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enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli o157:h7 possesses somatic (o) antigen identical with that of salmonella o301. 19921280180
demonstration of exopolysaccharide production by enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli.enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli o157:h7 produces visibly slimy colonies when grown on sorbitol/macconkey or maloney's agar plates at room temperature, indicative of exopolysaccharide (eps) production. eighteen of 27 (67%) wild-type e. coli o157:h7 isolates produced enough eps to be visually distinguishable. of five strains that showed no visible eps production on these media, four (80%) did produce slimy colonies on media containing higher salt concentrations. measurements of eps production b ...19921369498
["spontaneous" ischemic colitis: infectious or medicamentous colitis? 25 cases].the diagnosis of non-gangrenous ischaemic colitis is difficult to assert when histological findings are not specific and when no precipitating cardiovascular event can be found. the constant absence of relapse after the initial episode suggests that an extraneous triggering event is involved. we have studied retrospectively 25 cases of spontaneous ischaemic colitis, looking for a non-haemodynamic triggering event. at the onset of colitis 9 patients had been taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory ...19921386432
occurrence and phenotypic properties of verotoxin producing escherichia coli in sporadic cases of gastroenteritis.five verotoxin producing escherichia coli strains were detected in 405 patients with infectious gastroenteritis and 3 such strains were detected in 11 patients with the hemolytic uremic syndrome in switzerland. production of verotoxin 2 was associated with the latter three strains. four strains reacted with the probe for the virulence plasmid of escherichia coli o157:h7, and six reacted with a recently described probe for the eae gene of enteropathogenic escherichia coli. none of the strains was ...19921396774
a waterborne outbreak in missouri of escherichia coli o157:h7 associated with bloody diarrhea and death.to describe and determine the source of a large outbreak of escherichia coli o157:h7 (eco157) infections in missouri.19921416555
hemorrhagic colitis caused by escherichia coli o157:h7--unusual ultrasonographic and computed tomography findings.hemorrhagic colitis due to escherichia coli o157:h7 occurs sporadically but widely throughout north america. radiographically this condition may mimic ischemic colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, acute appendicitis or appendiceal abscess. correlation of radiologic and clinical findings is required to ensure diagnostic accuracy and avoid unnecessary surgical intervention.19921450977
serological diagnosis of infection by shigella dysenteriae-1 in patients with bacillary dysentery.a total of 192 samples of serum from 113 sri lankan patients with clinical dysentery was examined for antibodies of the igm class to the lipopolysaccharides (lpss) of shigella dysenteriae-1 and escherichia coli o157:h7. by means of elisa and immunoblotting, 59 patients were found to have serum antibodies to the lps of s. dysenteriae-1 only. four samples from one patient were found to contain serum antibodies to the lpss of both s. dysenteriae-1 and e. coli o157:h7. antibodies to the lps of s. dy ...19921474263
effects of human intravenous immune globulin on diarrhea caused by shiga-like toxin i and shiga-like toxin ii in infant rabbits.shiga toxin and the related shiga-like toxins (slt), produced by escherichia coli, can cause hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (hus). human intravenous immune globulin (hivig) blocks the cytotoxicity of some slts in vitro. to examine the ability of hivig to modify disease caused by shiga-like toxin i or shiga-like toxin ii (slt-i or slt-ii), we injected 3-day-old rabbits intraperitoneally with slt-containing cell-free supernatants from escherichia coli o157: h7. a subset of rabbi ...19921479962
dna fingerprinting of escherichia coli o157:h7 strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of genomic dna was carried out on escherichia coli o157:h7 strains from different geographic locations to determine its value in an epidemiological survey of o157 infections. pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of xbai-digested dna fragments clearly separated e. coli o157:h7 strains from nontoxigenic e. coli o157:h19, o157:h43, and o157:h45 strains and from shiga-like-toxin-producing e. coli strains of other serogroups. however, among the e. coli o157:h7 strains, th ...19921500528
fate of escherichia coli o157:h7 as affected by ph or sodium chloride and in fermented, dry sausage.the influence of ph adjusted with lactic acid or hcl or sodium chloride concentration on survival or growth of escherichia coli o157:h7 in trypticase soy broth (tsb) was determined. studies also determined the fate of e. coli o157:h7 during the production and storage of fermented, dry sausage. the organism grew in tsb containing less than or equal to 6.5% nacl or at a ph of 4.5 to 9.0, adjusted with hcl. when tsb was acidified with lactic acid, the organism grew at ph 4.6 but not at ph 4.5. a co ...19921514799
comparison of a direct fecal shiga-like toxin assay and sorbitol-macconkey agar culture for laboratory diagnosis of enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli infection.a direct fecal shiga-like toxin assay (dslta) was used to prospectively screen 9,449 unselected stool samples, received at the british columbia provincial health laboratories and the metropolitan laboratories of vancouver, for shiga-like toxin i and shiga-like toxin ii. the results were compared with results of routine stool culture on sorbitol-macconkey agar (smac) for escherichia coli o157:h7. of 80 specimens positive by either method, 59 (74%) and 74 (93%) were positive by smac and dslta, res ...19921537917
cloning and characterization of the eae gene of enterohaemorrhagic escherichia coli o157:h7.the eae (escherichia coli attaching and effacing) gene from enteropathogenic escherichia coli (epec) was previously shown to be essential for production of the 'attaching and effacing' histopathology characteristic of epec infections (jerse et al., 1990). we have now cloned the eae gene from enterohaemorrhagic e. coli (ehec) which, in addition to producing shiga-like cytotoxins, also produces the attaching and effacing effect. the sequence homology between the epec and ehec sequences was 86% and ...19921552854
hemorrhagic colitis associated with escherichia coli o157:h7.e. coli o157:h7, the predominant serotype of ehec, is a cause of both outbreaks and sporadic cases of hemorrhagic colitis. in sporadic cases, and especially in outbreaks, there is an association with the consumption of improperly cooked ground beef. both young children and geriatric patients have an increased attack rate for ehec infection as well as an increased incidence of the two sequelae of intestinal infection with ehec, hemolyticuremic syndrome, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. th ...19921557995
cloning and sequencing of a shiga-like toxin ii-related gene from escherichia coli o157:h7 strain 7279.escherichia coli o157:h7 strains are newly recognized pathogens associated with haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic-uremic syndrome. in addition to shiga-like toxin types i and ii known to be produced by e. coli o157 isolates, we have identified in e. coli o157:h7 strain 7279 a third toxin, designated slt-iivhc, that is neutralized neither by anti-slt-i nor by anti-slt-ii antibodies. the genes for this toxin were isolated by using a pcr-mediated cell-free cloning technique. dna sequence analysis ...19921559006
[enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli o157:h7, an underestimated food pathogen? a literature review].escherichia coli o157:h7 has recently been recognised as a human pathogen involved in outbreaks and sporadic cases of food-borne diseases in north america and great britain. at present, less is known about the significance of e. coli o157:h7 as a cause of food-borne diseases in the netherlands. this article will review current literature about this serotype, which is a predominant representative of the enterohaemorrhagic e. coli (ehec) group. biochemical features, toxins, pathogenesis, clinical ...19921574793
improved detection of infection by escherichia coli o157 in patients with haemolytic uraemic syndrome by means of iga antibodies to lipopolysaccharide.samples of serum from 125 patients with haemolytic uraemic syndrome, were screened for antibodies of the iga and igm classes to the lipopolysaccharide (lps) of escherichia coli o157:h7. by means of the techniques of elisa and immunoblotting, 48 samples were shown to contain antibodies of the igm class to e. coli o157 lps, while 42 samples contained iga antibodies to this o-antigen. thirteen patients produced igm but not iga antibodies to the lps of e. coli o157:h7. of 42 patients with iga antibo ...19921602146
hemolytic uremic syndrome due to escherichia coli o157: h7 in a child with multiple infections.hemolytic uremic syndrome (hus) is characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and uremia; it is a common cause of acute renal failure in children. although many microbial agents have been associated with hus, only escherichia coli o157: h7 has been clearly demonstrated to be a major cause of this illness. a case is presented of a healthy 4-year-old boy who had a recent varicella infection; when evaluated for hus his blood and stool cultures both grew salmonella montevideo and blood cul ...19921616838
bacterial ileocecitis caused by escherichia coli o157:h7.escherichia coli o157:h7 is most commonly linked to hemorrhagic colitis and the hemolytic uremic syndrome. diagnostic ultrasound was used to demonstrate terminal ileum abnormalities suggestive of bacterial ileocecitis, a recently described entity that resembles acute appendicitis, in a patient whose stool culture yielded e. coli o157:h7. this case extends the spectrum of disease caused by e. coli o157:h7 and expands the number of organisms that can cause bacterial ileocecitis.19921619529
dipstick immunoassay to detect enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli o157:h7 in retail ground beef.a sensitive and easy-to-perform dipstick immunoassay to detect escherichia coli o157:h7 in retail ground beef was developed by using a sandwich-type assay (with a polyclonal antibody to e. coli o157 as the capture antibody and a monoclonal antibody to e. coli o157:h7 as the detection antibody) on a hydrophobic polyvinylidine difluoride-based membrane. e. coli o157:h7 in ground beef could be detected within 16 h, including incubation for 12 h in enrichment broth and the immunoassay, which takes 4 ...19921622249
randomized, controlled trial of antibiotic therapy for escherichia coli o157:h7 enteritis.we undertook a prospective, controlled study to evaluate the effect of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in children with proven escherichia coli o157:h7 enteritis on the duration fo symptoms, on fecal excretion of pathogen, and on the risk of progression to hemolytic-uremic syndrome. there was no statistically significant effect of treatment on progression of symptoms, fecal pathogen excretion, or the incidence of hus (2/22 vs 4/25; p = 0.67). our results suggest that a multicentric trial using rap ...19921640303
serological identification of escherichia coli o157:h7 infection in haemolytic uraemic syndrome.to test the value of serological tests as an adjunct to bacteriological methods and toxin testing in haemolytic uraemic syndrome (hus), 60 patients with the disorder were examined for evidence of faecal escherichia coli producing verocytotoxin (vtec), particularly of serogroup o157. they were also tested for serum antibodies reacting with the lipopolysaccharide of e coli o157 by means of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and immunoblotting; for faecal vtec by means of dna probes hybri ...19911670788
outer membranes are competitive inhibitors of escherichia coli o157:h7 adherence to epithelial cells.escherichia coli of serotype o157:h7 are vero cytotoxin-producing enteric pathogens that have been associated recently with sporadic cases and outbreaks of hemorrhagic colitis and with the hemolytic-uremic syndrome. adherence of many enteropathogenic bacteria to mucosal surfaces is a critical step in the pathogenesis of diarrheal disease. we showed previously that adherence of e. coli o157:h7 strain cl-56 to epithelial cells in vitro is inhibited by outer membranes. in this study we examined whe ...19911671778
antigenic relationships of the lipopolysaccharides of escherichia hermannii strains with those of escherichia coli o157:h7, brucella melitensis, and brucella abortus.clinical isolates of escherichia hermannii which showed serological cross-reaction with polyclonal antisera to the o-polysaccharide portion of the lipopolysaccharide of e. coli o157 strains and with antisera to the o antigens of brucella abortus and b. melitensis were found by chemical and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses to have lipopolysaccharide o chains composed of linear polymers containing 1,2- and 1,3-linked 4-acetamido-4,6-dideoxy-alpha-d-mannopyranosyl (alpha-d-rhap4nac) residues. tw ...19901691146
detection and production of verotoxin 1 of escherichia coli o157:h7 in food.verotoxin 1 (vt1) is a recognized virulence factor of escherichia coli o157:h7, a cause of severe food-borne disease. the public health significance of preformed verotoxin in food is unknown, and relatively little research has been done to determine the production of vt1 in food. the purposes of this study were to develop a sensitive method to detect vt1 in milk and in ground beef and to determine the conditions for vt1 production in these foods. a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in w ...19911746955
the epidemiology of infections caused by escherichia coli o157:h7, other enterohemorrhagic e. coli, and the associated hemolytic uremic syndrome. 19911765120
rapid procedure for detecting enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli o157:h7 in food.a sensitive, specific procedure was developed for detecting escherichia coli o157:h7 in food in less than 20 h. the procedure involves enrichment of 25 g of food in 225 ml of a selective enrichment medium for 16 to 18 h at 37 degrees c with agitation (150 rpm). the enrichment culture is applied to a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) with a polyclonal antibody specific for e. coli o157 antigen as the capture antibody and a monoclonal antibody specific for enterohemorrhagic e. col ...19911768144
waterborne-disease outbreaks, 1989-1990.for the 2-year period 1989-1990, 16 states reported 26 outbreaks due to water intended for drinking; an estimated total of 4,288 persons became ill in these outbreaks. giardia lamblia was implicated as the etiologic agent for seven of the 12 outbreaks in which an agent was identified. the outbreaks of giardiasis were all associated with ingestion of unfiltered surface water or surface-influenced groundwater. an outbreak with four deaths was attributed to escherichia coli o157:h7, the only bacter ...19911770924
escherichia coli o157:h7, a cause of hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. 19911799114
pathogenic escherichia coli o157:h7 and their detection.enterohaemorrhagic escherichia coli o157:h7 is of major concern to the food industry due to high pathogenicity of this foodborne organism. for the detection of these bacteria a special agar medium with a fluorogenic substrate has been developed. the medium uses the characteristics of this e. coli serotype not to ferment sorbitol and not to produce beta-glucuronidase. in contrast, approximately 96% of all other strains of e. coli are sorbitol-positive and nearly all of them are beta-glucuronidase ...19911817428
experimental infection of specific-pathogen-free mice with enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli o157:h7.by subcutaneous inoculation of 10(8) cfu of enterohemorrhagic e. coli o157:h7, specific-pathogen-free mice revealed most of the symptoms and histological changes observed in patients. the histological changes in intestine were mainly seen in the distal parts of small intestine and the cecum. vacuolation of villi in the cecum was also observed. the histological changes in the kidneys of the infected mice were featured as the swollen epithelial cells of glomeruli and the marked thickening of glome ...19911838400
escherichia coli o157:h7 and its significance in foods.escherichia coli o157:h7 was conclusively identified as a pathogen in 1982 following its association with two food-related outbreaks of an unusual gastrointestinal illness. the organism is now recognized as an important cause of foodborne disease, with outbreaks reported in the u.s.a., canada, and the united kingdom. illness is generally quite severe, and can include three different syndromes, i.e., hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. most out ...19911854598
an outbreak of escherichia coli o157:h7 colitis associated with consumption of precooked meat patties.an outbreak of escherichia coli o157:h7 hemorrhagic colitis at a minnesota junior high school in october 1988 comprised 32 cases among 1562 students (attack rate, 2.0%). four children were hospitalized; none developed hemolytic-uremic syndrome. case children were more likely than controls to have eaten heat-processed meat patties (odds ratio, 6.2; 95% confidence interval, 2.0-20.1; p less than .001) in the school cafeteria on a specific day. the minimum estimated attack rate among students who a ...19911856483
epidemiology of hemolytic-uremic syndrome in canadian children from 1986 to 1988. the canadian pediatric kidney disease reference centre.to define the epidemiologic features of childhood hemolytic-uremic syndrome (hus) on a national level in canada, to determine the proportion of patients in whom escherichia coli o157:h7 was isolated from stools, and to examine risk factors for more severe hus.19911861207
foodborne outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by escherichia coli o157:h7--north dakota, 1990.in late july and early august 1990, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred among persons who had eaten a meal while attending an agricultural threshing show in north dakota on july 28-29. at least 70 (3.5%) of the more than 2000 attendees were affected; of these, 16 persons were hospitalized, and two children, aged 2 and 8 years, were diagnosed with hemolytic uremic syndrome. an epidemiologic investigation was conducted by the north dakota state department of health and consolidated laboratorie ...19911901621
role of the putative "link" glycopeptide of intestinal mucin in binding of piliated escherichia coli serotype o157:h7 strain cl-49.purified rat intestinal mucin was used to identify mucin-binding sites for type 1-piliated escherichia coli o157:h7 strain cl-49 isolated from a patient with hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. optimum binding of bacteria in a microtiter binding assay occurred with a mucin coating concentration of 15 micrograms (protein)/150 microliters. in hapten inhibition studies, several nonmucin glycoproteins bearing exposed mannosyl residues in n-linked oligosaccharides were effective inhibi ...19901969395
influence of the 60-megadalton plasmid on adherence of escherichia coli o157:h7 and genetic derivatives.the adherence of enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli serotype o157:h7 and various genetic derivatives to henle 407 intestinal and hep-2 epithelial cell lines was examined by light and electron microscopy. the parent outbreak strain, 7785, harbors a 60-megadalton serotype-specific plasmid designated po157 and adhered to both cell lines, as determined by light microscopy. a plasmidless derivative, 2-45, showed reduced adherence to both cell lines. after being labeled with tn801, po157 was transform ...19901969849
production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody specific for enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli of serotypes o157:h7 and o26:h11.a monoclonal antibody (mab 4e8c12) specific for escherichia coli o157:h7 and o26:h11 was produced by immunizing balb/c mice with a rough strain of e. coli o157:h7. the antibody reacted strongly by a direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with each of 36 strains of e. coli o157:h7. no cross-reactivity was observed with strains of salmonella spp., yersinia enterocolitica, shigella dysenteriae, proteus spp., escherichia hermanii, klebsiella pneumoniae, campylobacter jejuni, serratia marcescens, c ...19911993773
gender and the progression of escherichia coli o157:h7 enteritis to haemolytic uraemic syndrome. 19911994852
the use of plasmid profiles and nucleic acid probes in epidemiologic investigations of foodborne, diarrheal diseases.the application of nucleic acid analyses to investigations of infectious disease outbreaks has resulted in useful molecular strain markers that distinguish the epidemic clone of a particular pathogen and help identify specific vehicles of infection. we have successfully used plasmid profile analysis, restriction endonuclease digestion of plasmid and whole-cell dnas, and nucleic acid hybridization to investigate recent outbreaks of foodborne diarrheal illness. plasmid analysis has been important ...19912018708
surveillance of escherichia coli o157 isolation and confirmation, united states, 1988.in 1989, to examine patterns of testing for escherichia coli o157:h7 in state public health laboratories (sphls), cdc conducted a survey to determine the availability and type of escherichia coli o157:h7 testing in sphls during 1988 and the number of isolates confirmed at sphls if such testing was available. the results were compared with information on isolates submitted for confirmatory testing at cdc in 1988. thirty-nine (78%) of the 51 sphls were testing for e. coli o157:h7 in 1988; 26 confi ...19912023580
control of escherichia coli o157:h7 in nursing homes--prince edward island. 19912054851
verotoxigenic (enterohaemorrhagic) escherichia coli in infants and toddlers in czechoslovakia.the results of the investigation indicate that verotoxigenic escherichia coli (vtec) belonging to enteropathogenic and other serogroups including escherichia coli o157:h7 or h- are important enteropathogens in infants and toddlers in czechoslovakia. as to enteropathogenic serotypes, verotoxin (vt) production was proved most frequently in strains of serogroup o26, and also o111 and o128. diseases caused by them were as a rule manifested by febrile watery diarrhoea with mucus in the stool. in two ...19902076907
[hemorrhagic colitis caused by verotoxigenic escherichia coli o157:h7]. 19902090237
[escherichia coli o157:h7 in the maresme region (barcelona)]. 19902152492
hemolytic-uremic syndrome during an outbreak of escherichia coli o157:h7 infections in institutions for mentally retarded persons: clinical and epidemiologic observations.to describe an outbreak of escherichia coli o175:h7 infection resulting in a high rate of progression to hemolytic-uremic syndrome, and to attempt to identify predictors of and risk factors for progression.19902181098
risk factors for the progression of escherichia coli o157:h7 enteritis to hemolytic-uremic syndrome. 19902181099
escherichia coli o157:h7 haemorrhagic colitis. report of the first south african case.escherichia coli o157:h7, although recognised 15 years ago, has only become a significant pathogen since 1982 when two outbreaks of haemorrhagic colitis due to this organism were described in the usa. since then, numerous such outbreaks have been reported. recent experience with a patient presenting with e. coli o157:h7-induced haemorrhagic colitis is described. the main features, pathological findings and investigations are described and the principles of management outlined.19902187255
fecal leukocytes in escherichia coli o157:h7 enteritis. 19902187909
isolation in italy of a verotoxin-producing strain of escherichia coli o157:h7 from a child with hemolytic-uraemic syndrome.verotoxin-producing escherichia coli o157:h7 was isolated for the first time in italy from a child with hemolytic-uremic syndrome and his asymptomatic sister. both parents remained asymptomatic, and neither had evidence of this infection. the source of the infection was not identified, but the children had eaten ground beef during the 15 days prior to the onset of symptoms.19902188849
escherichia coli o157:h7-associated colitis. a clinical and histological study of 11 cases.hemorrhagic colitis is characterized by abdominal cramps, bloody diarrhea, and no or low-grade fever. most cases are caused by the shiga-like toxin-producing bacteria, escherichia coli o157:h7. nineteen colonic biopsy specimens and one resection specimen were reviewed from 11 patients with e. coli o157:h7-associated colitis to determine whether histologic features could be useful in diagnosis or in suggesting pathogenesis. all specimens showed hemorrhage and edema in the lamina propria. specimen ...19902188868
outbreak of escherichia coli o157:h7 in a nursing home--ontario. 19902189574
results of a 6-month survey of stool cultures for escherichia coli o157:h7.escherichia coli o157:h7 is a recently recognized enteric pathogen that causes acute hemorrhagic colitis. although the infection is usually self-limited, it may be complicated by hemolytic uremic syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. at our institution, stool specimens are now routinely cultured for this organism. to determine the prevalence of e. coli o157:h7-associated diarrhea in our patient population, we surveyed all submitted stool cultures for 6 months for this organism. speci ...19902195241
hemorrhagic colitis and escherichia coli o157:h7--identifying a messenger while pursuing the message. 19902195249
mouse model for colonization and disease caused by enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli o157:h7.enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli o157:h7 isolates produce shiga-like toxins and carry a 60-megadalton plasmid which encodes an adhesin for henle 407 intestinal cells. a streptomycin-treated mouse model was used to compare the intestinal colonizing capacity of e. coli o157:h7 strain 933 with that of its 60-megadalton plasmid-cured derivative, strain 933cu. when fed individually to mice, both 933 and 933cu maintained a stable number of organisms per gram of feces, and the greatest numbers of 933 ...19902196227
a statewide outbreak of escherichia coli o157:h7 infections in washington state.in november 1986, a statewide outbreak of escherichia coli o157:h7 infections in washington state was identified after a physician in an eastern washington community hospitalized three patients with hemorrhagic colitis which progressed to thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. epidemiologic investigation identified 37 cases in this community and linked the illnesses to a local restaurant which had served ground beef that was the suspected initial vehicle of transmission. the plasmid profile and to ...19902196790
escherichia coli o157:h7 and the hemolytic uremic syndrome: importance of early cultures in establishing the etiology.fifty-two patients were studied prospectively to determine the etiology of postdiarrheal hemolytic uremic syndrome (hus). escherichia coli o157:h7 was isolated from 33 patients (63.4%). if stool obtained within 2 days of the onset of diarrhea was cultured for e. coli o157:h7, the recovery rate was 100%. this rate decreased to 91.7% and 33.3% if stool was cultured for this pathogen 3-6 or greater than or equal to 7 days, respectively, after diarrhea began. the culture-positive group was more like ...19902197346
[detection of two shiga-like toxins from escherichia coli o157:h7 isolates by the polymerase chain reaction method].fourteen isolates of e. coli o157:h7 and five isolates of s. dysenteriae type-1 were examined by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for the structural genes (slt-i or slt-ii), encoding shiga-like toxins (slts). the two primer pairs (v1; 5'agttaatgtggtggcgaa and v2; 5'gactgcgtcagtgaggtt for slt-i, v3; 5'ttcggtatcctattcccg and v4; 5'tctctggtcattgtatta for slt-ii) used were of the same positions representing the dna sequence covering 471bp of the slt-i or slt-ii. a 5-microliter portion of boiled bacte ...19902205737
hemolytic-uremic syndrome in children. a serious hazard of undercooked beef.hemolytic-uremic syndrome is the leading cause of acute renal failure in childhood. its incidence in north america is increasing. escherichia coli o157:h7 is the most common infectious trigger and is spread by contaminated beef products as well as from person to person. antibiotics or antidiarrheal medications should not be used in the treatment of e coli hemorrhagic colitis or hemolytic-uremic syndrome. mortality in children with the syndrome has fallen to less than 10% in north america, largel ...19902216972
extended phage-typing scheme for escherichia coli o157:h7.in canada, the number of human isolates of verotoxigenic (vt + ve) escherichia coli o157:h7 from diarrhoeal cases and haemolytic uraemic syndrome and haemorrhagic colitis has increased from 25 in 1982 to 2384 in 1989. a total of 3273 vt + ve e. coli o157:h7 strains (3255 strains isolated in canada and 18 isolates from other countries) were phage typed. the phage typing scheme has been extended from 14 to 62 phage types. of these, five types occurred exclusively in other countries (type 47 in jap ...19902249715
nosocomial escherichia coli o157:h7 diarrhea. 19902252229
acute renal tubular necrosis and death of mice orally infected with escherichia coli strains that produce shiga-like toxin type ii.escherichia coli o157:h7 strains have been implicated as etiologic agents in food-borne outbreaks of hemorrhagic colitis and the hemolytic-uremic syndrome. a prototype e. coli o157:h7 strain, designated 933, produces shiga-like toxin i (slt-i) and slt-ii and harbors a 60-mda plasmid. in a previous study, streptomycin-treated mice were fed 933 together with a derivative cured of the 60-mda plasmid (designated 933cu). strain 933cu colonized poorly, but in approximately one-third of the animals, an ...19902254023
increased sensitivity of the rapid hydrophobic grid membrane filter enzyme-labeled antibody procedure for escherichia coli o157 detection in foods and bovine feces.several strains of escherichia coli o157:h7 artificially inoculated into vegetables and dairy products were recovered on hydrophobic grid membrane filters and enumerated by an enzyme-labeled antibody assay. the mean of the recoveries from 12 fresh vegetables was 108.8%, whereas that from 10 dairy products was 93.2%. modified tryptic soy broth at 43 degrees c with shaking at 100 rpm provided optimum recovery of the organism from meat, with a sensitivity of less than or equal to 1 cfu/g, which is ...19902268161
the colonic pathology of escherichia coli o157:h7 infection.we report the colonic pathology of two surgical excisions and two autopsies from patients acutely infected by e. coli o157:h7. the right colon was most severely affected. extreme edema, fibrin deposition, and hemorrhage in the submucosa was the most distinctive finding. all cases showed patchy mucosal ulceration, mucosal hemorrhage, neutrophil infiltration, and microvascular thrombi. pseudomembranous lesions similar to those described in pseudomembranous colitis caused by clostridium difficile w ...19902403759
thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura following hemorrhagic colitis due to escherichia coli o157:h7. 19902405661
escherichia coli o157:h7 infections associated with perforated appendicitis and chronic diarrhoea.two unique associations of disease with escherichia coli o157:h7 are presented. these cases broaden the spectrum of disease associated with this organism which currently includes bloody and non-bloody diarrhoea, haemolytic-uraemic syndrome, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.19902406150
studies on shiga-like toxin produced by enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli: purification and characterization of the toxin and development of methods for identifying the toxin.a simple purification method using deae cellulose column chromatography and immunoaffinity column chromatography was developed for purifying shiga-like toxin produced by escherichia coli o157:h7. about 0.75 mg of purified toxin was obtained from 5 liters of culture (62% recovery). the purified toxin was demonstrated to be immunologically, biologically and structurally indistinguishable from shiga toxin. a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed for detection of shiga-lik ...19892485395
cell surface charge characteristics and their relationship to bacterial attachment to meat surfaces.cell surface charge and hydrophobicity of bacillus subtilis, escherichia coli o157:h7, listeria monocytogenes, salmonella typhimurium, serratia marcescens, staphylococcus aureus, and staphylococcus epidermidis were determined by hydrocarbon adherence, hydrophobic interaction, and electrostatic interaction chromatography. surface charge and hydrophobicity were compared with the initial attachment values and rates of attachment of the bacteria to meat surfaces. there was a linear correlation betwe ...19892499255
escherichia coli o157:h7 from water. 19892565467
genotypic variation in pathogenic escherichia coli o157:h7 isolated from patients in washington, 1984-1987. 19892644374
infections with escherichia coli o157:h7 in washington state. the first year of statewide disease surveillance.in 1987, washington became the first state to require that infection with escherichia coli serotype o157:h7 be reported. in the first year of surveillance, 93 cases were reported, yielding an annual incidence of 2.1 cases per 100,000 population. the median age of case patients was 14 years (range, 11 months to 78 years), with the highest attack rate among children younger than 5 years (6.1 cases per 100,000 population per year). bloody diarrhea was present in 95% of reported cases, 12% of patien ...19892661870
intussusception associated with escherichia coli o157:h7. 19892666944
antibiotics for escherichia coli o157: h7 enteritis? 19892668248
radiologic findings in hemorrhagic colitis due to escherichia coli o157:h7.hemorrhagic colitis due to escherichia coli o157:h7 is a distinct clinical entity characterized by abdominal pain, watery diarrhea progressing to bloody diarrhea, and little or no fever. it has been reported to have a mortality as high as 31%. this form of colitis is not described in the radiologic literature. this paper describes the radiographic findings, and stresses the need for radiologists to be familiar with the disease in order to assist in early diagnosis. key clinical and epidemiologic ...19892680740
risk factors for escherichia coli o157:h7 infection in an urban community.outbreaks of escherichia coli o157:h7 have been attributed to meat or meat products, particularly ground meat, and to unpasteurized dairy products. however, the risk factors for sporadic cases have not been clearly delineated. study data were collected by using a self-administered dietary and historical questionnaire on all patients whose history included bloody diarrhea and who attended one of the participating emergency departments. designation as "case" or "control" occurred after stool cultu ...19892681437
toxin genotypes and plasmid profiles as determinants of systemic sequelae in escherichia coli o157:h7 infections.in 1987, 93 escherichia coli o157:h7 isolates were collected during routine surveillance for this pathogen in the state of washington. toxin genotypes and plasmid profiles were correlated with the clinical sequelae of illness in 88 of the 93 patients from whom these strains were isolated. thirteen plasmid patterns were observed among the 88 tested isolates; four patterns accounted for 82% of the isolates. genetic probing for shiga-like toxins (slt) i and ii demonstrated the presence of both gene ...19892685131
epidemiology and complications of escherichia coli o157:h7 infections. 19892685381
haemorrhagic cystitis and balanitis associated with verotoxin-producing escherichia coli o157:h7. 19852862337
isolation of escherichia coli o157:h7 from dairy cattle associated with two cases of haemolytic uraemic syndrome. 19862877210
bovine reservoir for verotoxin-producing escherichia coli o157:h7. 19872879192
a plasmid of enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli o157:h7 is required for expression of a new fimbrial antigen and for adhesion to epithelial cells.of 14 strains of escherichia coli o157:h7 isolated from patients with hemorrhagic colitis or hemolytic uremic syndrome that were examined for fimbriae, the presence of plasmids, and the ability to adhere to intestinal cells, 13 possessed a 60-megadalton plasmid and were fimbriated as assessed by electron microscopy. these strains adhered to henle 407 intestinal cells but not to hep-2 cells or erythrocytes. three strains were cured of the plasmid and thereafter failed to express fimbriae and lost ...19872879796
surface properties of the vero cytotoxin-producing escherichia coli o157:h7.strains of escherichia coli serotype o157:h7 are vero cytotoxin-producing enteric pathogens which have been associated with sporadic cases and outbreaks of hemorrhagic colitis and with the hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans. in addition to toxin production, adherence of many pathogenic bacteria to intestinal mucosal surfaces is a critical primary step in the pathogenesis of diarrheal diseases. although e. coli serotype o157:h7 organisms adhere to intestinal epithelia of orally infected animals ...19872886431
cattle as reservoir of verotoxin-producing escherichia coli o157:h7. 19872886741
hospital-acquired escherichia coli o157:h7 associated haemolytic uraemic syndrome in a nurse. 19882893931
isolation of shiga toxin-resistant vero cells and their use for easy identification of the toxin.shiga toxin-resistant vero cells were isolated by treatment of the cells with nitrosoguanidine. these mutant cells were not affected by shiga toxin at more than 1 microgram/ml, although the parent vero cells were sensitive to 25 pg of the toxin per ml. immunofluorescence studies showed that all the mutant cells had lost toxin-binding capacity. the cytotoxic activities of various bacterial cultures against the parent and mutant cells were compared. all samples from 10 strains of shigella dysenter ...19883045003
illnesses associated with escherichia coli o157:h7 infections. a broad clinical spectrum.to describe the spectrum of illnesses associated with escherichia coli o157:h7 infections.19883056169
cerebral infection with escherichia coli o157:h7 in humans and gnotobiotic piglets.escherichia coli o157:h7 was isolated from a fatal case of haemorrhagic colitis with haemolytic uraemic syndrome and neurological symptoms. this strain induced diarrhoea and neurological symptoms including incoordination, ataxia, and convulsions in piglets after oral inoculation. similar neurological signs were seen in piglets inoculated intraperitoneally with bacterial extracts containing a shiga-like toxin that is elaborated by the bacteria. histological examination of the brains from these pi ...19883056980
inhibition of protein synthesis by a vero toxin (vt2 or shiga-like toxin ii) produced by escherichia coli o157:h7 at the level of elongation factor 1-dependent aminoacyl-trna binding to ribosomes.a vero toxin (vt2 or shiga-like toxin ii) from escherichia coli o157:h7 was shown to inhibit protein synthesis in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate, but not in wheat germ or ercherichia coli lysates. the toxin, vt2, inactivated 60s ribosomal subunits of rabbit reticulocytes. the site of inhibition of protein synthesis by vt2 was shown to be elongation factor 1-dependent aminoacyl-trna binding to ribosomes. vt2 did not affect met-trnaf binding to ribosomes, non-enzymatic binding of aminoacyl-trna to r ...19883059137
isolation and some properties of a and b subunits of vero toxin 2 and in vitro formation of hybrid toxins between subunits of vero toxin 1 and vero toxin 2 from escherichia coli o157:h7.purified vero toxin 2 (vt2) was separated into a and b subunits by treatment with 6 m urea in 0.1 m propionic acid (ph 4.0). the isoelectric points of the isolated a and b subunits were determined to be 8.1 and 4.1, respectively. the a subunit of the purified vt2 was not nicked, but could be nicked in vitro by trypsin. biologically active toxin was reconstituted from the isolated a and b subunits of vt2. hybrid toxins with biological activity were obtained in vitro from the a subunit of vero tox ...19883063913
purified verotoxins of escherichia coli o157:h7 decrease prostacyclin synthesis by endothelial cells.two immunologically distinct verotoxins purified from escherichia coli c600, lysogenized with distinct temperate phages from e. coli strain 933 of serotype o157:h7, were compared by sds-page and different biological assays. the two toxins termed verotoxin 1 (vt1) and verotoxin 2 (vt2) differing in molecular weight exhibited similar biological activities. both preparations were toxic for hela cells and lethal for mice. epidemiological evidence of verotoxinogenesis in some cases of hemolytic-uremi ...19883063914
thermal inactivation of campylobacter species, yersinia enterocolitica, and hemorrhagic escherichia coli o157:h7 in fluid milk.heat treatment of raw milk in an htst pasteurizer operated at 60.0 to 72.0 degrees c for a minimum holding time of 16.2 s rapidly inactivated mixtures of hemorrhagic escherichia coli o157:h7, yersinia enterocolitica and campylobacter spp. (c. fetus, c. coli, and c. jejuni). each of the three genera in the mixture was inoculated at a level of approximately 1.0 x 10(5) cfu/ml. at 60.0 degrees c, hemorrhagic e. coli showed a maximum 2 log10 reduction in counts and no viability at greater than or eq ...19883069886
bacterial survival and thermal responses of beef loaf after microwave processing.the effects of wrapping product in polyvinylidene chloride (pvdc) film, load size (150, 600 and 1200 g loaves), microwave output power (713 +/- 5 w and 356 +/- 3 w at 2450 mhz) and processing time on bacterial survival were evaluated in beef loaf. specifically the survival of aerobic flora, and inoculated staphylococcus aureus (atcc 6538) and escherichia coli (o157:h7) were assessed. results showed that beef loaf wrapped in pvdc film had lower levels of survival for aerobic bacteria, s. aureus a ...19883069993
identity of molecular structure of shiga-like toxin i (vt1) from escherichia coli o157:h7 with that of shiga toxin.the primary structures of the a and b subunits of shiga toxin and of shiga-like toxin i (vt1), isolated from the culture supernatants of shigella dysenteriae 1 and escherichia coli o157:h7, respectively, were analyzed by edman degradation of intact proteins and peptides in their digests with trypsin or achromobacter protease i and also by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry of the digests. the results indicated that the a and b subunits of shiga toxin and shiga-like toxin i have the same pri ...19883070268
thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura associated with escherichia coli o157:h7--washington. 19863092008
improved biochemical screening procedure for small clinical laboratories for vero (shiga-like)-toxin-producing strains of escherichia coli o157:h7.of 327 sorbitol-negative fecal isolates of escherichia coli, 37 o157:h7 vero (shiga-like)-toxin-producing strains were identified. the specificity of the basic sorbitol screen was improved from 11.3 to 33.6% by the exclusion of organisms with negative ornithine and lysine decarboxylase reactions.19863095366
antimicrobial activity of lysozyme against bacteria involved in food spoilage and food-borne disease.egg white lysozyme was demonstrated to have antibacterial activity against organisms of concern in food safety, including listeria monocytogenes and certain strains of clostridium botulinum. we also found that the food spoilage thermophile clostridium thermosaccharolyticum was highly susceptible to lysozyme and confirmed that the spoilage organisms bacillus stearothermophilus and clostridium tyrobutyricum were also extremely sensitive. several gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens isolated f ...19873118808
purification and some properties of a vero toxin from escherichia coli o157:h7 that is immunologically unrelated to shiga toxin.a cytotoxin to vero cells (vero toxin) was purified from escherichia coli o157:h7 isolated from a patient with hemorrhagic colitis by ammonium sulfate fractionation, deae-cellulose column chromatography, repeated chromatofocusing column chromatography and repeated high performance liquid chromatography. about 440 micrograms of purified vero toxin was obtained from 12 liters of culture with a yield of about 22%. the purified vero toxin showed similar cytotoxic activity to that of shiga toxin to v ...19873143036
purification and some properties of shiga-like toxin from escherichia coli o157:h7 that is immunologically identical to shiga toxin.a cytotoxin to vero cells (shiga-like toxin), which was neutralized by antibody against purified shiga toxin produced by shigella dysenteriae 1, was purified from escherichia coli o157:h7, isolated from a patient with hemorrhagic colitis. the purification procedure consisted of ammonium sulfate fractionation, deae-cellulose column chromatography, chromatofocusing column chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. about 200 micrograms of purified shiga-like toxin was obtained from ...19873148810
a family outbreak of hemolytic-uremic syndrome associated with verotoxin-producing escherichia coli serotype o157:h7.all five siblings (three boys and two girls, aged 1.5-9 years) in a family developed hemolytic-uremic syndrome associated with verotoxin-producing escherichia coli o157:h7 at a lakeside vacation cottage during the fall of 1985. all five were hospitalized and made a full recovery. both parents remained asymptomatic, and neither had evidence of this infection. in four children who were investigated prospectively, free verotoxin was still detectable in the stools for between 3 and 7 weeks. the prod ...19883153052
site of action of a vero toxin (vt2) from escherichia coli o157:h7 and of shiga toxin on eukaryotic ribosomes. rna n-glycosidase activity of the toxins.the site of action of a vero toxin (vt2 or shiga-like toxin ii) from enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli and shiga toxin from shigella dysenteriae 1 on eukaryotic ribosomes was studied. treatment of eukaryotic ribosomes with either toxin caused the release of a fragment of 400 nucleotides from 28s ribosomal rna when the isolated ribosomal rna was treated with aniline. release of this fragment with aniline treatment was accompanied by inhibition of protein synthesis and of elongation-factor-1-depe ...19883276522
genetic evidence of clonal descent of escherichia coli o157:h7 associated with hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome.genetic relatedness of 100 strains of escherichia coli, isolated mostly from patients with hemorrhagic colitis or hemolytic uremic syndrome, was determined for chromosomal genotypes on the basis of allelic variation at 17 enzyme-encoding loci detected by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. fifteen of the 17 loci were polymorphic, with an average of 3.5 alleles per locus. comparison of the observed combinations of alleles among strains revealed 25 distinct multilocus genotypes, which were used to ...19883286782
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