hematological data of the laboratory-maintained bonnet (macaca radiata) and the langur (presbytis entellus entellus) monkeys. 197895998
effect of short-term administration of cyproterone acetate on the reproductive tract histology, ovarian and serum cholesterol contents of female monkey (presbytis entellus entellus).short courses of cyproterone acetate, a compound with progestational and antiandrogenic activities were administered to normally cycling female monkeys to investigate into the effects of cyproterone acetate on the reproductive tract. in little earlier follicular stage 20 mg of the drug daily for 30 days increased the cholesterol contents in the gonads. serum cholesterol contents were slightly increased. when the reproductive tract was examined histologically, the gonads showed reduction in size, ...1979121016
cadmium induced changes in the liver of langurs (presbytis entellus-entellus dufresne).1- cadmium-induced hepatic disturbances in langurs have been studied following a single low dose administration of the salt (cd cl2 4 mg/kg s.c.). 2-serum transaminases, choelsterol and liver glycogen levels were elevated. alkaline phosphatase levels were in normal range. the blood sugar was at a low level. 3- degranulation, vacuolization and distortion of the liver cells and lobules were conspicuous. 4- in conclusion this study would indicate that increased serum enzyme activity and increased p ...1977207645
oestrogen metabolites in urine during the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and puerperium in the indian hanuman langur (presbytis entellus entellus).oestrone, oestradiol-17 beta and oestriol were detected in the urine of menstruating and pregnant langur monkeys. more oestrone than the other two oestrogens was excreted during the cycle and oestradiol-17 beta and oestriol could not be detected during the luteal phase. there was an increase in the amount of all the three oestrogens excreted during pregnancy when compared with the menstruating animals and oestriol was the major oestrogen excreted in the urine of pregnant langurs. normal cyclic l ...1976818375
the indian langur: preliminary report of a new nonhuman primate host for visceral leishmaniasis.described are the susceptibility of the indian langur (presbytis entellus) to leishmania donovani and the consequent haematological and serum biochemical changes. the host response to antileishmanial chemotherapy and the immunological profile were also examined. each langur was inoculated intravenously with 1 x 10(8) amastigotes; a spleen biopsy carried out on day 35 post-infection (p.i.) revealed 10-13 l. donovani bodies per 500 cell nuclei, which reached a maximum of 130-195 at death (day 105- ...19921314709
quantification and excretion profiles of pteridines in primate urine.biopterin, 6-hydroxymethyl-pterin, isoxanthopterin, neopterin and, pterin were quantified in stress-free collected spontaneous morning urine samples from callithrix jacchus, saguinus fuscicollis, saguinus labiatus, saimiri sciureus, presbytis entellus, cercopithecus albogularis, cercocebus torquatus, macaca fascicularis, hylobates concolor, pongo pygmaeus, and gorilla gorilla. in most species, biopterin was the most frequent urinary pteridine followed by neopterin. sex differences in biopterin a ...19921404333
susceptibility of the langur monkey (semnopithecus entellus) to experimental plague: pathology and immunity. 19654954349
vasectomy in langur monkeys (presbytis entellus entellus dufresne).the sex accessory gland functions were studied in 1-12 months vasectomized langur monkeys. seminal plasma fructose did not change. semen volume, magnesium, and citric acid decreased transitionally up to 6 months. a significant decrease in ldh and transaminases (got, gpt) following vasectomy indicated an altered secretory activity of the accessory sex organs.19836625749
localization of nucleolus organizing regions on chromosomes of the hanuman langur, presbytis entellus entellus (dufresne), & the bonnet monkey, macaca radiata. 19836667986
aging and reproductive performance in langur monkeys (presbytis entellus).analysis of data on age and reproductive performance in 16 captive female hanuman langurs (presbytis entellus) shows that adult females under the age of 6 years and over the age of 19 years had the lowest rates of reproductive success as measured by the production of viable young that survived beyond 30 days of age. with the possible exception of one female, females over the age of 19 years experienced a variety of idiosyncratic reproductive problems but did not experience a true menopause as de ...19902248383
presbytis entellus and macaca radiata as new hosts for experimental plasmodium cynomolgi bastianellii infection. 19827174004
comparative analyses of age- and sex-specific patterns of vocal behaviour in four species of old world monkeys.sound recordings and behavioural data were collected from four primate species of two genera (macaca, presbytis). comparative analyses of structural and behavioural aspects of vocal communication revealed a high degree of intrageneric similarity but striking intergeneric differences. in the two macaque species (macaca silenus, macaca radiata), males and females shared the major part of the repertoire. in contrast, in the two langurs (presbytis johnii, presbytis entellus), many calls were exclusi ...19911885113
progesterone metabolites in urine during menstrual cycle, pregnancy & puerperium in the indian hanuman langur presbytis entellus entellus dufresne.the urinary excretion of pregnanediol was estimated during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and the puerperium in langur monkeys. pregnanediol 1st appeared in urine on the day after ovulation and reached peak values on day 17 of the cycle. pregnanediol levels rapidly fell on day 20 to the point that they could not be estimated. pregnanediol appeared to be the major progesterone metabolite during pregnancy, though 6 other metabolites, including androsterone and dehydroepian ...1976825456
biosocial functions of grooming behavior among the common indian langur monkey (presbytis entellus).an intensive study of the indian langur monkey (presbytis entellus) reveals an interplay between biological and social processes. this study which involved captive animals and over 1,500 observation hours suggests that grooming behavior alone cannot be used to measure status differences between the sexes, nor as a means to understand how pathogens carried by ecto-parasites are controlled. it is shown that the type of grooming exhibited in an interactional setting and the region of the body prese ...1978418692
intergroup infant kidnapping in hanuman langur.the hanuman langur, presbytis entellus (primates, cercopithecidae, colobinae), is under investigation in its wild state around jodhpur, rajasthan, india, since 1967. jodhpur constitutes its extreme western range of distribution beyond which lies the great indian desert. infant transfer, infant killing [see mohnot, 1971a, b], and intergroup infant kidnapping were frequently observed in this habitat. details pertaining to intergroup infant kidnapping by allomothers of neighboring groups are presen ...19807216004
sialic acid concentration in the reproductive organs, pituitary gland and urine of the indian langur monkey (presbytis entellus entellus).the concentration of sialic acid was determined in the reproductive organs, pituitary gland and urine of male and female langur monkeys. in the male, sialic acid concentration was lowest in the testes and highest in the epididymides. both caput and cauda epididymides contained almost the same concentration. castration and subsequent androgen administration did not modify the concentration of sialic acid by comparison with intact animals, suggesting that sialic acid is not androgen-dependent in t ...1977405449
initiation of menstrual cyclicity in laboratory maintained bonnet (macaca radiata) & langur (presbytis entellus entellus) monkeys. 1979116960
protein polymorphism in the hanuman langur (presbytis entellus).26 specimens of presbytis entellus were examined for a variety of blood proteins. in contrast to previous studies of other species of leaf monkeys, our p.entellus sample proved to be very heterogeneous. polymorphisms were found in the third component of complement, group-specific component, glycine-rich beta-glycoprotein, alpha1-antitrypsin, phosphoglucomutase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, adenylate kinase, superoxide dismutase, malate dehydrogenase, and phosphohexose isomerase. variable ba ...197551813
presbytis entellus as a new host for experimental plasmodium knowlesi infection. 19817287097
rotavirus antibodies in hanuman langurs (presbytis entellus).serum samples from wild hanuman langurs (presbytis entellus) from mysore state, india, were compared to samples from a laboratory colony from davis, calif., for antibodies to rotavirus, which is an important cause of gastroenteritis in mammals. animals from the laboratory colony had a higher frequency and higher levels of antibody than wild animals. it is likely that wild populations of langurs have a much lower incidence of rotaviral infection than laboratory populations, which are exposed to b ...19826288954
effectiveness of live or killed plague vaccines in man.while the safety of the available live plague vaccine ev 76 (paris) continues to be the subject of further study, the usp formol-killed, virulent pasteurella pestis (yersinia pestis) suspension capable of protecting 60% of non-human primates, particularly hanuman langurs (presbytis entellus), warrants further clinical tests and field trials. inoculated in a dosage of 2x10(9) killed plague bacilli (1 ml), followed by a booster of 400 million organisms (0.2 ml) in 1-3 months, this vaccine stimulat ...19704988692
presbytis entellus, a new experimental host for plasmodium fragile.the course of blood-induced plasmodium fragile infection in 3 simian hosts, macaca radiata (bonnet monkey), macaca mulatta (rhesus monkey), and presbytis entellus (indian langur), was studied. the infection in 8 bonnet monkeys was very mild and nonfatal. in m. mulatta, p. fragile produced acute initial infection followed by anemia and death in 3 of 6 monkeys. the parasite has a relatively high level of virulence for p. entellus, a new experimental host for p. fragile, in which peak parasitemia r ...19948308652
experimental transmission of nocturnally periodic wuchereria bancrofti to indian leaf monkey (presbytis entellus).successful experimental transmission of the human lymphatic dwelling nocturnal periodic strain of wuchereria bancrofti has been achieved from man to indian leaf monkey (presbytis entellus) through a susceptible strain of aedes aegypti. the prepatent period varied between 195 and 240 days. microfilaria (mf) levels were in general low and the peak count was attained at 1800 hr. of the adult worms 5-12.5% were recovered from male langur while females revealed poor (2.54%) recovery. this host--paras ...19979207745
lack of hand preference in wild hanuman langurs (presbytis entellus).although there is a vast literature on laterality of hand-use in nonhuman primates, the colobinae have been notably overlooked. ten manual activities of differing complexity were studied in five male and five female adult hanuman langurs (presbytis entellus) from a well habituated, wild population at ramnagar, in southern nepal. the activities recorded were carry, eat, hit, hold, idle, manipulate, reach, retrieve, self-groom and social groom. this study aimed to examine handedness across tasks a ...19979292163
vaccination of langur monkeys (presbytis entellus) against leishmania donovani with autoclaved l. major plus bcg.the protective potential of killed leishmania major (alm) along with bcg was evaluated against l. donovani in indian langur monkeys in single and triple dose schedules. a delayed protection was observed in monkeys after a single dose schedule of alm (3 mg)+bcg (3 mg) given intradermally 2 months before intravenous challenge with l. donovani. triple dose schedule each of 1 mg alm + 1 mg bcg was more effective. the status remained unchanged until the end of the experiment (approximately 8 months). ...19989550214
response of the ovary of prepuberal langoors (presbytis entellus) to heterologous mammalian gonadotropins. 19654955976
studies on the antibody response of a formalin inactivated kyasanur forest disease virus vaccine in langurs "presbytis entellus". 19744215753
the epizootics of kyasanur forest disease in wild monkeys during 1964 to the kyasanur forest disease area two species of wild monkeys, presbytis entellus and macaca radiata, succumb to the natural infection with kyasanur forest disease (kfd) virus (family flaviviridae). between october 1964 and september 1973, 1046 monkeys (860 p. entellus and 186 m. radiata) died. of these, kfd virus was isolated from 118 p. entellus and 13 m. radiata. maximum mortality of monkeys was reported during december through may coinciding with the season of activity of immature stages o ...19863603621
icrc vaccine-induced changes in m. leprae-specific cell-mediated immunity in langur (presbytis entellus) monkeys.the effects of the administration of icrc antileprosy vaccine on skin reactions and lymphocyte transformation tests (ltt) to antigens of mycobacterium leprae have been investigated in hanuman langur monkeys (presbytis entellus) which live native to north india. in a majority of these monkeys, the vaccine brings about lepromin conversion associated with a change in tissue response consistent with "ugrading" of immunity. however, no concomitant changes were observed in the ltt. the significance of ...19863519805
reversible sterility by cyproterone acetate plus testosterone enanthate in langur monkey with maintenance of libido.cyproterone acetate (1 mg/kg b.w. per day; oral) in combination with testosterone enanthate (2 mg/kg b.w. 15 days; i.m.) was administered for 60 and 90 days into adult male langur monkeys (presbytis entellus entellus, dufresne). testicular weight and volume were reduced significantly. spermatogenesis was suppressed but the interstitial cells appeared normal. seminiferous tubules and sertoli cell nuclear diameters were reduced significantly. the indices of testicular steroidogenesis, i.e. testicu ...19872820388
anti-spermatogenic activity of malvidin chloride in langur monkeys (presbytis entellus entellus dufresne).malvidin chloride (mc) a colouring agent from flowers of malvaviscus conzattii greenum was studied for male anti-fertility effects in adult langur monkeys (presbytis entellus entellus dufresne). when fed 50 mg mc kg-1 for a period of 60 days, inhibition of spermatogenesis resulted. the weights of testes and epididymides were reduced and there was atrophy of the leydig cells. in the epididymis, epithelial cell heights were reduced after mc-treatment. conspicuous shrinkage of seminiferous tubules ...19902387640
the primary structure of langur (presbytis entellus) pancreatic ribonuclease: adaptive features in digestive enzymes in mammals.the primary structure of pancreatic ribonuclease from langur (presbytis entellus) has been determined. this sequence differs from that of human pancreatic ribonuclease at 14 (11%) of the amino acid positions. eight of these 14 differences involve changes of charge, with the langur enzyme having five fewer positive charges than the human enzyme. the difference in charge between human and langur ribonuclease may be an adaptation to the different requirements for a nondigestive and a digestive role ...19902263196
langur monkey (presbytis entellus) development. the first 3 months of life.observation for the first 3 months of life of 19 indian langur monkey infants (presbytis entellus) living in well-established colony social groups revealed complex and related patterns of social development. this is a period of rapidly increasing infant motor ability and increasing infant-initiated independence. infant transfer, a behavior initiated by others towards the infant and a characteristic of the species, occurs most frequently in weeks 1 and 2, then steadily declines to low frequency i ...19827166290
longitudinal humoral immune responses of indian leaf monkey (presbytis entellus) to brugia malayi infection.humoral immune responses of the indian leaf monkey (presbytis entellus) experimentally infected with brugia malayi and exhibiting disease manifestations were studied. microfilaraemia, filaria-specific igg and circulating immune complexes (cics) were determined in the monkeys at different time-points after inoculation of b. malayi 3rd-stage larvae. sera were analysed for recognition pattern of adult parasite antigen molecules by immunoblotting. more than 60% of the infected monkeys developed epis ...199910446704
longitudinal cellular immune responses in asymptomatic and symptomatic brugia malayi-infected indian leaf monkey presbytis investigate the cell-mediated immune (cmi) responses of the host during the development of acute filarial disease manifestations, we studied the sequential changes in cd4+ and cd8+ t-cell subsets, leukocyte migration inhibition (lmi) response to brugia malayi adult worm antigen, and concanavalin-a (cona) and filarial antigen-induced lymphocyte transformation (lt) in the indian leaf monkey (presbytis entellus)-b. malayi model. filarial infection was established in monkeys by subcutaneous inocu ...199910577721
langur monkey mother loss: profile analysis with multivariate analysis of variance for separation subjects and controls.we present an analysis of observational data on the behavior profiles for two groups of infant langur monkeys (presbytis entellus): one that had experienced mother loss, and the other, a control group, that had not undergone mother loss. observations were analyzed in three 2-week time periods: 2 preseparation, 2 separation, and 2 postseparation periods for both groups. the profile analysis application of the multivariate analysis of variance (manova) was employed to test the hypothesis that the ...19836884906
reversible antispermatogenic effect of gossypol in langur monkeys (presbytis entellus entellus).the present investigation reports the antispermatogenic effect of the orally active highly purified gossypol acetic acid at 7.5 mg and 10 mg/day for 180 days in langur monkeys. the results revealed a dose-dependent response in semen analysis as well as testicular morphology. uniform severe oligospermia was observed in the lower dose (7.5 mg) group, while azoospermia was observed in 2 out of 5 animals in the higher dose (10 mg) group and the remaining animals showed severe oligospermia. scanning ...199910794043
effect of bilateral vasectomy on liver function in langur monkeys (presbytis entellus entellus dufresne).changes in serum biochemical measures associated with liver dysfunction and biochemical and histological structure of the liver after vasectomy have been studied in langur monkeys. no appreciable changes were observed in the serum sgot, sgpt, ldh and alkaline phosphatase levels after vasectomy as compared with sham operated controls. likewise glycogen and cholesterol contents of the liver were found to be unchanged after vasectomy. histologic structure of liver remained normal. the present inves ...19836673454
plasma hormonal profiles during summer in langur monkeys (presbytis entellus entellus).plasma estradiol and progesterone levels were analysed by radioimmunoassay in adult female langur monkeys during summer months. summer was characterized in monkeys with irregular and prolonged menstrual cycles. in anovulatory cycles a reduction of estradiol and progesterone levels was observed as compared to ovulatory cycles.19854092748
reproductive exocrine and endocrine profile of female langur monkeys, presbytis 5 caged langurs menstrual cycle length (for 125 cycles) varied from 18 to 45 days with a mean +/- s.d. of 26.3 +/- 3.6 days. menstruation lasted for 2 days. a distinct cycle of vaginal smear cells was observed with a maximum cornification on day 10 coinciding with the serum oestradiol peak. a monophasic pattern of vaginal temperature with a significant nadir on day 11, 1 day after the oestradiol peak, was observed. serum sialic acid concentrations directly reflected the oestrogenic activity a ...19883361483
structure of rete testis, vas efferens, epididymis and vas deferens of langur monkey (presbytis entellus entellus dufresne).morphological and histological features of rete testis, vas efferens, epididymis and vas deferens were studied in the langur monkey. tubular extensions of rete were located towards lateral side of the testis. its epithelium comprises mostly of cuboidal cells with hyaline cytoplasm. three to nine bundles of vas efferens, emerging below the cranial pole of the testis, were observed. vas efferens epithelium comprises of ciliated and nonciliated cells. epididymis could be divided into six zones on t ...19883227754
preadult stage parasites and multiple timed exposure to infective larvae are involved in development of limb edema in brugia malayi-infected indian leaf monkeys (presbytis entellus).the pathogenesis of filarial limb edema is not known. the role of parasitological variables and parasite-mediated phenomena in the development of limb edema was investigated in the presbytis entellus-brugia malayi model. infection was initiated with subcutaneous inoculation of infective third-stage larvae (l(3)), and the animals were reexposed to different doses of l(3) at the prepatent, patent, and diminishing microfilaremia (0 to 5% of peak microfilaremia count) stages of infection. a large l( ...200212093695
comparative study of vocal communication in two asian leaf monkeys, presbytis johnii and presbytis entellus.this paper presents comparative data on the vocal communication of two asian leaf monkeys, the nilgiri langur (presbytis johnii) and south indian common langur (presbytis entellus), based on sound recordings and behavioural observations of free-ranging groups. spectrographical analyses revealed a repertoire of 18 basic patterns for nilgiri langurs, and 21 basic patterns for common langurs. the repertoires of the two langur species consist of both discretely structured vocal patterns, in which al ...19892807093
observation of a sudden resident-male replacement in a unimale bisexual troop of hanuman langurs, semnopithecus entellus, around jodhpur (india). 200312778910
antispermatogenic effects of tolnidamine in langur (presbytis entellus).tolnidamine (50 mg/kg body weight; twice a week; oral) was administered for 90 days to adult male langur monkeys (presbytis entellus entellus dufresne) to assess its contraceptive potential. semen weight, volume, seminal fluid volume, colour, ph and libido remained unchanged. sperm motility, vitality and morphology were impaired with the advancement of treatment. sperm density reduced to severe oligospermia following 75-90 days of treatment. increased number of immature germ cells were also noti ...19911914461
females, male competition and gray langur troop structure.during the course of an ongoing investigation of the effects of mother-infant separation on development in gray langur monkeys (presbytis entellus), a series of 4 mothers of approximately 6-month-old infants were removed from their social groups and placed in a captive all-male group for 2-week periods. the male group contained 3 sexually mature animals and 1 juvenile and was within the range of variation observed in the wild. one of the introduced females came into estrus while with the male gr ...19827200445
hypolipidemic activity of guggal resin (commiphora mukul) and garlic (alium sativum linn.) in dogs (canis familiaris) and monkeys (presbytis entellus entellus dufresne).1. the identification of cholesterol as a constituent in the genesis of coronary artery disease in man and experimental animals are well documented. 2. the hypolipidemic effects of commiphora mukul (guggulu) and alium sativum (garlic powder) were screened in dog and presbytis monkeys. 3. progressive decrease in the mean values of cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids were conspicuous for forty eight hours following the administration of guggulu/garlic powder. 4. 25 mg/kg body weight garli ...19807346059
recognition of heterospecific alarm vocalizations by bonnet macaques (macaca radiata).recognition of heterospecific alarm vocalizations is an essential component of antipredator behavior in several prey species. the authors examined the role of learning in the discrimination of heterospecific vocalizations by wild bonnet macaques (macaca radiata) in southern india the bonnet macaques' flight and scanning responses to playbacks of their own alarm vocalizations were compared with their responses to playbacks of vocalizations of nilgiri langurs (trachypithecus johnii), hanuman langu ...200010739307
a novel type d simian retrovirus naturally infecting the indian hanuman langur (semnopithecus entellus).as a simian species, the langurs are not known to harbor simian retroviruses, except for one report on a simian type d endogenous retrovirus from the spectacled langur (trachypithecus obscurus) from malaysia. the present report describes for the first time natural infection of the common hanuman langur (semnopithecus entellus) from india by a novel simian retrovirus (srv). the new srv is phylogenetically related to but distinct from the three molecularly characterized serotypes, srv 1-3, of the ...200011062030
new simian beta retroviruses from rhesus monkeys (macaca mulatta) and langurs (semnopithecus entellus) from rajasthan, india.natural infection of feral indian rhesus monkeys (macaca mulatta) by a new simian beta retrovirus, provisionally called simian retrovirus-7 (srv-7) is described. the virus is capable of in vitro replication in primary human peripheral blood lymphocytes (pbl) and b and t cell lines. we have earlier reported a novel srv, srv-6 from indian langurs (semnopithecus entellus). additional sequence analyses from gp20 transmembrane (tm) env genes of srv-6 and srv-7 place them in a separate cluster, relate ...200616791425
wuchereria bancrofti: effect of single and multiple larval inoculations on infection dynamics and development of clinical manifestations in non-human primate presbytis entellus.we earlier reported the successful experimental transmission of wuchereria bancrofti from humans to the indian leaf monkey (presbytis entellus) [misra, s., tyagi, k., chatterjee, r.k., 1997. experimental transmission of nocturnally periodic wuchereria bancrofti to indian leaf monkey (presbytis entellus). experimental parasitology 86,155-157.; dube, a., murthy, p.k., puri, s.k., misra-bhattacharya, s., 2004. presbytis entellus: a primate model for parasitic disease research. trends in parasitolog ...200717064689
sperm motility inhibitory effect of the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of carica papaya in langur monkey, presbytis entellus assess the contraceptive efficacy of the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of carica papaya in langur monkeys.200818097528
the myoglobin of primates x.the amino acid sequences of skeletal muscle myoglobins from two old-world monkeys, presbytis entellus and erythrocebus patas, as well as one new-world monkey, cebus apella wer inferred by homology of the tryptic and peptic peptides with the known sequence of human myoglobin and by selective dansyl-edman degradation. these new sequences were examined phylogentically in conjunction with the 15 primate sequences already reported. it is clear that myoglobin evolution has been extremely conservative ...19807417495
ultrastructural changes in the spermatozoa of langur monkeys presbytis entellus entellus after vas occlusion with styrene maleic anhydride.changes in the physical characteristics of semen and ultrastructure of the spermatozoa of langur monkeys after vas occlusion with styrene maleic anhydride (sma), a polymer with ph-lowering action, are reported. vas occlusion resulted in severe reversible hypospermia. severe oligospermia was observed in the majority of animals (five of eight) in the first ejaculation, 30 days after vas occlusion, and in two animals in the second ejaculation, 60 days after vas occlusion. subsequent monthly ejacula ...19989589840
successful vaccination against leishmania donovani infection in indian langur using alum-precipitated autoclaved leishmania major with bcg.autoclaved leishmania major (alm) along with bcg, presently undergoing phase ii clinical trial by who for its vaccine potential against cutaneous leishmaniasis, has been successfully evaluated in single and triple dose schedules against l. donovani in indian langurs (presbytis entellus). encouraged with the results, another formulation alum-precipitated alm (provided by who) along with bcg has been evaluated in this system. eight monkeys were vaccinated with alum-precipitated alm + bcg (1 mg of ...200111348715
amplification of microsatellites adapted from human systems in faecal dna of wild hanuman langurs (presbytis entellus).microsatellite systems originally established for human dna were utilized for paternity testing from faecal dna in a natural population of hanuman langurs (presbytis entellus). thirty-two primer pairs were applied to amplify dna obtained from langur faeces. twenty-two of these primer pairs yielded specific amplification products and 11 loci were polymorphic. allele distributions and heterozygosity rates were determined for five systems. genetic information from these five systems was sufficient ...19989694281
intravasal contraception with styrene maleic anhydride and its noninvasive reversal in langur monkeys (presbytis entellus entellus).in male langurs with azoospermia induced by vas occlusion with styrene maleic anhydride (sma), the exploratory feasibility of azoospermia reversal by a new noninvasive reversal procedure has been assessed. palpation, percutaneous electrical stimulation of the vas deferens, forced vibratory movement, suprapubic percussion, and per rectal digital massage of the vas deferens are the components of the multimodal noninvasive reversal procedure. the exploratory investigation reveals that a single appl ...19989773267
analysis of loud calls provides new evidence for hybridization between two asian leaf monkeys (presbytis johnii, presbytis entellus). 19883256534
ultrastructural changes in the vas deferens of langur monkeys presbytis entellus entellus after vas occlusion with styrene maleic anhydride and after its reversal.ultrastructural changes in the vas deferens of langur monkeys after 150 days of vas occlusion with styrene maleic anhydride (sma) and after 150 days of noninvasive reversal are reported. the vas deferens of the sham-operated control animals revealed active secretory and absorptive functions. the basal cells showed prominent nucleus and sparse cytoplasmic organelles, and the principal cells characterized by oval or irregular nucleus, well developed mitochondria, golgi bodies, rough endoplasmic re ...199910361629
intestinal obstruction and perforation caused by undigested acacia sp leaves in langur monkeys.during a 2-week period, 3 hanuman langurs (presbytis entellus) died from severe fibrinopurulent and proliferative peritonitis. partially digested plant material was identified in the necrotic abdominal debris of the 1st and 2nd langurs. in the 3rd, a phytobezoar that extended 17.5 cm distally from the pyloric area had caused a 1-cm perforation. seven months later, surgery was performed on a douc langur (pygathrix nemaeus) to remove 1 gastric and 2 intestinal phytobezoars composed primarily of un ...19827174459
an experimental study of mother loss in the indian langur monkey (presbytis entellus).langur monkeys normally have many important caregivers from birth. mothers of 6- to 8-month-old infants were removed from the infants' social groups for 2 weeks, and the effects of the separations on infant behavior were assessed. all infants showed changes in behavior. their reactions to loss ranged from minimal to severe--in 2 instances, death. all infants sought care during separation, and most infants showed strong preferences for certain females. a majority of infants adopted a major caregi ...19807191391
stabilization and mobility of the head and trunk in wild monkeys during terrestrial and flat-surface walks and gallops.this study investigated the patterns of rotational mobility (> or =20 degrees ) and stability (< or =20 degrees ) of the head and trunk in wild indian monkeys during natural locomotion on the ground and on the flat-topped surfaces of walls. adult hanuman langurs (semnopithecus entellus) and bonnet macaques (macaca radiata) of either gender were cine filmed in lateral view. whole-body horizontal linear displacement, head and trunk pitch displacement relative to space (earth horizontal), and verti ...200414766961
plasma levels of estradiol and progesterone during normal menstrual cycle in langur monkey (presbytis entellus entellus) 19807216392
in vitro susceptibility of erythrocytes of presbytis entellus (indian langur) to plasmodium knowlesi & blocking of merozoite invasion process by certain protease inhibitors. 19817239571
mucosubstances in the cervix uteri of the indian langur monkey, presbytis entellus entellus (dufrense).mucosubstances in the cervix uteri of the indian langur monkey, presbytis entellus entellus was studied during non-pregnancy, pregnancy and lactation. cells of the cervical epithelium and glands elaborated neutral, sialo- and sulfomucins during non-pregnancy. the concentration of these mucins was low during early pregnancy but increased during late pregnancy. the concentration of mucins was higher during later part of pregnancy than during non-pregnant stage which decline during lactation. signi ...19817281884
presbytis entellus: a primate model for parasitic disease research. 200415246317
molecular phylogeny and biogeography of langurs and leaf monkeys of south asia (primates: colobinae).the two recently proposed taxonomies of the langurs and leaf monkeys (subfamily colobinae) provide different implications to our understanding of the evolution of nilgiri and purple-faced langurs. groves (2001) [groves, c.p., 2001. primate taxonomy. smithsonian institute press, washington], placed nilgiri and purple-faced langurs in the genus trachypithecus, thereby suggesting disjunct distribution of the genus trachypithecus. [brandon-jones, d., eudey, a.a., geissmann, t., groves, c.p., melnick ...200818191589
fine structure of the langur monkey vas deferens and possible role of changes following vasectomy in the success or failure of the vasovasostomy.studies on the ultrastructure of the vas deferens have been carried out in control, vasectomized (6 and 24 months) and vasovasostomized (12 months) langur monkeys (presbytis entellus entellus dufresne). vas deferens epithelium of the control animals depicted four types of cells, viz. the basal cells, principal cells, mitochondria-rich or apical cells and pencil or dark cells. the basal cells were short, cuboidal in nature with prominent nuclei, and contained sparse cytoplasmic organelles. the pr ...199911145375
reproductive and behavioral characteristics of aging in female asian from four asian colobine populations, wild (ramnagar) and provisioned (jodhpur) hanuman langurs, wild phayre's leaf monkeys (phu khieo wildlife sanctuary), and captive silvered langurs (wildlife conservation society's bronx zoo) were analyzed with respect to reproductive and behavioral trends of aging. all but one female (from a total of seven) became menopausal 1.8 to 5+ years prior to death with a lag time between last parturition and death ranging from 3.0 to 9.0 years (n=8). hormonal an ...200818523374
development of posture and locomotion in free-ranging primates.postural and locomotor development is described for free-ranging groups of three monkey species: macaca mulatta (rhesus macaque), m. radiata (bonnet macaque) and presbytis entellus (hanuman langur). behaviors are discussed in terms of infant-1, infant-2, juvenile, adult and elderly age groups. analysis is based on high-speed motion pictures and videos. infant-1 monkeys continually cling to their mother's ventral surface with strong hand and foot grasps. independent motor coordination develops du ...19989595567
personality in free-ranging hanuman langur (semnopithecus entellus) males: subjective ratings and recorded behavior.the authors obtained behavioral observations and personality ratings for 27 free-ranging hanuman langur males. subjects were rated using a questionnaire based on the human five-factor model (ffm). behavioral observations were taken over 5 months using an ethogram that included 50 behaviors. principal component analysis (pca) of ratings revealed agreeableness_(r), confidence_(r), and extraversion_(r) components. each personality dimension was associated with a unique set of observed behaviors. pc ...200819014262
of how much concern are the 'least concern' species? distribution and conservation status of bonnet macaques, rhesus macaques and hanuman langurs in karnataka, india.we assessed the distribution and conservation status of bonnet macaques (macaca radiata), rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta) and hanuman langurs (semnopithecus entellus) in the state of karnataka, india. karnataka is situated in southwest india with an area of 191,791 km(2). a total of 9697 km of vehicular survey was made from november 2001 to july 2004. we also visited 107 temples/tourist spots to determine the presence of primates. bonnet macaques and hanuman langurs were widely distributed, whe ...201019728014
chloroform extract of carica papaya seeds induces long-term reversible azoospermia in langur evaluate the antifertility activity of the chloroform extract of carica papaya seeds by oral administration in langur monkey, presbytis entellus entellus.200211907624
mitochondrial and nuclear markers suggest hanuman langur (primates: colobinae) polyphyly: implications for their species status.recent molecular studies on langurs of the indian subcontinent suggest that the widely-distributed and morphologically variable hanuman langurs (semnopithecus entellus) are polyphyletic with respect to nilgiri and purple-faced langurs. to further investigate this scenario, we have analyzed additional sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome b as well as nuclear protamine p1 genes from these species. the results confirm hanuman langur polyphyly in the mitochondrial tree and the nuclear markers sugge ...201019897046
establishment of asymptomatic leishmania donovani infection in indian langurs (presbytis entellus) through intradermal route.indian langurs, which were previously reported to be highly susceptible, were infected intradermally using variable numbers of promastigotes along with different doses, 1/2 pair, 5 pairs and 10 pairs respectively of salivary gland lysate (sgl). although, all the monkeys developed mild infection and remained subclinically infected throughout the observation period, which later resolved, none of them could develop the classical disease. no marked antigen specific antibody or lymphoproliferative re ...200212622211
natural infection by simian retrovirus-6 (srv-6) in hanuman langurs (semnopithecus entellus) from two different geographical regions of india.we have previously reported natural infection of hanuman langurs (semnopithecus entellus) from lucknow, india by a novel simian retrovirus, srv-6, a beta-retrovirus (type d retrovirus). here we describe infection by a closely related srv-6 in an isolated feral population of hanuman langurs from jodhpur in the northwestern desert region of india. serological analyses, using in-house elisa and wb, genomic amplification, and sequencing of env region (gp70 and gp20) of the viral genome were carried ...200312832216
leishmania donovani: cellular and humoral immune responses in indian langur monkeys, presbytis entellus.we have previously reported that disease mimicking human visceral leishmaniasis can be established in presbytis entellus, the indian langur monkey, following a single intravenous challenge of 10(8) leishmania donovani amastigotes. in the present report, infection was assessed in monkeys infected intravenously with a single dose of 10(8) amastigotes (hda group), three weekly doses of 10(7) amastigotes (lda group) and three weekly doses of 5 x 10(7) promastigotes (hdp group). typical clinical infe ...199910379815
dna analyses support the hypothesis that infanticide is adaptive in langur monkeys.although the killing of dependent infants by adult males is a widespread phenomenon among primates, its causes and consequences still remain hotly debated. according to the sexual selection hypothesis, infanticidal males will gain a reproductive advantage provided that only unrelated infants are killed and that the males increase their chances of siring the next infants. alternatively, the social pathology hypothesis interprets infanticide as a result of crowded living conditions and, thus, as n ...199910380680
the endogenous langur type d retrovirus po-1-lu and its exogenous counterparts in macaque and langur monkeys.po-1-lu, the endogenous type d retrovirus of langurs (trachypithecus obscurus) has previously been considered a progenitor to the prototype type d retrovirus, mason pfizer monkey virus (m-pmv/srv-3), that became established in macaque monkeys (macaca spp.) following a zoonosis. this study reevaluates this hypothesis to include other exogenous srvs. new sequence information from the gp70(su)-encoding region of po-1-lu shows striking similarity to the newly identified exogenous langur retrovirus, ...200314585330
chemical sterilization of males - successful inhibition of spermatogenesis in langurs (presbytis entellus entellus dufresne) after metopiron (su-4885, ciba) administration.1. daily administration of metopiron (su-4885, ciba) (10 mg/kg body wt. for 30 days) produced a massive atrophy of the spermatogenic elements. the pachytene primary spermatocytes have been implicated as the main site of damage. seminiferous and leydig cell shrinkage was conspicuous. epididymal and vesicula seminalis structure and functions were severely affected. 2. rna, protein and sialic acid contents of the testes, epididymides and seminal vesicles were reduced, whereas testicular cholesterol ...1998105901
changes observed in the fsh and lh cells of the adenoypophysis of presbytis entellus entellus following cadmium induced testicular necrosis. 20164993737
kyasanur forest disease virus: viremia and challenge studies in monkeys with evidence of cross-protection by langat virus infection.kyasanur forest disease virus (kfdv), discovered in 1957, is a member of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (tbev) complex. diseases caused by members of the tbev complex occur in many parts of the world. kfdv produces a hemorrhagic fever in humans in south india and fatal illnesses in both species of monkeys in the area, the black faced langur (presbytis entellus) and the bonnet macaque (macaca radiata). experimental infection of the langur and the bonnet macaque with early mouse passage kfdv st ...201224627765
immune responses in normal indian langur monkeys (presbytis entellus)--a primate model for visceral leishmaniasis.the indian langur monkey (presbytis entellus) is an experimental host for a range of human diseases and for the assessment of vaccine candidate antigens to some common parasitic infections. this experimental host is particularly suitable for the follow-up of immunological responses. to understand some of the mechanism that underlies the defense against experimental pathogens there is a need of the basic knowledge on antibody and cell mediated immune responses. in the present study 25 naïve monke ...200415061718
resource distribution and group size in the common langur semnopithecus entellus in southern india.we investigated the influence of resource abundance and distribution on the group size and composition of the common langur semnopithecus entellus in the contiguous forests of bandipur national park, mudumalai wildlife sanctuary and nagarahole national park in southern india. we also explored any additional effect of predator pressure and the risk of take-over on the same attributes. data on group composition and vegetation were collected from january to may 2006. the size and composition of 94 ...200818454456
reproductive exocrine and endocrine profiles and their seasonality in male langur monkeys (presbytis entellus entellus).the reproductive exocrine and endocrine profiles in male langurs are reported with an emphasis on seasonality. the animals showed positive response to electroejaculation throughout the year. the sperm concentration varied between 10-383 x 10(6)/ejaculation with wide fluctuations all through the year. no appreciable changes in the motility and percent live sperm were observed throughout the year. the levels of seminal fructose and magnesium remained unchanged throughout the year, while acid phosp ...19989606038
epizootic fatal amebiasis in an outdoor group of old world monkeys.entamoeba (e.) histolytica is an obligate parasite of humans and non-human primates.201020202078
molecular systematics and conservation of the langurs and leaf monkeys of south asia.numerous morphology-based classification schemes have been proposed for langurs and leaf monkeys of south asia but there is very little agreement between them. an incorrect classification scheme when used as a basis for biogeographic studies can support erroneous hypotheses. further, lack of taxonomic resolution will also confound conservation efforts, given that conservation biologists use traditional morphology-based-classification schemes to prioritize species for conservation. here, i have r ...201021273689
seasonality of group size, feeding, and breeding in wild red-shanked douc langurs (lao pdr).in asian colobines, small one-male groups (omg) seem to predominate alongside all-male groups (amg), while larger multimale groups (mmg) are rare, but are reported for hanuman langurs and red-shanked douc langurs. recently, however, it has been speculated that the genus pygathrix could have multilevel societies based on (1) a theoretical extension of the multilevel societies found in rhinopithecus to all odd-nosed colobines and (2) first data for black-shanked douc langurs. this assumes bands co ...201121769909
homosexual behavior in female mountain gorillas: reflection of dominance, affiliation, reconciliation or arousal?humans are unique among primates for not only engaging in same-sex sexual acts, but also forming homosexual pair bonds. to shed light on the evolutionary origins of homosexuality, data on the occurrence and contexts of same-sex behavior from nonhuman primates may be of particular significance. homosexual behavior involving females is poorly researched in most primate taxa, exceptions being japanese macaques, rhesus macaques, hanuman langurs and bonobos. we present data on homosexual behavior in ...201627167861
cultural transmission of snake-mobbing in free-ranging hanuman langurs.a focal troop of free-ranging hanuman langurs (presbytis entellus) living in an open scrub forest around jodhpur was observed mobbing poisonous snakes on two different occasions during field observations of about 4,109 h. these observations of snake-mobbing demonstrate that langurs exhibit a special behaviour against 'potentially dangerous animals' which is similar to the mobbing displays of birds, and of other primates. it is suggested that the adaptive significance of snake-mobbing among langu ...19912045015
life history theory and dental development in four species of catarrhine development was reconstructed in several individuals representing four species of catarrhine primates--symphalangus syndactylus, hylobates lar, semnopithecus entellus priam, and papio hamadryas--using the techniques of dental histology. bar charts assumed to represent species-typical dental development were constructed from these data and estimated ages at first and third molar emergence were plotted on them along with ages at weaning, menarche, and first reproduction from the literature. ...200717706270
why mothers do not resist infanticide: a cost-benefit genetic model.infanticide has recently been observed in several primate species while female counterstrategies are seemingly rare. the question of why mothers do not increase their resistance to infanticide is investigated using a haploid two-locus model. a hypothesis that mothers can recover lost offspring by gaining more grandchildren is rejected in most cases, and it is shown that costs and benefits for both males and females have the strongest influence on the evolution of infanticide and obedience to it. ...199028563893
semen characteristics of gossypol-treated langurs (presbytis entellus entellus dufresne).gossypol isolated from cottonseed was fed to sexually adult male langurs at 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight per day for 90 days. semen was collected every 2 wk, and the observations made on semen characteristics showed gossypol's detrimental effect. the gossypol administration caused a significant decline in percent sperm cells motility and a significant rise in abnormalities. the semen characteristics returned to normal levels during a 180-day recovery period following the discontinuation of gossy ...19846537746
life history of hanuman langurs (presbytis entellus). reproductive parameters, infant mortality, and troop development.longitudinal data of reproductive parameters from two langur troops (presbytis entellus) at jodhpur, rajasthan, india, are presented. females can reach menarche at approximately 29 months of age and conceive about 5 months later. gestation length is about 200 days, average cycling length is 24 days, and mean interbirth interval 15.3 months. postpartum amenorrhea, which ranges from 80-140 days will be reduced to 23-80 days in cases of stillbirths or early losses of infants, a fact that bears cons ...19846500408
immature male and adult male interactions in bisexual langur (presbytis entellus) bisexual troop of langurs (presbytis entellus) was intensively investigated for 32 months at the junbesi-ringmo study site in nepal. observations occurred during three separate studies and span a period of 6 years. all members of the study troop could be individually recognized throughout the three studies. during this investigation data were collected on immature male (from birth to 5 years of age) social relations with adult males. social relations between these two classes of males varied ...19827095660
range use of gray langurs in highland nepal.a 16-month study of foraging and ranging among gray langurs (presbytis entellus) in the nepal himalaya revealed that these animals range over larger areas than other gray langurs so far studied and that they show great seasonal differences in foraging and ranging. a summer monsoon and winter dry season characterize the himalayan climate. during summer, broadleaf forest provides the basic foraging substrate for the langurs, and when its resources fail during the winter dry season, they radically ...19827095656
variation in langur social organization in relation to the socioecological model, human habitat alteration, and phylogenetic constraints.the socioecological model is to date the best evolutionary model to explain variation in primate behaviour. some species or populations, however, deviate from the predictions. these deviations may be due to a disequilibrium between evolutionary causes and behavioural adaptations, caused by recent human changes of the environment. the relationship between human habitat alteration and primate social behaviour is reviewed and investigated for langurs. provisioning affects the spatial distribution o ...199923179541
our experience with experimentalwuchereria bancrofti infection in indian langur (presbytis entellus). 199723100893
homosexual mounting in free-ranging female hanuman langurs (presbytis entellus).female-female mounting was studied for 3233 hr in a bisexual one-male troop of free-ranging hanuman langurs in northwestern india over a period of 6 years. the population breeds throughout the year and female-female mounts (n = 524) occurred during all months. all 15 adult females mounted and were mounted, although only 20% of the individuals exhibited more than half of all mounter activity and 33% more than half of all mountee activity. various similarities with heterosexual mounting suggest th ...19911747043
folivory as a constraint on social behaviour of langurs in south india.folivory, being a dietary constraint, can affect the social time of colobines. in the present study, we compared food items and activity budgets of two closely related species of colobines inhabiting south india, i.e. the hanuman langur (semnopithecus hypoleucos) and nilgiri langur (semnopithecus johnii), to determine whether folivory had an impact on social time in these species. our study established that nilgiri langurs were more folivorous than hanuman langurs. nilgiri langurs spent much les ...201526431447
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