produces several soluble lectins with specificity ...201222763039
synthesis and evaluation of the quorum sensing inhibitory effect of substituted triazolyldihydrofuranones.acylhomoserine lactone (ahl) analogues in which the amide function is replaced by a triazole group were synthesized and evaluated for their effect on quorum sensing (qs) and biofilm formation in burkholderia cenocepacia and pseudomonas aeruginosa. in addition, the influence of the length of the acyl-mimicking chain was investigated. the compounds showed selectivity between two different ahl qs systems. 3-(1h-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)dihydrofuran-2(3h)-ones, in which the 4-substituent best resembled th ...201222748377
aminoarabinose is essential for lipopolysaccharide export and intrinsic antimicrobial peptide resistance in burkholderia cenocepacia(†).one common mechanism of resistance against antimicrobial peptides in gram-negative bacteria is the addition of 4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose (l-ara4n) to the lipopolysaccharide (lps) molecule. burkholderia cenocepacia exhibits extraordinary intrinsic resistance to antimicrobial peptides and other antibiotics. we have previously discovered that unlike other bacteria, b. cenocepacia requires l-ara4n for viability. here, we describe the isolation of b. cenocepacia suppressor mutants that remain viabl ...201222742453
burkholderia cenocepacia infection: disruption of phagocyte immune functions through rho gtpase inactivation.phagocytosis is an important component of innate immunity that contributes to the eradication of infectious microorganisms; however, successful bacterial pathogens often evade different aspects of host immune responses. a common bacterial evasion strategy entails the production of toxins and/or effectors that disrupt normal host cell processes and because of their importance rho-family gtpases are often targeted. burkholderia cenocepacia, an opportunistic pathogen that has a propensity to infect ...201522622109
pcr detection of burkholderia cepacia complex as one of key factors to handle a long-term outbreak.once the outbreak with burkholderia cenocepacia st32 was identified in the prague cystic fibrosis (cf) centre, molecular tools were implemented into diagnostic routine in order to complement infection control measures with as accurate as possible microbiological service. in addition, genotyping techniques were applied as part of an infection surveillance program to assign species and strain status in samples positive for burkholderia cepacia complex (bcc). we sought to evaluate a usefulness of b ...201222622026
successful treatment of cepacia syndrome with a combination of intravenous cyclosporin, antibiotics and oral corticosteroids.burkholderia cepacia complex (bcc) is a group of 17 closely related bacterial species that can cause pulmonary infection in patients with cystic fibrosis (cf). the clinical manifestations of bcc infection are varied but can include cepacia syndrome, which is a rapidly progressing necrotising pneumonia with an almost universally fatal outcome. we report the case of a 38 year old man, known to have chronic infection with the et12 strain of burkholderia cenocepacia who developed cepacia syndrome 26 ...201222551926
occurrence and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of burkholderia cepacia complex in coastal marine environment.during an environmental study of bacterial resistance to antibiotics in coastal waters of the kaštela bay, adriatic sea, croatia, 47 burkholderia cepacia complex (bcc) isolates were recovered from seawater and mussel (mytilus galloprovincialis) samples. all isolates showed multiple antibiotic resistance. among the isolates, two burkholderia cenocepacia isolates produced chromosomally encoded tem-116 extended-spectrum β-lactamase (esbl). analysis of outer membrane proteins revealed that decreased ...201222428949
inhibition of bacterial biofilm formation and swarming motility by a small synthetic cationic peptide.biofilms cause up to 80% of infections and are difficult to treat due to their substantial multidrug resistance compared to their planktonic counterparts. based on the observation that human peptide ll-37 is able to block biofilm formation at concentrations below its mic, we screened for small peptides with antibiofilm activity and identified novel synthetic cationic peptide 1037 of only 9 amino acids in length. peptide 1037 had very weak antimicrobial activity, but at 1/30th the mic the peptide ...201222354291
interaction of environmental burkholderia cenocepacia strains with cystic fibrosis and non-cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial cells in vitro.burkholderia cenocepacia is an important human pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis (cf). non-clinical reservoirs may play a role in the acquisition of infection, so it is important to evaluate the pathogenic potential of environmental b. cenocepacia isolates. in this study, we investigated the interactions of two environmental b. cenocepacia strains (mex1 and mcii-168) with two bronchial epithelial cell lines, 16hbe14o(-) and cfbe41o(-), which have a non-cf and a cf phenotype, respectively ...201222322958
lactoferrin decreases inflammatory response by cystic fibrosis bronchial cells invaded with burkholderia cenocepacia iron-modulated cystic fibrosis (cf) high iron concentration in airway secretion plays a pivotal role in bacterial multiplication and biofilm formation as well as in inflammatory response. burkholderia cenocepacia, an opportunistic facultative pathogen responsible for chronic lung infections and cepacia syndrome, recurrently infects cf patients. lactoferrin (lf), an iron binding multifunctional glycoprotein synthesized by exocrine glands and neutrophils, has been found at higher concentration in the airway s ...201722230411
rhodococcus sp. strain cr-53 lipr, the first member of a new bacterial lipase family (family x) displaying an unusual y-type oxyanion hole, similar to the candida antarctica lipase clan.bacterial lipases constitute the most important group of biocatalysts for synthetic organic chemistry. accordingly, there is substantial interest in developing new valuable lipases. considering the lack of information concerning the lipases of the genus rhodococcus and taking into account the interest raised by the enzymes produced by actinomycetes, a search for putative lipase-encoding genes from rhodococcus sp. strain cr-53 was performed. we isolated, cloned, purified, and characterized lipr, ...201222226953
a two-tier model of polymyxin b resistance in burkholderia cenocepacia.burkholderia cenocepacia is an environmental bacterium causing serious human opportunistic infections and is extremely resistant to multiple antibiotics including antimicrobial peptides, such as polymyxin b (pmb). extreme antibiotic resistance is attributed to outer membrane impermeability ('intrinsic' resistance). previous work showed that production of full-length lipopolysaccharide (lps) prevents surface binding of pmb. we hypothesized that two tiers of resistance mechanisms rendering differe ...201123761261
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