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analysis of the complete genome sequence of black queen-cell virus, a picorna-like virus of honey bees.a virus with picorna-like biophysical properties was isolated from south african honey bees. on the basis of serology, it was identified as an isolate of black queen-cell virus (bqcv). nucleotide sequence analysis revealed an 8550 nt polyadenylated genome containing two large orfs. the 5'-proximal orf (orf 1) represented 4968 nt while the 3'-proximal orf (orf 2) represented 2562 nt. the orfs were separated by a 208 nt intergenic region and were flanked by a 657 nt 5'-untranslated region and a 15 ...200010900051
detection of acute bee paralysis virus and black queen cell virus from honeybees by reverse transcriptase pcr.a reverse transcriptase pcr (rt-pcr) assay was developed for the detection of acute bee paralysis virus (abpv) and black queen cell virus (bqcv), two honeybee viruses. complete genome sequences were used to design unique pcr primers within a 1-kb region from the 3' end of both genomes to amplify a fragment of 900 bp from abpv and 700 bp from bqcv. the combined guanidinium thiocyanate and silica membrane method was used to extract total rna from samples of healthy and laboratory-infected bee pupa ...200111319129
virus infections in brazilian honey bees.this work describes the first molecular-genetic evidence for viruses in brazilian honey bee samples. three different bee viruses, acute bee paralysis virus (abpv), black queen cell virus (bqcv), and deformed wing virus (dwv) were identified during a screening of rnas from 1920 individual adult bees collected in a region of southeastern brazil that has recently shown unusual bee declines. abpv was detected in 27.1% of colony samples, while bqcv and dwv were found in 37% and 20.3%, respectively. t ...200818471826
deformed wing virus implicated in overwintering honeybee colony losses.the worldwide decline in honeybee colonies during the past 50 years has often been linked to the spread of the parasitic mite varroa destructor and its interaction with certain honeybee viruses. recently in the united states, dramatic honeybee losses (colony collapse disorder) have been reported; however, there remains no clear explanation for these colony losses, with parasitic mites, viruses, bacteria, and fungal diseases all being proposed as possible candidates. common characteristics that m ...200919783750
presence and prevalence of viruses in local and migratory honeybees (apis mellifera) in massachusetts.migratory and local bees in massachusetts were analyzed for seven viruses. three were detected: black queen cell virus (bqcv), deformed wing virus (dwv), and sacbrood virus (sbv). dwv was most common, followed closely by bqcv and then by sbv. bqcv and sbv were present at significantly higher rates in the migratory bees assayed, bringing into question the impact that these bees have on the health of local bee populations.200919854916
detection of honey bee (apis mellifera) viruses with an oligonucleotide microarray.in recent years, declines in honey bee (apis mellifera l.) colonies have been observed to varying degrees worldwide with the worst losses in the usa being termed colony collapse disorder (ccd). pathogen load and the prevalence of honey bee viruses have been implicated in these losses and many diseased hives have multiple viruses present. we have designed and tested an oligonucleotide microarray which enables the simultaneous detection of nine honey bee viruses: acute bee paralysis virus, black q ...201121419132
rna viruses in hymenopteran pollinators: evidence of inter-taxa virus transmission via pollen and potential impact on non-apis hymenopteran species.although overall pollinator populations have declined over the last couple of decades, the honey bee (apis mellifera) malady, colony collapse disorder (ccd), has caused major concern in the agricultural community. among honey bee pathogens, rna viruses are emerging as a serious threat and are suspected as major contributors to ccd. recent detection of these viral species in bumble bees suggests a possible wider environmental spread of these viruses with potential broader impact. it is therefore ...201021203504
Occurrence and prevalence of seven bee viruses in Apis mellifera and Apis cerana apiaries in China.Populations of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana in China were surveyed for seven bee viruses: acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), sacbrood virus (SBV), and Isreal acute paralysis virus (IAPV). No KBV was detected from any samples of the two species. In A. mellifera, DWV was the most prevalent virus, but in A. cerana, SBV was the dominant. Simultaneous multiple infections of viruses ...201222062807
prevalence of nosema and virus in honey bee (apis mellifera l.) colonies on flowering period of acacia in korea.honey production from approximately 1.6 million colonies owned by about 199,000 korean beekeepers was almost 23,000 metric tons in 2009. nosema causes significant losses in honey production and the virus decreases population size. we initiated a survey of honey bee colonies on the blooming period of acacia to determine the prevalence of nosema and virus in 2011. most korean beekeepers have moved from the south to north of korea to get acacia nectar for 2 mon. this provided a valuable opportunity ...201122783125
a sensitive one-step real-time rt-pcr method for detection of deformed wing virus and black queen cell virus in honeybee apis mellifera.a one-step real-time rt-pcr based on sybr green (sg) chemistry was developed for the detection, differentiation and quantification of two of the most common viruses on the honeybee apis mellifera l., deformed wing virus and black queen cell virus. two sets of primers specific for each virus, were designed in conserved regions of the viral genome for their use in the one-step real-time rt-pcr. both reactions were optimized for highest sensitivity and specificity and sg-based real-time was used to ...200817964669
development of a multiplex rt-pcr for the simultaneous detection of three viruses of the honeybee (apis mellifera l.): acute bee paralysis virus, black queen cell virus and sacbrood virus.a single-step multiple-target (multiplex) reverse transcription-pcr (rt-pcr) was developed for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of three economically important viruses of the honeybee apis mellifera l.: acute bee paralysis virus (abpv), black queen cell virus (bqcv) and sacbrood virus (sbv). three compatible sets of primers, specific for each virus, were designed in conserved regions of the viral genomes for use in a one-step (single tube) rt-pcr assay. the individual rt-pcr assays ...200717207498
occurrence of six honeybee viruses in diseased austrian apiaries.the occurrence, prevalence, and distribution patterns of acute bee paralysis virus (abpv), black queen cell virus (bqcv), chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv), deformed wing virus (dwv), kashmir bee virus (kbv), and sacbrood virus (sbv) were investigated in 90 austrian honeybee colonies suffering from symptoms of depopulation, sudden collapse, paralysis, or dark coloring by employing reverse transcription-pcr. infestation with parasites was also recorded. the samples originated from all parts of a ...200616597939
prevalence and transmission of honeybee viruses.transmission mechanisms of six honeybee viruses, including acute bee paralysis virus (abpv), black queen cell virus (bqcv), chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv), deformed wing virus (dwv), kashmir bee virus (kbv), and sacbrood bee virus (sbv), in honey bee colonies were investigated by reverse transcription-pcr (rt-pcr) methods. the virus status of individual queens was evaluated by examining the presence of viruses in the queens' feces and tissues, including hemolymph, gut, ovaries, spermatheca, ...200616391097
prevalence and seasonal variations of six bee viruses in apis mellifera l. and varroa destructor mite populations in france.a survey of six bee viruses on a large geographic scale was undertaken by using seemingly healthy bee colonies and the pcr technique. samples of adult bees and pupae were collected from 36 apiaries in the spring, summer, and autumn during 2002. varroa destructor samples were collected at the end of summer following acaricide treatment. in adult bees, during the year deformed wing virus (dwv) was found at least once in 97% of the apiaries, sacbrood virus (sbv) was found in 86% of the apiaries, ch ...200415574916
a tertiary structure model of the internal ribosome entry site (ires) for methionine-independent initiation of translation.cricket paralysis-like viruses have a dicistronic positive-strand rna genome. these viruses produce capsid proteins through internal ribosome entry site (ires)-mediated translation. the ires element of one of these viruses, plautia stall intestine virus (psiv), forms a pseudoknot immediately upstream from the capsid coding sequence, and initiates translation from other than methionine. previously, we estimated that the ires element of psiv consists of seven stem-loops using the program mfold; ho ...200111233983
infestation of japanese native honey bees by tracheal mite and virus from non-native european honey bees in japan.invasion of alien species has been shown to cause detrimental effects on habitats of native species. insect pollinators represent such examples; the introduction of commercial bumble bee species for crop pollination has resulted in competition for an ecological niche with native species, genetic disturbance caused by mating with native species, and pathogen spillover to native species. the european honey bee, apis mellifera, was first introduced into japan for apiculture in 1877, and queen bees ...201121960435
acaricide treatment affects viral dynamics in varroa destructor-infested honey bee colonies via both host physiology and mite control.honey bee (apis mellifera) colonies are declining, and a number of stressors have been identified that affect, alone or in combination, the health of honey bees. the ectoparasitic mite varroa destructor, honey bee viruses that are often closely associated with the mite, and pesticides used to control the mite population form a complex system of stressors that may affect honey bee health in different ways. during an acaricide treatment using apistan (plastic strips coated with tau-fluvalinate), w ...201222020517
new evidence that deformed wing virus and black queen cell virus are multi-host pathogens.the host-range breadth of pathogens can have important consequences for pathogens' long term evolution and virulence, and play critical roles in the emergence and spread of the new diseases. black queen cell virus (bqcv) and deformed wing virus (dwv) are the two most common and prevalent viruses in european honey bees, apis mellifera. here we provide the evidence that bqcv and dwv infect wild species of honey bees, apis florea and apis dorsata. phylogenetic analyses suggest that these viruses mi ...201222001629
the honey bee pathosphere of mongolia: european viruses in central asia.parasites and pathogens are apparent key factors for the detrimental health of managed european honey bee subspecies, apis mellifera. apicultural trade is arguably the main factor for the almost global distribution of most honey bee diseases, thereby increasing chances for multiple infestations/infections of regions, apiaries, colonies and even individual bees. this imposes difficulties to evaluate the effects of pathogens in isolation, thereby creating demand to survey remote areas. here, we co ...201626959221
first molecular detection of a viral pathogen in ugandan honey bees.ugandan honey bees (apis mellifera l.) produce honey, and are key pollinators within commercial crops and natural ecosystems. real-time rt-pcr was used to screen immature and adult bees collected from 63 beekeeping sites across uganda for seven viral pathogens. no samples tested positive for chronic bee paralysis virus, sacbrood virus, deformed wing virus, acute bee paralysis virus, apis iridescent virus or israeli acute paralysis virus. however, black queen cell virus (bqcv) was found in 35.6% ...201020219470
survey of six bee viruses using rt-pcr in northern thailand.six honey bee viruses were surveyed using rt-pcr in northern thailand where about 80% of thai apiaries are located. tested samples were found to be positive for deformed wing virus (dwv), acute bee paralysis virus (abpv), sacbrood virus (sbv) and kashmir bee virus (kbv). in the collected samples, neither chronic bee paralysis virus nor black queen cell virus nucleic acids could be detected. it was found that dwv was the most widespread and abpv was the second most prevalent. kashmir bee virus wa ...200919105966
a pathogenic picorna-like virus from the endoparasitoid wasp, pteromalus puparum: initial discovery and partial genomic characterization.using electron microscopy, we demonstrated the presence of a novel small rna-containing virus in the venom apparatus of an endoparasitic wasp, pteromalus puparum, designated as ppsrv. morphologically, ppsrv has classical features of picorna-like viruses. it caused the development deterioration and tissue destruction of p. puparum venom apparatus. the laboratory colony of p. puparum was infectious with ppsrv at a low level. partial genomic sequence analysis indicated that ppsrv 3'-proximal genome ...200818831994
occurrence and genetic analysis of picorna-like viruses infecting worker bees of apis mellifera l. populations in devon, south west england.viruses of the european honeybee, apis mellifera l. are known to reside at low levels in colonies, typically showing no apparent signs of infection. using reverse transcription-pcr (rt-pcr), 23 apiaries in devon were screened for the presence of 6 honeybee viruses, with positive colonies being analysed for viral genetic diversity. ninety-seven percent of the colonies were positive for deformed wing virus (dwv), 29% were positive for acute bee paralysis virus (abpv) and 1.4% were positive for bot ...200818359042
occurrence of deformed wing virus, chronic bee paralysis virus and mtdna variants in haplotype k of varroa destructor mites in syrian apiaries.a small-scale survey was conducted on 64 beehives located in four governorates of syria in order to assess for the first time the presence of honeybee-infecting viruses and of varroa destructor mites in the country. rt-pcr assays conducted on 192 honeybees (apis mellifera l.) using virus-specific primers showed that deformed wing virus (dwv) was present in 49 (25.5%) of the tested samples and chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv) in 2 (1.04%), whereas acute bee paralysis virus, sacbrood virus, blac ...201626914360
prevalence of honeybee viruses in different regions of china and argentina.honeybees are threatened by various pathogens and parasites. more than 18 viruses have been described in honeybees and many of them have been detected in china and argentina. in china, both apis cerana and apis mellifera are raised. in argentina, beekeepers raise different ecotypes of a. mellifera: european honeybees (in both temperate and subtropical regions) and africanised honeybees (in subtropical areas only). a thorough study was carried out in both china and argentina to analyse the curren ...201628332647
virus infections of honeybees apis mellifera.the health and vigour of honeybee colonies are threatened by numerous parasites (such as varroa destructor and nosema spp.) and pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa. among honeybee pathogens, viruses are one of the major threats to the health and well-being of honeybees and cause serious concern for researchers and beekeepers. to tone down the threats posed by these invasive organisms, a better understanding of bee viral infections will be of crucial importance in developing effectiv ...201527800411
bee pathogens found in bombus atratus from colombia: a case study.bombus atratus bumblebees from colombia that were caught in the wild and from breeding programs were screened for a broad set of bee pathogens. we discovered for the first time lake sinai virus and confirmed the infection by other common viruses. the prevalence of apicystis bombi, crithidia bombi and nosema ceranae was remarkably high. according to other studies the former two could have been co-introduced in south america with exotic bumble bees as bombus terrestris or bombus ruderatus. given t ...201526031564
detection of multiple viruses in queens of the honey bee apis mellifera l.individual honey bee apis mellifera l. queens were examined for the presence of six honey bee viruses including acute bee paralysis virus, chronic bee paralysis virus, black queen cell virus, deformed wing virus, kashmir bee virus, and sacbrood virus. all viruses, except abpv, were detected in the samples. among queens examined for virus infections, 93% had multiple virus infections. the detection of viruses in queens raises the possibility of a vertical transmission pathway wherein infected que ...200516214161
multiple virus infections in the honey bee and genome divergence of honey bee viruses.using uniplex rt-pcr we screened honey bee colonies for the presence of several bee viruses, including black queen cell virus (bqcv), deformed wing virus (dwv), kashmir bee virus (kbv), and sacbrood virus (sbv), and described the detection of mixed virus infections in bees from these colonies. we report for the first time that individual bees can harbor four viruses simultaneously. we also developed a multiplex rt-pcr assay for the simultaneous detection of multiple bee viruses. the feasibility ...200415579317
black queen-cell virus rna is infectious in honey bee pupae. 200212507491
development of infectious transcripts and genome manipulation of black queen-cell virus of honey bees.the south african isolate of black queen-cell virus (bqcv), a honey bee virus, was previously found to have an 8550 nucleotide genome excluding the poly(a) tail. its genome contained two orfs, a 5'-proximal orf encoding a putative replicase protein and a 3'-proximal orf encoding a capsid polyprotein. long reverse transcription (rt)-pcr was used to produce infectious transcripts for bqcv and to manipulate its genome. primers were designed for the amplification of the complete genome, the in vitro ...200212466491
molecular and phylogenetic characterization of honey bee viruses, nosema microsporidia, protozoan parasites, and parasitic mites in china.china has the largest number of managed honey bee colonies, which produce the highest quantity of honey and royal jelly in the world; however, the presence of honey bee pathogens and parasites has never been rigorously identified in chinese apiaries. we thus conducted a molecular survey of honey bee rna viruses, nosema microsporidia, protozoan parasites, and tracheal mites associated with nonnative apis mellifera ligustica and native apis cerana cerana colonies in china. we found the presence of ...201323467539
prevalence and distribution of six bee viruses in korean apis cerana populations.the prevalence and distribution of six bee viruses was investigated in 527 apis cerana samples which were collected from five provinces in south korea. the most prevalent virus, black queen cell virus (bqcv), was present in 75.11% of 446 adult bee samples, followed by sacbrood virus (sbv) in 30.71%. deformed wing virus (dwv), kashmir bee virus (kbv), and chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv) were present at lower levels of 8.07%, 1.56%, and 0.44%, respectively. the most prevalent virus in 81 larvae ...201222273697
medium for development of bee cell cultures (apis mellifera: hymenoptera: apidae).a media for the production of cell cultures from hymenopteran species such as honey bee, apis mellifera l. (hymenoptera: apidae) was developed. multiple bee cell cultures were produced when using bee larvae and pupae as starting material and modified hert-hunter 70 media. cell culture systems for bees solves an impasse that has hindered efforts to isolate and screen pathogens which may be influencing or causing colony collapse disorder of bees. multiple life stages of maturing larvae to early pu ...201020033792
genetic analysis and phylogenetic comparison of black queen cell virus genotypes.phylogenetic analysis of 22 black queen cell virus (bqcv) genotypes collected from honeybee colonies in poland, austria and hungary was performed on a partial helicase enzyme coding region (orf1) and on a partial structural polypeptide coding region (orf2). while the phylogeny based on the orf2 region showed--with the exception of one strain from poland--clustering of the genotypes corresponding to their geographic origin, the orf1-based tree exhibited a completely different distribution of the ...200919570624
molecular analysis of capsid protein of homalodisca coagulata virus-1, a new leafhopper-infecting virus from the glassy-winged sharpshooter, homalodisca coagulata.a new virus that infects and causes increased mortality in leafhoppers was isolated from the glassy-winged sharpshooter, homalodisca coagulata (say) (hemiptera: cicadellidae). the virus, named homalodisca coagulata virus -1, hocv-1, was associated with increased mortality of cultured 5(th) instar h. coagulata. to identify the presence of h. coagulata viral pathogens, cdna expression libraries were made from adult and nymphs. analysis using reverse transcriptase pcr demonstrated that the virus wa ...200619537993
honeybee viruses in uruguay.mortality of honeybees is a serious problem that beekeepers have to face periodically in uruguay and worldwide. the presence of rna viruses, in addition to other pathogens may be one of its possible causes. in this work, we detected chronic bee paralysis virus, acute bee paralysis virus, black queen cell virus, sacbrood virus and deformed wing virus in samples of uruguayan honeybees with or without varroa destructor and nosema apis. the detection of viruses in different provinces, simultaneous c ...200616843485
vertical transmission of honey bee viruses in a belgian queen breeding program.the member states of european union are encouraged to improve the general conditions for the production and marketing of apicultural products. in belgium, programmes on the restocking of honey bee hives have run for many years. overall, the success ratio of this queen breeding programme has been only around 50%. to tackle this low efficacy, we organized sanitary controls of the breeding queens in 2012 and 2014.201525889959
[symptomatic black queen cell virus infection of drone brood in hessian apiaries].the black queen cell virus (bqcv) can affect brood of the honey bee (apis mellifera). in general queen cells are endangered showing dark coloured cell walls as typical symptoms. worker- and dronebrood can be infected by bqcv but normally without clinical symptoms. this paper describes for the first time a symptomatic bqcv-infection of diseased drone brood found on two bee yards in hessen/germany in 2001. the drone larvae were seriously damaged and some of them were dead. samples of the affected ...200312680279
lower virus infections in varroa destructor-infested and uninfested brood and adult honey bees (apis mellifera) of a low mite population growth colony compared to a high mite population growth colony.a comparison was made of the prevalence and relative quantification of deformed wing virus (dwv), israeli acute paralysis virus (iapv), black queen cell virus (bqcv), kashmir bee virus (kbv), acute bee paralysis virus (abpv) and sac brood virus (sbv) in brood and adult honey bees (apis mellifera) from colonies selected for high (hmp) and low (lmp) varroa destructor mite population growth. two viruses, abpv and sbv, were never detected. for adults without mite infestation, dwv, iapv, bqcv and kbv ...201525723540
sampling and rna quality for diagnosis of honey bee viruses using quantitative pcr.molecular diagnoses of pathogens via ribonucleic acid (rna) signatures are used widely in honey bee pathology. such diagnoses can be compromised by ubiquitous and endogenous rna-degrading enzymes activated after the death of sampled bees. rna degradation can be minimized by storage at ultra-cold temperatures or by immersion in high-salt buffers. however, these methods are not always available in the field or are costly, driving a search for alternative methods to store and transport bees for rna ...201121473885
an inert pesticide adjuvant synergizes viral pathogenicity and mortality in honey bee larvae.honey bees are highly valued for their pollination services in agricultural settings, and recent declines in managed populations have caused concern. colony losses following a major pollination event in the united states, almond pollination, have been characterized by brood mortality with specific symptoms, followed by eventual colony loss weeks later. in this study, we demonstrate that these symptoms can be produced by chronically exposing brood to both an organosilicone surfactant adjuvant (os ...201728091574
bees under stress: sublethal doses of a neonicotinoid pesticide and pathogens interact to elevate honey bee mortality across the life cycle.microbial pathogens are thought to have a profound impact on insect populations. honey bees are suffering from elevated colony losses in the northern hemisphere possibly because of a variety of emergent microbial pathogens, with which pesticides may interact to exacerbate their impacts. to reveal such potential interactions, we administered at sublethal and field realistic doses one neonicotinoid pesticide (thiacloprid) and two common microbial pathogens, the invasive microsporidian nosema ceran ...201525611325
differential responses of africanized and european honey bees (apis mellifera) to viral replication following mechanical transmission or varroa destructor parasitism.for the first time, adults and brood of africanized and european honey bees (apis mellifera) were compared for relative virus levels over 48 h following varroa destructor parasitism or injection of v. destructor homogenate. rates of increase of deformed wing virus (dwv) for africanized versus european bees were temporarily lowered for 12h with parasitism and sustainably lowered over the entire experiment (48 h) with homogenate injection in adults. the rates were also temporarily lowered for 24h ...201525527405
holistic screening of collapsing honey bee colonies in spain: a case study.here we present a holistic screening of collapsing colonies from three professional apiaries in spain. colonies with typical honey bee depopulation symptoms were selected for multiple possible factors to reveal the causes of collapse.201425223634
virion structure of black queen cell virus, a common honeybee pathogen.viral diseases are a major threat to honeybee (apis mellifera) populations worldwide and therefore an important factor in reliable crop pollination and food security. black queen cell virus (bqcv) is the etiological agent of a fatal disease of honeybee queen larvae and pupae. the virus belongs to the genus triatovirus from the family dicistroviridae, which is part of the order picornavirales here we present a crystal structure of bqcv determined to a resolution of 3.4 å. the virion is formed by ...201728077635
brain transcriptomes of honey bees (apis mellifera) experimentally infected by two pathogens: black queen cell virus and nosema ceranae.regulation of gene expression in the brain plays an important role in behavioral plasticity and decision making in response to external stimuli. however, both can be severely affected by environmental factors, such as parasites and pathogens. in honey bees, the emergence and re-emergence of pathogens and potential for pathogen co-infection and interaction have been suggested as major components that significantly impaired social behavior and survival. to understand how the honey bee is affected ...201627747157
effects of wintering environment and parasite-pathogen interactions on honey bee colony loss in north temperate regions.extreme winter losses of honey bee colonies are a major threat to beekeeping but the combinations of factors underlying colony loss remain debatable. we monitored colonies in two environments (colonies wintered indoors or outdoors) and characterized the effects of two parasitic mites, seven viruses, and nosema on honey bee colony mortality and population loss over winter. samples were collected from two locations within hives in fall, mid-winter and spring of 2009/2010. although fall parasite an ...201627448049
analysis of the complete genome sequence of black queen cell virus jl1 from infected honeybees in china.there are six strains of the complete genomic sequences of black queen cell virus (bqcv) published in the genbank, including south africa (af183905), south korea (jx149531), hungary 10 (ef517515), poland 4 (ef517519), poland 5 (ef517520) and poland 6 (ef517521). based on the six bqcv strains published in the genbank, ten pairs of primers were designed in the present study using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to obtain the first complete genome sequence of a bqcv strain in china, ...201627378551
bay laurel (laurus nobilis) as potential antiviral treatment in naturally bqcv infected honeybees.viral diseases are one of the multiple factors associated with honeybee colony losses. apart from their innate immune system, including the rnai machinery, honeybees can use secondary plant metabolites to reduce or fully cure pathogen infections. here, we tested the antiviral potential of laurus nobilis leaf ethanolic extracts on forager honeybees naturally infected with bqcv (black queen cell virus). total viral loads were reduced even at the lowest concentration tested (1mg/ml). higher extract ...201627235809
pathogen prevalence and abundance in honey bee colonies involved in almond pollination.honey bees are important pollinators of agricultural crops. since 2006, us beekeepers have experienced high annual honey bee colony losses, which may be attributed to multiple abiotic and biotic factors, including pathogens. however, the relative importance of these factors has not been fully elucidated. to identify the most prevalent pathogens and investigate the relationship between colony strength and health, we assessed pathogen occurrence, prevalence, and abundance in western us honey bee c ...201727053820
in vivo and in vitro infection dynamics of honey bee viruses.the honey bee (apis mellifera) is commonly infected by multiple viruses. we developed an experimental system for the study of such mixed viral infections in newly emerged honey bees and in the cell line ame-711, derived from honey bee embryos. when inoculating a mixture of iflavirids [sacbrood bee virus (sbv), deformed wing virus (dwv)] and dicistrovirids [israeli acute paralysis virus (iapv), black queen cell virus (bqcv)] in both live bee and cell culture assays, iapv replicated to higher leve ...201626923109
[research progress in black queen cell virus causing disease].in nature, honeybees are the most important pollinators. they play a vital role in both protecting the diversity of natural ecosystems, and maintaining the yield-improving effects of agroecosystems. but in recent years, epidemic disease in bees has caused huge losses. black queen cell virus (bqcv) is a bee pathogen that was first reported in 1955. it mainly infects bee larvae and pupae, making their bodies turn dark and black, and causing a massive decrease in the bee population. more specifical ...201526470541
capsid gene divergence of black queen cell virus isolates in thailand and japan honey bee species.black queen cell virus (bqcv) has been found in honey bees worldwide. by using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) technique, bqcv was detected in a non-native species, apis mellifera l., collected in both thailand and japan, and three other honey bee species (apis cerana indica f., apis dorsata f., and apis florae f.) native to thailand and apis cerana japonica f. native to japan. based on the capsid coding region, the phylogenetic analysis showed that the bqcv strains ...201526470278
four categories of viral infection describe the health status of honey bee colonies.honey bee virus prevalence data are an essential prerequisite for managing epidemic events in a population. a survey study was carried out for seven viruses in colonies representing a healthy danish honey bee population. in addition, colonies from apiaries with high level varroa infestation or high level of winter mortality were also surveyed. results from rt-qpcr showed a considerable difference of virus levels between healthy and sick colonies. in the group of healthy colonies, no virus was de ...201526448627
pathogens as predictors of honey bee colony strength in england and wales.inspectors with the uk national bee unit were asked for 2007-2008 to target problem apiaries in england and wales for pathogen screening and colony strength measures. healthy colonies were included in the sampling to provide a continuum of health conditions. a total of 406 adult bee samples was screened and yielded 7 viral, 1 bacterial, and 2 microsporidial pathogens and 1 ectoparasite (acarapis woodi). in addition, 108 samples of brood were screened and yielded 4 honey bee viruses. virus preval ...201526186735
[isolation, identification and analysis of the complete genome sequence of black queen cell virus strain china-jl1].honeybee pupae were collected from jilin apiaries and rna was extracted for use as a tefnplate for amplification. based on the complete genome sequences of black queen cell virus (bqcv) published on genbank, we designed 10 pairs of primers to amplify genes by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr). using this approach, we have obtained the first complete genome sequence of a bqcv isolate in china. the genome of the isolated strain, named bqcv-jl1, is composed of 8358 nucleotide ...201526164935
honey bee infecting lake sinai viruses.honey bees are critical pollinators of important agricultural crops. recently, high annual losses of honey bee colonies have prompted further investigation of honey bee infecting viruses. to better characterize the recently discovered and very prevalent lake sinai virus (lsv) group, we sequenced currently circulating lsvs, performed phylogenetic analysis, and obtained images of lsv2. sequence analysis resulted in extension of the lsv1 and lsv2 genomes, the first detection of lsv4 in the us, and ...201526110586
the ability to cause infection in a pathogenic fungus uncovers a new biological feature of honey bee viruses.we demonstrated that honey bee viruses including deformed wing virus (dwv), black queen cell virus (bqcv) and israeli acute paralysis virus (iapv) could infect and replicate in the fungal pathogen ascosphaera apis that causes honey bee chalkbrood disease, revealing a novel biological feature of honey bee viruses. the phylogenetic analysis show that viruses of fungal and honey bee origins form two clusters in the phylogenetic trees distinctly and that host range of honey bee viruses is dynamic. f ...201424825460
unbiased rna shotgun metagenomics in social and solitary wild bees detects associations with eukaryote parasites and new viruses.the diversity of eukaryote organisms and viruses associated with wild bees remains poorly characterized in contrast to the well-documented pathosphere of the western honey bee, apis mellifera. using a deliberate rna shotgun metagenomic sequencing strategy in combination with a dedicated bioinformatics workflow, we identified the (micro-)organisms and viruses associated with two bumble bee hosts, bombus terrestris and bombus pascuorum, and two solitary bee hosts, osmia cornuta and andrena vaga. i ...201628006002
comprehensive bee pathogen screening in belgium reveals crithidia mellificae as a new contributory factor to winter mortality.since the last decade, unusually high honey bee colony losses have been reported mainly in north-america and europe. here, we report on a comprehensive bee pathogen screening in belgium covering 363 bee colonies that were screened for 18 known disease-causing pathogens and correlate their incidence in summer with subsequent winter mortality. our analyses demonstrate that, in addition to varroa destructor, the presence of the trypanosomatid parasite crithidia mellificae and the microsporidian par ...201323991113
sudden deaths and colony population decline in greek honey bee colonies.during june and july of 2009, sudden deaths, tremulous movements and population declines of adult honey bees were reported by the beekeepers in the region of peloponnesus (mt. mainalo), greece. a preliminary study was carried out to investigate these unexplained phenomena in this region. in total, 37 bee samples, two brood frames containing honey bee brood of various ages, eight sugar samples and four sugar patties were collected from the affected colonies. the samples were tested for a range of ...201020804765
first molecular detection of co-infection of honey bee viruses in asymptomatic bombus atratus in south america.pollination is critical for food production and has the particularity of linking natural ecosystems with agricultural production systems. recently, losses of bumblebee species have been reported worldwide. in this study, samples from a commercial exploitation of bumblebees of argentina with a recent history of deaths were studied using a multiplex pcr for the detection of the honey bee viruses most frequently detected in south america. all samples analysed were positive for co-infections with de ...201324789396
sex-specific differences in pathogen susceptibility in honey bees (apis mellifera).sex-related differences in susceptibility to pathogens are a common phenomenon in animals. in the eusocial hymenoptera the two female castes, workers and queens, are diploid and males are haploid. the haploid susceptibility hypothesis predicts that haploid males are more susceptible to pathogen infections compared to females. here we test this hypothesis using adult male (drone) and female (worker) honey bees (apis mellifera), inoculated with the gut endoparasite nosema ceranae and/or black quee ...201424465518
cross-species transmission of honey bee viruses in associated arthropods.there are a number of rna virus pathogens that represent a serious threat to the health of managed honey bees (apis mellifera). that some of these viruses are also found in the broader pollinator community suggests the wider environmental spread of these viruses, with the potential for a broader impact on ecosystems. studies on the ecology and evolution of these viruses in the arthropod community as a whole may therefore provide important insights into these potential impacts. we examined manage ...201323845302
seasonal prevalence of pathogens and parasites in the savannah honeybee (apis mellifera scutellata).the loss of apis mellifera l. colonies in recent years has, in many regions of the world, been alarmingly high. no single cause has been identified for these losses, but the interactions between several factors (mostly pathogens and parasites) have been held responsible. work in the americas on honeybees originating mainly from south africa indicates that africanised honeybees are less affected by the interplay of pathogens and parasites. however, little is known about the health status of south ...201323702244
analysis of the complete genome sequence and capsid region of black queen cell viruses from infected honeybees (apis mellifera) in korea.black queen cell virus (bqcv) infection is one of the most common viral infections in honeybees (apis mellifera). a phylogenetic tree was constructed for 19 partial nucleotide sequences for the capsid region of south korean bqcv, which were also compared with 10 previously reported bqcv sequences derived from different countries. the korean bqcv genomes were highly conserved and showed 97-100% identity. they also showed 92-99% similarity with other country genotypes and showed no significant clu ...201323526158
the effects of pesticides on queen rearing and virus titers in honey bees (apis mellifera l.).the effects of sublethal pesticide exposure on queen emergence and virus titers were examined. queen rearing colonies were fed pollen with chlorpyrifos (cpf) alone (pollen-1) and with cpf and the fungicide pristine(®) (pollen-2). fewer queens emerged when larvae from open foraging (i.e., outside) colonies were reared in colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 compared with when those larvae were reared in outside colonies. larvae grafted from and reared in colonies fed pollen-2 had lower rates of queen emerg ...201326466796
on the front line: quantitative virus dynamics in honeybee (apis mellifera l.) colonies along a new expansion front of the parasite varroa destructor.over the past fifty years, annual honeybee (apis mellifera) colony losses have been steadily increasing worldwide. these losses have occurred in parallel with the global spread of the honeybee parasite varroa destructor. indeed, varroa mite infestations are considered to be a key explanatory factor for the widespread increase in annual honeybee colony mortality. the host-parasite relationship between honeybees and varroa is complicated by the mite's close association with a range of honeybee vir ...201425144447
honeybee colony disorder in crop areas: the role of pesticides and viruses.as in many other locations in the world, honeybee colony losses and disorders have increased in belgium. some of the symptoms observed rest unspecific and their causes remain unknown. the present study aims to determine the role of both pesticide exposure and virus load on the appraisal of unexplained honeybee colony disorders in field conditions. from july 2011 to may 2012, 330 colonies were monitored. honeybees, wax, beebread and honey samples were collected. morbidity and mortality informatio ...201425048715
honey bee apis mellifera parasites in the absence of nosema ceranae fungi and varroa destructor mites.few areas of the world have western honey bee (apis mellifera) colonies that are free of invasive parasites nosema ceranae (fungi) and varroa destructor (mites). particularly detrimental is v. destructor; in addition to feeding on host haemolymph, these mites are important vectors of several viruses that are further implicated as contributors to honey bee mortality around the world. thus, the biogeography and attendant consequences of viral communities in the absence of v. destructor are of sign ...201424955834
increased tolerance and resistance to virus infections: a possible factor in the survival of varroa destructor-resistant honey bees (apis mellifera).the honey bee ectoparasitic mite, varroa destructor, has a world-wide distribution and inflicts more damage than all other known apicultural diseases. however, varroa-induced colony mortality is more accurately a result of secondary virus infections vectored by the mite. this means that honey bee resistance to varroa may include resistance or tolerance to virus infections. the aim of this study was to see if this is the case for a unique population of mite-resistant (mr) european honey bees on t ...201424926792
absence of deformed wing virus and varroa destructor in australia provides unique perspectives on honeybee viral landscapes and colony losses.honeybee (apis mellifera) health is threatened globally by the complex interaction of multiple stressors, including the parasitic mite varroa destructor and a number of pathogenic viruses. australia provides a unique opportunity to study this pathogenic viral landscape in the absence of v. destructor. we analysed 1,240a. mellifera colonies across australia by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and next-generation sequencing (ngs). five viruses were prevalent: black queen ce ...201728761114
single-stranded rna viruses infecting the invasive argentine ant, linepithema humile.social insects host a diversity of viruses. we examined new zealand populations of the globally widely distributed invasive argentine ant (linepithema humile) for rna viruses. we used metatranscriptomic analysis, which identified six potential novel viruses in the dicistroviridae family. of these, three contigs were confirmed by sanger sequencing as linepithema humile virus-1 (lhuv-1), a novel strain of kashmir bee virus (kbv) and black queen cell virus (bqcv), while the others were chimeric or ...201728607437
replication of honey bee-associated rna viruses across multiple bee species in apple orchards of georgia, germany and kyrgyzstan.the essential ecosystem service of pollination is provided largely by insects, which are considered threatened by diverse biotic and abiotic global change pressures. rna viruses are one such pressure, and have risen in prominence as a major threat for honey bees (apis mellifera) and global apiculture, as well as a risk factor for other bee species through pathogen spill-over between managed honey bees and sympatric wild pollinator communities. yet despite their potential role in global bee decli ...201728392285
phylogenetic analysis of black queen cell virus genotypes in south korea.the black queen cell virus (bqcv), a picorna-like honeybee virus, was first isolated from queen larvae and pupae of honeybees found dead in their cells. bqcv is the most common cause of death in queen larvae. phylogenetic analysis of two apis cerana and three apis mellifera bqcv genotypes collected from honeybee colonies in different regions of south korea, central european bqcv genotypes, and a south african bqcv reference genotype was performed on a partial helicase enzyme coding region (orf1) ...201323239276
the prevalence of parasites and pathogens in asian honeybees apis cerana in china.pathogens and parasites represent significant threats to the health and well-being of honeybee species that are key pollinators of agricultural crops and flowers worldwide. we conducted a nationwide survey to determine the occurrence and prevalence of pathogens and parasites in asian honeybees, apis cerana, in china. our study provides evidence of infections of a. cerana by pathogenic deformed wing virus (dwv), black queen cell virus (bqcv), nosema ceranae, and c. bombi species that have been li ...201223144838
molecular identification of chronic bee paralysis virus infection in apis mellifera colonies in japan.chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv) infection causes chronic paralysis and loss of workers in honey bee colonies around the world. although cbpv shows a worldwide distribution, it had not been molecularly detected in japan. our investigation of apis mellifera and apis cerana japonica colonies with rt-pcr has revealed cbpv infection in a. mellifera but not a. c. japonica colonies in japan. the prevalence of cbpv is low compared with that of other viruses: deformed wing virus (dwv), black queen cel ...201222852042
low prevalence of honeybee viruses in spain during 2006 and 2007.rna viruses that affect honeybees have been involved in colony losses reported around the world. the aim of the present work was to evaluate the prevalence and distribution of honeybee viruses during 2006-2007 in spanish professional apiaries, and their association with colony losses. four hundred and fifty-six samples from apiaries located in different geographic regions of spain were analyzed. thirty-seven percent of the samples had viral presence. most (80%) had one virus and 20% two differen ...201222513127
the first comprehensive molecular detection of six honey bee viruses in iran in 2015-2016.at least 18 viruses have been reported in the honey bee (apis mellifera l.). however, severe diseases in honey bees are mainly caused by six viruses, and these are the most important in beekeeping. these viruses include: deformed wing virus (dwv), acute bee paralysis virus (abpv), chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv), sacbrood virus (sbv), kashmir bee virus (kbv), and black queen cell virus (bqcv). in this study, we evaluated 89 iranian honey bee apiaries (during the period 2015-2016) suffering fr ...201728429131
viruses of managed alfalfa leafcutting bees (megachille rotundata fabricus) and honey bees (apis mellifera l.) in western canada: incidence, impacts, and prospects of cross-species viral transmission.we examined whether alfalfa leafcutting bees (alcb, megachille rotundata) experienced a higher incidence of seven viruses commonly found honey bees (apis mellifera) when placed alongside honey bees for hybrid canola seed pollination. although two viruses - sacbrood virus (sbv) and deformed wing virus (dwv) - were detected in alcb adults, their presence appeared independent of whether honey bees were present in the same field or not. a further survey of viruses among alcb adults in three differen ...201728400199
risk factors for the presence of deformed wing virus and acute bee paralysis virus under temperate and subtropical climate in argentinian bee colonies.beekeepers all across the world are suffering important losses of their colonies, and the parasitic mites varroa destructor and nosema sp, as well as several bee viruses, are being pointed out as the possible causes of these losses, generally associated with environmental and management factors. the objective of the present study was to evaluate the presence of seven virus species (deformed wing virus -dwv-, acute bee paralysis virus -abpv-, chronic bee paralysis virus -cbpv-, black queen cell v ...201728460743
prevalence of honey bee (apis mellifera) viruses in temperate and subtropical regions from argentina.in argentina, bee virus studies are still incipient, and there are no studies regarding the climatic effect. the aim of this study was to assess and compare the presence of honeybee viruses in different climatic regions from argentina. a total of 385 colonies distributed in five argentinean eco-regions were examined to evaluate the percentage of infestation with varroa destructor and the presence of seven virus species (deformed wing virus, dwv; acute bee paralysis virus, abpv; chronic bee paral ...201728449942
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