[influence of silybin-dihemisuccinate on fatty acid synthesis in rat liver (author's transl)].1. the influence of silybin-dihemisuccinate, a derivative of the flavonolignane silybin from silybum marianum l. gaertn., on fatty acid biosynthesis of rat liver was studied measuring the radioactivity incorporation of [1-14c]-acetate and 3h2o in fatty acids of the postmitochondrial supernatant of liver homogenates and in fatty acids of liver slices as well as the activities of enzymes involved in do novo synthesis of fatty acids. 2. in the postmitochondrial supernatant of liver homogenates or i ...197939576
the influence of silybin from silybum marianum (l.) gaertn. on in vitro phosphatidyl choline biosynthesis in rat rat livers, removed 60 min after i.p. application of 150.6 mg/kg silybin-dihemisuccinate-di-na-salt, in vitro incorporation of choline-(methyl-14c) into phosphatidyl choline by the postmitochondrial fraction of liver homogenates was enhanced in comparison with controls. these results are associated with increased activities of ctp-choline-phosphate cytidyltransferase. enzyme activities were also enhanced after addition of 7.5 x 10(-6) mol/l silybin to incubation mixtures obtained from untreat ...1979582978
[milk thistle (silybum marianum, l., gaertn.) in the feed of ketotic cows].two comparative trials were performed, each with 16 cows which in the period of 2-6 weeks after parturition had 7.9 mg and more acetone in 1 litre of milk. the cows, crossbreds of the czech red-pied cattle with the holstein cattle, were divided into control and test groups, eight in each using the system of pairs. the cows of test groups were given for a fortnight feed rations containing a meal of milk thistle (silybum marianum, l., gaert.) seeds, at a rate of 0.3 kg per head/day with the conten ...19911807027
advances in pharmacological studies of silymarin.silymarin is the flavonoids extracted from the seeds of silybum marianum (l) gearth as a mixture of three structural isomers: silybin, silydianin and silychristin, the former being the most active component. silymarin protects liver cell membrane against hepatotoxic agents and improves liver function in experimental animals and humans. it is generally accepted that silymarin exerts a membrane-stabilizing action preventing or inhibiting membrane peroxidation. the experiments with soybean lipoxyge ...19911842018
hepatoprotective activity of silymarin against hepatic damage in mastomys natalensis infected with plasmodium berghei.silymarin, a flavolignan from the seeds of silybum marianum, showed significant hepatoprotective activity in p. berghei-induced hepatic damage in m. natalensis, as assessed by changes in several serum and liver biochemical parameters. changes in lipoprotein-x, got, gpt, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin were found to be protected by silymarin at different doses. maximum activity was observed at a dose of 5 mg/kg bw, po. silymarin had no effect on parasitaemia.19892697691
effect of silymarin on serum cholesterol levels in rats.previously we have shown that perorally administered silymarin, a mixture of flavonolignans extracted from the seeds of silybum marianum, possesses a hypocholesterolemic effect in rats fed high cholesterol diet enriched with fat. the aim of this paper was to complete the data concerning peroral and parenteral administration of silymarin. the rats fed standard laboratory diet did not respond to peroral administration of silymarin by decrease of serum cholesterol, but the mild increase in hdl chol ...19989684492
activities of silymarin and its flavonolignans upon low density lipoprotein oxidizability in vitro.silymarin, a standardized extract from silybum marianum, inhibited in vitro the copper-induced oxidation of human ldl in a concentration-dependent manner. silybin, a main flavonolignan of silymarin, appeared to be responsible for this ldl antioxidant effect. silychristin and silydianin, other flavonolignans of silymarin, acted rather as pro-oxidants, but with regard to their content in silymarin, it did not contribute significantly to the reduction of the total ldl antioxidant capacity of silyma ...199910479770
5'-methoxyhydnocarpin-d and pheophorbide a: berberis species components that potentiate berberine growth inhibition of resistant staphylococcus aureus.a new method of bioactivity-directed fractionation, based on multidrug resistant pump (mdr) inhibition in staphylococcus aureus, was demonstrated. this resulted in the isolation, from berberine-containing berberis species, of two compounds that are themselves devoid of s. aureus antibacterial activity, but that form potent synergistic couples with a subinhibitory concentration of berberine. the bacterial mdr pump inhibitors were identified as the flavonolignan 2 and the porphyrin 3. another natu ...200010978214
fetoprotectivity of the flavanolignan compound siliphos against ethanol-induced toxicity.of the three flavanolignans that are found in silymarin (silybum marianum [l.] gaertn.), silybin is thought to be the primary therapeutic constituent. to test the capacity of silybin to protect the rat fetus from toxic effects of maternally ingested etoh we did the following: adult female rats were assigned to one of four groups; etoh, etoh/silybin, pair-fed control, and chow fed control. silybin was orally administered as siliphos(r), which is one part silybin to two parts phosphatidylcholine. ...200011054841
evaluation of the immunomodulatory effects of five herbal plants.a group of medicinal plants including, silybum marianum, matricaria chamomilla, calendula officinalis, cichorium intybus and dracocephalum kotschyi which grow in iran, were extracted with ethanol 70% and the mitogenic activity was examined both on human peripheral blood lymphocytes and thymocytes. effect of these extracts on proliferative responsiveness of human lymphocytes to phytohemagglutinin (pha) and on the mixed lymphocyte reaction (mlr) was also investigated. the results obtained indicate ...200010967468
inhibitory effects of silibinin on cytochrome p-450 enzymes in human liver microsomes.silibinin, the main constituent of silymarin, a flavonoid drug from silybum marianum used in liver disease, was tested for inhibition of human cytochrome p-450 enzymes. metabolic activities were determined in liver microsomes from two donors using selective substrates. with each substrate, incubations were carried out with and without silibinin (concentrations 3.7-300 microm) at 37 degrees in 0.1 m kh2po4 buffer containing up to 3% dmso. metabolite concentrations were determined by hplc or direc ...200010895987
anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities of silymarin acting through inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase.silymarin, a mixture of flavonolignans, comprised mainly of three isomers, silybin, silydianin and silychristin isolated from the fruits of silybum marianum, is currently in therapeutic use as a hepatoprotective agent. silymarin on evaluation exhibited significant antiinflammatory and antiarthritic activities in the papaya latex induced model of inflammation and mycobacterial adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. results of the study indicate its action through inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase for ant ...200010782486
the in vitro effect of helichrysi flos on microsomal lipid peroxidation.helichrysum arenarium (l.) moench has long been known as a medicinal plant in europe for its cholagogue, choleretic, hepatoprotective and detoxifying activities. antioxidant properties of its main phenolics, flavonoids may be supposed to be responsible for these effects. the aim of this study was to verify the antioxidant properties of lyophilized water extracts with different polyphenol and flavonoid contents from inflorescences. the effects of natural extracts on microsomal fraction of rat liv ...200111483375
silymarin suppresses tnf-induced activation of nf-kappa b, c-jun n-terminal kinase, and apoptosis.silymarin is a polyphenolic flavonoid derived from milk thistle (silybum marianum) that has anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective, and anticarcinogenic effects. how silymarin produces these effects is not understood, but it may involve suppression of nf-kappa b, a nuclear transcription factor, which regulates the expression of various genes involved in inflammation, cytoprotection, and carcinogenesis. in this report, we investigated the effect of silymarin on nf-kappa b activation induced by various ...199910586080
stimulatory effects of silibinin and silicristin from the milk thistle silybum marianum on kidney cells.the biochemical influence of flavonolignans from the milk thistle silybum marianum has been tested on kidney cells of african green monkeys. two nonmalignant cell lines were selected, with the focus of the work on the fibroblast-like vero line. proliferation rate, biosynthesis of protein and dna, and the activity of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (as a measure of the cellular metabolic activity) were chosen as parameters for the effect of the flavonolignans. silibinin and silicristin show rema ...199910454517
prevention by a silymarin/phospholipid compound of ethanol-induced social learning deficits in rats.we explored the possibility that silymarin (sy), a fraction from silybum marianum, might protect against the effects of in utero exposure to ethanol upon subsequent social memory function. three groups of 8 pregnant female sprague-dawley rats each were provided with a liquid diet containing 35% ethanol derived calories (edc). one experimental group received a daily subcutaneous injection of 400 mg/kg sy, the second, a 400 mg/kg oral dose of sy, a third group was maintained on the 35% edc diet. a ...199910418328
silymarin inhibits the development of diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in study the ability of silymarin, a standardized mixture of antioxidant flavonolignans from the medicinal plant silybum marianum, and of silybin, the main flavonolignan of silymarin, to inhibit the development of diet-induced hypercholesterolemia the rats were fed high cholesterol diet (hcd). silymarin or silybin were given as dietary supplements, and their influences on serum cholesterol levels were compared to those of probucol, an antioxidant hypocholesterolemic drug. anticholesterolemic eff ...19989525106
putative effect of silymarin on sawfly (arge pullata)-induced hepatotoxicosis in sheep.the prevention of hepatotoxicity from sawfly larvae (arge pullata) was studied in 8 lambs by using silymarin, a botanical compound isolated from silybum marianum. of 2 lambs dosed orally with larvae only, 1 had a marked toxic response whereas the other responded poorly as judged from clinical parameters, blood biochemistry and pathology. two lambs treated with penicillin, glucose and silymarin 7 and 24 h after larvae dosing were not affected by toxicosis, whereas 2 lambs treated similarly but wi ...19968693692
inhibition of kupffer cell functions as an explanation for the hepatoprotective properties of silibinin.the flavonoid silibinin, the main compound extracted from the milk thistle silybum marianum, displays hepatoprotective properties in acute and chronic liver injury. to further elucidate the mechanisms by which it acts, we studied the effects of silibinin on different functions of isolated rat kupffer cells, namely the formation of superoxide anion radical (02-), nitric oxide (no), tumor necrosis factor alpha (tnf-alpha), prostaglandin e(2) (pge(2)), and leukotriene b(4) (ltb(4)). production of 0 ...19968666328
gastroprotection induced by silymarin, the hepatoprotective principle of silybum marianum in ischemia-reperfusion mucosal injury: role of neutrophils.investigations were carried out to determine the antiulcer effects of silymarin, the hepatoprotective principle of silybum marianum l. gaertn., in gastric injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion and its effects on mucosal myeloperoxidase activity, an index of polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration, after injury in rats. these results were compared with those from rats that received allopurinol, an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase and with those from rats made neutropenic by prior administration of ...19957753916
drug-membrane interactions: silymarin, silibyn and microsomal membranes.silymarin and silibyn are extracted from the seeds of silybum marianum and used as a liver protectant because of their free radical scavenging. when incorporated into rabbit liver microsomes they cause a small decrease in the flourescence anisotropy of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (dph) but not of 1-anilinononaphthalene-8-sulphonic acid (ans), incorporated into the membranes. they do, however, reduce the fluorescence intensity of incorporated ans without changing the wavelength of maximum inten ...19846467519
antihepatotoxic actions of flavonolignans from silybum marianum fruits. 19846091165
[on the pharmacology and toxicology of silymarin, an antihepatotoxic active principle from silybum marianum (l.) gaertn]. 19685755807
silymarin: potent inhibitor of cyclic amp phosphodiesterase.silymarin, the active principle of the milk thistle (silybum marianum gaertner), is a very potent inhibitor of cyclic amp breakdown in vitro by a commercial beef heart phosphodiesterase preparation. its main constituents, silybin, silydianin and silychristin, are 12.66 to 52.06 times more active than theophylline and 0.77 to 3.17 times more active than papaverine in this respect. using a novel hplc technique, the enzyme kinetical analysis can be performed much faster than by the classical method ...19853001454
selectivity of silymarin on the increase of the glutathione content in different tissues of the rat.silymarin, a flavonoid extracted from the seeds of the milk thistle, silybum marianum, increases the redox state and the total glutathione content of the liver, intestine, and stomach of the rat. the same treatment does not affect the levels of the tripeptides in the kidney, lung, and spleen. this selective effect of the flavonoid on the digestive organs is ascribed to its pharmacokinetics on the digestive track, where the biliary concentration of silymarin is increased and maintained via the en ...19892813578
silibinin (legalon-70) enhances the motility of human neutrophils immobilized by formyl-tripeptide, calcium ionophore, lymphokine and by normal human serum.experiments reported here were designed to investigate the effect of silibinin (extracted from silybum marianum) on human polymorphonuclear leukocyte (pmn) motility and on leukocyte immobilizing activity of lymphokine (leukocyte inhibitory factor, lif), formyl-met-leu-phe (fmlp), calcium ionophore a-23187 and human sera inactivated by heat (hi-s). in the in vitro experiments, silibinin (1-10 micrograms/ml) failed to influence the random motility of unstimulated pmns in agarose droplet assay, but ...19902111081
primary cultures of human hepatocytes as a tool in cytotoxicity studies: cell protection against model toxins by flavonolignans obtained from silybum marianum.the aim of this study was to evaluate the cytoprotective effects upon primary human hepatocytes of silymarin extract and its main flavonolignans following exposure to the cytotoxic actions of model toxins. the conditions for the hepatocyte intoxication were optimised for allyl alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, d-galactosamine and paracetamol. silymarin extract, silychristin and silydianin did not exert cytotoxicity (10-100 microm), whereas silybin and isosilybin at higher concentrations and after l ...200312523963
picroliv affords protection against thioacetamide-induced hepatic damage in rats.thioacetamide (100 mg/kg), when administered to normal rats, caused a significant increase in the activities of 5'-nucleotidase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and a decrease in the activities of glucose 6-phosphatase and succinate dehydrogenase enzymes in the liver. dna, rna, and proteins were increased while the cytochrome p450 in the microsomal fraction and the glycogen content in the liver were decreased significantly. elevations in the activities of got, gpt, and alkaline phosphatase and ...19912062953
protection against microcystin-lr-induced hepatotoxicity by silymarin: biochemistry, histopathology, and lethality.microcystin-lr, a cyclic heptapeptide synthesized by the blue-green algae, microcystis aeruginosa, is a potent hepatotoxin. pathological examination of livers from mice and rats that received microcystin-lr revealed severe, peracute, diffuse, centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis, and hemorrhage. these changes were correlated with increased serum activities of sorbitol dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase. pretreatment of either rats or mice with a single dose of si ...19911902564
effect of the flavanolignans of silybum marianum l. on lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes and freshly isolated hepatocytes.the effect of several flavanolignans (silicristin, silidianin, silybin and isosilybin) present in silymarin, the extract of silybum marianum fruits, was tested on lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes and freshly isolated hepatocytes. in microsomes lipid peroxidation was generated by adp/fe2+ and nadph. all flavanolignans inhibited peroxidation in a concentration dependent manner. in hepatocytes lipid peroxidation was induced by adp/fe3+ complex and cell damage was evaluated as ldh activity ...19921635893
[stimulation of rna synthesis in rat liver and isolated hepatocytes by silybin, an antihepatotoxic agent from silybum marianum l. gaertn (author's transl)].the incorporation of [3h] orotic acid into rna from rat livers is stimulated by the flavonolignane derivative silybin. the time course of the rna synthesis and its dose dependence were demonstrated with isolated hepatocytes and [3h]uridine. the specific radioactivity of the newly synthesized rna in rats treated with silybin is markedly higher than that of the controls. from preliminary experiments there is no indication that the synthesis of a distinct species of rna is stimulated preferentially ...1976976944
nitrate poisoning in cattle due to ingestion of variegated thistle, silybum marianum. 195513221510
[constituents of silybum marianum and their therapeutic use]. 1978743375
[general pharmacologic properties of silybine and silymarine in the rat].silybine is the main active substance of the polyhydroxyphenylchromanone derivatives extracted from the seeds of silybum marianum. in the normal albinos rat, this pure compound (from 2 mg/100 g) lowers directly the systemic blood pressure. it does not increase vascular permeability. it potentiates post-serotonine hypertension. silybine antagonizes cutaneous oedemas and suppresses the fall of blood pressure induced by dextran polymers. it inhibits anaphylactic shock in rats sensitized by ovalbumi ...197550765
[effects of bioflavonoids on the toxicity of t-toxin in rats. a biochemical study].the enrichment of a diet of rats by flavonoids of milk thistle, silybum marianum, reduced toxicity of t-2 toxin and was accompanied by reduction of a degree of change of total and nonsedimentable activity of lysosomal enzymes and microsomal xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes.200011247160
liver function and hiv-1 infection.persons with hiv may have previous or concurrent liver impairment as a result of injection drug use, hepatitis, alcohol abuse, and damage from medications. additional stress is placed on the liver by low-grade opportunistic infections and hemophilia. it is especially important that persons with hiv care for their liver to help this organ remain physiologically normal during chronic and acute management of hiv infection. although modern pharmaceutical medicine does not provide liver tonics or sup ...199511362718
induction of human promyelocytic leukemia hl-60 cell differentiation into monocytes by silibinin: involvement of protein kinase c.the effect of silibinin, an active component of silybum marianum, on cellular differentiation was investigated in the human promyelocytic leukemia hl-60 cell culture system. treatment of hl-60 cells with silibinin inhibited cellular proliferation and induced cellular differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. cytofluorometric analysis and morphologic studies indicated that silibinin induced differentiation of hl-60 cells predominantly into monocytes. importantly, strongly synergistic induction ...200111377378
antiulcerogenic effect of some gastrointestinally acting plant extracts and their combination.extracts from the plants iberis amara, melissa officinalis, matricaria recutita, carum carvi, mentha x piperita, glycyrrhiza glabra, angelica archangelica, silybum marianum and chelidonium majus, singly and combined in the form of a commercial preparation, stw 5 (iberogast) and a modified formulation, stw 5-ii, lacking the last 3 constituents, were tested for their potential anti-ulcerogenic activity against indometacin induced gastric ulcers of the rat as well as for their antisecretory and cyt ...200111505785
in vivo assessment of botanical supplementation on human cytochrome p450 phenotypes: citrus aurantium, echinacea purpurea, milk thistle, and saw palmetto.phytochemical-mediated modulation of cytochrome p450 (cyp) activity may underlie many herb-drug interactions. single-time point phenotypic metabolic ratios were used to determine whether long-term supplementation of citrus aurantium , echinacea purpurea , milk thistle (silybum marianum), or saw palmetto (serenoa repens) extracts affected cyp1a2, cyp2d6, cyp2e1, or cyp3a4 activity.200415536458
pharmacokinetic study of iodine-labeled silibinins in rat.the very low bioavailability of silibinin (silybin, sb), the main antioxidant flavonolignan of silymarin from silybum marianum l. (asteraceae), requires sensitive methods to study the modulation of silibinin bioavailability. to evaluate the potential for use of radiolabeled silibinin, two silibinin derivatives, separated by hplc after iodination ((125)i-sb(1) and (125)i-sb(2)) and their complexes 1 : 1 with phosphatidylcholine ((125)i-spc(1) and (125)i-spc(2)) were administered concurrently with ...200111529693
dpph (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity of flavonoids obtained from some medicinal plants.a reactive oxygen species has been implicated in a range of human pathological diseases such as atherosclerosis and certain cancers. flavonoids are reported to exhibit various biological activities, including antioxidative and free radical scavenging activities. several flavonoids obtained from barley leaves, soybean and some medicinal plants, silybum marianum, sophorae flos, cinnamon, ephedrae herba and scutellariae radix, were tested for their dpph (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scave ...200111642334
dietary silymarin suppresses 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide-induced tongue carcinogenesis in male f344 rats.the modifying effect of dietary administration of a polyphenolic antioxidant flavonoid silymarin isolated milk thistle [silybum marianum (l.) gaertneri] on 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-nqo)-induced tongue tumorigenesis was investigated in male f344 rats. based on the results in pilot studies showing that silymarin treatment together with 4-nqo significantly reduced the occurrence of tongue dysplasia and gavaged with silymarin significantly elevated the phase ii detoxifying enzymes' activities in ...200212016151
silybin inhibition of human t-lymphocyte activation.silybin, a 3-oxyflavone occurring in the thistle silybum marianum, displays a dose-dependent inhibition of in-vitro lymphocyte blastogenesis induced by lectins (phytohaemagglutinin, concanavalin a and pokeweed) and by anti-cd3 monoclonal antibody. the drug has no effect on cell viability and spontaneous 3h-thymidine incorporation, suggesting that the inhibitory activity is not due to aspecific toxicity. since all the t-cell responses investigated require cell-membrane-associated events, the effe ...19883265704
the effects of silymarin on experimental phalloidine poisoning.the hepatoprotective action of silymarin, the active principle extracted from the fruit of silybum marianum (l.) gaertn., in animals (dogs, rabbits, rats, mice) intoxicated with phalloidine is evident, both after protective and curative treatment. a dose of 15 mg/kg of silymarin protects every animal when given 60 min before the toxin. when injected 10 mim after phalloidine, a dose of 100 mg/kg of silymarin again provides total protection. however, as the time span between administration of the ...1975125090
[effect of silybum marianum oil and legalon on lipid peroxidation and liver antioxidant systems in rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride].an oil obtained from the seeds of saint-mary thistle (silybum marianum) and the drug legalon (silybinin) prepared from this plant produce an antioxidant effect on liver tissues of rats poisoned with carbon tetrachloride. legalon (25 mg/kg) and the oil (2000 mg) reduced the level of lipid peroxidation, increased the catalase activity, but did not reduce the concentration of selenium in liver (which decreased as a result of ccl4 intoxication). legalon significantly increased the activity of supero ...200111589112
influence of silymarin and its flavonolignans on doxorubicin-iron induced lipid peroxidation in rat heart microsomes and mitochondria in comparison with quercetin.silymarin, an extract of silybum marianum seeds, and the constituent flavonolignans silybin, silydianin and silychristin, as well as the flavonol quercetin, protected rat heart microsomes and mitochondria against iron-dependent doxorubicin induced lipid peroxidation. quercetin was found to be more potent than either silymarin or its three constituents, whose cytoprotectivity was comparable. the radical scavenging activity of the compounds was investigated using a dpph colour reduction assay and ...200211933142
extraction and partial characterization of a coagulant preparation from silybum marianum flowers. its action on bovine outstanding parameter in cheese making is the type of coagulant, which greatly influences the characteristics of the final products. proteolysis is the most important set of biochemical changes during ripening of most cheeses, and is carried out, in different magnitude, by proteolytic agents originated in milk, rennet (or rennet substitute), and starter and non-starter micro-organisms (silva & malcata, 2000). the demand for alternative sources of milk coagulants, to replace the expensive and ...200516174356
neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of milk thistle (silybum marianum) on neurons in culture.herbal products are being increasingly used as dietary supplements and therapeutic agents. however, much more research must be performed in order to determine the biological basis for their putative clinical effects. we tested the effects of milk thistle (silybum marianum) extract on the differentiation and survival of cultured neural cells. milk thistle enhanced nerve growth factor (ngf)-induced neurite outgrowth in pc-12 neural cells and prolonged their survival in culture. milk thistle extrac ...200212059045
plasma lipoproteins in transport of silibinin, an antioxidant flavonolignan from silybum assess the role of plasma lipoproteins in the transport of silibinin, an antioxidant flavonolignan, (125)i-labelled silibinin ((125)i-sb) administered perorally to the rat was used. the plasma (125)i-sb derived radioactivity was distributed among plasma lipoproteins according to their lipophilicity (tag-rich lipoproteins 30-40% > ldl 15% > hdl 5%), and in the fraction of d > 1.215 containing albumin and other proteins a minority amount of radioactivity was found. administration of (125)i-sb i ...200312748991
silymarin, a possible hepatoprotector in dairy cows: biochemical and histological observations.silymarin, a standardized extract from silybum marianum seed, is a natural hepatoprotector used for the treatment of liver diseases in man. the aim of this study was to investigate its safety and efficacy in periparturient dairy cows. ten treated and 10 control pregnant dairy cows were paired by parity, body condition score (bcs), health condition and previous milk production. treatment consisted of daily 10 g per animal of silymarin extract administered as oral drenches, from 10 days prior to t ...200415153078
silymarin, a naturally occurring polyphenolic antioxidant flavonoid, inhibits azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in male f344 rats.the modifying effect of dietary administration of the polyphenolic antioxidant flavonoid silymarin, isolated from milk thistle [silybum marianum (l.) gaertneri], on aom-induced colon carcinogenesis was investigated in male f344 rats. in the short-term study, the effects of silymarin on the development of aom-induced colonic acf, being putative precursor lesions for colonic adenocarcinoma, were assayed to predict the modifying effects of dietary silymarin on colon tumorigenesis. also, the activit ...200212216075
silibinin protects mice from t cell-dependent liver injury.silibinin is the major pharmacologically active compound of the silybum marianum fruit extract silymarin. its well-known hepatoprotective activities are mostly explained by antioxidative properties, inhibition of phosphatidylcholine synthesis or stimulation of hepatic rna and protein synthesis. here, we characterized the hepatoprotective potential of silibinin as an immune-response modifier in t cell-dependent hepatitis in vivo.200312927918
silymarin and skin cancer prevention: anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects (review).several environmental and genetic factors are involved in skin cancer induction, however exposure to chemical carcinogens and solar ultraviolet (uv) radiation are primarily responsible for several skin diseases including skin cancer. chronic exposure of solar uv radiation to the skin leads to basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. chemoprevention of skin cancer by consumption of naturally occurring botanicals appears a practical approach and therefore world-wide interest is consid ...200515586237
the roles of akt and mapk family members in silymarin's protection against uv-induced a375-s2 cell apoptosis.silymarin is a polyphenolic flavonoid derived from milk thistle (silybum marianum) and has anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective as well as anticarcinogenic effects [manna, s.k., mukhopadlhyay, a., van, n.t., aggarwal, b., silymarin suppresses tnf-induced activation of nf-kappab, c-jun n-terminal kinase, and apoptosis. j. immunol. 1999; 163, 6800-6809.]. in this study, we assessed the effect of silymarin on ultraviolet light (uv)-induced cell apoptosis in human malignant melanoma, a375-s2 cells. sil ...200616399623
silibinin prevents uv-induced hacat cell apoptosis partly through inhibition of caspase-8 pathway.silymarin is a polyphenolic flavonoid from milk thistle (silybum marianum), which has anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective, and anticarcinogenic effects. in this study, we assessed the effect of silibinin (fig. 1), the major active compound in silymarin, on ultraviolet light (uv)-induced cell apoptosis in hacat cells, a human keratinocyte cell line. pretreatment with silibinin 500 microm significantly inhibited uv-induced apoptosis in hacat cells after 9 h incubation. the expression of fas-associat ...200616755000
silymarin prevents uv irradiation-induced a375-s2 cell apoptosis.silymarin, a plant flavonoid from milk thistle (silybum marianum [l.] gaertner) was first evaluated for its protective effect against uv irradiation-induced apoptosis in human malignant melanoma cells (a375-s2 cells). treatment with silymarin 500 microm for 12 h significantly inhibited uv irradiation (2.4 j/cm(2), 5 min)-induced apoptosis in a375-s2 cells. activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3 in uv-irradiated a375-s2 cells were effectively reduced by silymarin in a dose-dependent manner, while ...200415256735
efficacy of silymarin-phospholipid complex in reducing the toxicity of aflatoxin b1 in broiler chicks.silymarin, the standardized extract of silybum marianum, is used as a hepatoprotector in man, and is a potent antihepatotoxic agent. this study focused on the effects of a silymarin-phospholipid complex in reducing the toxic effects of aflatoxin b1 (afb1) in broiler chickens. twenty-one 14-d-old male commercial broilers were randomly allotted to 3 groups and treated as follows: basal diet alone [group c (control)]; afb1 at 0.8 mg/kg of feed [group b1]; afb1 at 0.8 mg/kg of feed plus silymarin ph ...200415554059
protective effect of silymarin on oxidative stress in rat brain.brain is susceptible to oxidative stress and it is associated with age-related brain dysfunction. previously, we have pointed out a dramatic decrease of glutathione levels in the rat brain after acetaminophen (apap) oral administration overdose. silymarin (sm) is a mixture of bioactive flavonolignans isolated from silybum marianum (l.) gaertn., employed usually in the treatment of alcoholic liver disease and as anti-hepatotoxic agent in humans. in this study, we have evaluated the effect of sm o ...200716638633
silymarin treatment of viral hepatitis: a systematic review.silymarin from the milk thistle herb (silybum marianum) is used by many patients with chronic viral hepatitis, but its efficacy remains unknown. we performed a systematic review of silymarin for the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis b and c. an exhaustive search strategy identified 148 papers that studied silymarin compounds in liver disease. of these, four trials included patients with hepatitis c, one included hepatitis b patients, and two, unspecified chronic viral hepatitis. however, only ...200516255756
milk thistle and prostate cancer: differential effects of pure flavonolignans from silybum marianum on antiproliferative end points in human prostate carcinoma cells.extracts from the seeds of milk thistle, silybum marianum, are known commonly as silibinin and silymarin and possess anticancer actions on human prostate carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. seven distinct flavonolignan compounds and a flavonoid have been isolated from commercial silymarin extracts. most notably, two pairs of diastereomers, silybin a and silybin b and isosilybin a and isosilybin b, are among these compounds. in contrast, silibinin is composed only of a 1:1 mixture of silybin a and si ...200515899838
effect of milk thistle (silybum marianum) on the pharmacokinetics of irinotecan.milk thistle (silybum marianum) is one of the most commonly used herbal therapies, and its principal constituent silybin significantly inhibits cytochrome p450 isoform 3a4 (cyp3a4) and udp glucuronosyltransferase isoform 1a1 (ugt1a1) in vitro. here, we investigated whether milk thistle affects the pharmacokinetics of irinotecan, a substrate for cyp3a4 and ugt1a1, in humans.200516278402
heavy metals and arsenic uptake by wild vegetation in the guadiamar river area after the toxic spill of the aznalcóllar mine.on 25 april 1998, approximately 4.5 hm(3) of pyritic sludge, containing 5000 mg of as kg(-1) among other pollutants, was spilled into the agrio and guadiamar rivers and the surrounding agricultural areas (aznalcóllar, seville, southern spain). many trace metals such as pb, cu, zn, cd, tl, sb and as reached the doñana national park, the largest wetland area in europe, affecting soils, different plant and animal species. in order to recuperate the affected lands by employing plants capable of accu ...200212126811
physiological responses to a natural antioxidant flavonoid mixture, silymarin, in balb/c mice: i induction of transforming growth factor beta1 and c-myc in liver with marginal effects on other genes.silymarin, a mixture of flavonolignans isolated from silybum marianum, is known for its hepatoprotective properties. we investigated the expression of cytokines in mouse liver following treatment with 0, 10, 50, and 250 mg/kg of silymarin once daily for 5 days. a dose-related but insignificant decrease of circulating alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase after silymarin treatment was observed, suggesting that silymarin treatment did not induce hepatic damage. silymarin treatmen ...200212221586
antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of silibinin in rat prostate cancer cells.the tremendous impact of prostate cancer (pca) on the us male population has led to an increased attention on its prevention and on therapeutic intervention. short-term models are needed to quickly screen the efficacy of promising agents against pca. we have established recently several rat pca cell lines from primary pca in rats induced by a mnu-testosterone protocol, but their usefulness as a model for screening pca preventive and therapeutic agents remains to be established. with the rational ...200212386921
effect of silybin and its congeners on human liver microsomal cytochrome p450 activities.silybin and related flavonolignans form a major part of the silybum marianum extract, silymarin, which has been used to treat liver diseases for hundreds of years. although regarded as safe, many of the extract constituents remain thus far untested for their possible effects on liver biotransformation enzymes. cytochromes p450 (cyp) are very important in this regard. we tested the effect of four flavonolignans: silybin, its hemisynthetic derivative dehydrosilybin, silydianin, and silycristin on ...200212410543
treatment of silymarin, a plant flavonoid, prevents ultraviolet light-induced immune suppression and oxidative stress in mouse is well documented that ultraviolet (uv) light-induced immune suppression and oxidative stress play an important role in the induction of skin cancers. earlier, we have shown that topical treatment of silymarin, a plant flavonoid from milk thistle (silybum marianum l. gaertn.), to mouse skin prevents photocarcinogenesis, but the preventive mechanism of photocarcinogenesis in vivo animal system by silymarin is not well defined and understood. to define the mechanism of prevention, we employed ...200212429970
[importance of biologically active components and plants in the prevention of complications of diabetes mellitus].diabetes complications, especially late (chronic) ones, are the main reasons of invalidity and early mortality. the most threatening diabetes complications are vascular and metabolic complications (diabetic neuropathy, angiopathy, cataract, glaucoma, optic neuropathy, retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy). good diabetes control is very important, because in early stages these changes are reversible. in order to decrease the number of diabetes complications and to postpone their development, the use ...200212532704
synthesis and antihepatotoxic activity of some heterocyclic compounds containing the 1,4-dioxane ring system.silymarin isolated from silybum marianum is a mixture of three isomers, silybin (1), silydianin (2) and silychristin (3). silybin is the most active antihepatotoxic agent, and contains a 1,4-dioxane ring in addition to a flavonoid moiety. based on the skeleton of silybin, we prepared some flavones and coumarins containing the 1,4-dioxane ring system and evaluated them for antihepatotoxic activity against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. the degree of protection was det ...200312685811
microbial transformation of silybin by trichoderma koningii.microbial transformation of silybin a (1) and silybin b (2), the major hepatoprotective flavonolignan diastereomers from the fruits of silybum marianum, with the culture broth of trichoderma koningii gave two pairs of glucosylated derivatives. their structures were identified as silybin a 3-o-beta-d-glucopyranoside (3), silybin a 7-o-beta-d-glucopyranoside (4), silybin b 3-o-beta-d-glucopyranoside (5) and silybin b 7-o-beta-d-glucopyranoside (6) by spectroscopic methods.200616309908
enhancement of mammary carcinogenesis in two rodent models by silymarin dietary supplements.silymarin is a mixture of polyphenolic flavonoids isolated from milk thistle (silybum marianum) with anticancer activities reported for several organ sites. the present study tested the efficacy of dietary silymarin against mammary carcinogenesis in two rodent models. in the sprague-dawley rat model, female rats were fed a purified diet supplemented with none, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3 or 1% (w/w) of silymarin from 21 days of age (doa) and carcinogenesis was initiated by a single i.p. injection of 1-methyl ...200616597642
chemoprotective effect of plant phenolics against anthracycline-induced toxicity on rat cardiomyocytes. part i. silymarin and its flavonolignans.silymarin, an extract of fl avonolignans from the dried fruits of milk thistle (silybum marianum l. gaertneri) and its constituents silibinin, dehydrosilibinin, silychristin and silydianin were tested for protective effects on rat cardiomyocytes exposed to doxorubicin. silymarin and individual fl avonolignans did not exert cytotoxicity in the range 25-100 micro m (incubation 9 h). dehydrosilibinin was tested only at 25 micro m concentration due to its low solubility. all substances increased the ...200415022159
use of silybum marianum fruit extract in broiler chicken nutrition: influence on performance and meat quality.the present study aimed at evaluating the effects of different doses of silymarin in diet on broiler performances and meat quality. for the trial, 180 male chicks (ross 508), were allocated in to three groups (s0, s40 and s80) of 60 animals each receiving a basal diet supplemented with 0 ppm, 40 ppm and 80 ppm of a sylimarin (provided by a dry extract of silybum marianum fruits) respectively. during the trial feed consumption and live body weight were taken every 20 days. at the age of 40 and 60 ...200717516949
study of the hypoglycaemic activity of fraxinus excelsior and silybum marianum in an animal model of type 1 diabetes mellitus.the hypoglycaemic effect of the aqueous extracts of fraxinus excelsior (fe) seed and silybum marianum (sm) aerial part was investigated in normal and streptozotocin (stz) diabetic rats. after a single dose or 15 daily doses, oral administration of the aqueous extracts (20 mg/kg) produced a significant decrease of blood glucose levels in both normal and stz diabetic rats (p < 0.001). from the first week, the body weight was increased in normal rats (p < 0.05) and decreased in stz rats (p < 0.01) ...200415120454
phenolics-rich extracts from silybum marianum and prunella vulgaris reduce a high-sucrose diet induced oxidative stress in hereditary hypertriglyceridemic rats.the study tested the effects of phenolics-rich extracts from the plants silybum marianum (silymarin) and prunella vulgaris (pve) on blood and liver antioxidant status and lipoprotein metabolism. hereditary hypertriglyceridemic rats fed on standard diet (std) or high-sucrose diet (hsd, 70cal% of sucrose) for two weeks were used. hsd doubled plasma and liver triacylglycerol (tag) and increased plasma vldl-tag and vldl-cholesterol compared to std. administration of silymarin or pve as 1% dietary su ...200415177299
evaluation of hybrid liposomes-encapsulated silymarin regarding physical stability and in vivo performance.silymarin, a known standardized extract obtained from seeds of silybum marianum is used in treatment of liver diseases of varying origins. aiming at improving its poor bioavailability from oral products, silymarin hybrid liposomes are introduced in this work for buccal administration after investigating their stability and in vivo hepatoprotective efficiency. silymarin loaded hybrid liposomes composed of lecithin (l), cholesterol (ch), stearyl amine (sa) and tween 20 (t20) in molar ratio of (9:1 ...200616837151
a review of the bioavailability and clinical efficacy of milk thistle phytosome: a silybin-phosphatidylcholine complex (siliphos).certain of the water-soluble flavonoid molecules can be converted into lipid-compatible molecular complexes, aptly called phytosomes. phytosomes are better able to transition from a hydrophilic environment into the lipid-friendly environment of the outer cell membrane, and from there into the cell, finally reaching the blood. the fruit of the milk thistle plant (silybum marianum, family asteraceae) contains flavonoids that are proven liver protectants. the standardized extract known as silymarin ...200516164374
milk thistle for alcoholic and/or hepatitis b or c virus liver diseases.alcohol and hepatotoxic viruses cause the majority of liver diseases. randomised clinical trials have assessed whether extracts of milk thistle, silybum marianum (l) gaertneri, have any effect in patients with alcoholic and/or hepatitis b or c virus liver diseases.200515846671
effects of silybum marianum on serum hepatitis c virus rna, alanine aminotransferase levels and well-being in patients with chronic hepatitis c.silybum marianum is a herbal preparation commonly used by subjects with chronic hepatitis c (chc). the aims of this pilot study were to assess the efficacy and safety of s. marianum on serum hepatitis c virus (hcv) rna, alanine aminotransferase levels and well-being in patients with chc.200616460486
herb-drug interactions: a literature review.herbs are often administered in combination with therapeutic drugs, raising the potential of herb-drug interactions. an extensive review of the literature identified reported herb-drug interactions with clinical significance, many of which are from case reports and limited clinical observations. cases have been published reporting enhanced anticoagulation and bleeding when patients on long-term warfarin therapy also took salvia miltiorrhiza (danshen). allium sativum (garlic) decreased the area u ...200515916450
silibinin down-regulates prostate epithelium-derived ets transcription factor in lncap prostate cancer cells.the androgen-sensitive human prostate cancer cell line lncap expresses the estrogen receptor beta and androgen receptor and can be stimulated by androgens to secrete prostate-specific antigen (psa). in this study we demonstrate the cancer protective potential of silibinin, a flavolignan derived from the fruits of silybum marianum, which down-regulates the co-activator of the androgen receptor, the prostate epithelium-derived ets transcription factor (pdef) and consequently the secretion of psa. ...200415124082
yeast extract and methyl jasmonate-induced silymarin production in cell cultures of silybum marianum (l.) gaertn.the biosynthesis of the flavonolignan silymarin, a constitutive compound of the fruits of silybum marianum with strong antihepatotoxic and hepatoprotective activities, is severely reduced in cell cultures of this species. it is well known that elicitation is one of the strategies employed to increase accumulation of secondary metabolites. our study here reports on the effect of several compounds on the production of silymarin in s. marianum cultures. yeast extract (ye), chitin and chitosan were ...200516054261
modulation of cytokine expression by traditional medicines: a review of herbal immunomodulators.modulation of cytokine secretion may offer novel approaches in the treatment of a variety of diseases. one strategy in the modulation of cytokine expression may be through the use of herbal medicines. a class of herbal medicines, known as immunomodulators, alters the activity of immune function through the dynamic regulation of informational molecules such as cytokines. this may offer an explanation of the effects of herbs on the immune system and other tissues. for this informal review, the aut ...200616813462
silibinin protects rat cardiac myocyte from isoproterenol-induced dna damage independent on regulation of cell cycle.silibinin, derived from the milk thistle plant, silybum marianum, has been traditionally used as an antihepatotoxic agent for the treatment of liver disease. our preliminary study demonstrated that silibinin has protected rat cardiac myocytes against beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol-induced injury through resuming mitochondrial function and regulating the expression of sirt1 and bcl-2 family members. in this study, we investigate whether silibinin has anti-apoptotic effect on isoproterenol- ...200616946506
contribution to the knowledge of the folk plant medicine in calabria region (southern italy).a series of research on plants used in calabria (southern italy) in the folk plant medicine was carried out in the last twenty years. the use of 104 taxa distributed into 42 families are described. among the major findings: ceterach officinarum as hypotensive; heliotropium europaeum in the case of urinary inflammations; silybum marianum for haemorrhoids; arundo donax for pertussis and cystitis; allium cepa for sties and flu; laurus nobilis as galactagogue; passiflora incarnata for burns, haemorr ...200717084993
synthesis and antihepatotoxic activity of some new chalcones containing 1, 4 - dioxane ring system.silybum marianum is a medicinal plant used widely for treating liver diseases. the silymarin, a mixture of three flavolignan isomers namely silybin (1), silydianin (2), and silychristin (3) is an active constituent of the plant. however, silybin containing 1, 4-dioxane ring is the most potent antihepatotoxic agent. in contrast, other isomers do not possess 1, 4-dioxane ring, and thus do not exhibit a significant activity. we, therefore, thought that 1, 4-dioxane ring plays an important role in d ...200617105706
anticancer potential of silymarin: from bench to bed side.silymarin consists of a family of flavonoids (silybin, isosilybin, silychristin, silydianin and taxifoline) commonly found in the dried fruit of the milk thistle plant silybum marianum. although silymarin's role as an antioxidant and hepatoprotective agent is well known, its role as an anticancer agent has begun to emerge. extensive research within the last decade has shown that silymarin can suppress the proliferation of a variety of tumor cells (e.g., prostate, breast, ovary, colon, lung, blad ...200617201169
silibinin suppresses pma-induced mmp-9 expression by blocking the ap-1 activation via mapk signaling pathways in mcf-7 human breast carcinoma cells.matrix metalloproteinase-9 (mmp-9) plays an important role in the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. in this study, we examined the inhibitory effect of silibinin, a flavonoid antioxidant from milk thistle (silybum marianum l.) on pma-induced mmp-9 expression in mcf-7 human breast carcinoma cells. silibinin significantly and selectively suppressed pma-induced mmp-9 expression in mcf-7. silibinin has been found to inhibit pma-induced mmp-9 gene transcriptional activity by blocking the activ ...200717214970
milk thistle for alcoholic and/or hepatitis b or c virus liver diseases.alcohol and hepatotoxic viruses cause the majority of liver diseases. randomised clinical trials have assessed whether extracts of milk thistle, silybum marianum (l) gaertneri, have any effect in patients with alcoholic and/or hepatitis b or c virus liver diseases.200717943794
quantitation of silibinin, a putative cancer chemopreventive agent derived from milk thistle (silybum marianum), in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography and identification of possible metabolites.silibinin has recently received attention as a potential cancer chemopreventive agent because of its antiproliferative and anticarcinogenic effects. a simple and specific reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for the quantitation of silibinin in human plasma. sample preparation involved simple protein precipitation, and separation was achieved on a waters atlantis c18 column with flow rate of 1.0 ml/min at 40 degrees c and uv detection at 290 nm ...200717355141
metabolomic alterations in elicitor treated silybum marianum suspension cultures monitored by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.a comprehensive metabolomic profiling of silybum marianum (l.) gaernt cell cultures elicited with yeast extract or methyl jasmonate for the production of silymarin was carried out using one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. with these techniques we were able to detect both temporal quantitative variations in the metabolite pool in yeast extract-elicited cultures and qualitative differences in cultures treated with the two types of elicitors. yeast extract and methyl j ...200717475356
influence of silymarin and its flavonolignans on h(2)o(2)-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes and mouse fibroblasts.the administration of antioxidants has been shown to enhance repair and healing processes in cutaneous tissue. silymarin, an extract from silybum marianum has been reported to be beneficial in the treatment of chemically-induced oxidative stress in mouse. in this study, we investigated the protective effects of silymarin, its flavonolignans silybin and dehydrosilybin and flavonoids quercetin and taxifolin against hydrogen peroxide-induced damage to human keratinocytes and mouse fibroblasts. the ...200617011711
effect of the silybin-phosphatidylcholine complex (idb 1016) on the development of mammary tumors in her-2/neu transgenic mice.silybin, a main component of the milk thistle of silybum marianum, has been reported to possess anticancer activity. we investigated the effects of idb 1016, a complex of silybin with phosphatidylcholine, on the development of mammary tumors appearing spontaneously in her-2/neu transgenic mice. the mechanisms involved in the antitumor effect of idb 1016 were evaluated by studying the apoptosis, senescent-like growth arrest, intratumoral leukocyte infiltrate, and the expression of her-2/neu and p ...200717332330
silibinin inhibits constitutive activation of stat3, and causes caspase activation and apoptotic death of human prostate carcinoma du145 cells.transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription (stat)-3 is activated constitutively in prostate cancer (pca) suggesting that its disruption could be an effective approach to control this malignancy. here we assessed whether silibinin, a flavanone from silybum marianum with proven anticancer efficacy in various cancer models, inhibits stat3 activation in du145 cells, and if it does, what is the biological fate of the cells? at 50 mum or higher concentrations for 24 or 48 h, ...200717341659
inhibition of t-cell inflammatory cytokines, hepatocyte nf-kappab signaling, and hcv infection by standardized silymarin.chronic hepatitis c is a serious global medical problem necessitating effective treatment. because standard of care with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin therapy is costly, has significant side effects, and fails to cure about half of all infections, many patients seek complementary and alternative medicine to improve their health, such as silymarin, derived from milk thistle (silybum marianum). milk thistle's clinical benefits for chronic hepatitis c are unsettled due to variability in stand ...200717484885
silymarin, the antioxidant component of silybum marianum, protects against burn-induced oxidative skin injury.despite recent advances, severe burn is one of the most common problems faced in the emergency room. major thermal injury induces the activation of an inflammatory cascade resulting in local tissue damage, to contribute to the development of subsequent damage of multiple organs distant from the original burn wound.200717521818
structure elucidation and antioxidant activity of (-)-isosilandrin isolated from silybum marianum l.a regioisomer of the known flavanolignan (-)-silandrin (3a), named (-)-isosilandrin (8a), was isolated from the fruits of a white-flowered variant of silybum marianum l. populated in hungary. its structure was established both by spectroscopic methods and total synthesis, and its absolute configuration was determined by means of circular dichroism. this compound showed stronger inhibitory activity on the superoxide anion (o2*-) release by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (pmnl) than (+)-silybi ...200417191807
some common signal transduction events are not necessary for the elicitor-induced accumulation of silymarin in cell cultures of silybum marianum.a variety of pharmacological effectors of signal transduction pathways were used to investigate the elicitor-activated sequence of cellular responses by which yeast extract (ye) or methyljasmonate (meja) enhanced production of silymarin in cell cultures of silybum marianum. as we recently showed that inhibition of external and internal calcium fluxes significantly increased flavonolignan production in s. marianum cultures, we examined whether calcium mediates signaling events leading to enhancem ...200818313169
silybin is metabolized by cytochrome p450 2c8 in vitro.silybin (a flavonolignan, the main component of silymarin, an extract from the seeds of silybum marianum) has been used to date mostly as a hepatoprotectant. however, it also has other interesting activities, e.g., anticancer and hypocholesterolemic effects. it is also known that silybin can inhibit the activities of the cytochrome p450 (p450) enzymes. in this study, a weak interaction of silybin with human microsomal cyp2e1, 2a6, 2b6, 2c19, and 2d6 (ic(50) > or = 250 microm) was found; a modera ...200717670841
[der einsatz von prometryn und desmetryn bei thymus vulgaris, salvia officinalis und silybum marianum und ihre auswirkung auf ertrag und inhaltsstoffe.] 198217396836
effects of silymarin on the resolution of liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats.silymarin, a standardized extract of the milk thistle (silybum marianum), has a long tradition as a herbal remedy, and was introduced as a hepatoprotective agent a few years ago. however, the therapeutic effects of silymarin remain undefined. carbon tetrachloride (ccl4) is a xenobiotic used extensively to induce oxidative stress and is one of the most widely used hepatic toxins for experimental induction of liver fibrosis in the laboratory. in this study, we investigated the restoration of the c ...200818397225
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