[ecology and distribution of the tick, ixodes lividus, in karelia (ixodidae)].the territory of karelia was investigated from 62 degrees to 66 degrees n. in the nests of riparia riparia the tick ixodes lividus at all active phases of its development was first found. on the northern border of its distribution area the species shows a tendency to hibernate at the phases of nymph, female and male. this ability has favoured to a considerable extent the advancement of the species into the northern latitudes up t degrees 66 degrees n.1979158740
results of arbovirological examination of birds of the family hirundinidae in czechoslovakia.migratory birds (swallow, hirundo rustica; sand martin, riparia riparia; house martin, delichon urbica) caught in southern moravia (czechoslovakia) in 1984-87 were examined for arbovirus infections. isolation experiments were carried out using blood samples of 183 birds (52 swallows, 107 sand martins, and 24 house martins). the results were negative. serological examinations of 136 birds (36 swallows, 86 sand martins, and 14 house martins) were made by haemagglutination-inhibition test (hit) usi ...19892562171
[kama, a new virus (flaviviridae, flavivirus, tiulenii antigenic group), isolated from ixodes lividus ticks].three identical strains of a new virus kama (flaviviridae, flavivirus, tyuleny antigenic group) were isolated from ixodes lividus roch, obligate parasites of riparia riparia l. the ticks were collected in june, 1990 in tatarstan on the islands in the basin of the kama river. the strains were examined under electron microscope and by serological tests (neutralization, complement fixation, hemagglutination inhibition, and indirect immunofluorescence). the virus is antigenically related but not ide ...19989606874
interspecific variability of prevalence in blood parasites of adult passerine birds during the breeding season in alaska.blood parasite prevalence based on microscopic examination of stained blood smears was determined in adults of 11 passerine bird species sampled during their breeding season (may and june 1997-98) in interior alaska (usa). these species included primarily nearctic migratory species such as the dark-eyed junco (junco hyemalis) and neotropical migratory species such as the blackpoll warbler (dendroica striata), alder flycatcher (empidonax alnorum), swainson's thrush (catharus ustulatus), northern ...200111272501
[new species of mites of the genus ptilonyssus (gamasina: rhinonyssidae) isolated from passeriformes (aves: passeriformes) from russia and neighboring countries].eight new species of the genus ptilonyssus (berl. et troues.) (gamasina: rhinonyssidae) from nasal cavities of the passeriformes from territory of the former ussr are described: p. ammomani sp. n. from ammomanus deserti (alaudidae) collected in turkmenistan; p. spini sp. n. from spinus spinus (fringillidae) of kaliningrad district (russia); p. ripariae sp. n. from riparia riparia (hirundinidae) and p. acanthopneustes sp. n. from phylloscopus borealis (sylviidae) collected in tjumen district (rus ...200312677669
[fleas (siphonaptera) infesting birds of west siberian plain].the four species of fleas associated with birds in west siberian plain have been recorded. ceratophyllus styx is a specific parasite of riparia riparia. ceratophyllus garei, c. gallinae, and c. tribulis parasitize various setting of birds.200314964847
preliminary evaluation of exotic tick species and exotic pathogens imported on migratory birds into the british isles.field studies were carried out to determine whether ticks are being imported into the british isles on migratory birds. during spring and autumn migration 2004, ticks were collected from ringed birds at 11 bird observatories and 3 inland riparia riparia colonies. a total of 38 ticks of 4 species (ixodes ricinus, i. frontalis, i. lividus, i. arboricola) were collected from 12 species of bird. ticks were tested for viruses in the flavivirus and nairovirus genera, with no positives found. this data ...200818585865
detection of spotted fever group rickettsia spp. from bird ticks in the u.k.migratory birds are known to play a role in the long-distance transportation of microorganisms. to investigate whether this is true for rickettsial agents, we undertook a study to characterize tick infestation in populations of the migratory passerine bird riparia riparia (passeriformes: hirundinidae), the sand martin. a total of 194 birds were sampled and ticks removed from infested birds. the ticks were identified as female ixodes lividus (acari: ixodidae) using standard morphological and mole ...201020546129
collyriclosis in central european hirundines.cutaneous monostome trematode collyriclum faba (bremser in schmalz 1831) is a digenetic flatworm with unknown life cycle. here, we provide the first compelling evidence that despite low prevalence of the parasite, european hirundines are parasitized by this species. first host record for sand martin (riparia riparia) and first european host record for barn swallow (hirundo rustica) is provided. the birds were captured and checked in ten european and middle eastern countries, stretching from irel ...201121380577
age-independent telomere length predicts fitness in two bird species.telomeres are dynamic dna-protein structures that form protective caps at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. although initial telomere length is partly genetically determined, subsequent accelerated telomere shortening has been linked to elevated levels of oxidative stress. recent studies show that short telomere length alone is insufficient to induce cellular senescence; advanced attrition of these repetitive dna sequences does, however, reflect ageing processes. furthermore, telomeres vary wi ...200616629820
sperm performance in conspecific and heterospecific female fluid.divergent sexual selection within allopatric populations may result in divergent sexual phenotypes, which can act as reproductive barriers between populations upon secondary contact. this hypothesis has been most tested on traits involved in precopulatory sexual selection, with less work focusing on traits that act after copulation and before fertilization (i.e., postcopulatory prezygotic traits), particularly in internally fertilizing vertebrates. however, postcopulatory sexual selection within ...201626855769
vane emargination of outer tail feathers improves flight manoeuvrability in streamerless hirundines, hirundinidae.recent studies have suggested that the proximal part of the swallow (hirundo rustica) tail streamer appears to aid turning flight, as expected if streamers evolved initially purely through natural selection for enhanced manoeuvrability. however, the evolution of slender aerodynamically advantageous streamers is also predicted by an alternative hypothesis, which suggests that such a trait could develop primarily to ameliorate the aerodynamic cost of a long size-dimorphic tail. to distinguish betw ...200415315899
acoustic adaptations for parent-offspring recognition in swallows.we have used field and laboratory studies to investigate acoustic adaptations for parent-offspring recognition in two closely related pairs of swallows: (a) bank swallow (riparia riparia) and northern rough-winged swallow (stelgidopteryx serripennis), and (b) cliff swallow (hirundo pyrrhonota) and barn swallow (hirundo rustica). cross-fostering and playback experiments show that bank swallow and cliff swallow parents recognize their offspring by voice while rough-winged swallow and barn swallow ...19863525221
energetics of free existence in swallows and martins (hirundinidae) during breeding: a comparative study using doubly labeled metabolism of three sympatric swallows (hirundinidae) was investigated during the breeding season using doubly labeled water ((2)h2(18)o). interspecific and intraspecific differences in energy metabolism were examined in relation to the habits, size and environment of the birds. to facilitate comparisons we expressed energy metabolism (m) as the ratio of average daily metabolic rate (admr, cm(3)co2g(-1)h(-1)) to basal metabolic rate (bmr). we observed adults during incubation and when fee ...198428310891
time and energy constraints on the brood size of swallows, hirundo rustica, and sand martins, riparia riparia.the daily energy requirements of swallow hirundo rustica and sand martin riparia riparia adults with broods of different sizes were compared with the energy (food) gain rates of adults. energy requirements of broods were obtained from food delivery rates, growth rates and from published data. the energy requirements of adults were obtained from d2o(18) measurements and from time budgets. energy gain rates were measured from food delivery rates to collared nestlings. these energy gain rates were ...198328310254
pleistocene evolution of closely related sand martins riparia riparia and r. diluta.climatic fluctuations during the quaternary resulted in a dynamic history of species' range shifts, fragmentations and expansions. some of these events left traces in the genetic structures of plants and animals. recent avian phylogeographic studies demonstrated that holarctic birds responded idiosyncratically to pleistocene climate fluctuations. we present phylogeographic analyses of the holarctic collared sand martin (riparia riparia) and the asian pale sand martin (riparia diluta), which were ...200818499482
relationship between avian growth rate and immune response depends on food history theory predicts that when resources are limited growing organisms are likely to trade an immune response for competing demands of growth. to test this we examined the effect of energy intake on body mass increments and an immune response in hand-reared sand martin (riparia riparia) nestlings. we subjected the nestlings to three different feeding regimes, mimicking the range of food availability in the wild, and then evaluated nestlings' immune response to phytohaemagglutinin (pha). ...200717575041
effect of food shortage on the physiology and competitive abilities of sand martin (riparia riparia) nestlings.we examined developmental and behavioural plasticity of sand martin (riparia riparia) nestlings hand-reared under laboratory conditions. we created six broods of six 4-day-old nestlings and randomly assigned them to one of the two following feeding regimens, each lasting for 3 days: (1) all nestmates fed a similar, limited amount of food (fr nestlings). this simulated synchronous hatching under conditions of food restriction. (2) half the brood were food-restricted (fr/al nestlings), and half we ...200111551994
ejaculate allocation by male sand martins, riparia riparia.males of many species allocate sperm to ejaculates strategically in response to variation in the risk and intensity of sperm competition. the notable exception is passerine birds, in which evidence for strategic allocation is absent. here we report the results of a study testing for strategic ejaculate allocation in a passerine bird, the sand martin (riparia riparia). natural ejaculates were collected from males copulating with a model female. ejaculates transferred in the presence of a rival ma ...200111410153
exposure to ectoparasites increases within-brood variability in size and body mass in the sand martin.parasites often have detrimental effects on their hosts, and only host individuals able to cope with parasitism are likely to display induced or genetic resistance. hosts may respond to parasitism by differential investment in offspring depending on their ability to cope with parasitism, because offspring that perform better than their siblings are themselves likely to have superior induced or genetic resistance. we tested whether nestlings of the highly colonial sand martin riparia riparia were ...200024595831
imitating the initial evolutionary stage of a tail ornament.costs of a sexual ornament in its early evolutionary form and the relationship between these costs and individual condition may be an important influence in the likelihood of possible evolutionary mechanisms involved in the evolution of this ornament. we reconstructed the tail shape in hypothetical ancestors of recent hirundines (aves: hirundinidae), from which the elongation of tail feathers under sexual selection might have begun. by elongating the tail in sand martins (riparia riparia, hirund ...200010937246
brood parasitism in the sand martin, riparia riparia: evidence for two parasitic strategies in a colonial passerine.sand martin parentage was studied at a large breeding colony in central scotland. multilocus dna fingerprinting was used during the 3-year study to exclude some social parents as true parents, and thereby determine the frequency of monogamy, quasiparasitism (qp), intraspecific brood parasitism (isbp) and extrapair fertilization (epf) amongst 45 broods and 167 nestlings. monogamous parentage characterized the majority of broods (60%), so most chicks were the offspring of their social parents (81% ...19989933528
cost of parasitism and host immune defence in the sand martin riparia riparia: a role for parent-offspring conflict?parent-offspring conflict may arise because the lifetime reproductive success of the parent is more influenced by its life span than by reproductive success during a particular reproductive event, while the fitness of an offspring depends firstly on its own survival as a juvenile and only subsequently on its own reproductive success. the naive immune system of young animals may allow offspring to be much more affected by parasites than their parents, and thus cause an initial asymmetry in a pote ...199928308163
[ectoparasites from the nests of the swallow riparia riparia (l.)]. 19883232388
effects of hypoxia and hypercapnia on vt, f, and vi of nestling and adult bank swallows.the effects of hypoxia, hypercapnia, and hypoxic hypercapnia on ventilation, and breathing pattern in adult and nestling bank swallows (riparia riparia) were assessed. the co2 threshold above which inhaled minute volume (vi) increased significantly in adults and nestlings was 0.045. at each level of fractional concentration of inspired co2 (fico2), ventilation in nestlings was lower than that in adults. at a fico2 of 0.09, vi of adults increased by 284%, whereas vi in nestlings changed 238%. adu ...19873425765
[mites (acari, mesostigmata) in nests of riparia riparia l. in the province of warsaw]. 19734773085
[mites in nests of riparia riparia l, in warsaw province]. 19724660785
isolated populations of ixodes lividus ticks in the czech republic and belgium host genetically homogeneous rickettsia the last two decades, the advent of molecular methods has revealed a remarkable diversity of rickettsiae (rickettsiales: rickettsiaceae) in invertebrates. several species of these obligate intracellular bacteria are known to cause human infections, hence more attention has been directed towards human-biting ectoparasites. a spotted fever group rickettsia sp. was previously detected in ixodes lividus ticks (ixodidae) associated with sand martins (hirundinidae: riparia riparia). in order to ide ...201829373306
first records of ixodes lividus from sand martin (riparia riparia) nests in lithuania.ixodes lividus (koch, 1844) ticks are specific parasites of the sand martin riparia riparia (l.). the distribution range of i. lividus covers europe (being absent from the mediterranean area) and asia. however, until now there have been no reports on the presence of this tick in lithuania. a total of 47 nests were collected in three different colonies of sand martins in the central part of lithuania and 46.8% of them were infested with ticks. in total, 2,770 ticks were found and identified as i. ...201729125245
mercury exposure to swallows breeding in canada inferred from feathers grown on breeding and non-breeding grounds.aerial insectivorous birds such as swallows have been the steepest declining groups of birds in north america over the last 50 years but whether such declines are linked to contaminants has not been examined. we sampled feathers from five species of swallow at multiple locations to assess total mercury [thg] exposure for adults during the non-breeding season, and for juveniles on the breeding grounds. we assessed hg exposure to juvenile birds in crop- and grass-dominated landscapes to determine ...202032656653
germline-restricted chromosome (grc) in the sand martin and the pale martin (hirundinidae, aves): synapsis, recombination and copy number variation.all songbirds studied to date have an additional germline restricted chromosome (grc), which is not present in somatic cells. grcs show a wide variation in genetic content and little homology between species. to check how this divergence affected the meiotic behavior of the grc, we examined synapsis, recombination and copy number variation for grcs in the closely related sand and pale martins (riparia riparia and r. diluta) in comparison with distantly related estrildid finches. using immunoloca ...202031974427
new record of rickettsia vini in ixodes lividus ticks from lithuania.ixodes lividus koch, 1844 (ixodida: ixodidae) ticks are parasites specific to the sand martin (riparia riparia). the distribution range of i. lividus covers europe and asia and they are found wherever sand martins nest. borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, borrelia garinii and rickettsia vini have recently been detected in i. lividus ticks in central europe. the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of rickettsia spp. (rickettsiales: rickettsiaceae) and borrelia spp. (spirochaetales: ...202031983628
older birds have better feathers: a longitudinal study on the long-distance migratory sand martin, riparia riparia.feather quality is of critical importance to long-distance migratory birds. here, we report a series of analyses of a unique data set encompassing known-age individuals of the long-distance migratory sand martin (riparia riparia). sampling over 17 years along the tisza river, eastern hungary, has resulted in the recapture of numerous individuals enabling longitudinal and cross-sectional investigation of the role of adaptation to variable environmental conditions on feather morphology. we show th ...201930608973
contrasting patterns of diversification in two sister species of martins (aves: hirundinidae): the sand martin riparia riparia and the pale martin r. diluta.species not only responded idiosyncratically to past climate changes, there were also regionally contrasting effects on spatio-temporal diversification patterns. studies of closely related species appear to be a particularly promising comparative approach to disentangle such regionally differential impacts. in this study, we undertook a comprehensive geographic sampling to investigate the evolutionary history of the holarctic sand martin riparia riparia and the chiefly central and east asian pal ...201829522814
kama virus (kamv) is an atypical representative of the seabird tick-borne flaviviruses.according to modern classification, tick-borne flaviviruses have been divided into a mammalian tick-borne virus group and a seabird tick-borne virus group (stbvg). the stbvg includes the tyuleniy virus, meaban virus, saumarez reef virus, and the recently discovered kama virus (kamv). the latter was isolated from ixodes lividus, an obligate parasitic tick of the sand martin (riparia riparia), in 1989 in the central part of the russian plain. in 2014, based on molecular genetic analysis, it was sh ...202134086153
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