Publications

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the behavioral repertoire of the black-and-white ruffed lemur, varecia variegata variegata (primates: lemuridae).a stable social group of 7 semifree-ranging black-and-white ruffed lemurs (varecia variegata variegata) was studied for 4 months to catalog the behavioral repertoire of this species. observations focussed on particular aspects of behavior were conducted before and after this 4-month period to supplement information gathered. behavior in 11 major categories is detailed: postures, terrestrial locomotion, arboreal locomotion, feeding behavior, vocalizations, scent-marking, affinitive social behavio ...19883251818
yersinia enterocolitica infection in breeding colonies of ruffed lemurs.two outbreaks of yersiniosis caused by yersinia enterocolitica occurred in breeding colonies of red ruffed lemurs (varecia variegata rubra) and black and white ruffed lemurs (varecia variegata variegata) housed in outdoor enclosures during the winter breeding season and spring birth season, respectively. seven of 11 animals at risk in the combined outbreaks became ill, and 3 died of acute to chronic infection. clinical signs included anorexia, lethargy, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and hyperpyrexia ...19846511581
reproductive activity of ruffed lemurs (varecia variegata variegata) in a madagascar rain forest.mating activity was observed during four breeding seasons in two groups of black and white ruffed lemurs (varecia variegata variegata) living in lowland rain forest on nosy mangabe island, madagascar. the onset of the may-july breeding season was signalled by behavioral changes in adult males. males made forays outside their usual home ranges, were more aggressive to other males, and performed appetitive and other sex-specific behaviors more frequently. females showed receptive and proceptive be ...19938512055
captive breeding, reintroduction, and the conservation genetics of black and white ruffed lemurs, varecia variegata variegata.a character-based phylogenetic species concept approach was used to examine conservation unit status for three wild populations of black and white ruffed lemurs, varecia vareigata variegata, from betampona (n = 3), manombo (n = 6), and ranomafana (n = 14), madagascar. population aggregation analysis was performed on 548 bp from the control region (d-loop) of the mitochondrial dna (mtdna). twenty-one diagnostic sites were found to differentiate the betampona (northern) population from the manombo ...199910703554
diet and feeding behaviour of the black-and-white ruffed lemur (varecia variegata variegata) in the betampona reserve, eastern madagascar.the feeding behaviour and diet of the black-and-white ruffed lemur (varecia variegata variegata) was investigated in the betampona reserve, eastern madagascar. the highly frugivorous diet of this subspecies was confirmed - feeding on fruits accounting for 92.0% of feeding records. most feeding at betampona was observed at 10-25 m above the forest floor amongst flexible, small (0.5-5.0 cm diameter) and oblique/horizontal (0-45 degrees ) supports. the varecia spent on average 21.7% (+/- 1.5) of th ...200010828690
detection of virus-like particles in the liver of black and white ruffed lemurs with hepatitis.two young black and white ruffed lemurs (varecia variegata variegata) died at the san diego zoo (san diego, california, usa) with extensive liver lesions suggestive of acute viral infection. immunoassays performed to detect hepatitis b virus (hbv) markers were negative. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) primers overlapping the hbv core gene produced an amplicon of approximately 411 base pairs (bp) from serum dna of a hbv-positive western lowland gorilla (gorilla gorilla gorilla) but not from serum ...200212038123
molecular and serologic evidence of tick-borne ehrlichiae in three species of lemurs from st. catherines island, georgia, usa.in recent years, several species of ehrlichiae have been recognized as tick-borne disease agents of veterinary and medical importance. clinically normal free-ranging or previously free-ranging lemurs, including 46 ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta), six blue-eyed black lemurs (eulemur macaco flavifrons), and four black and white ruffed lemurs (varecia variegata variegata) from st. catherines island, georgia, were tested for evidence of exposure to tick-borne ehrlichiae. all 52 adult lemurs were se ...200415732591
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii, sarcocystis neurona, and encephalitozoon cuniculi in three species of lemurs from st. catherines island, ga, usa.in the current study, we determined the seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii, sarcocystis neurona, and encephalitozoon cuniculi in three species of lemurs from st. catherines island, georgia. serum samples were tested from 52 ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta), six blue-eyed black lemurs (eulemur macaco flavifrons), and four black and white ruffed lemurs (varecia variegata variegata) using an agglutination assay. three ring-tailed lemurs (5.8%) were positive for t. gondii (titer of 1:50); one ring- ...200717052854
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantitate serum ferritin in black and white ruffed lemurs (varecia variegata variegata).lemurs in captivity progressively accumulate iron deposits in a variety of organs (hemosiderosis) including duodenum, liver, and spleen throughout their lives. when excessive, the toxic effects of intracellular iron on parenchymal cells, particularly the liver, can result in clinical disease and death. the pathogenesis of excessive iron storage in these species has been attributed to dietary factors related to diets commonly fed in captivity. tissue iron stores can be directly estimated by tissu ...200517312722
trypanosoma cruzi prevalence and epidemiologic trends in lemurs on st. catherines island, georgia.lemurs on st. catherines island, georgia were tested for trypanosoma cruzi infection to develop a better understanding of the epizootiology of the parasite in nonhuman primates in the southeastern united states. fifty-six ring-tailed (lemur catta), blue-eyed black (eulemur macaco flavifrons), and black-and-white ruffed (varecia variegata variegata) lemurs were tested by hemoculture and serology to determine the prevalence of t. cruzi in the population. of those tested 3 (5%) were identified as c ...200717436947
seroepidemiology of toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals in selected zoos in the midwestern united states.toxoplasma gondii infections in zoo animals are of interest because many captive animals die of clinical toxoplasmosis and because of the potential risk of exposure of children and elderly to t. gondii oocysts excreted by cats in the zoos. seroprevalence of t. gondii antibodies in wild zoo felids, highly susceptible zoo species, and feral cats from 8 zoos of the midwestern united states was determined by using the modified agglutination test (mat). a titer of 1:25 was considered indicative of t. ...200818605803
laterality in semi-free-ranging black and white ruffed lemurs (varecia variegata variegata): head-tilt correlates with hand use during feeding.previous studies in human and chimpanzee infants have identified a predictive relationship between early rightward head orientation and later right hand use. data from lemurs suggest a leftward bias in hand preference, but there are no data on head positioning. the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between head and hand preferences in the black and white ruffed lemur (varecia variegata variegata). ruffed lemurs rotate the head vertically during chewing in a behavior called he ...200919771585
daily activity and light exposure levels for five species of lemurs at the duke lemur center.light is the primary synchronizer of all biological rhythms, yet little is known about the role of the 24-hour luminous environment on nonhuman primate circadian patterns, making it difficult to understand the photic niche of the ancestral primate. here we present the first data on proximate light-dark exposure and activity-rest patterns in free-ranging nonhuman primates. four individuals each of five species of lemurs at the duke lemur center (eulemur mongoz, lemur catta, propithecus coquereli, ...201424318943
hematology and serum chemistry values of juvenile and adult ruffed lemurs (varecia variegata).hematologic and serum chemistry values are presented for adult and juvenile red ruffed lemurs (varecia variegata rubra) and black and white ruffed lemurs (varecia variegata variegata) maintained in a zoological collection. hematologic and serum chemical values are compared between age groups and subspecies and with other primate species. elevated hematocrit, total protein, and serum albumin values were noted. significant differences in cholesterol, total protein, and serum albumin values between ...19853981623
gastric pneumatosis with associated eosinophilic gastritis in four black and white ruffed lemurs (varecia variegata variegata).pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis (pci) with associated eosinophilic inflammation was documented in the gastric tissues of four black and white ruffed lemurs (varecia variegata variegata). pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis is an uncommon disease described in humans and characterized by multilocular gas-filled cystic spaces located within the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. these cystic spaces can occur in any location along the gastrointestinal tract as well as within the associated connec ...201323505706
posturally related variations in the hand preferences of the ruffed lemur (varecia variegata variegata).the hand preferences of 5 semi-free-ranging black-and-white ruffed lemurs were assessed by using three distinct testing procedures. testing conditions varied in the extent to which they required animals to make a whole body postural adjustment prior to making a reach. minimal bodily adjustment was necessary for free foraging, whereas discrete food presentations on land (dfp-land) and in a moat (dfp-moat) promoted a gross reorientation of the animal's entire body. in the dfp-moat condition 4 anim ...19883180732
functional analysis of aggression in a black-and-white ruffed lemur (varecia variegata variegata).a functional analysis was conducted to assess the antecedent and reinforcing conditions underlying aggressive behavior in a female lemur in captivity. results showed that her aggression was primarily the result of human attention. a replacement behavior-training program was introduced, and the lemur's aggression was successfully eliminated. these results demonstrate the utility of using functional assessment and analyses in zoos with captive wild nonhuman animals.201424911429
necrotizing meningoencephalitis in a captive black and white ruffed lemur (varecia variegata variegata) caused by acanthamoeba t4 genotype.a mature male, black and white ruffed lemur (varecia variegata variegata) died in a zoological garden after a 4-day history of lethargy and non-responsive convulsions. necropsy and histopathological examinations revealed acute necrotizing and haemorrhagic meningoencephalitis with intralesional amoebas confirmed by immunohistochemistry. acanthamoeba t4 genotype was identified as the causative agent of the brain lesion, based on amplification and sequencing of 18s ribosomal rna genes. the presence ...201526297109
survey and clinical application of serum iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin in captive black and white ruffed lemurs (varecia variegata variegata).serum samples from 63 clinically normal captive black and white ruffed lemurs (varecia variegata variegata) were analyzed to survey serum iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin levels. data analysis showed no differences in these analytes attributable to sex, but significantly higher levels of serum iron, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin in older animals. the survey data were examined in light of two black and white ruffed lemurs that were treated ...200517312723
naturally occurring cerebral nematodiasis due to baylisascaris larval migration in two black-and-white ruffed lemurs (varecia variegata variegata) and suspected cases in three emus (dromaius novaehollandiae).during september and october 1992, two black-and-white ruffed lemurs (varecia variegata variegata) were housed in an outdoor wire enclosure at the tulsa zoological park. the following february and april, both lemurs developed head tilt and ataxia, and they were euthanized. necropsy revealed multifocal malacia of the white matter of the pons, cerebellum, internal capsule, and cerebral and cerebellar peduncles. nematode larvae consistent with baylisascaris spp. were observed in the brain of one le ...19979279412
prevention of urethral blockage following semen collection in two species of lemur, varecia variegata variegata and lemur catta.lemurs are a diverse group of primates comprised of five families, all of which are found only on madagascar and the comoro islands. of the 60 known species, 17 are endangered and 5 of these are considered critically endangered. the effects of inbreeding on population health and viability have been well described; though negative inbreeding effects can be ameliorated through the introduction of new genetic material. introduction of new individuals into a population can be extremely challenging b ...200717679512
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