proposal of chlamydia pecorum sp. nov. for chlamydia strains derived from ruminants.chlamydia pecorum sp. nov. is proposed as the fourth species of the genus chlamydia on the basis of the results of a genetic analysis of chlamydia strains that were isolated from cattle and sheep which had various diseases, including sporadic encephalitis, infectious polyarthritis, pneumonia, and diarrhea. the levels of dna-dna homology between c. pecorum and strains of c. psittaci, chlamydia pneumoniae, and chlamydia trachomatis were less than 10%. several dna probes were used to identify c. pe ...19921581191
chlamydia psittaci infections: a review with emphasis on avian the first part of this article the general characteristics of chlamydia psittaci namely the history, taxonomy, morphology, reproductive cycle, metabolism and genetics are reviewed. for the taxonomy in particular, a considerable amount of new information has become available in recent years, following the application of monoclonal antibodies and restriction enzymes. using these techniques isolates of chlamydia psittaci from birds have been subdivided in different serovars, a number of isolates ...19957571380
spontaneous change from overt to covert infection of chlamydia pecorum in cycloheximide-treated mouse mccoy cells.some isolates of chlamydia pecorum from sheep feces failed to produce inclusions on passage in cycloheximide-treated monolayers, but chlamydiae could be recovered several weeks later. chlamydia psittaci from sheep abortions did not show this phenomenon.19957642316
restriction fragment length polymorphisms of rrna as genetic markers to differentiate chlamydia spp.restriction fragment length polymorphisms (rflps) of rrna genes of chlamydia spp. were analyzed. a southern analysis of chromosomal dna digests with cloned rrna gene probes revealed the presence of one locus for rrna genes on chromosomal dnas in chlamydia psittaci, chlamydia pecorum, and chlamydia pneumoniae and two loci in chlamydia trachomatis. the rflps of rrna genes were characteristic for each chlamydia sp. dna probes cloned from flanking regions of the rrna genes of avian c. psittaci hybri ...19938102247
chlamydia pecorum--the fourth species of genus chlamydia. 19938231966
antigenic analysis of chlamydia pecorum and mammalian chlamydia psittaci by use of monoclonal antibodies to the major outer membrane protein and a 56- to 64-kd protein.monoclonal antibodies were prepared against 40- and 56- to 64-kd antigens of chlamydia pecorum strain maeda, which was isolated from a cow with pneumonia. using the monoclonal antibodies, 5 strains of c pecorum, 25 strains of mammalian and 19 strains of avian c psittaci, 1 strain of c pneumoniae, and 3 strains of c trachomatis were analyzed for immunologic reactivity by use of the indirect immunofluorescent test. monoclonal antibody analysis revealed immunologic relatedness between c pecorum and ...19938317762
analyses of the genomes of chlamydial isolates from ruminants and pigs support the adoption of the new species chlamydia pecorum.analysis of the genomic dnas of chlamydial isolates from sheep, cattle, and pigs was performed by southern blot hybridization and by restriction endonuclease (re) profiling of dna amplified by pcr. the hybridization probes were derived from whole genomic dna, the major outer membrane protein (momp) gene, the 16s rrna gene, and an avian chlamydia psittaci isolate plasmid. the pcr analysis used targets in the momp gene, the 16s rrna gene, and the 60-kda cysteine-rich protein gene. together, the re ...19968573503
serological diagnosis of ovine enzootic abortion by comparative inclusion immunofluorescence assay, recombinant lipopolysaccharide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and complement fixation test.since the 1950s, serological diagnosis of ovine enzootic abortion (oea), caused by strains of chlamydia psittaci, has been based mainly on the complement fixation test (cft), which is neither particularly sensitive nor specific since antibodies to other chlamydial and enterobacterial pathogens may be detected. in this study. a recombinant enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (relisa) (medac, hamburg, germany), based on a unique chlamydial genus-specific epitope of chlamydia trachomatis l2 lipopolys ...19968735108
serotype 2-specific antigens from ruminant strains of chlamydia pecorum detected by monoclonal antibodies.a panel of 25 monoclonal antibodies (mabs) selected from seven different cellular fusions was used to study the antigenic relationships among a group of 18 ruminant serotype 2 strains of chlamydia pecorum by indirect microimmunofluorescence test. the antigenic relationships between the strains of c. psittaci serotype 1 and strains of serotype 2 c. pecorum were also studied, as well as the c. pecorum strains and an avian and a feline strain of c. psittaci. only the genus-specific mab, used as a p ...19968814978
differentiation of chlamydia psittaci and c. pecorum strains by species-specific pcr.sequence analyses 5' ends of the 60-kda cysteine-rich outer membrane protein genes (omp2) of chlamydia psittaci and chlamydia pecorum strains indicate that these species have approximately 70% nucleotide identity. on the basis of this sequence information, pcr primers were designed to allow the specific amplification of dna extracted from c. psittaci s26/3 (abortion strain), p94/1 (pigeon strain), and c. pecorum w73 (fecal strain) in one reaction tube. by using nested reactions (with primers pcr ...19968940467
specific antigens of chlamydia pecorum and their homologues in c psittaci and c analyze the antigenic cross reactivity of various proteins of strains of chlamydia pecorum, c psitaci, and c trachomatis. samples and procedures: strains fc-stra and lw-613 of c pecorum, strains b577, fitz-9, and 68c of c psitaci, and strain lgv-2 of c trachomatis were studied. strains of c pecorum were propagated in georgia bovine kidney cells, and other chlamydial strains were propagated in l cells or georgia bovine kidney cells. partially purified chlamydial elementary bodies propagated in ...19968950425
chlamydiae as pathogens: new species and new issues.the recognition of genital chlamydial infection as an important public health problem was made first by the recognition of its role in acute clinical syndromes, as well as in serious reproductive and ocular complications, and secondly by our awareness of its prevalence when diagnostic tests became widely accessible. the recent availability of effective single dose oral antimicrobial therapy and sensitive molecular amplification tests that allow the use of noninvasive specimens for diagnosis and ...19968969247
the ribosomal intergenic spacer and domain i of the 23s rrna gene are phylogenetic markers for chlamydia spp.current methods used to classify chlamydia strains, including biological, morphological, and dna hybridization techniques and major outer membrane protein (omp1) gene analysis, can be imprecise or difficult to perform. to facilitate classification, 2.8-kb partial ribosomal dna (rdna) segments from a chlamydia trachomatis strain and a chlamydia psittaci strain were amplified by pcr and sequenced. subsequently, a 1,320-bp region in this segment, including both the 16s/23s intergenic spacer (232 +/ ...19979103637
species identification of chlamydia isolates by analyzing restriction fragment length polymorphism of the 16s-23s rrna spacer region.the genetic diversity of the 16s-23s rrna spacer region of 12 chlamydia pneumoniae isolates, 7 chlamydia trachomatis isolates (human biovars: the trachoma serovars b and c, the urogenital serovars d, e, and f, and the lymphogranuloma venereum serovar l2; and a mouse biovar), 6 chlamydia psittaci isolates (5 avian isolates and 1 feline isolate), and one chlamydia pecorum isolate was studied. the 16s-23s rrna spacer region was amplified by pcr and digested with the restriction enzymes msei, psti, ...19979114403
analysis of partial 16s rrna nucleotide sequences of chlamydia pecorum and c. psittaci.partial 16s nucleotide sequences of chlamydia psittaci isolates s26/3 (abortion), p94/1 (pigeon) and chlamydia pecorum isolates w73 (enteric) and e58 (encephalomyelitis) were determined. analysis of these data indicates very high levels of interspecies sequence conservation, with c. psittaci being more closely related to c. pecorum than to c. pneumoniae or c. trachomatis. restriction enzyme analysis of nucleotide sequences indicated that bsli can be used to clearly distinguish c. psittaci and c. ...19979143877
comparison of five tests for the detection of antibodies against chlamydial (enzootic) abortion of ewes.five tests for antibodies against chlamydial (enzootic) abortion of ewes were compared using 255 sera from experimentally (group 1) or naturally (group 2) infected animals, flocks free of the disease (group 3) and individual animals testing positively by the complement fixation test but from flocks with no evidence of chlamydial abortion (group 4). sera from five specific pathogen-free lambs vaccinated with two different subtypes of chlamydia pecorum were also included (group 5). all tests used ...19979290194
phylogenetic analyses of chlamydia psittaci strains from birds based on 16s rrna gene sequence.the nucleotide sequences of 16s ribosomal dna (rdna) were determined for 39 strains of chlamydia psittaci (34 from birds and 5 from mammals) and for 4 chlamydia pecorum strains. the sequences were compared phylogenetically with the gene sequences of nine chlamydia strains (covering four species of the genus) retrieved from nucleotide databases. in the neighbor-joining tree, c. psittaci strains were more closely related to each other than to the other chlamydia species, although a feline pneumoni ...19979350757
in vitro susceptibility of chlamydia pecorum to macrolides, tetracyclines, quinolones and beta-lactam.the in vitro susceptibility of chlamydia pecorum to two macrolides (clarithromycin and erythromycin), two tetracyclines (doxycycline and minocycline), two quinolones (ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin) and one beta-lactam (ampicillin) was determined. the mics were 0.004 to 0.008 microg/ml for clarithromycin, 0.008 to 0.031 microg/ml for doxycycline and minocycline, 0.063 to 0.125 microg/ml for erythromycin, 0.25 to 0.5 microg/ml for ofloxacin and 0.25 to 1.0 microg/ml for ciprofloxacin. the mic for am ...19989525782
experimental infection of pregnant ewes with chlamydia pecorum.pregnant ewes were infected in midpregnancy with three isolates of chlamydia pecorum derived from the feces of healthy lambs from three different farms. oral infection, alone or together with fasciola hepatica, did not result in tissue invasion, since all placental and fecal samples were negative for chlamydiae. intravenous infection resulted in placental infection in 16 of 18 ewes in that chlamydiae were cultured from placentas or vaginal swabs. two ewes bore dead lambs after a shortened gestat ...19989596754
recent advances on ovine chlamydial abortion.this paper reviews new findings on ovine chlamydial abortion. concerning chlamydial taxonomy, with the recent advances due to the analysis of the ribosomal genes, nine genotypic groups were identified separated into two lineages. it also describes the transmission of the disease, the site of entry of the organism and chlamydial shedding by underlying the role of latent infections. recent results also concern the pathogenesis, with the kinetics of placental colonization and placental pathology le ...19989689742
serotyping of chlamydial clinical isolates from birds with monoclonal antibodies.forty-nine avian chlamydial strains, isolated mainly from various regions in france and from different species of birds, were analyzed and tested with a panel of nine monoclonal antibodies (mabs) by the indirect microimmunofluorescence test (mif). the mabs included five serovar-specific mabs, three mabs raised against chlamydia psittaci and chlamydia pecorum ovine strains, and one genus-specific mab. of the 49 isolates, 41 came from parrots or budgerigars; the rest were from pigeons, a canary, a ...199910216756
epizootiology of chlamydia infections in two free-range koala populations.the prevalence of chlamydia pecorum and chlamydia pneumoniae infections in two free-range koala populations was assessed using genus-specific pcr combined with species-specific dna probe hybridisation. population a had a very high overall level of chlamydial infection (85%) with significantly more of these infections being due to c. pecorum (73%) compared to c. pneumoniae (24%). the second population had a much lower prevalence of infection (10%) with equal levels of both species. an important f ...199910223324
emended description of the order chlamydiales, proposal of parachlamydiaceae fam. nov. and simkaniaceae fam. nov., each containing one monotypic genus, revised taxonomy of the family chlamydiaceae, including a new genus and five new species, and standards for the identification of organisms.the current taxonomic classification of chlamydia is based on limited phenotypic, morphologic and genetic criteria. this classification does not take into account recent analysis of the ribosomal operon or recently identified obligately intracellular organisms that have a chlamydia-like developmental cycle of replication. neither does it provide a systematic rationale for identifying new strains. in this study, phylogenetic analyses of the 16s and 23s rrna genes are presented with corroborating ...199910319462
analysis of the 16s rrna gene of micro-organism wsu 86-1044 from an aborted bovine foetus reveals that it is a member of the order chlamydiales: proposal of waddliaceae fam. nov., waddlia chondrophila gen. nov., sp. nov.the structural gene encoding the 16s rrna of the new obligate intracellular organism presently designated wsu 86-1044t was sequenced and analysed to establish its phylogenetic relationships. the 16s rdna sequence was most closely related to those of chlamydial species, having 84.7-85.3% sequence similarity, while it had 72.4-73.2% similarity with rickettsia-like organisms. when the sequences of the four species of chlamydiae (chlamydophila psittaci, chlamydia trachomatis, chlamydophila pneumonia ...199910319478
genomic relatedness of chlamydia isolates determined by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis.the genomic relatedness of 19 chlamydia pneumoniae isolates (17 from respiratory origin and 2 from atherosclerotic origin), 21 chlamydia trachomatis isolates (all serovars from the human biovar, an isolate from the mouse biovar, and a porcine isolate), 6 chlamydia psittaci isolates (5 avian isolates and 1 feline isolate), and 1 chlamydia pecorum isolate was studied by analyzing genomic amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) fingerprints. the aflp procedure was adapted from a previously de ...199910419941
characterization of the rnpb gene and rnase p rna in the order chlamydiales.the sequence of the rnase p rna gene (rnpb) was determined for 60 strains representing all nine species in the family chlamydiaceae and for the related chlamydiales species, parachlamydia acanthamoebae and simkania negevensis. these sequences were used to infer evolutionary relationships among the chlamydiaceae. the analysis separated chlamydophila and chlamydia into two lineages, with chlamydophila forming three distinct clusters: the chlamydophila pneumoniae strains; the chlamydophila pecorum ...200010826799
detection of chlamydia species-specific serum antibodies by prior adsorption of common genus-specific establish a method for the detection of chlamydia species-specific antibodies to the three species of chlamydia responsible for human disease, the author attempted to remove chlamydia genus-specific antibodies by prior adsorption with heterologous chlamydia antigen. the effects of adsorption with heterologous antigen were investigated by the microplate immunofluorescence antibody technique. the chlamydia genus-specific antibodies in immune animal sera were significantly reduced by prior adsor ...200010891649
field evaluation of a new commercially available elisa based on a recombinant antigen for diagnosing chlamydophila abortus (chlamydia psittaci serotype 1) infection.a new commercially available elisa (elisar-chlamydia) for detecting antibodies against chlamydophila abortus has been evaluated using sheep field serum samples. the elisa is based on a recombinant antigen which expresses part of a protein from the 80-90kda family that is specific to c. abortus. sera (105) from six flocks with confirmed ovine chlamydial abortion (oea) outbreaks were used in this study, as well as sera (258) from 18 flocks which had suffered no oea in the last lambing. the elisar- ...200111165067
diagnosis of ovine enzootic abortion using an indirect elisa (romp91b ielisa) based on a recombinant protein fragment of the polymorphic outer membrane protein pomp91b of chlamydophila abortus.chlamydophila abortus is of major economic importance worldwide as one of the principal causes of abortion in sheep. serological diagnosis of infection by the complement fixation test (cft) is complicated by false positive reactions resulting from cross-reactive antibodies to chlamydophila pecorum. to improve diagnosis an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ielisa) based on a recombinant protein fragment of the c. abortus polymorphic outer membrane protein pomp91b (romp91b ielisa) was as ...200111179645
chlamydial infections in small ruminants.chlamydophila abortus (formerly chlamydia psittaci) is one of the most important causes of reproductive failure in sheep and goats, especially in intensively managed flocks. the disease is usually manifested as abortion in the last 2 to 3 weeks of gestation, regardless of when the animal was infected. ewes that abort are resistant to future reproductive failure due to c. abortus, but they become inapparent carriers and persistently shed the organism from their reproductive tracts during estrus. ...200111515403
pcr detection and molecular identification of chlamydiaceae species.recent taxonomic developments, based on 16s and 23s rrna gene sequences, have divided the family chlamydiaceae into two genera and nine species, of which five have been found to infect humans. few simple methods are available to detect and identify all species sensitively and specifically. in this study the suitability of the omp2 gene as a target for molecular identification of chlamydiaceae is demonstrated. phylogenetic analysis of partial omp2 gene sequences from all nine species agrees with ...200111526131
serological diagnosis of ovine enzootic abortion by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with a recombinant protein fragment of the polymorphic outer membrane protein pomp90 of chlamydophila abortus.ovine enzootic abortion (oea) resulting from infection of sheep and goats with chlamydophila abortus is of major economic importance worldwide. over the last 50 years the serological diagnosis of infection has been based mainly on the complement fixation test (cft), which lacks both sensitivity and specificity because of cross-reactive antibodies to other gram-negative bacteria, including another common chlamydial pathogen of sheep, chlamydophila pecorum. in the present study, a series of overla ...200212409404
rapid and standardized detection of chlamydia pneumoniae using lightcycler real-time fluorescence order to meet the need of many microbiological laboratories for a standardized system for detecting chlamydia pneumoniae in respiratory specimens, a hybridization probe-based lightcycler (roche diagnostics, germany) pcr assay was developed. the assay's analytical sensitivity and specificity were evaluated according to the recommendations of the centers for disease control and prevention (usa) and laboratory centre for disease control (canada). seventy-four bacterial species other than chlamyd ...200312582746
application of touchdown enzyme time release (tetr)-pcr for diagnosis of chlamydophila abortus infection.chlamydophila abortus-dna was detected using a touchdown enzyme time-release (tetr)-polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay as an improved test for sensitive and rapid diagnosis of abortion in small ruminants. two hundred and fifty two placentae, liver or spleen tissue samples from aborting ewes and goats or aborted lambs and kids in which c. abortus infection was suspected were examined by tetr-pcr and the results were compared with cell culture. sixty-five tissue samples were found to be tetr-pc ...200312726739
molecular evidence for novel chlamydial infections in the koala (phascolarctos cinereus).chlamydia-related disease has a detrimental effect on australia's free-range koala (phascolarctos cinereus) populations. the chlamydial species responsible for ocular, urogenital and respiratory disease in the koala have previously been identified as chlamydophila pecorum and chlamydophila pneumoniae. epizootiology studies have therefore used species specific pcr assays to detect chlamydial infections. in the current study, we used a broad range pcr amplification and cloning strategy to identify ...200312866851
expression of the major outer membrane protein (momp) of chlamydophila abortus, chlamydophila pecorum, and chlamydia suis in escherichia coli using an arabinose-inducible plasmid vector.the ompa genes encoding the 40 kda major outer membrane protein (momp) of chlamydophila (ch.) abortus, ch. pecorum, and chlamydia (c.) suis were cloned into the arabinose-inducible plasmid vector pbadmychis, and recombinant momps (rmomp) from the three chlamydial species were expressed at high levels in escherichia (e.) coli. the proteins lacking the 22 aa n-terminal signal peptide were expressed as insoluble cytoplasmic inclusion bodies which were readily purified using immobilized metal-affini ...200314633208
isolation, molecular characterisation and genome sequence of a bacteriophage (chp3) from chlamydophila pecorum.chlamydiae are obligate intracellular pathogens that have a unique developmental cycle. thirty nine viable isolates representing all nine currently recognised chlamydial species were screened by immunofluorescence with a cross-reacting chlamydiaphage monoclonal antibody. a novel chlamydiaphage (chp3) was detected in c. pecorum, a chlamydial species not previously known to carry bacteriophages. chp3 belongs to the microviridae, members of this virus family are characterised by circular, single-st ...200414976421
efficacy of live chlamydophila abortus vaccine 1b in protecting mice placentas and foetuses against strains of chlamydophila pecorum isolated from cases of abortion.the efficacy of chlamydophila abortus vaccine strain 1b in protecting against two selected chlamydophila pecorum strains, isolated from an aborted goat (m14) in morocco and a ewe (ab10) in france, was investigated in a mouse model, by comparing the reduction in number of bacteria in the placentas of vaccinated mice challenged intraperitoneally at 11 days of pregnancy with the reference c. abortus (ab7) and c. pecorum (m14, or ab10) strains, to those of unvaccinated mice. vaccine 1b was shown to ...200415066732
growth characteristics of porcine chlamydial strains in different cell culture systems and comparison with ovine and avian chlamydial strains.porcine chlamydiaceae were cultivated under various culture conditions and we compared their growth characteristics with those of ruminant and avian strains. the combination of centrifugation assisted cell culture infection and cycloheximide treatment of vero cell coverslip cultures provided the highest inclusion numbers with all chlamydial strains. interestingly, the use of iscove's modified dulbecco's medium instead of eagle's minimal essential medium significantly increased chlamydia suis inc ...200415158211
recombinant major outer membrane protein (momp) of chlamydophila abortus, chlamydophila pecorum, and chlamydia suis as antigens to distinguish chlamydial species-specific antibodies in animal sera.recombinant major outer membrane proteins (rmomp) of chlamydophila (ch.) abortus, ch. pecorum, and chlamydia (c.) suis were used as antigens to distinguish chlamydial species-specific antibodies in (i) immune sera from six rabbits and three pigs raised against native purified elementary bodies, (ii) serum samples from 25 sows vaccinated with ch. abortus, and (iii) 40 serum samples from four heifers experimentally infected with ch. abortus. all post-exposition sera contained chlamydial antibodies ...200415381270
high prevalence of natural chlamydophila species infection in calves.we investigated the acquisition and prevalence of chlamydophila sp. infection in calves. specimens were collected at weekly intervals from birth to week 12 postpartum from 40 female holstein calf-dam pairs in a dairy herd. real-time pcr detected, quantified, and differentiated chlamydophila 23s rrna gene dna from vaginal cytobrush swabs and milk samples. chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with lysed chlamydophila abortus or chlamydophila pecorum elementary body antigens quantifi ...200415583297
high-yield culture and purification of chlamydiaceae bacteria.research on intracellular bacteria of the family chlamydiaceae, and the diseases they cause, requires large amounts of infectious elementary bodies (eb). we describe an approach that maximizes the generation of chlamydia pneumoniae, chlamydia trachomatis, chlamydia abortus, or chlamydia pecorum ebs in several replication cycles over approximately 10 days or more in a saturated equilibrium monolayer cell culture system. buffalo green monkey kidney (bgmk) cells, human epidermoid carcinoma-2 (hep-2 ...200515676192
community-acquired pneumonia in japan: a prospective ambulatory and hospitalized patient this study the aetiology of community-acquired pneumonia (cap) in japan was investigated and the incidence of causative pathogens in ambulatory and hospitalized patients was compared. in addition, the roles of chlamydophila felis and chlamydophila pecorum as causes of cap were investigated. five hundred and six patients with cap who visited an outpatient clinic or were admitted to one of three different hospitals were enrolled in this study; 106 of them were outpatients and 400 were hospitali ...200515770027
mixed infections in vitro with different chlamydiaceae strains and a cell culture adapted porcine epidemic diarrhea virus.assuming a synergistic or additive effect of chlamydiaceae in coexistence with other enteropathogenic agents, the viral/bacterial interaction between a cell culture adapted porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (ca-pedv) and different chlamydiaceae strains was studied in vitro. vero cells were dually infected with ca-pedv and one of the three chlamydial strains chlamydia trachomatis s45, chlamydophila abortus s26/3 or chlamydophila pecorum 1710s. three experimental protocols were designed varying the ...200515778027
association of uterine and salpingeal fibrosis with chlamydial hsp60 and hsp10 antigen-specific antibodies in chlamydia-infected koalas.infection by chlamydia pneumoniae or chlamydia pecorum commonly causes chronic, fibrotic disease of the urogenital tracts of female koalas. studies of humans have associated titers of serum immunoglobulin g (igg) against chlamydial hsp60 and hsp10 antigens with chronic infection, salpingeal fibrosis, and tubal infertility. to determine whether a similar relationship exists in chlamydia-infected koalas, samples were collected opportunistically from 34 wild female koalas and examined by gross path ...200515879024
evidence of infection in tortoises by chlamydia-like organisms that are genetically distinct from known chlamydiaceae species.nasal lavage fluid was collected from 155 tortoises, mostly testudo spp., that were kept as companion animals and suffered from nasal discharge. examination for chlamydial dna by pcr assays targeting the ompa, ompb, and groesl genes, as well as the 16s rrna signature region and the 16s-23s intergenic spacer, respectively, revealed 16 (10.3%) positive animals. sequence analysis of pcr products indicated high homology to the family chlamydiaceae. phylogenetic trees constructed from partial sequenc ...200515943067
detection of mycoplasma conjunctivae in sheep affected with conjunctivitis and infectious determine the aetiology of a recurring and severe form of infectious keratoconjunctivitis (ikc) in sheep.200316032322
a monoclonal antibody against a carbohydrate epitope in lipopolysaccharide differentiates chlamydophila psittaci from chlamydophila pecorum, chlamydophila pneumoniae, and chlamydia trachomatis.lipopolysaccharide (lps) of chlamydophila psittaci but not of chlamydophila pneumoniae or chlamydia trachomatis contains a tetrasaccharide of 3-deoxy-alpha-d-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosonic acid (kdo) of the sequence kdo(2-->8)[kdo(2-->4)] kdo(2-->4)kdo. after immunization with the synthetic neoglycoconjugate antigen kdo(2-->8)[kdo(2-->4)]kdo(2-->4) kdo-bsa, we obtained the mouse monoclonal antibody (mab) s69-4 which was able to differentiate c. psittaci from chlamydophila pecorum, c. pneumoniae, and ...200616282606
evaluation of two commercial assays for the detection of chlamydophila abortus antibodies.two commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa), the chekit-chlamydia which uses inactivated chlamydophila psittaci antigen, and the chlamydophila abortus elisa produced by the institut pourquier which uses a recombinant fragment of the 80-90 kda protein, were evaluated with the objective to determine whether the new elisas would perform as improved alternatives to the complement fixation test (cft) for the serological diagnosis of ovine enzootic abortion (oea). the results were compar ...200717382493
comparative evaluation of eight serological assays for diagnosing chlamydophila abortus infection in sheep.chlamydophila abortus is one of the principal causes of late-term abortion (enzootic abortion of ewes or eae) in sheep across europe. serological diagnosis of eae is routinely carried out by the complement fixation test, although the interpretation of results can often be difficult because of cross reaction with chlamydophila pecorum, which also commonly infects sheep. the purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare four elisas developed at moredun research institute and based on whole c. ...200918950964
simultaneous differential detection of chlamydophila abortus, chlamydophila pecorum and coxiella burnetii from aborted ruminant's clinical samples using multiplex pcr.chlamydiosis and q fever, two zoonosis, are important causes of ruminants' abortion around the world. they are caused respectively by strictly intracellular and gram negative bacterium chlamydophila abortus (cp. abortus) and coxiella burnetii (c. burnetii). chlamydophila pecorum (cp. pecorum) is commonly isolated from the digestive tract of clinically inconspicuous ruminants but the abortive and zoonotic impact of this bacterium is still unknown because cp. pecorum is rarely suspected in abortio ...200919570194
recombinant 35-kda inclusion membrane protein inca as a candidate antigen for serodiagnosis of chlamydophila pecorum.chlamydophila pecorum strains are commonly found in the intestine and vaginal mucus of asymptomatic ruminants and may therefore induce a positive serological response when the animals are tested for c. abortus. they have also been associated with different pathological diseases in ruminants, swine and koala. the aim of this study was to identify specific c. pecorum immunodominant antigens which could be used in elisa tests allowing to distinguish between animals infected with c. pecorum and thos ...201019969431
mixed infections with chlamydia and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus - a new in vitro model of chlamydial persistence.chlamydiae induce persistent infections, which have been associated with a wide range of chronic diseases in humans and animals. mixed infections with chlamydia and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (pedv) may result in generation of persistent chlamydial infections. to test this hypothesis, an in vitro model of dual infection with cell culture-adapted pedv and chlamydia abortus or chlamydia pecorum in vero cells was established.201020663197
chlamydiaceae infections in pig.abstract: chlamydiaceae are gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. they are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. in pigs, chlamydia suis, chlamydia abortus, chlamydia pecorum and chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal di ...201121314912
novel molecular markers of chlamydia pecorum genetic diversity in the koala (phascolarctos cinereus).abstract:201121496349
seroepidemiologic survey for chlamydia suis in wild boar (sus scrofa) populations in italy.we used serology to estimate the prevalence of exposure to chlamydiae in italian populations of wild boars (sus scrofa). sera from 173 hunter-killed wild boars harvested during the 2006-2009 hunting seasons in three italian regions were tested for antibodies to chlamydia suis, chlamydophila pecorum, chlamydophila abortus, and chlamydophila psittaci by the microimmunofluorescence test. antibody titers to chlamydiae ôëñ 1:32 were detected in 110 of the 173 samples tested (63.6%). specific reactivi ...201121719838
seroprevalence of chlamydial infection in cattle in ireland.although few studies have investigated the prevalence of chlamydial infections in cattle, reported prevalence rates vary hugely. in order to assess the prevalence of this infection in cattle in ireland, serum samples (100 herds, 20 samples/herd) collected for statutory screening for brucellosis were examined by soluble chlamydial antigen indirect elisa. the assay detects antibodies to the two most common chlamydiaceae spp. affecting cattle, namely chlamydia abortus and chlamydia pecorum. a total ...201222285586
characterization of the activity and expression of arginine decarboxylase in human and animal chlamydia pathogens.chlamydia pneumoniae encodes a functional arginine decarboxylase (argdc), aaxb, that activates upon self-cleavage and converts l-arginine to agmatine. in contrast, most chlamydia trachomatis serovars carry a missense or nonsense mutation in aaxb abrogating activity. the g115r missense mutation was not predicted to impact aaxb functionality, making it unclear whether aaxb variations in other chlamydia species also result in enzyme inactivation. to address the impact of gene polymorphism on functi ...201223043454
chlamydiaceae genomics reveals interspecies admixture and the recent evolution of chlamydia abortus infecting lower mammalian species and humans.chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular bacteria that cause a diversity of severe infections among humans and livestock on a global scale. identification of new species since 1989 and emergence of zoonotic infections, including abortion in women, underscore the need for genome sequencing of multiple strains of each species to advance our knowledge of evolutionary dynamics across chlamydiaceae. here, we genome sequenced isolates from avian, lower mammalian and human hosts. based on core gene phy ...201526507799
clinical, diagnostic and pathologic features of presumptive cases of chlamydia pecorum-associated arthritis in australian sheep flocks.arthritis is an economically significant disease in lambs and is usually the result of a bacterial infection. one of the known agents of this disease is chlamydia pecorum, a globally recognised livestock pathogen associated with several diseases in sheep, cattle and other hosts. relatively little published information is available on the clinical, diagnostic and pathologic features of c. pecorum arthritis in sheep, hindering efforts to enhance our understanding of this economically significant d ...201627608808
pneumonia due to chlamydia pecorum in a koala (phascolarctos cinereus).chlamydiosis is a common infectious disease of koalas (phascolarctos cinereus), but chlamydia spp. have not yet been demonstrated to cause pneumonia in these animals. a juvenile male koala died following an episode of respiratory disease. at necropsy examination, the lung tissue was consolidated. microscopical lesions in the lung included pyogranulomatous bronchopneumonia, proliferation of bronchiolar and alveolar epithelium and interstitial fibrosis. hyperplastic bronchiolar epithelial cells co ...201627567271
first report and histological features of chlamydia pecorum encephalitis in calves in new zealand.between september and october 2013, 40 of 150 crossbred friesian dairy calves on a farm in the manawatu region of new zealand developed neurological signs when between 1 and 3 months of age. calves were grazed in multiple mobs and calves from each mob were affected. a variable response was observed to initial treatment with thiamine, fluoroquinolone antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.201627389524
penicillin g-induced chlamydial stress response in a porcine strain of chlamydia pecorum.chlamydia pecorum causes asymptomatic infection and pathology in ruminants, pigs, and koalas. we characterized the antichlamydial effect of the beta lactam penicillin g on chlamydia pecorum strain 1710s (porcine abortion isolate). penicillin-exposed and mock-exposed infected host cells showed equivalent inclusions numbers. penicillin-exposed inclusions contained aberrant bacterial forms and exhibited reduced infectivity, while mock-exposed inclusions contained normal bacterial forms and exhibite ...201626997956
chlamydia pecorum infection in free-ranging koalas ( phascolarctos cinereus ) on french island, victoria, australia.we detected chlamydia pecorum in two koalas ( phascolarctos cinereus ) from a closed island population in victoria, australia, previously free of chlamydia infection. the ompa and multilocus sequence type were most closely related to published isolates of livestock rather than koala origin, suggesting potential cross-species transmission of c. pecorum .201626981690
prevalence and pathologic features of chlamydia pecorum infections in south australian koalas (phascolarctos cinereus).chlamydia pecorum infection is highly prevalent in many koala ( phascolarctos cinereus ) populations in the eastern states of australia, causing ocular and urogenital tract disease. in contrast, the current prevalence of chlamydiosis in south australian (sa) koalas is largely unknown, with few reports of clinical cases. we examined 65 sa rescued wild koalas at necropsy and collected ocular and urogenital swabs for the detection of c. pecorum by pcr. we detected c. pecorum in ocular or urogenital ...201626967132
identification of unusual chlamydia pecorum genotypes in victorian koalas (phascolarctos cinereus) and clinical variables associated with infection.chlamydia pecorum infection is a threat to the health of free-ranging koalas (phascolarctos cinereus) in australia. utilizing an extensive sample archive we determined the prevalence of c. pecorum in koalas within six regions of victoria, australia. the ompa genotypes of the detected c. pecorum were characterized to better understand the epidemiology of this pathogen in victorian koalas. despite many studies in northern australia (i.e. queensland and new south wales), prior chlamydia studies in ...201626932792
characterisation of cd4 t cells in healthy and diseased koalas (phascolarctos cinereus) using cell-type-specific monoclonal antibodies.the koala (phascolarctos cinereus) is an arboreal herbivorous marsupial that is an australian icon. koalas in many parts of australia are under multiple threats including habitat destruction, dog attacks, vehicular accidents, and infectious diseases such as chlamydia spp. and the koala retrovirus (korv), which may contribute to the incidence of lymphoma and leukaemia in this species. due to a lack of koala-specific immune reagents and assays there is currently no way to adequately analyse the im ...201626905635
treatment of chlamydia-associated ocular disease via a recombinant protein based vaccine in the koala (phascolarctos cinereus).koalas (phascolarctos cinereus) are affected by debilitating chlamydial disease that can lead to blindness, infertility, and death. the causative agent is the intracellular bacterium chlamydia pecorum. while antibiotics can be used to treat koala chlamydial infection, they are often ineffective or cause severe dysbiosis to the animal's unique gut flora. recent work has progressed on the development of a protective vaccine for chlamydia in the koala. this study demonstrates that the use of a vacc ...201627707559
novel chlamydiales genotypes identified in ticks from australian wildlife.members of the order chlamydiales are known for their potential as human and veterinary bacterial pathogens. despite this recognition, epidemiological factors such as routes of transmission are yet to be fully defined. ticks are well known vectors for many other infections with several reports recently describing the presence of bacteria in the order chlamydiales in these arthropods. australian wildlife are hosts to an extensive range of tick species. evidence is also growing that the marsupial ...201728122598
molecular characterisation of the chlamydia pecorum plasmid from porcine, ovine, bovine, and koala strains indicates plasmid-strain co-evolution.background. highly stable, evolutionarily conserved, small, non-integrative plasmids are commonly found in members of the chlamydiaceae and, in some species, these plasmids have been strongly linked to virulence. to date, evidence for such a plasmid in chlamydia pecorum has been ambiguous. in a recent comparative genomic study of porcine, ovine, bovine, and koala c. pecorum isolates, we identified plasmids (pcpec) in a pig and three koala strains, respectively. screening of further porcine, ovin ...201626870613
chlamydia pecorum is the endemic intestinal species in cattle while c. gallinacea, c. psittaci and c. pneumoniae associate with sporadic systemic investigate the prevalence and diversity of bovine chlamydia spp. in cattle, whole blood from dairy and beef cattle in 11 provinces of china (n=2003) and vaginal swabs, whole blood samples, feces, milk samples from cows in a yangzhou dairy farm (n=108) were examined using genus- and species-specific pcrs. in cattle from 11 provinces, 2.4% (48/2003) of whole-blood samples were positive for chlamydia spp., and four chlamydia species (c. pneumoniae, 41.7%, 20/48; c. psittaci, 22.9%, 11/48; c. ga ...201627599935
ocular chlamydiales infections of western barred bandicoots (perameles bougainville) in western australia.the western barred bandicoot (perameles bougainville) is an endangered species, free ranging on only two islands off the coast of western australia (dorre and bernier islands). conservation efforts are currently directed at reintroducing these marsupials into predator-proof enclosures and habitats in historical distribution ranges on the mainland in the southwest of western australia and in south australia. in september 2000, 19 western barred bandicoots were captured on bernier island for trans ...200517315464
chlamydia pecorum infections in sheep and cattle: a common and under-recognised infectious disease with significant impact on animal health.there is a growing recognition that infections of livestock by the obligate intracellular bacterium, chlamydia pecorum, are more widespread than was previously thought. a range of diseases have been associated with this pathogen, with the most important manifestations including infectious arthritis, infertility, enteritis, reduced growth rates, mastitis, and pneumonia. c. pecorum infections have also been associated with sub-clinical disease, highlighting our lack of knowledge about its true eco ...201526586214
a prototype recombinant-protein based chlamydia pecorum vaccine results in reduced chlamydial burden and less clinical disease in free-ranging koalas (phascolarctos cinereus).diseases associated with chlamydia pecorum infection are a major cause of decline in koala populations in australia. while koalas in care can generally be treated, a vaccine is considered the only option to effectively reduce the threat of infection and disease at the population level. in the current study, we vaccinated 30 free-ranging koalas with a prototype chlamydia pecorum vaccine consisting of a recombinant chlamydial momp adjuvanted with an immune stimulating complex. an additional cohort ...201626756624
damage/danger associated molecular patterns (damps) modulate chlamydia pecorum and c. trachomatis serovar e inclusion development in vitro.persistence, more recently termed the chlamydial stress response, is a viable but non-infectious state constituting a divergence from the characteristic chlamydial biphasic developmental cycle. damage/danger associated molecular patterns (damps) are normal intracellular components or metabolites that, when released from cells, signal cellular damage/lysis. purine metabolite damps, including extracellular atp and adenosine, inhibit chlamydial development in a species-specific manner. viral co-inf ...201526248286
prevalence and clinical significance of herpesvirus infection in populations of australian marsupials.herpesviruses have been reported in several marsupial species, but molecular classification has been limited to four herpesviruses in macropodids, a gammaherpesvirus in two antechinus species (antechinus flavipes and antechinus agilis), a gammaherpesvirus in a potoroid, the eastern bettong (bettongia gaimardi) and two gammaherpesviruses in koalas (phascolarctos cinereus). in this study we examined a range of australian marsupials for the presence of herpesviruses using molecular and serological ...201526222660
humoral immune responses in koalas (phascolarctos cinereus) either naturally infected with chlamydia pecorum or following administration of a recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein vaccine.the development of a vaccine is a key strategy to combat the widespread and debilitating effects of chlamydial infection in koalas. one such vaccine in development uses recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein (rmomp) as an antigen and has shown promising results in several koala trials. previous chlamydial vaccine studies, primarily in the mouse model, suggest that both cell-mediated and antibody responses will be required for adequate protection. recently, the important protective r ...201626747718
in vitro activity of chloramphenicol, florfenicol and enrofloxacin against chlamydia pecorum isolated from koalas (phascolarctos cinereus).to determine the in vitro susceptibilities of koala isolates of chlamydia pecorum to enrofloxacin and chloramphenicol, which are frequently used to treat koalas with chlamydiosis, and florfenicol, a derivative of chloramphenicol.201526412342
novel sequence types of chlamydia pecorum infect free-ranging alpine ibex (capra ibex) and red deer (cervus elaphus) in switzerland.chlamydia pecorum, a recognized pathogen of domesticated ruminants and koalas (phascolarctos cinereus), has been recently reported in a broad range of other wildlife species including water buffalo (bubalus bubalis), ibex (capra ibex), chamois (rupicapra rupicapra), red deer (cervus elaphus), and birds. this identification raises questions as to whether cross-host transmission may be a factor in the epidemiology of infections in these species. to begin to address this question, we employed a c. ...201525647593
orchitis and epididymitis in koalas (phascolarctos cinereus) infected with chlamydia pecorum.although chlamydia causes disease of the urethra and prostate of male koalas, its impact on the testis and epididymis has not been examined. this study describes chronic-active and granulomatous orchitis and epididymitis with interstitial fibrosis associated with infection by chlamydia pecorum in 2 of 18 adult male koalas being euthanized at a koala hospital, 8 of which also had chlamydial prostatitis. by immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy, chlamydial inclusions were demon ...201525637084
genetic diversity in the plasticity zone and the presence of the chlamydial plasmid differentiates chlamydia pecorum strains from pigs, sheep, cattle, and koalas.chlamydia pecorum is a globally recognised pathogen of livestock and koalas. to date, comparative genomics of c. pecorum strains from sheep, cattle and koalas has revealed that only single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) and a limited number of pseudogenes appear to contribute to the genetic diversity of this pathogen. no chlamydial plasmid has been detected in these strains despite its ubiquitous presence in almost all other chlamydial species. genomic analyses have not previously included c. p ...201526531162
recent advances in the understanding of chlamydophila pecorum infections, sixteen years after it was named as the fourth species of the chlamydiaceae family.chlamydophila pecorum found in the intestine and vaginal mucus of asymptomatic ruminants has also been associated with different pathological conditions in ruminants, swine and koalas. some endangered species such as water buffalos and bandicoots have also been found to be infected by c. pecorum. the persistence of c. pecorum strains in the intestine and vaginal mucus of ruminants could cause long-term sub-clinical infection affecting the animal's health. c. pecorum strains present many genetic ...201019995513
identification, characterisation and expression analysis of natural killer receptor genes in chlamydia pecorum infected koalas (phascolarctos cinereus).koalas (phascolarctos cinereus), an iconic australian marsupial, are being heavily impacted by the spread of chlamydia pecorum, an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen. koalas vary in their response to this pathogen, with some showing no symptoms, while others suffer severe symptoms leading to infertility, blindness or death. little is known about the pathology of this disease and the immune response against it in this host. studies have demonstrated that natural killer (nk) cells, key comp ...201526471184
the prevalence and clinical significance of chlamydia infection in island and mainland populations of victorian koalas (phascolarctos cinereus).chlamydia infection is known to impact the health of koalas (phascolarctos cinereus) in new south wales (nsw) and queensland, but the clinical significance of chlamydia infections in victorian koalas is not well described. we examined the prevalence of chlamydia infection and assessed associated health parameters in two victorian koala populations known to be chlamydia positive. the same testing regimen was applied to a third victorian population in which chlamydia had not been detected. we exam ...201525588005
culture-independent genome sequencing of clinical samples reveals an unexpected heterogeneity of infections by chlamydia pecorum.chlamydia pecorum is an important global pathogen of livestock, and it is also a significant threat to the long-term survival of australia's koala populations. this study employed a culture-independent dna capture approach to sequence c. pecorum genomes directly from clinical swab samples collected from koalas with chlamydial disease as well as from sheep with arthritis and conjunctivitis. investigations into single-nucleotide polymorphisms within each of the swab samples revealed that a portion ...201525740768
evidence of a conserved role for chlamydia htra in the replication phase of the chlamydial developmental cycle.identification of the htra inhibitor jo146 previously enabled us to demonstrate an essential function for htra during the mid-replicative phase of the chlamydia trachomatis developmental cycle. here we extend our investigations to other members of the chlamydia genus. c. trachomatis isolates with distinct replicative phase growth kinetics showed significant loss of viable infectious progeny after htra was inhibited during the replicative phase. mid-replicative phase addition of jo146 was also si ...201425066238
rapid detection of chlamydia/chlamydophila group in samples collected from swine herds with and without reproductive disorders.the study was carried out in seven reproductive herds of pigs. in three of them reproductive disorders were observed. three herds consisted of 10-50 and four consisted of 120-500 adult sows and they were called small and medium, respectively. fifty-seven adult sows were randomly selected from herds. serum samples were tested using the complement fixation test and swabs from both eyes and from the vaginal vestibule were examined using real-time pcr. all serum samples were negative. infected sows ...201424988867
longitudinal prevalence and faecal shedding of chlamydia pecorum in sheep.the prevalence and faecal shedding of chlamydia spp. in sheep in australia has not been well described. two species-specific quantitative pcrs (qpcrs) targeting the chlamydial outer membrane protein cell surface antigen gene (ompa) were validated and used to determine the prevalence and faecal shedding of c. abortus and c. pecorum from faecal samples of lambs at three sampling times (weaning, post-weaning and pre-slaughter) from eight farms in south australia, new south wales, victoria and weste ...201424954870
genetic and antigenic analysis of chlamydia pecorum strains isolated from calves with diarrhea.chlamydia pecorum (designated 22-58) was isolated in 2010 in hmlu-1 cells from the jejunum of a calf which died of necrotizing enterocolitis in yamaguchi prefecture, japan. immunohistochemical staining identified c. pecorum positive reactions in the jejunal villi. c. pecorum, designated 24-100, was isolated from the feces of a calf with diarrhea in another farm in yamaguchi prefecture in 2012. a significant increase in neutralizing antibody titers against c. pecorum was confirmed in paired sera. ...201525728336
comparison of subcutaneous versus intranasal immunization of male koalas (phascolarctos cinereus) for induction of mucosal and systemic immunity against chlamydia pecorum.chlamydia pecorum infections are debilitating in the koala, contributing significantly to morbidity and mortality, with current antibiotic treatments having minimal success and adversely affecting gut microflora. this, combined with the sometimes-asymptomatic nature of the infection, suggests that an efficacious anti-chlamydial vaccine is required to control chlamydial infections in the koala. to date vaccination studies have focused primarily on female koalas, however, given the physiological d ...201525562793
waddlia, parachlamydia and chlamydiaceae in bovine abortion.the etiology remains unknown in many cases of bovine abortion in switzerland. bacteria of the chlamydiales order are known abortive agents, therefore cases of bovine abortion from three representative regions of switzerland were investigated in this study. particularly chlamydiaceae as well as the chlamydia-like organisms waddlia and parachlamydia were of interest, especially because of their possible zoonotic potential. placenta samples (n=343) were tested for these bacteria by different pcr-me ...201121658867
identification, sequencing and molecular analysis of chp4, a novel chlamydiaphage of chlamydophila abortus belonging to the family microviridae.members of the family microviridae have been identified in a number of chlamydial species infecting humans (phage cpar39 in chlamydophila pneumoniae), other mammals (fcpg1 in chlamydophila caviae, chp2 in chlamydophila abortus and chp3 in chlamydophila pecorum) and birds (chp1 in chlamydophila psittaci). this study describes the identification and genome sequencing of chp4, an icosahedral, 4530 bp, ssdna phage in c. abortus. chp4 is predicted to contain eight orfs, six of which could be assigned ...201121450942
ompa and antigenic diversity of bovine chlamydophila pecorum strains.infections with the intracellular bacterium chlamydophila (c.) pecorum are highly prevalent worldwide in cattle. these infections cause significant diseases such as polyarthritis, pneumonia, enteritis, genital infections and fertility disorders, and occasionally sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis. subclinical respiratory infections of calves with c. pecorum have been associated with airway obstruction, pulmonary inflammation, and reduced weight gains. this investigation examined four chlamydial s ...200918930605
preliminary phylogenetic identification of virulent chlamydophila pecorum strains.chlamydophila pecorum is an obligate intracellular bacterium associated with different pathological conditions in ruminants, swine and koala, which is also found in the intestine of asymptomatic animals. a multi-virulence locus sequence typing (mvlst) system was developed using 19 c. pecorum strains (8 pathogenic and 11 non-pathogenic intestinal strains) isolated from ruminants of different geographical origins. to evaluate the ability of mvlst to distinguish the pathogenic from the non-pathogen ...200818707024
identification and characterisation of coding tandem repeat variants in inca gene of chlamydophila pecorum.bacteria of the family chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular pathogens of human and animals. chlamydophila pecorum is associated with different pathological conditions in ruminants, swine and koala. to characterize a coding tandem repeat (ctr) identified at the 3' end of inca gene of c. pecorum, 51 strains of different chlamydial species were examined. the ctr were observed in 18 of 18 tested c. pecorum isolates including symptomatic and asymptomatic animals from diverse geographical origins. ...200818651990
prevalence of chlamydiae in boars and semen used for artificial insemination.although there are indications for venereal transmission of chlamydiae in pigs, direct diagnostic evidence on the presence of these bacteria in boars and boar semen in particular is still incomplete. we investigated boars from two studs (a, b) in semen (a: n = 174; b: n = 100) and faeces (a: n = 174; b: n = 24) for chlamydiae using ompa-pcr and partial ompa gene sequencing. additionally, blood serum was examined for chlamydial antibodies using an indirect elisa (a: n = 171; b: n = 62). chlamydia ...200616280160
comparative genomics of koala, cattle and sheep strains of chlamydia pecorum.chlamydia pecorum is an important pathogen of domesticated livestock including sheep, cattle and pigs. this pathogen is also a key factor in the decline of the koala in australia. we sequenced the genomes of three koala c. pecorum strains, isolated from the urogenital tracts and conjunctiva of diseased koalas. the genome of the c. pecorum vr629 (ipa) strain, isolated from a sheep with polyarthritis, was also sequenced.201425106440
interleukin 17a is an immune marker for chlamydial disease severity and pathogenesis in the koala (phascolarctos cinereus).the koala (phascolarctos cinereus) is an iconic australian marsupial species that is facing many threats to its survival. chlamydia pecorum infections are a significant contributor to this ongoing decline. a major limiting factor in our ability to manage and control chlamydial disease in koalas is a limited understanding of the koala's cell-mediated immune response to infections by this bacterial pathogen. to identify immunological markers associated with chlamydial infection and disease in koal ...201424915607
chlamydiaceae and chlamydia-like organisms in the koala (phascolarctos cinereus)--organ distribution and histopathological findings.chlamydial infections in koalas can cause life-threatening diseases leading to blindness and sterility. however, little is known about the systemic spread of chlamydiae in the inner organs of the koala, and data concerning related pathological organ lesions are limited. the aim of this study was to perform a thorough investigation of organs from 23 koalas and to correlate their histopathological lesions to molecular chlamydial detection. to reach this goal, 246 formalin-fixed and paraffin embedd ...201424888862
chlamydiosis: seroepidemiologic survey in a red deer (cervus elaphus) population in italy.chlamydiae are obligate, intracellular, gram-negative bacteria that are responsible for important diseases in humans, other mammals, and birds. studies have shown that chlamydiae could be present in wild ruminants, but the serodiagnostic method most commonly used did not allow identification of chlamydial species. we determined the prevalence of antibodies to chlamydia pecorum, chlamydia suis, chlamydia abortus, and chlamydia psittaci in 271 red deer (cervus elaphus) of a central italian populat ...201222493128
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