TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
intracellular trafficking and replication of burkholderia cenocepacia in human cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells.we investigated the trafficking of burkholderia cenocepacia, an opportunistic respiratory pathogen of persons with cystic fibrosis (cf), in immortalized cf airway epithelial cells in vitro. our results indicate that bacteria enter cells in a process involving actin rearrangement. whereas both live and heat-killed bacteria reside transiently in early endosomes, only live bacteria escape from late endosomes to colocalize in vesicles positive for lysosomal membrane marker lamp1, endoplasmic reticul ...200616922864
the mgtc gene of burkholderia cenocepacia is required for growth under magnesium limitation conditions and intracellular survival in macrophages.burkholderia cenocepacia, a bacterium commonly found in the environment, is an important opportunistic pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis (cf). very little is known about the mechanisms by which b. cenocepacia causes disease, but chronic infection of the airways in cf patients may be associated, at least in part, with the ability of this bacterium to survive within epithelial cells and macrophages. survival in macrophages occurs in a membrane-bound compartment that is distinct from the ly ...200616988222
regulation of sulfur assimilation pathways in burkholderia cenocepacia: identification of transcription factors cysb and ssur and their role in control of target genes.two genes encoding transcriptional regulators involved in sulfur assimilation pathways in burkholderia cenocepacia strain 715j have been identified and characterized functionally. knockout mutations in each of the b. cenocepacia genes were constructed and introduced into the genome of 715j by allelic replacement. studies on the utilization of various sulfur sources by 715j and the obtained mutants demonstrated that one of the b. cenocepacia regulators, designated cysb, is preferentially involved ...200716997956
highly purified lipopolysaccharides from burkholderia cepacia complex clinical isolates induce inflammatory cytokine responses via tlr4-mediated mapk signalling pathways and activation of cystic fibrosis (cf), bacteria of the burkholderia cepacia complex (bcc) can induce a fulminant inflammation with pneumonitis and sepsis. lipopolysaccharide (lps) may be an important virulence factor associated with this decline but little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of bcc lps. in this study we have investigated the inflammatory response to highly purified lps from different bcc clinical isolates and the cellular signalling pathways employed. the inflammatory response (tnfalpha ...200717002785
identification of genes regulated by the cepir quorum-sensing system in burkholderia cenocepacia by high-throughput screening of a random promoter library.the burkholderia cenocepacia cepir quorum-sensing system regulates expression of extracellular proteases, chitinase, and genes involved in ornibactin biosynthesis, biofilm formation, and motility. in a genome-wide screen we identified cepir-regulated genes by screening a random promoter library of b. cenocepacia k56-2 constructed in a luminescence reporter detection plasmid for differential expression in response to n-octanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (ohl). eighty-nine clones were identified; in 58 ...200717122351
proteomic identification and characterization of bacterial factors associated with burkholderia cenocepacia survival in a murine host.burkholderia cenocepacia is a member of the burkholderia cepacia complex, a diverse family of gram-negative bacteria that are serious respiratory pathogens in immunocompromised patients and individuals with cystic fibrosis. to identify putative bacterial virulence determinants, proteomic profiles were compared between two b. cenocepacia isolates that demonstrated differential persistence in a mouse model of pulmonary infection; clinical isolate c1394 is rapidly cleared from the murine lung where ...200717185549
molecular typing and presence of genetic markers among strains of banana finger-tip rot pathogen, burkholderia cenocepacia, in taiwan.abstract burkholderia cenocepacia (genomovar iii of b. cepacia complex), the causal agent of banana finger-tip rot, is a common plant-associated bacterium but also an important opportunistic pathogen of humans. to better understand the nature of b. cenocepacia from banana, the genetic variation among b. cenocepacia isolates from various banana-growing regions in southern taiwan was examined. forty-four serial isolates recovered from diseased banana stigmata from three banana-growing regions duri ...200718944375
bactericidal efficacy of liposomal aminoglycosides against burkholderia cenocepacia.burkholderia cenocepacia (formally a genotype of burkholderia cepacia complex called genomovar iii) has emerged as a serious opportunistic pathogen in individuals with cystic fibrosis. we developed a liposomal antibiotic formulation composed of 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and cholesterol (molar ratio 2:1) to overcome b. cenocepacia's resistance to commonly used aminoglycosidic antibiotics.200717673475
the complete structure and pro-inflammatory activity of the lipooligosaccharide of the highly epidemic and virulent gram-negative bacterium burkholderia cenocepacia et-12 (strain j2315).members of genus burkholderia include opportunistic gram-negative bacteria that are responsible for serious infections in immunocompromised and cystic fibrosis (cf) patients. the burkholderia cepacia complex is a group of microorganisms composed of at least nine closely related genomovars. among these, b. cenocepacia is widely recognized to cause epidemics associated with excessive mortality. species that belong to this strain are problematic cf pathogens because of their high resistance to anti ...200717219455
burkholderia cenocepacia requires a periplasmic htra protease for growth under thermal and osmotic stress and for survival in vivo.burkholderia cenocepacia, a member of the b. cepacia complex, is an opportunistic pathogen that causes serious infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. we identified a six-gene cluster in chromosome 1 encoding a two-component regulatory system (bcal2831 and bcal2830) and an htra protease (bcal2829) hypothesized to play a role in the b. cenocepacia stress response. reverse transcriptase pcr analysis of these six genes confirmed they are cotranscribed and comprise an operon. genes in this oper ...200717220310
diversity and distribution of burkholderia cepacia complex in the rhizosphere of rice and maize.a survey of burkholderia cepacia complex (bcc) species was conducted in agricultural fields within hangzhou, china. out of the 251 bacterial isolates recovered on the selective media from the rhizosphere of rice and maize, 112 of them were assigned to bcc by pcr assays. the species composition of the bcc isolates was analyzed by a combination of reca-restriction fragment length polymorphism assays, species-specific pcr tests and reca gene sequencing. the results revealed that the majority belong ...200717233735
characterization of sodc, a periplasmic superoxide dismutase from burkholderia cenocepacia.burkholderia cenocepacia is a gram-negative, non-spore-forming bacillus and a member of the burkholderia cepacia complex. b. cenocepacia can survive intracellularly in phagocytic cells and can produce at least one superoxide dismutase (sod). the inability of o2- to cross the cytoplasmic membrane, coupled with the periplasmic location of cu,znsods, suggests that periplasmic sods protect bacteria from superoxide that has an exogenous origin (for example, when cells are faced with reactive oxygen i ...200717325048
a putative gene cluster for aminoarabinose biosynthesis is essential for burkholderia cenocepacia viability.using a conditional mutagenesis strategy we demonstrate here that a gene cluster encoding putative aminoarabinose (ara4n) biosynthesis enzymes is essential for the viability of burkholderia cenocepacia. loss of viability is associated with dramatic changes in bacterial cell morphology and ultrastructure, increased permeability to propidium iodide, and sensitivity to sodium dodecyl sulfate, suggesting a general cell envelope defect caused by the lack of ara4n.200717337576
characterization of a bifunctional catalase-peroxidase of burkholderia cenocepacia.isolates of burkholderia cenocepacia express a putative haem-binding protein (molecular mass 97 kda) that displays intrinsic peroxidase activity. its role has been re-evaluated, and we now show that it is a bifunctional catalase-peroxidase, with activity against tetramethylbenzidine (tmb), o-dianisidine, pyrogallol, and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic) acid (abts). both peroxidase and catalase activities are optimal at ph 5.5-6.0. the gene encoding this enzyme was cloned and exp ...200717371508
infection with burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria and pulmonary exacerbations of cystic fibrosis.studies have shown that cystic fibrosis (cf) patients who are chronically infected with burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria may potentially acquire new strains of b cepacia. our objective was to determine whether pulmonary exacerbations of cf are associated with acquisition of new b cepacia strains or with b cepacia strain replacement.200717426227
bactericidal action of positive and negative ions in recent years there has been renewed interest in the use of air ionisers to control of the spread of airborne infection. one characteristic of air ions which has been widely reported is their apparent biocidal action. however, whilst the body of evidence suggests a biocidal effect in the presence of air ions the physical and biological mechanisms involved remain unclear. in particular, it is not clear which of several possible mechanisms of electrical origin (i.e. the action of the ions, the p ...200717439657
high genotypic diversity of pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from patients with cystic fibrosis in the czech republic.over the last decade, epidemic and frequently multidrug-resistant pseudomonas aeruginosa has increasingly been found among european cystic fibrosis (cf) patients. in the czech republic, more than half of the registered cf patients attend the prague cf centre. at this centre, a burkholderia cenocepacia strain was recently found to have spread among the patients. the aim of the present study was to assess whether p. aeruginosa isolates from patients at this centre were also genetically related and ...200717448645
comparative proteomic analysis of b. cenocepacia using two-dimensional liquid separations coupled with mass spectrometry.burkholderia cenocepacia is an important respiratory pathogen in persons with cystic fibrosis. we compared the proteomes of clinical and environmental isolates of b. cenocepacia by using a 2d liquid separation method coupled with mass spectrometry. proteome maps of four b. cenocepacia isolates were generated. in the first dimension, 5 mg of protein from each isolate was fractionated by chromatofocusing (cf) in the range of ph 4.0-7.0. in the second dimension, each cf fraction was separated by np ...200717499075
burkholderia cenocepacia, b. multivorans, b. ambifaria and b. vietnamiensis isolates from cystic fibrosis patients have different profiles of exoenzyme production.knowledge about the virulence mechanisms of species from the burkholderia cepacia complex (bcc) is still limited. the genomovar heterogeneity and production of different virulence factors are likely to contribute to the variation in the clinical outcome observed in bcc-infected cystic fibrosis (cf) patients. therefore, in this study we investigated the genetic polimorphism, the presence of genetic makers associated with virulence and transmissibility in bcc, and the profile of exoenzyme producti ...200717504297
pilus-mediated epithelial cell death in response to infection with burkholderia cenocepacia.burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause serious infections in cystic fibrosis (cf) patients. the et12 lineage appears particularly virulent in cf; however, its pathogenesis is poorly understood and may be associated with host response. to help characterize this response, the ability of b. cenocepacia to induce cytotoxicity and apoptosis in an epithelial cell model was examined. upon infection with b. cenocepacia strain k56-2, a549 human lung epithelial cells underwen ...200717537663
the effect of recombinant human lactoferrin on growth and the antibiotic susceptibility of the cystic fibrosis pathogen burkholderia cepacia complex when cultured planktonically or as biofilms.the cystic fibrosis (cf) pathogen burkholderia cepacia complex (bcc) is innately resistant to antibiotics and the development of effective therapeutic strategies to treat these infections is a major challenge. the objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of recombinant human lactoferrin (rhl) on planktonic and biofilm cultures of bcc organisms and to establish whether lactoferrin alters the susceptibility of these cultures to a range of antibiotic therapies.200717595284
burkholderia cepacia complex infection in a cohort of italian patients with cystic fibrosis.the aims of this study were to detect burkholderia cepacia complex (bcc) strains in a cohort of cystic fibrosis patients (n=276) and to characterize bcc isolates by molecular techniques. the results showed that 11.23% of patients were infected by bcc. burkholderia cenocepacia lineage iii-a was the most prevalent species (64.3%) and, of these, 10% was cbla positive and 50% esmr positive. less than half of the strains were sensitive to ceftazidime, meropenem, piperacillin tazobactam, and trimethop ...200717618236
virulence of burkholderia cepacia complex strains in gp91phox-/- cystic fibrosis (cf), infection with burkholderia cepacia complex (bcc) strains may cause long-term asymptomatic airway colonization, or severe lung infection leading to rapid pulmonary decline. to assess the virulence of bcc strains, we established a lung infection model in mice with a null allele of the gene involved in x-linked chronic granulomatous disease (cgd). cgd mice, challenged intratracheally with 10(3) cells of the epidemic burkholderia cenocepacia strain j2315, died within 3 days ...200717627623
invasion and biofilm formation of burkholderia dolosa is comparable with burkholderia cenocepacia and burkholderia multivorans.colonisation with burkholderia cepacia complex pathogens has been associated with accelerated decline in cystic fibrosis (cf) patients. the two most common species among the cf community are burkholderia cenocepacia and burkholderia multivorans. however, burkholderia dolosa has recently been causing concern due to its transmissibility and virulence in cf patients.200716781896
exopolysaccharides produced by clinical strains belonging to the burkholderia cepacia the frame of a research line dedicated to better clarify the role of exopolysaccharides (eps) in bacterial virulence, eps produced by species of the burkholderia cepacia complex (bcc), namely burkholderia multivorans, burkholderia cenocepacia, and a bcc member of undetermined genomovar, all isolated at the cystic fibrosis regional centre of florence (italy), were investigated for they structural properties.200716860003
intracellular survival of burkholderia cenocepacia in macrophages is associated with a delay in the maturation of bacteria-containing vacuoles.strains of the burkholderia cepacia complex (bcc) are opportunistic bacteria that can cause life-threatening infections in patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic granulomatous disease. previous work has shown that bcc isolates can persist in membrane-bound vacuoles within amoeba and macrophages without bacterial replication, but the detailed mechanism of bacterial persistence is unknown. in this study, we have investigated the survival of the burkholderia cenocepacia strain j2315 within raw26 ...200716869828
mannosylated poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) diblock copolymers: synthesis, characterization, and interaction with a bacterial lectin.a novel bioeliminable amphiphilic poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (peo-b-pcl) diblock copolymer end-capped by a mannose residue was synthesized by sequential controlled polymerization of ethylene oxide and epsilon-caprolactone, followed by the coupling of a reactive mannose derivative to the peo chain end. the anionic polymerization of ethylene oxide was first initiated by potassium 2-dimethylaminoethanolate. the ring-opening polymerization of epsilon-caprolactone was then init ...200717705426
architecture of burkholderia cepacia complex sigma70 gene family: evidence of alternative primary and clade-specific factors, and genomic instability.the burkholderia cepacia complex (bcc) groups bacterial species with beneficial properties that can improve crop yields or remediate polluted sites but can also lead to dramatic human clinical outcomes among cystic fibrosis (cf) or immuno-compromised individuals. genome-wide regulatory processes of gene expression could explain parts of this bacterial duality. transcriptional sigma70 factors are components of these processes. they allow the reversible binding of the dna-dependent rna polymerase ...200717784948
multistate outbreak of burkholderia cenocepacia colonization and infection associated with the use of intrinsically contaminated alcohol-free guidelines exist for the type of mouthwash that should be used in patients at increased risk for pneumonia. in 2005, we investigated a multistate outbreak of burkholderia cenocepacia associated with an intrinsically contaminated alcohol-free mouthwash (afm).200717925414
burkholderia cenocepacia c5424 produces a pigment with antioxidant properties using a homogentisate intermediate.burkholderia cenocepacia is a gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that belongs to the burkholderia cepacia complex. b. cenocepacia can survive intracellularly within phagocytic cells, and some epidemic strains produce a brown melanin-like pigment that can scavenge free radicals, resulting in the attenuation of the host cell oxidative burst. in this work, we demonstrate that the brown pigment produced by b. cenocepacia c5424 is synthesized from a homogentisate (hga) precursor. the disruption of ...200717933889
identification of putative noncoding rna genes in the burkholderia cenocepacia j2315 genome.noncoding rna (ncrna) genes are not involved in the production of mrna and proteins, but produce transcripts that function directly as structural or regulatory rnas. in the present study, the presence of ncrna genes in the genome of burkholderia cenocepacia j2315 was evaluated by combining comparative genomics (alignment-based) and predicted secondary structure approaches. two hundred and thirteen putative ncrna genes were identified in the b. cenocepacia j2315 genome and upregulated expression ...200717937666
a lysr-type transcriptional regulator in burkholderia cenocepacia influences colony morphology and virulence.burkholderia cenocepacia strain k56-2 typically has rough colony morphology on agar medium; however, shiny colony variants (shv) can appear spontaneously. these shv all had a minimum of 50% reduction in biomass formation and were generally avirulent in an alfalfa seedling infection model. three shv-k56-2 s15, k56-2 s76, and k56-2 s86-were analyzed for virulence in a chronic agar bead model of respiratory infection and, although all shv were able to establish chronic infection, they produced sign ...200817967860
a novel dsf-like signal from burkholderia cenocepacia interferes with candida albicans morphological addition to producing lethal antibiotics, microorganisms may also use a new form of antagonistic mechanism in which signal molecules are exported to influence the gene expression and hence the ecological competence of their competitors. we report here the isolation and characterization of a novel signaling molecule, cis-2-dodecenoic acid (bdsf), from burkholderia cenocepacia. bdsf is structurally similar to the diffusible signal factor (dsf) that is produced by the rpff enzyme of xanthomonas ...200818049456
comparison of multiple methods for quantification of microbial biofilms grown in microtiter the present study six assays for the quantification of biofilms formed in 96-well microtiter plates were optimised and evaluated: the crystal violet (cv) assay, the syto9 assay, the fluorescein diacetate (fda) assay, the resazurin assay, the xtt assay and the dimethyl methylene blue (dmmb) assay. pseudomonas aeruginosa, burkholderia cenocepacia, staphylococcus aureus, propionibacterium acnes and candida albicans were used as test organisms. in general, these assays showed a broad applicabilit ...200818155789
a comparative synteny map of burkholderia species links large-scale genome rearrangements to fine-scale nucleotide variation in prokaryotes.genome rearrangement events, including inversions and translocations, are frequently observed across related microbial species, but the impact of such events on functional diversity is unclear. to clarify this relationship, we compared 4 members of the gram-negative burkholderia family (burkholderia pseudomallei, burkholderia mallei, burkholderia thailandensis, and burkholderia cenocepacia) and identified a core set of 2,590 orthologs present in all 4 species (metagenes). the metagenes were orga ...200818162473
burkholderia cenocepacia requires the rpon sigma factor for biofilm formation and intracellular trafficking within macrophages.chronic respiratory infections by burkholderia cenocepacia in cystic fibrosis patients are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, but virulence factors determining the persistence of the infection in the airways are not well characterized. using a chronic pulmonary infection model, we previously identified an attenuated mutant with an insertion in a gene encoding an rpon activator protein, suggesting that rpon and/or components of the rpon regulon play a role in b. cenocepacia virule ...200818195023
pseudomonas aeruginosa and burkholderia cenocepacia infections in patients affected by cystic fibrosis: serum resistance and antibody response.pseudomonas aeruginosa and burkholderia cenocepacia are opportunistic pathogens causing important chronic pulmonary infections in patients affected by cystic fibrosis (cf). the interplay of bacterial and host factors involved in the establishment and evolution of these infections needs further clarification. we investigated the susceptibility of p. aeruginosa and b. cenocepacia derived from cf patients or from the environment to hyperimmune sera obtained from the same cf patients and evaluated t ...200818214797
structural basis for mannose recognition by a lectin from opportunistic bacteria burkholderia cenocepacia.chronic colonization of the lungs by opportunist bacteria such as pseudomonas aeruginosa and members of the bcc (burkholderia cepacia complex) is the major cause of morbidity and mortality among cf (cystic fibrosis) patients. pa-iil (lecb gene), a soluble lectin from ps. aeruginosa, has been the subject of much interest because of its very strong affinity for fucose. orthologues have been identified in the opportunist bacteria ralstonia solanacearum, chromobacterium violaceum and burkholderia of ...200818215132
burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria: opportunistic pathogens with important natural biology.interaction with plants around their roots and foliage forms the natural habitat for a wide range of gram-negative bacteria such as burkholderia, pseudomonas and ralstonia. during these interactions many of these bacteria facilitate highly beneficial processes such as the breakdown of pollutants or enhancement of crop growth. all these bacterial species are also capable of causing opportunistic infections in vulnerable individuals, especially people with cystic fibrosis (cf). here we will review ...200818217926
burkholderia cenocepacia requires rpoe for growth under stress conditions and delay of phagolysosomal fusion in macrophages.burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen causing serious infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. the widespread distribution of this bacterium in the environment suggests that it must adapt to stress to be able to survive. we identified in b. cenocepacia k56-2 a gene predicted to encode rpoe, the extra-cytoplasmic stress response regulator. the rpoe gene is the first gene of a predicted operon encoding proteins homologous to rsea, rseb, mucd and a protein of unknown function. t ...200818227267
identification of sodium chloride-regulated genes in burkholderia cenocepacia.previous studies have suggested that the airways of cystic fibrosis (cf) patients have elevated sodium chloride (nacl) levels due to the malfunctioning of the cf transmembrane conductance regulator protein. for bacteria to survive in this high-salt environment, they must adjust by altering the regulation of gene expression. among the different bacteria inhabiting the airways of cf patients is the opportunistic pathogen burkholderia cenocepacia. previous studies have indicated that b. cenocepacia ...200818288523
a biosurfactant from burkholderia cenocepacia bsp3 and its enhancement of pesticide isolate a biosurfactant (bs)-producing bacterium, to characterize the bs properties and to evaluate its ability to enhance pesticide solubilization for further application in environmental remediation.200818298537
resistance of planktonic and biofilm-grown burkholderia cepacia complex isolates to the transition metal gallium.the burkholderia cepacia complex is a group of pathogens that can cause severe pulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis (cf) patients. the aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro activity of gallium against planktonic and biofilm-grown b. cepacia complex isolates.200818310047
a novel sensor kinase-response regulator hybrid controls biofilm formation and type vi secretion system activity in burkholderia cenocepacia.burkholderia cenocepacia is an important opportunistic pathogen causing serious chronic infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (cf). adaptation of b. cenocepacia to the cf airways may play an important role in the persistence of the infection. we have identified a sensor kinase-response regulator (bcam0379) named atsr in b. cenocepacia k56-2 that shares 19% amino acid identity with rets from pseudomonas aeruginosa. atsr inactivation led to increased biofilm production and a hyperadherent ph ...200818316384
diversity of the parb and repa genes of the burkholderia cepacia complex and their utility for rapid identification of burkholderia cenocepacia.burkholderia cenocepacia is the most prominent species of the b. cepacia complex (bcc), a group of nine closely related and difficult to identify bacteria that cause serious infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. despite its clinical relevance, identification of b. cenocepacia as a single species is unavailable, as it splits by a widely used reca gene-based pcr identification method into discrete phylogenetic subgroups iiia, iiib, iiic and iiid. with the aim of identifying gene targets sui ...200818328098
bovine lactoferrin inhibits the efficiency of invasion of respiratory a549 cells of different iron-regulated morphological forms of pseudomonas aeruginosa and burkholderia cenocepacia.pseudomonas aeruginosa and burkholderia cenocepacia are two important opportunistic respiratory pathogens of cystic fibrosis (cf) patients. infections caused by these microorganisms are particularly difficult to eradicate because they are usually highly resistant to several currently available broad-spectrum antibiotics. lactoferrin (lf), a glycoprotein found in physiological fluids of mammals and present at high concentrations in infected and inflamed tissues, plays an important role in the nat ...200818336731
a system for the construction of targeted unmarked gene deletions in the genus burkholderia.burkholderia species are extremely multidrug resistant, environmental bacteria with extraordinary bioremediation and biocontrol properties. at the same time, these bacteria cause serious opportunistic infections in vulnerable patient populations while some species can potentially be used as bioweapons. the complete dna sequence of more than 10 burkholderia genomes provides an opportunity to apply functional genomics to a collection of widely adaptable environmental bacteria thriving in diverse n ...200818341581
burkholderia cepacia complex epidemiology in persons with cystic fibrosis from australia and new zealand.the burkholderia cepacia complex (bcc) is a group of significant opportunistic respiratory pathogens which affect people with cystic fibrosis. in this study, we sought to ascertain the epidemiology and geographic species distribution of 116 bcc isolates collected from people with cf in australia and new zealand. we performed a combination of reca-based pcr, amplified rdna restriction analysis (ardra), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and repetitive extragenic palindromic pcr on each isolate. eac ...200818356026
successful treatment of cepacia syndrome with combination nebulised and intravenous antibiotic therapy.we report the case of successful treatment of a 31-year-old lady with cystic fibrosis and an en-bloc liver-pancreas transplant, who developed cepacia syndrome on a background of chronic infection with the et12 epidemic strain of burkholderia cenocepacia. combination therapy with nebulised and intravenous meropenem and tobramycin led to clinical improvement with a return to baseline function and complete resolution of the acute chest x-ray changes.200818356119
characterization of a naturally occurring class d beta-lactamase from achromobacter xylosoxidans.a chromosomally encoded class d beta-lactamase, oxa-114, was characterized from achromobacter xylosoxidans strain cip69598. beta-lactamase oxa-114 shared 56% amino acid identity with the naturally occurring class d beta-lactamase of burkholderia cenocepacia and 42% identity with the acquired oxacillinases oxa-9 and oxa-18. oxa-114 has a narrow-spectrum hydrolysis profile, although it includes imipenem, at a very low level. pcr and sequencing revealed that bla(oxa-114)-like genes were identified ...200818362192
two cases of burkholderia cenocepacia in septicemic patients.we herein report repeated isolation of burkholderia cenocepacia from two cases of septicemia admitted to cardiothoracic and bone marrow transplant (bmt) units. the two blood cultures taken from each patient grew b. cenocepacia. both patients turned afebrile after appropriate antimicrobial therapy, and the subsequent blood cultures were sterile. however, both patients had recurrence of fever after about a week, and the patient in the bmt unit died due to respiratory failure. environmental surveil ...200818362403
liposomal bismuth-ethanedithiol formulation enhances antimicrobial activity of tobramycin.pseudomonas aeruginosa and burkholderia cenocepacia (formally, genomovar iii genotype of burkholderia cepacia complex) have emerged as serious opportunistic resistant pathogens in patients with cystic fibrosis (cf). we have developed a liposomal formulation containing bismuth-ethanedithiol (biedt) and tobramycin to overcome bacterial resistance. the stability of liposomal biedt-tobramycin (lipobiedt-tob) was studied in phosphate buffered saline (pbs) and human pooled plasma at 4 and 37 degrees c ...200818448284
in vitro interactions of tobramycin with various nonantibiotics against pseudomonas aeruginosa and burkholderia cenocepacia.pseudomonas aeruginosa and burkholderia cepacia are the major pathogens that colonize the airway surface and cause progressive respiratory failure and high mortality, especially in cystic fibrosis (cf) patients. tobramycin is the treatment of choice, but persistent usage enables the infectious organisms to activate defence mechanisms, making eradication rarely successful. combinations of antibiotic and nonantibiotic compounds have been tested in vitro against p. aeruginosa and b. cepacia, but wi ...200818513356
bacteria of the burkholderia cepacia complex are cyanogenic under biofilm and colonial growth conditions.the burkholderia cepacia complex (bcc) is a collection of nine genotypically distinct but phenotypically similar species. they show wide ecological diversity and include species that are used for promoting plant growth and bio-control as well species that are opportunistic pathogens of vulnerable patients. over recent years the bcc have emerged as problematic pathogens of the cf lung. pseudomonas aeruginosa is another important cf pathogen. it is able to synthesise hydrogen cyanide (hcn), a pote ...200818588687
cystic fibrosis, a burkholderia cenocepacia chest wall abscess and rapid clinical deterioration. 200818607020
differential modulation of innate immune cell functions by the burkholderia cepacia complex: burkholderia cenocepacia but not burkholderia multivorans disrupts maturation and induces necrosis in human dendritic cells.burkholderia cepacia complex (bcc) bacteria cause pulmonary infections that can evolve into fatal overwhelming septicemia in chronic granulomatous disease or cystic fibrosis patients. burkholderia cenocepacia and burkholderia multivorans are responsible for the majority of bcc infections in cystic fibrosis patients, but b. cenocepacia is generally associated with a poorer prognosis than b. multivorans. the present study investigated whether these pathogens could modulate the normal functions of ...200818624797
burkholderia cenocepacia strains isolated from cystic fibrosis patients are apparently more invasive and more virulent than rhizosphere strains.given the widespread presence of burkholderia cenocepacia in the rhizosphere it is important to determine whether rhizosphere strains are pathogenic for cystic fibrosis patients or not. eighteen b. cenocepacia strains of rhizosphere and clinical origin were typed by multi-locus sequence typing (mlst) analysis and compared for their ability to invade pulmonary epithelial cells and their virulence in a mouse model of airway infection. although there was great variability, clinical strains were the ...200818643926
detection of n-acyl homoserine lactones using a trai-luxcdabe-based biosensor as a high-throughput screening tool.bacteria use n-acyl homoserine lactone (ahl) molecules to regulate the expression of genes in a density-dependent manner. several biosensors have been developed and engineered to detect the presence of all types of ahls.200818667064
plant host and sugar alcohol induced exopolysaccharide biosynthesis in the burkholderia cepacia complex.the species that presently constitute the burkholderia cepacia complex (bcc) have multiple roles; they include soil and water saprophytes, bioremediators, and plant, animal and human pathogens. since the first description of pathogenicity in the bcc was based on sour skin rot of onion bulbs, this study returned to this plant host to investigate the onion-associated phenotype of the bcc. many bcc isolates, which were previously considered to be non-mucoid, produced copious amounts of exopolysacch ...200818667584
functional analysis of the burkholderia cenocepacia j2315 bceaj protein with phosphomannose isomerase and gdp-d-mannose pyrophosphorylase activities.the bcea(j) gene from the cystic fibrosis isolate burkholderia cenocepacia j2315 encodes a 56-kda bifunctional protein, with phosphomannose isomerase (pmi) and guanosine diphosphate (gdp)-mannose pyrophosphorylase (gmp) activities, a new member of the poorly characterised type ii pmi class of proteins. due to the lack of homology between the type ii pmis and the human pmi, this class of proteins are being regarded as interesting potential targets to develop new antimicrobials. the bcea(j) protei ...200818668237
tlr 5, but neither tlr2 nor tlr4, is involved in lung epithelial cell response to burkholderia cenocepacia.burkholderia cenocepacia is known to induce a harmful inflammatory response in the airways of cystic fibrosis patients. toll-like receptors (tlrs) play key roles in sensing microbial-associated molecular patterns and initiating host innate immunity, but their role in the inflammatory response elicited by b. cenocepacia has not been precisely examined. in this study, we evaluated the contribution of tlr2, tlr4 and tlr5 to the signaling pathways triggered by b. cenocepacia in human bronchial epith ...200818680520
burkholderia cenocepacia j2315 acyl carrier protein: a potential target for antimicrobials' development?this work describes the isolation and characterization of an acyl carrier protein (acp) mutant from burkholderia cenocepacia j2315, a strain of the burkholderia cepacia complex (bcc). bcc comprises at least 9 species that emerged as opportunistic pathogens able to cause life-threatening infections, particularly severe among cystic fibrosis patients. bacterial acps are the donors of the acyl moiety involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acids, which play a central role in metabolism. the mutant wa ...200818771721
a functional phenylacetic acid catabolic pathway is required for full pathogenicity of burkholderia cenocepacia in the caenorhabditis elegans host model.burkholderia cenocepacia is a member of the burkholderia cepacia complex, a group of metabolically versatile bacteria that have emerged as opportunistic pathogens in cystic fibrosis and immunocompromised patients. previously a screen of transposon mutants in a rat pulmonary infection model identified an attenuated mutant with an insertion in paae, a gene related to the phenylacetic acid (pa) catabolic pathway. in this study, we characterized gene clusters involved in the pa degradation pathway o ...200818776009
gene expression changes linked to antimicrobial resistance, oxidative stress, iron depletion and retained motility are observed when burkholderia cenocepacia grows in cystic fibrosis sputum.bacteria from the burkholderia cepacia complex (bcc) are the only group of cystic fibrosis (cf) respiratory pathogens that may cause death by an invasive infection known as cepacia syndrome. their large genome (> 7000 genes) and multiple pathways encoding the same putative functions make virulence factor identification difficult in these bacteria.200818801206
a type iv secretion system contributes to intracellular survival and replication of burkholderia cenocepacia.burkholderia cenocepacia is an important respiratory pathogen in persons with cystic fibrosis (cf). recent studies indicate that b. cenocepacia survives within macrophages and airway epithelial cells in vitro by evading endosome-lysosome fusion. we investigated the role of a plasmid-encoded type iv secretion system in the intracellular survival, replication, and processing of b. cenocepacia. both a wild-type strain (k56-2) and its type iv secretion system mutant (designated lc101) entered and re ...200818824538
a german external quality survey of diagnostic microbiology of respiratory tract infections in patients with cystic fibrosis.the goal of this pilot study was to design an external quality assessment (eqa) scheme for german cystic fibrosis (cf) clinical microbiology laboratories. therefore, a multicentre study of 18 german cf laboratories was performed to evaluate their proficiency in analyzing cf respiratory secretions.200817658302
burkholderia cenocepacia et12 strain activates tnfr1 signalling in cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells.burkholderia cenocepacia is an important pulmonary pathogen in individuals with cystic fibrosis (cf). infection is often associated with severe pulmonary inflammation, and some patients develop a fatal necrotizing pneumonia and sepsis ('cepacia syndrome'). the mechanisms by which this species causes severe pulmonary inflammation are poorly understood. here, we demonstrate that b. cenocepacia bc7, a potentially virulent representative of the epidemic et12 lineage, binds to tumour necrosis factor ...200817697131
evaluation of the efficacy of disinfection procedures against burkholderia cenocepacia biofilms.summary: in the present study we evaluated the efficacy of various procedures recommended for the disinfection of respiratory equipment and other materials in cystic fibrosis, using both planktonic and sessile burkholderia cenocepacia cells. a modified european suspension test was performed to determine the effects of the disinfection procedures on planktonic cells. the ability of the treatments to kill sessile cells and to remove biofilm biomass was evaluated using two resazurin-based viability ...200818977555
burkholderia cenocepacia-induced delay of acidification and phagolysosomal fusion in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (cftr)-defective macrophages.the burkholderia cepacia complex (bcc) is a group of opportunistic bacteria chronically infecting the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (cf). several laboratories have shown that bcc members, in particular b. cenocepacia, survive within a membrane-bound vacuole inside phagocytic and epithelial cells. we have previously demonstrated that intracellular b. cenocepacia causes a delay in phagosomal maturation, as revealed by impaired acidification and slow accumulation of the late phagolysosom ...200819047750
genomic sequence and activity of ks10, a transposable phage of the burkholderia cepacia complex.the burkholderia cepacia complex (bcc) is a versatile group of gram negative organisms that can be found throughout the environment in sources such as soil, water, and plants. while bcc bacteria can be involved in beneficial interactions with plants, they are also considered opportunistic pathogens, specifically in patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic granulomatous disease. these organisms also exhibit resistance to many antibiotics, making conventional treatment often unsuccessful. ks10 wa ...200819094239
use of quorum sensing inhibitors to interfere with biofilm formation and development in burkholderia multivorans and burkholderia cenocepacia.burkholderia cepacia complex strains are opportunistic pathogens causing life-threatening infections in cystic fibrosis patients. b. cepacia complex strains are resistant to many antimicrobial agents and commonly produce biofilms in vitro and in vivo. this contributes to their virulence and makes burkholderia infections difficult to treat. recently, the quorum sensing (qs) system of burkholderia spp. has been found to affect their biofilm-forming ability, making it an attractive target for antim ...200919146953
biocide susceptibility of the burkholderia cepacia complex.the burkholderia cepacia complex (bcc) species are important opportunistic pathogens with intrinsic antibiotic resistance. they are also well known as contaminants of disinfectants, yet their biocide susceptibility has not been studied in detail. we investigated bcc biocide susceptibility and correlated it to their taxonomy, antibiotic susceptibility and ability to form biofilms.200919153076
recent advances in the microbiology of respiratory tract infection in cystic fibrosis.introduction: infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (cf). research on cf infection has highlighted differences from other respiratory infections--both in the range and the nature of the organisms--especially in chronic infection. this is a rapidly advancing field of microbiology and is bringing insights into the complexity and adaptations of bacteria causing chronic infection in the respiratory tract. areas of agreement and controversy: the epidem ...200919155262
a burkholderia cenocepacia orphan luxr homolog is involved in quorum-sensing regulation.burkholderia cenocepacia utilizes quorum sensing to control gene expression, including the expression of genes involved in virulence. in addition to cepr and ccir, a third luxr homolog, cepr2, was found to regulate gene expression and virulence factor production. all b. cenocepacia strains examined contained this orphan luxr homolog, which was not associated with an adjacent n-acyl-homoserine lactone synthase gene. expression of cepr2 was negatively autoregulated and was negatively regulated by ...200919201791
mapping the burkholderia cenocepacia niche response via high-throughput sequencing.determining how an organism responds to its environment by altering gene expression is key to understanding its ecology. here, we used rna-seq to comprehensively and quantitatively assess the transcriptional response of the bacterial opportunistic cystic fibrosis (cf) pathogen and endemic soil dweller, burkholderia cenocepacia, in conditions mimicking these 2 environments. by sequencing 762 million bases of cdna from 2 closely related b. cenocepacia strains (one isolated from a cf patient and on ...200919234113
strains of burkholderia cenocepacia genomovar iiia possessing the cbla gene that are distinct from et12.three strains of burkholderia cenocepacia genomovar iiia that were polymerase chain reaction positive for cbla, bcra, and the epidemic strain marker, but were distinct from representatives of et12 by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, are described. one of these strains was shown to express cable pili by electron microscopy.200919304435
delayed association of the nadph oxidase complex with macrophage vacuoles containing the opportunistic pathogen burkholderia cenocepacia.burkholderia cenocepacia causes chronic lung infections in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis and chronic granulomatous disease. we have previously shown that b. cenocepacia survives intracellularly in macrophages within a membrane vacuole (bccv) that delays acidification. here, we report that after macrophage infection with live b. cenocepacia there is a approximately 6 h delay in the association of nadph oxidase with bccvs, while heat-inactivated bacteria are normally trafficked into nadp ...200919332803
dna microarray-based detection and identification of burkholderia mallei, burkholderia pseudomallei and burkholderia spp.we developed a rapid oligonucleotide microarray assay based on genetic markers for the accurate identification and differentiation of burkholderia (b.) mallei and burkholderia pseudomallei, the agents of glanders and melioidosis, respectively. these two agents were clearly identified using at least 4 independent genetic markers including 16s rrna gene, flic, motb and also by novel species-specific target genes, identified by in silico sequence analysis. specific hybridization signal profiles all ...200919366627
isolation of burkholderia cenocepacia and burkholderia vietnamiensis from human sewage.fresh human sewage was examined from a sewage treatment plant for the presence of members of the burkholderia cepacia complex (bcc) of bacterial organisms and confirmed the presence of viable b. cenocepacia and b. vietnamiensis, by a combination of cultural, phenotypic and genotypic techniques. both these organisms are important respiratory pathogens for patients with cystic fibrosis (cf). presently, the survival dynamics of these organisms in sewage effluent and sludge is, as yet, unknown. ther ...200919370465
purple acid phosphatase-like sequences in prokaryotic genomes and the characterization of an atypical purple alkaline phosphatase from burkholderia cenocepacia j2315.purple acid phosphatases (pap) are a group of dimetallic phosphohydrolase first identified in eukaryotes. bioinformatics analysis revealed 57 prokaryotic pap-like sequences in the genomes of 43 bacteria and 4 cyanobacteria species. a putative pap gene (bcpap) from the bacteria burkholderia cenocepacia j2315 was chosen for further studies. synteny analysis showed that this gene is present as an independent gene in most of the members of the genus burkholderia. the predicted 561 a.a. polypeptide o ...200919376213
engineering of tellurite-resistant genetic tools for single-copy chromosomal analysis of burkholderia spp. and characterization of the burkholderia thailandensis betba operon.there are few appropriate single-copy genetic tools for most burkholderia species, and the high level of antibiotic resistance in this genus further complicates the development of genetic tools. in addition, the utilization of resistance genes for clinically important antibiotics is prohibited for the bioterrorism agents burkholderia pseudomallei and burkholderia mallei, necessitating the development of additional nonantibiotic-based genetic tools. three single-copy systems devoid of antibiotic ...200919376905
contributions of two udp-glucose dehydrogenases to viability and polymyxin b resistance of burkholderia cenocepacia.burkholderia cenocepacia is highly resistant to antimicrobial peptides and we hypothesized that the conversion of udp-glucose to udp-glucuronic acid, a reaction catalysed by the enzyme udp-glucose dehydrogenase (ugd) would be important for this resistance. the genome of b. cenocepacia contains three predicted ugd genes: ugd(bcal2946), ugd(bcam0855) and ugd(bcam2034), all of which were individually inactivated. only inactivation of ugd(bcal2946) resulted in increased sensitivity to polymyxin b an ...200919383677
[recurrent tonsillopharyngitis associated with burkholderia cenocepacia : two case reports].the burkholderia cepacia complex comprises bacteria typically responsible for respiratory infections in immunocompromised and cystic fibrosis patients. however, these bacteria are rarely associated with infections in immunocompetent patients. in the presented case reports of two nonhospitalized immunocompetent female patients who underwent tonsillectomy as the ultimate therapy for recurrent tonsillopharyngitis, burkholderia cenocepacia were demonstrated in the surgically removed tonsils. the cli ...200919396411
acute burkholderia cenocepacia pyomyositis in a patient with cystic fibrosis.extra-pulmonary complications of burkholderia cepacia complex (bcc) infection in patients with cystic fibrosis are unusual. to the best of the authors' knowledge no case of pyomyositis secondary to bcc infection has been reported previously.200919451037
effect of nitrofurans and no generators on biofilm formation by pseudomonas aeruginosa pao1 and burkholderia cenocepacia 370.antibacterial drugs in the nitrofuran series, such as nitrofurazone, furazidin, nitrofurantoin and nifuroxazide, as well as the nitric oxide generators sodium nitroprusside and isosorbide mononitrate in concentrations that do not suppress bacterial growth, were shown to increase the capacity of pathogenic bacteria pseudomonas aeruginosa pao1 and burkholderia cenocepacia 370 to form biofilms. at 25-100microg/ml, nitrofurans 2-2.5-fold enhanced biofilm formation of p. aeruginosa pao1, and no donor ...200919460431
intraspecies signaling involving the diffusible signal factor bdsf (cis-2-dodecenoic acid) influences virulence in burkholderia cenocepacia.burkholderia cenocepacia produces a diffusible fatty acid signal molecule, cis-2-dodecenoic acid (bdsf), that has been implicated in interspecies and interkingdom communication. here, we show that bdsf also acts as an intraspecies signal in b. cenocepacia to control factors contributing to virulence of this major opportunistic pathogen.200919482924
biosynthesis and structure of the burkholderia cenocepacia k56-2 lipopolysaccharide core oligosaccharide: truncation of the core oligosaccharide leads to increased binding and sensitivity to polymyxin b.burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen that displays a remarkably high resistance to antimicrobial peptides. we hypothesize that high resistance to antimicrobial peptides in these bacteria is because of the barrier properties of the outer membrane. here we report the identification of genes for the biosynthesis of the core oligosaccharide (os) moiety of the b. cenocepacia lipopolysaccharide. we constructed a panel of isogenic mutants with truncated core os that facilitated functio ...200919525227
identification of specific and universal virulence factors in burkholderia cenocepacia strains by using multiple infection hosts.over the past few decades, strains of the burkholderia cepacia complex have emerged as important pathogens for patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. identification of virulence factors and assessment of the pathogenic potential of burkholderia strains have increased the need for appropriate infection models. in previous studies, different infection hosts, including mammals, nematodes, insects, and plants, have been used. at present, however, the extent to which the virulence factors required ...200919528212
lack of myd88 protects the immunodeficient host against fatal lung inflammation triggered by the opportunistic bacteria burkholderia cenocepacia.burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen of major concern for cystic fibrosis patients as well as immunocompromised cancer patients and transplant recipients. the mechanisms by which b. cenocepacia triggers a rapid health deterioration of the susceptible host have yet to be characterized. tlr and their key signaling intermediate myd88 play a central role in the detection of microbial molecular patterns and in the initiation of an effective immune response. we performed a study to be ...200919535624
interactions of burkholderia cenocepacia and other burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria with epithelial and phagocytic cells.burkholderia cenocepacia is a member of the b. cepacia complex (bcc), a group of opportunistic bacteria that infect the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (cf) and are extraordinarily resistant to almost all clinically useful antibiotics. infections in cf patients with bcc bacteria generally lead to a more rapid decline in lung function, and in some cases to the 'cepacia syndrome', a virtually deadly exacerbation of the lung infection with systemic manifestations. these characteristics of ...200919542002
burkholderia cenocepacia zinc metalloproteases influence resistance to antimicrobial peptides.burkholderia cenocepacia secretes two zinc-dependent metalloproteases, designated zmpa and zmpb. previously, zmpa and zmpb have been shown to cleave several proteins important in host defence. in this study, the ability of zmpa and zmpb to digest and inactivate antimicrobial peptides involved in innate immunity was examined. zmpb but not zmpa cleaved beta-defensin-1. zmpa but not zmpb cleaved the cathelicidin ll-37. both enzymes cleaved elafin and secretory leukocyte inhibitor, which are antimic ...200919542010
genetic diversity and multihost pathogenicity of clinical and environmental strains of burkholderia cenocepacia.a collection of 54 clinical and agricultural isolates of burkholderia cenocepacia was analyzed for genetic relatedness by using multilocus sequence typing (mlst), pathogenicity by using onion and nematode infection models, antifungal activity, and the distribution of three marker genes associated with virulence. the majority of clinical isolates were obtained from cystic fibrosis (cf) patients in michigan, and the agricultural isolates were predominantly from michigan onion fields. mlst analysis ...200919542323
cough-generated aerosols of pseudomonas aeruginosa and other gram-negative bacteria from patients with cystic fibrosis.pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common bacterial pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis (cf). current infection control guidelines aim to prevent transmission via contact and respiratory droplet routes and do not consider the possibility of airborne transmission. it was hypothesised that subjects with cf produce viable respirable bacterial aerosols with coughing.200919574243
use of fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics to discriminate clinical isolates of bacteria of the burkholderia cepacia complex from different species and ribopatterns.a methodology for the discrimination of burkholderia cepacia complex (bcc) clinical isolates at the species level and at the ribopattern level using fourier transform infrared (ftir) spectroscopy and chemometrics analysis was assessed in this study. different bcc sequential isolates collected at the santa maria hospital (hsm), in portugal, from clinically infected cystic fibrosis (cf) patients were previously classified by established molecular methods at the species level and differentiated at ...200919579020
burkholderia cenocepacia: a new biocatalyst for efficient bioreduction of ezetimibe intermediate.ezetimibe is a selective acyl-coenzyme a: cholesterol acyltransferase (acat) inhibitor used in hypercholesterolemia. synthesis of ezetimibe requires enantiopure 3-[5-(4-fluorophenyl)-5(s)-hydroxypentanoyl]-4(s)-4-phenyl-1,3-oxazolidin-2-one (fop alcohol) as a crucial intermediate which is produced by reduction of the corresponding prochiral ketone (fop dione). a new biocatalyst from acclimatized soil was screened for bioreduction of the above prochiral ketone. the microorganism was identified by ...200919669185
burkholderia cenocepacia o antigen lipopolysaccharide prevents phagocytosis by macrophages and adhesion to epithelial cells.chronic respiratory infections by the burkholderia cepacia complex (bcc) are of great concern to patients with cystic fibrosis. bcc isolates may survive intracellularly within amoebae, respiratory epithelial cells and macrophages. the molecular mechanisms facilitating colonization and pathogenesis remain unclear. given the importance of bacterial adhesion to host surfaces in microbial pathogenesis, we investigated the role of the o antigen lps in the interaction of burkholderia cenocepacia, a me ...200919713359
[persistence of burkholderia cenocepacia bacteria in vivo in dependence of their ability to form biofilms].to select the most susceptible line of mice which allows to conduct comparative studies of infectious process caused by different strains of b. cepacia in order to explore correlation between ability to form biofilms and persistence of bacteria in organs of infected animals.200919715200
reca gene sequence and multilocus sequence typing for species-level resolution of burkholderia cepacia complex identify, by means of reca sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (mlst), burkholderia cepacia complex (bcc) isolates of environmental and clinical origin, which failed to be identified by reca rflp and species-specific pcr.200919732325
eurocarecf quality assessment of diagnostic microbiology of cystic fibrosis isolates.the identification of microbial species from respiratory specimens and their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents are among the most important diagnostic measures of care for patients with cystic fibrosis (cf). under the umbrella of eurocarecf, two quality assurance trials of cf microbiology were performed in 2007 and 2008. nine formulations with cf bacterial isolates were dispatched. a total of 31/37 laboratories from 18/21 european countries participated in the 2007 and 2008 trials. the comm ...200919741077
two type iv secretion systems with different functions in burkholderia cenocepacia k56-2.bacterial type iv secretion systems (t4ss) perform two fundamental functions related to pathogenesis: the delivery of effector molecules to eukaryotic target cells, and genetic exchange. two t4sss have been identified in burkholderia cenocepacia k56-2, a representative of the et12 lineage of the b. cepacia complex (bcc). the plant tissue watersoaking (ptw) t4ss encoded on a resident 92 kb plasmid is a chimera composed of virb/d4 and f-specific subunits, and is responsible for the translocation o ...200919744991
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