molecular characterization and identification of bacillus clausii strains marketed for use in oral bacteriotherapy.a substantial number of bacillus species have been marketed for use in oral bacteriotherapy because of their purported ability to prevent or treat various gastrointestinal disorders. recently, some of the bacillus strains in enterogermina, which is made up of aqueous suspensions of viable bacillus spores, have been partially characterized and aligned with members of the bacillus alcalophilus subgroup rather than with bacillus subtilis, as previously reported. with a view toward verifying the ori ...200111157251
metabolic network analysis of bacillus clausii on minimal and semirich medium using (13)c-labeled glucose.using (13)c-labeled glucose fed to the facultative alkalophilic bacillus clausii producing the alkaline serine protease savinase, the intracellular fluxes were quantified in continuous cultivation and in batch cultivation on a minimal medium. the flux through the pentose phosphate pathway was found to increase with increasing specific growth rate but at a much lower level than previously reported for bacillus subtilis. two futile cycles in the pyruvate metabolism were included in the metabolic n ...200212009795
chromosomal aadd2 encodes an aminoglycoside nucleotidyltransferase in bacillus clausii.bacillus clausii sin is one of the four strains of b. clausii composing a probiotic administered to humans for the prevention of gastrointestinal side effects due to oral antibiotic therapy. the strain is resistant to kanamycin, tobramycin, and amikacin. a gene conferring aminoglycoside resistance was cloned into escherichia coli and sequenced. the gene, called aadd2, encoding a putative 246-amino acid protein, shared 47% identity with ant(4')-ia from staphylococcus aureus, which encodes an amin ...200312654668
rope-producing strains of bacillus spp. from wheat bread and strategy for their control by lactic acid bacteria.two types of white wheat bread (high- and low-type loaves) were investigated for rope spoilage. thirty of the 56 breads tested developed rope spoilage within 5 days; the high-type loaves were affected by rope spoilage more than the low-type loaves. sixty-one bacillus strains were isolated from ropy breads and were characterized on the basis of their phenotypic and genotypic traits. all of the isolates were identified as bacillus subtilis by biochemical tests, but molecular assays (randomly ampli ...200312676716
oxidant and sds-stable alkaline protease from bacillus clausii i-52: production and some investigation was carried out on an oxidative and sds-stable alkaline protease secreted by bacillus clausii of industrial significance.200312859757
characterization of a new erm-related macrolide resistance gene present in probiotic strains of bacillus clausii.the mechanism of resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramins b was studied in four bacillus clausii strains that are mixed in a probiotic administered to humans for prevention of gastrointestinal side effects due to oral antibiotic chemotherapy and in three reference strains of b. clausii, dsm8716, atcc 21536, and atcc 21537. an 846-bp gene called erm(34), which is related to the erm genes conferring resistance to these antibiotics by ribosomal methylation, was cloned from total d ...200414711653
newly isolated bacillus clausii gmbae 42: an alkaline protease producer capable to grow under higly alkaline conditions.the isolation and identification of new bacillus sp. capable of growing under highly alkaline conditions as alkaline protease producers.200414723693
cytokines evaluation in nasal lavage of allergic children after bacillus clausii administration: a pilot study.respiratory infections are very frequent in children. bacillus clausii has been demonstrated to exert some immunomodulatory activities and to be safe. we conducted a study to investigate whether b. clausii administration in allergic children with recurrent respiratory infections might modulate cytokine pattern. ten children (mean age 4.4 yr) attending the nursery school were enrolled at the end of school year (i.e. in the summer). bacillus clausii spores (enterogermina): 2 billion spores per via ...200415059191
characterization of bacillus probiotics available for human use.bacillus species (bacillus cereus, bacillus clausii, bacillus pumilus) carried in five commercial probiotic products consisting of bacterial spores were characterized for potential attributes (colonization, immunostimulation, and antimicrobial activity) that could account for their claimed probiotic properties. three b. cereus strains were shown to persist in the mouse gastrointestinal tract for up to 18 days postadministration, demonstrating that these organisms have some ability to colonize. s ...200415066809
haematological parameters in umbrina cirrosa (teleostei, sciaenidae): a comparison between diploid and triploid specimens.haematological features were compared between diploid and triploid specimens of the ray-finned fish umbrina cirrosa. no significant differences between diploids and triploids were reported in haematocrit and total haemoglobin concentration, but erythrocytes and thrombocytes were significantly greater in size in triploids. glycaemia was significantly lower in diploids, whereas triploid erythrocytes were more resistant to osmotic stress. in triploids, a greater fraction of leukocytes was positive ...200415165570
bacillus clausii probiotic strains: antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities.the clinical benefits observed with probiotic use are mainly attributed to the antimicrobial substances produced by probiotic strains and to their immunomodulatory effects. currently, the best-documented probiotic bacteria used in human therapy are lactic acid bacteria. in contrast, studies aiming to characterize the mechanisms responsible for the probiotic beneficial effects of bacillus are rare. the current work seeks to contribute to such characterization by evaluating the antimicrobial and i ...200415220667
bacillus clausii therapy to reduce side-effects of anti-helicobacter pylori treatment: randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial.helicobacter pylori eradication fails in about 10% of patients, particularly because of the occurrence of resistance to antibiotics and side-effects. during anti-h. pylori therapy, probiotics have been successfully used to reduce the incidence of side-effects.200415569121
oxidant and sds-stable alkaline protease from a halo-tolerant bacillus clausii i-52: enhanced production and simple investigation was carried out on the enhancement of protease production and simple purification of an oxidant and sds-stable alkaline protease produced by bacillus clausii i-52 of industrial significance.200515659203
bacillus clausii effects in children with allergic rhinitis. 200515813820
bacillus clausii effect on gene expression pattern in small bowel mucosa using dna microarray analysis.probiotics are widely used for the cure or prevention of several clinical conditions. however, clinical decisions need to be substantiated by an analysis of the complex bacteria-host interplay in the intestinal lumen.200516093873
quantitation of bacillus clausii in biological samples by real-time polymerase chain reaction.a real-time pcr assay targeting the highly specific erm34 sequence of bacillus clausii dna was developed and optimized. the quantitative assay showed a sensitivity level of 10(2) cfu/microl of sample. the method may represent a useful tool for monitoring the role of b. clausii as probiotic in vivo.200616318892
tolerance to challenges miming gastrointestinal transit by spores and vegetative cells of bacillus study bacillus clausii from a pharmaceutical product (enterogermina o/c, n/r, sin, t) and reference strains (b. clausii and bacillus subtilis) for eco-physiological aspects regarding the gut environment.200617105550
bacillus lehensis sp. nov., an alkalitolerant bacterium isolated from soil.a gram-positive, endospore-forming, alkalitolerant bacterial strain, designated mlb2t, was isolated from soil from leh, india, and was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. the strain exhibited phenotypic properties that included chemotaxonomic characteristics consistent with its classification in the genus bacillus. growth was observed at ph 7.0-11.0, but not at ph 6.0. the dna g+c content was 41.4 mol%. the highest level of 16s rrna gene sequence similarity was with bacillus oshimensis jc ...200717267957
characterization of mesophilic bacilli in faeces of feedlot determine the identity and composition of mesophilic bacillus spp. in faeces sampled from feedlot cattle.200717309638
intragenomic diversity of the v1 regions of 16s rrna genes in high-alkaline protease-producing bacillus clausii spp.alkaliphilic bacillus sp. strain ksm-k16, which produces high-alkaline m-protease, was characterized phenotypically, biochemically and genetically. this strain was identified as bacillus clausii based on the results of taxonomic studies, including sequencing of the 16s rrna gene and dna-dna hybridization. seven rrna operons in the genome were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. sequencing of cloned 16s rrna genes revealed two distinct types of variable region v1. moreover, some clone ...200717429572
probiotics for treatment of acute diarrhoea in children: randomised clinical trial of five different compare the efficacy of five probiotic preparations recommended to parents in the treatment of acute diarrhoea in children. design randomised controlled clinical trial in collaboration with family paediatricians over 12 months.200717690340
molecular and biochemical characterization of the chromosome-encoded class a beta-lactamase bcl-1 from bacillus clausii.a chromosomal beta-lactamase gene from bacillus clausii nr, which is used as a probiotic, was cloned and expressed in escherichia coli. it encodes a clavulanic acid-susceptible ambler class a beta-lactamase, bcl-1, with a pi of 5.5 and a molecular mass of ca. 32 kda. it shares 91% and 62% amino acid identity with the chromosomally encoded penp penicillinases from b. clausii ksm-k16 and bacillus licheniformis, respectively. the hydrolytic profile of this beta-lactamase includes penicillins, narro ...200717846134
in vitro inhibitory activity of probiotic spore-forming bacilli against investigate the ability of bacilli of various species (bacillus clausii, bacillus subtilis, bacillus lentus, bacillus pumilus. bacillus megaterium, bacillus firmus, bacillus sp.) and origins (probiotic and collection strains) to counteract the activity of some representative dna-reactive agents.200818194161
efficacy of bacillus clausii spores in the prevention of recurrent respiratory infections in children: a pilot study.probiotic milk has been previously demonstrated to reduce the number of respiratory infections (ri) among children attending day care centres. thus, this pilot study was aimed to assess the efficacy and the safety of 3 month treatment with bacillus clausii in the prevention of recurrent respiratory infections (rri) in children. eighty children with rri were studied: 40 of them were randomly treated with b. clausii for 3 months, and followed up for further 3 months; 40 were included in the contro ...200718360611
production of cyclodextrins by cgtase from bacillus clausii using different starches as substrates.cyclodextrins (cds) are cyclic oligasaccharides composed by d-glucose monomers joined by alpha-1,4-d glicosidic linkages. the main types of cds are alpha-, beta- and gamma-cds consisting of cycles of six, seven, and eight glucose monomers, respectively. their ability to form inclusion complexes is the most important characteristic, allowing their wide industrial application. the physical property of the cd-complexed compound can be altered to improve stability, volatility, solubility, or bio-ava ...200818421582
in vitro screening of probiotic characteristics of some italian products.six commercial probiotic products produced and marketed italy (containing lactobacillus gg, lactobacillus casei dg, lactobacillus reuteri, bacillus clausii spores, bifidobacterium longum and saccharomyces boulardii) were assayed for their stability during storage, acid, base and bile tolerance and adherence to human intestinal cells. results indicate that storage, even at conditions established by manufacturers, affects the microbial content of products based on b. longum and partially of that c ...200818606590
probiotic use in the critically ill.probiotics are "live microbes which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit to the host" (fao/who joint group). their potential role in bio-ecological modification of pathological internal milieu of the critically ill is under evaluation. probiotics are available as single microbial strain (e.g., bacillus clausii, lactobacillus) or as a mix of multiple strains of lactobacillus (acidophilus, sporogenes, lactis, reuteri rc-14, gg, and l. plantarum 299v), bifidobacterium (bifi ...200818759092
mutations alter the sodium versus proton use of a bacillus clausii flagellar motor and confer dual ion use on bacillus subtilis motors.bacterial flagella contain membrane-embedded stators, mot complexes, that harness the energy of either transmembrane proton or sodium ion gradients to power motility. use of sodium ion gradients is associated with elevated ph and sodium concentrations. the mot complexes studied to date contain channels that use either protons or sodium ions, with some bacteria having only one type and others having two distinct mot types with different ion-coupling. here, alkaliphilic bacillus clausii ksm-k16 wa ...200818796609
a pas domain with an oxygen labile [4fe-4s](2+) cluster in the oxygen sensor kinase nreb of staphylococcus carnosus.the cytoplasmic histidine sensor kinase nreb of staphylococcus carnosus responds to o(2) and controls together with the response regulator nrec the expression of genes of nitrate/nitrite respiration. nrebc homologous genes were found in staphylococcus strains and bacillus clausii, and a modified form was found in some lactobacillus strains. nreb contains a sensory domain with similarity to heme b binding pas domains. anaerobically prepared nreb of s. carnosus exhibited a (diamagnetic) [4fe-4s](2 ...200819102705
studies on alkaline serine protease produced by bacillus clausii gmbe alkali tolerant bacillus strain having extracellular serine alkaline protease activity was newly isolated from compost and identified as bacillus clausii gmbe 22. an alkaline protease (ap22) was 4.66-fold purified in 51.5% yield from bacillus clausii gmbe 22 by ethanol precipitation and deae-cellulose anion exchange chromatography. the purified enzyme was identified as serine protease by lc-esi-ms analysis. its complete inhibition by phenylmethanesulfonylfluoride (pmsf) also justified that it ...200919431045
toxinogenic and spoilage potential of aerobic spore-formers isolated from raw milk.the harmful effects on the quality and safety of dairy products caused by aerobic spore-forming isolates obtained from raw milk were characterized. quantitative assessment showed strains of bacillus subtilis, the bacillus cereus group, paenibacillus polymyxa and bacillus amyloliquefaciens to be strongly proteolytic, along with bacillus licheniformis, bacillus pumilus and lysinibacillus fusiformis to a lesser extent. lipolytic activity could be demonstrated in strains of b. subtilis, b. pumilus a ...201019944473
assessment and characterization of heavy metal resistance in palk bay sediment bacteria.the present study aimed at characterizing the heavy metal resistance and assessing the resistance pattern to multiple heavy metals (300 mmol l?¹) by palk bay sediment bacteria. from 46 isolates, 24 isolates showed resistance to more than eight heavy metals. among the 24 isolates s8-06 (bacillus arsenicus), s8-10 (bacillus pumilus), s8-14 (b. arsenicus), s6-01 (bacillus indicus), s6-04 (bacillus clausii), ss-06 (planococcus maritimus) and ss-08 (staphylococcus pasteuri) exhibited high resistance ...201121377723
bacillus rhizosphaerae sp. nov., an novel diazotrophic bacterium isolated from sugarcane rhizosphere soil.a gram-positive, non-pigmented, rod-shaped, diazotrophic bacterial strain, designated sc-n012(t), was isolated from rhizosphere soil of sugarcane and was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. the strain exhibited phenotypic properties that included chemotaxonomic characteristics consistent with its classification in the genus bacillus. sequence analysis of the 16s rrna gene of sc-n012(t) revealed the closest match (98.9% pair wise similarity) with bacillus clausii dsm 8716(t). however, dna- ...201121671194
treating bugs with bugs: the role of probiotics as adjunctive therapy for helicobacter review the literature on the role of probiotics as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of helicobacter pylori infections.201121693698
recognition of greater diversity of bacillus species and related bacteria in human a study looking at culturable aerobic actinobacteria associated with the human gastrointestinal tract, the vast majority of isolates obtained from dried human faeces belonged to the genus bacillus and related bacteria. a total of 124 isolates were recovered from the faeces of 10 healthy adult donors. 16s rrna gene sequence analyses showed the majority belonged to the families bacillaceae (n=81) and paenibacillaceae (n=3), with bacillus species isolated from all donors. isolates tentatively id ...201122041546
biochemical properties and yields of diverse bacterial laccase-like multicopper oxidases expressed in escherichia coli.laccases are multi-copper oxidases that oxidize a broad range of substrates at the expense of molecular oxygen, without any need for co-factor regeneration. these enzymes bear high potential for the sustainable synthesis of fine chemicals and the modification of (bio)polymers. here we describe cloning and expression of five novel bacterial laccase-like multi copper oxidases (lmcos) of diverse origin which were identified by homology searches in online databases. activity yields under different e ...201526068013
new bacteriocin from bacillus clausii straingm17: purification, characterization, and biological activity.a bacteriocin-producing strain (9,000 au/ml) was isolated from the rhizosphere of algerian healthy plants ononis angustissima lam. and identified as bacillus clausii strain gm17. the bacteriocin, called bac-gm17, was purified from the culture supernatant after heat treatment, ammonium sulfate precipitation, sephadex g-50 chromatography and mono q fast-performance liquid chromatography (fplc). based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry analysis, the puri ...201324037515
intramembrane protease rasp boosts protein production in bacillus.the microbial cell factory bacillus subtilis is a popular industrial platform for high-level production of secreted technical enzymes. nonetheless, the effective secretion of particular heterologous enzymes remains challenging. over the past decades various studies have tackled this problem, and major improvements were achieved by optimizing signal peptides or removing proteases involved in product degradation. on the other hand, serious bottlenecks in the protein export process per se remained ...201728376795
secreted compounds of the probiotic bacillus clausii strain o/c inhibit the cytotoxic effects induced by clostridium difficile and bacillus cereus toxins.although the use of probiotics based on bacillus strains to fight off intestinal pathogens and antibiotic-associated diarrhea is widespread, the mechanisms involved in producing their beneficial effects remain unclear. here, we studied the ability of compounds secreted by the probiotic bacillus clausii strain o/c to counteract the cytotoxic effects induced by toxins of two pathogens, clostridium difficile and bacillus cereus, by evaluating eukaryotic cell viability and expression of selected gen ...201627001810
characterization of lipoteichoic acid structures from three probiotic bacillus strains: involvement of d-alanine in their biological activity.probiotics represent a potential strategy to influence the host's immune system thereby modulating immune response. lipoteichoic acid (lta) is a major immune-stimulating component of gram-positive cell envelopes. this amphiphilic polymer, anchored in the cytoplasmic membrane by means of its glycolipid component, typically consists of a poly (glycerol-phosphate) chain with d-alanine and/or glycosyl substitutions. lta is known to stimulate macrophages in vitro, leading to secretion of inflammatory ...201425090957
molecular identification and safety of bacillus species involved in the fermentation of african oil beans (pentaclethra macrophylla benth) for production of ugba.molecular identification of bacillus spp. involved in the fermentation of african oil bean seeds for production of ugba, as well as ability of the bacillus spp. isolated to produce toxins, were investigated. forty-nine bacteria were isolated from ugba produced in different areas of south eastern nigeria and identified by phenotyping and sequencing of 16s rrna, gyrb and rpob genes. genotypic diversities at interspecies and intraspecies level of the isolates were screened by pcr amplification of t ...201323376783
isolation and genetic identification of spore-forming bacteria associated with concentrated-milk processing in nebraska.spore-forming bacteria are heat-resistant microorganisms capable of surviving and germinating in milk after pasteurization. they have been reported to affect the quality of dairy products by the production of enzymes (lipolytic and proteolytic) under low-temperature conditions in fluid milk, and have become a limiting factor for milk powder in reaching some selective markets. the objective of this research was to isolate and identify the population of spore-forming bacteria (psychrotrophic and t ...201727988120
nonconventional cation-coupled flagellar motors derived from the alkaliphilic bacillus and paenibacillus species.prior to 2008, all previously studied conventional bacterial flagellar motors appeared to utilize either h(+) or na(+) as coupling ions. membrane-embedded stator complexes support conversion of energy using transmembrane electrochemical ion gradients. the main h(+)-coupled stators, known as motab, differ from na(+)-coupled stators, pomab of marine bacteria, and motps of alkaliphilic bacillus. however, in 2008, a motab-type flagellar motor of alkaliphilic bacillus clausii ksm-k16 was revealed as ...201727771767
cloning, evaluation, and high-level expression of a thermo-alkaline pectate lyase from alkaliphilic bacillus clausii with potential in ramie degumming.alkaline pectate lyases (pels) have potential application in bioscouring of the textile industry. in this study, a thermo-alkaline pel (bacpela) gene from an alkaliphilic bacillus clausii strain was cloned and overexpressed in escherichia coli. the mature bacpela exhibited maximum activity at ph 10.5 and 70 °c and showed high cleavage capability on methylated pectins. bacpela showed the highest specific activity of 936.2 u mg(-1) on ≥85% methylated pectin and 675.5 u mg(-1) on standard substrate ...201728184988
specific interactions of clausin, a new lantibiotic, with lipid precursors of the bacterial cell wall.we investigated the specificity of interaction of a new type a lantibiotic, clausin, isolated from bacillus clausii, with lipid intermediates of bacterial envelope biosynthesis pathways. isothermal calorimetry and steady-state fluorescence anisotropy (with dansylated derivatives) identified peptidoglycan lipids i and ii, embedded in dodecylphosphocholine micelles, as potential targets. complex formation with dissociation constants of approximately 0.3 mum and stoichiometry of approximately 2:1 p ...200919720027
draft genome sequence of bacillus clausii aku0647, a strain that produces endo-β-n-acetylglucosaminidase comprehensively identify glycosyl hydrolase genes in the genome of bacillus clausii strain aku0647, which produces endo-β-n-acetylglucosaminidase a (endo-a), we conducted whole-genome shotgun sequencing. we identified several other putative glycosyl hydrolase genes apart from the endo-a gene, and report these findings here.201627151792
draft genome sequence of bacillus clausii ubbc07, a spore-forming probiotic strain.italic! bacillus clausiiubbc07 is a safe endospore-forming strain, characterized for defined therapeutic effects. the finished draft whole-genome sequence is presented here to scan its genetic constitution for its expanded use as a probiotic in various health sectors.201627103711
comparative analysis of the effects of two probiotic bacterial strains on metabolism and innate immunity in the raw 264.7 murine macrophage cell line.probiotic and potential probiotic bacterial strains are routinely prescribed and used as supplementary therapy for a variety infectious diseases, including enteric disorders among a wide range of individuals. while there are an increasing number of studies defining the possible mechanisms of probiotic activity, a great deal remains unknown regarding the diverse modes of action attributed to these therapeutic agents. more precise information is required to support the appropriate application of p ...201627038159
cyclic lipopeptides with herbicidal and insecticidal activities produced by bacillus clausii cyclic lipopeptide biosurfactants (1-7) were isolated for the first time from the fermentation broth of endophytic bacillus clausii dtm1 and were identified as anteisoc13[val7] surfactin-(l-glu)-o-methyl-ester (1), anteisoc12[val7] surfactin (2), anteisoc15[val7] surfactin (3), isoc14[leu7] surfactin (4), anteisoc12[leu7] surfactin (5), nc13[leu7] surfactin (6), and anteisoc14[leu7] surfactin-(l-glu)-o-methyl-ester (7); 1 has not been isolated before as a natural product from any source. p ...201526882688
dental unit water treatment with hydrogen peroxide and monovalent silver ions artificially contaminated with freshly isolated unit water (duw) could be contaminated by human pathogens coming from biological fluids penetrated during patient treatment and by opportunistic pathogens detached from aquatic biofilm. these microorganisms could be spread to following patients. we tested the disinfectant activity of hydrogen peroxide and monovalent silver ions (h(2)o(2)-ag(+)) into duw artificially contaminated with freshly isolated pathogens.201626835793
bacillus clausii for prevention of late-onset sepsis in preterm infants: a randomized controlled trial.preterm infants are managed with antibiotics for sepsis, including suspected or probable sepsis. this leads to a delayed and abnormal colonization of the gut with potentially pathogenic organisms and a microbiome, which lacks biodiversity and increases the risk for late-onset sepsis (los). probiotics have been proven to reduce the risk for necrotizing enterocolitis, but evidence for prevention of los is inconclusive. probiotic effect depends also on the strain used, dose and indication for use. ...201526246087
isolation and physiological characterization of bacillus clausii skal-16 isolated from alkaliphilic bacterium, bacillus clausii skal-16, was isolated from soil that had been contaminated with vegetable oil. the optimal ph and general ph range for bacterial growth was 8, and 7 to 10, respectively. the bacterium could grow on tributyrin and glycerol, but could not grow on acetate and butyrate. the skal-16 strain excreted butyric acid during growth on tributyrin, and selectively ingested glycerol during growth on a mixture of butyric acid and glycerol. the skal-16 generated intrac ...200819131692
survival and persistence of bacillus clausii in the human gastrointestinal tract following oral administration as spore-based probiotic formulation.this study aimed to investigate the fate of bacillus clausii spores orally administered as lyophilized or liquid formulation to healthy volunteers.201525973914
biosynthesis of sesterterpenes, head-to-tail triterpenes, and sesquarterpenes in bacillus clausii: identification of multifunctional enzymes and analysis of isoprenoid metabolites.we performed functional analysis of recombinant enzymes and analysis of isoprenoid metabolites in bacillus clausii to gain insights into the biosynthesis of rare terpenoid groups of sesterterpenes, head-to-tail triterpenes, and sesquarterpenes. we have identified an (all-e)-isoprenyl diphosphate synthase (e-ids) homologue as a trifunctional geranylfarnesyl diphosphate (gfpp)/hexaprenyl diphosphate (hexpp)/heptaprenyl diphosphate (heppp) synthase. in addition, we have redefined the function of a ...201525882275
purification and characterization of a serine alkaline protease from bacillus clausii gmbae extracellular serine alkaline protease of bacillus clausii gmbae 42 was produced in protein-rich medium in shake-flask cultures for 3 days at ph 10.5 and 37 degrees c. highest alkaline protease activity was observed in the late stationary phase of cell cultivation. the enzyme was purified 16-fold from culture filtrate by deae-cellulose chromatography followed by (nh(4))(2)so(4) precipitation, with a yield of 58%. sds-page analysis revealed the molecular weight of the enzyme to be 26.50 kda. t ...200515988584
bacillus oshimensis sp. nov., a moderately halophilic, non-motile alkaliphile.a halophilic and halotolerant, facultatively alkaliphilic strain, k11(t), was isolated from soil obtained from oshyamanbe, oshima, hokkaido, japan. the isolate grew at ph 7-10. it was non-motile, gram-positive and aerobic. cells comprised straight rods and produced ellipsoidal spores. the isolate grew in 0-20 % nacl, with optimum growth at 7 % nacl, and hydrolysed casein, gelatin, starch, dna and tweens 20, 40, 60 and 80. the major isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone-7, and the cellular fatty aci ...200515774684
production of savinase and population viability of bacillus clausii during high-cell-density fed-batch cultivations.the growth and product formation of a savinase-producing bacillus clausii were investigated in high-cell-density fed-batch cultivations with both linear and exponential feed profiles. the highest specific productivity of savinase was observed shortly after the end of the initial batch phase for all feed profiles applied and, in addition, there was a time-dependent decrease in specific productivity. the specific glucose uptake rate increased with time for constant specific growth rate indicating ...200312783490
high gradient magnetic separation versus expanded bed adsorption: a first principle comparison.a robust new adsorptive separation technique specifically designed for direct product capture from crude bioprocess feedstreams is introduced and compared with the current bench mark technique, expanded bed adsorption. the method employs product adsorption onto sub-micron sized non-porous superparamagnetic supports followed by rapid separation of the 'loaded' adsorbents from the feedstock using high gradient magnetic separation technology. for the recovery of savinase from a cell-free bacillus c ...200111787803
simple and robust method for estimation of the split between the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and the embden-meyerhof-parnas pathway in microorganisms.the flux through the oxidative pentose phosphate (pp) pathway was estimated in bacillus clausii, saccharomyces cerevisiae, and penicillium chrysogenum growing in chemostats with [1-(13)c]glucose as the limiting substrate. the flux calculations were based on a simple algebraic expression that is valid irrespective of isotope rearrangements arising from reversibilities of the reactions in the pp pathway and the upper part of the embden-meyerhof-parnas pathway. the algebraically calculated fluxes w ...200111494219
combination of salinomycin and silver nanoparticles enhances apoptosis and autophagy in human ovarian cancer cells: an effective anticancer therapy.ovarian cancer is one of the most important malignancies, and the origin, detection, and pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer remain elusive. although many cancer drugs have been developed to dramatically reduce the size of tumors, most cancers eventually relapse, posing a critical problem to overcome. hence, it is necessary to identify possible alternative therapeutic approaches to reduce the mortality rate of this devastating disease. to identify alternative approaches, we first synthesiz ...201627536105
microbiological and molecular characterization of commercially available probiotics containing bacillus clausii from india and pakistan.probiotics are actively used for treatment of diarrhoea, respiratory infections, and prevention of infectious gastrointestinal diseases. the efficacy of probiotics is due to strain-specific features and the number of viable cells; however, several reports of deviations from the label in the actual content of strains in probiotic products are a matter of concern. most of the available data on quality focuses on probiotic products containing lactobacilli and/or bifidobacteria, while very few data ...201627543819
identification of novel sesterterpene/triterpene synthase from bacillus clausii.basic enzyme: the tetraprenyl-β-curcumene synthase homologue from the alkalophilic bacillus clausii catalyses conversions of a geranylfarnesyl diphosphate and a hexaprenyl diphosphate into novel head-to-tail acyclic sesterterpene and triterpene. tetraprenyl-β-curcumene synthase homologues represent a new family of terpene synthases that form not only sesquarterpene but also sesterterpene and triterpene.201323554321
bacillus clausii and gut homeostasis: state of the art and future perspectives.the intestinal barrier is a complex system responsible for the host health. many gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal diseases are associated to gut barrier disruption. an increasing interest on nutritional supplements and functional foods focused on the hypothesis that specific prebiotics and probiotics may modulate and interact with gut barrier, re-establishing gut homeostasis.201627291780
[au(py(b)-h)(mnt)]: a novel gold(iii) 1,2-dithiolene cyclometalated complex with antimicrobial activity (py(b)-h=c-deprotonated 2-benzylpyridine; mnt=1,2-dicyanoethene-1,2-dithiolate).the novel heteroleptic cyclometalated complex [au(iii)(py(b)-h)(mnt)] (1; py(b)-h=c-deprotonated 2-benzylpyridine; mnt =1,2-dicyanoethene-1,2-dithiolate) was tested against a panel of ten gram positive (belonging to the staphylococcus, streptococcus spp. and bacillus clausii), gram negative (e. coli, k. pneumoniae, p. aeruginosa) bacteria and three yeasts belonging to the candida spp. complex 1 showed a remarkable bacteriostatic antimicrobial activity against staphylococci, with minimum inhibito ...201728260677
comparative proteomic analysis of four bacillus clausii strains: proteomic expression signature distinguishes protein profile of the strains.a comparative proteomic approach, using two dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, has been developed to compare and elucidate the differences among the cellular proteomes of four closely related isogenic o/c, sin, n/r and t, b. clausii strains during both exponential and stationary phases of growth. image analysis of the electropherograms reveals a high degree of concordance among the four proteomes, some proteins result, however, differently expressed. the proteins spots exhibi ...201121810490
use of whey as a culture medium for bacillus clausii for the production of protein hydrolysates with antimicrobial and antioxidant activity.the use of whey as a natural culture medium to produce hydrolysates with antimicrobial from bacillus clausii is the objective of this research. the fermentation process was carried out at 25 ℃ for five days, where proteolytic activity, soluble peptides quantification, and antimicrobial activity using the disc diffusion method were determined every day. the fermented whey reached values ​​of proteolytic activity between 90 and 260 u ml(-1) and a production of soluble peptides between 100 and 2070 ...201728816527
molecular mechanism of pdxr – a transcriptional activator involved in the regulation of vitamin b6 biosynthesis in the probiotic bacterium bacillus clausii.pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (plp), the well-known active form of vitamin b6 , is an essential enzyme cofactor involved in a large number of metabolic processes. plp levels need to be finely tuned in response to cell requirements; however, little is known about the regulation of plp biosynthesis and recycling pathways. the transcriptional regulator pdxr activates transcription of the pdxst genes encoding plp synthase. it is characterized by an n-terminal helix-turn-helix motif that binds dna and an ef ...201526059598
bacillus clausii as a treatment of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. 200919352343
synbiolgdb: a resource for experimentally validated logic gates in synthetic biology.synthetic biologists have developed dna/molecular modules that perform genetic logic operations in living cells to track key moments in a cell's life or change the fate of a cell. increasing evidence has also revealed that diverse genetic logic gates capable of generating a boolean function play critically important roles in synthetic biology. basic genetic logic gates have been designed to combine biological science with digital logic. synbiolgdb ( aims t ...201525627341
detergent alkaline proteases: enzymatic properties, genes, and crystal structures.subtilisin-like serine proteases from bacilli have been used in various industrial fields worldwide, particularly in the production of laundry and automatic dishwashing detergents. they belong to family a of the subtilase superfamily, which is composed of three clans, namely, true subtilisins, high-alkaline proteases, and intracellular proteases. we succeeded in the large-scale production of a high-alkaline protease (m-protease) from alkaliphilic bacillus clausii ksm-k16, and the enzyme has been ...200717630120
tandem riboswitch architectures exhibit complex gene control functions.riboswitches are structured rnas typically located in the 5' untranslated regions of bacterial mrnas that bind metabolites and control gene expression. most riboswitches sense one metabolite and function as simple genetic switches. however, we found that the 5' region of the bacillus clausii mete messenger rna includes two riboswitches that respond to s-adenosylmethionine and coenzyme b12. this tandem arrangement yields a composite gene control system that functions as a two-input boolean nor lo ...200617038623
the action modes of an extracellular beta-1,3-glucanase isolated from bacillus clausii nm-1 on beta-1,3-glucooligosaccharides.the mode of action of an extracellular -1,3-glucanase from bacillus clausii nm-1 on beta-1,3-3glucooligosaccharides and their alditols was studied. the enzyme could not hydrolyze laminaribiose or laminaritriose. beta-1,3-glucooligosaccharides higher than laminarihexaose were rapidly hydrolyzed, while laminaritetraose was slowly hydrolyzed. the k(cat)/k(m) ratios for a series of beta-1,3-glucooligosaccharides from laminaritetraose to laminariheptaose showed that the substrate binding site of the ...200316233479
induction of tnf-alpha production from human peripheral blood monocytes with beta-1,3-glucan oligomer prepared from laminarin with beta-1,3-glucanase from bacillus clausii nm-1.we prepared a beta-1,3-glucan oligomer (dp> or = 4) from laminarin (dp: 25-30) derived from laminaria digitata with beta-1,3-glucanase, and examined its effect on human peripheral blood monocytes. conditioned medium prepared by incubating monocytes (mc-cm) with the beta-1,3-glucan oligomer showed strong inhibitory activity against the proliferation of human leukemic u937 cells. since the beta-1,3-glucan oligomer had no direct cytotoxic effect on u937 cells up to 1000 microg/ml, the cytotoxicity ...200316233391
purification and characterization of a novel extracellular beta-1,3-glucanase produced by bacillus clausii nm-1 isolated from ezo abalone haliotis discus hannai.a novel extracellular alkaline stable beta-1,3-glucanase produced by bacillus clausii nm-1 isolated from the ezo abalone haliotis discus hannai was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, deae-sepharose ff ion exchange chromatography and sephacryl s-200hr gel filtration. the molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 71 kda from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page). the enzyme was very stable at ph 5.3 to 11.5 but unstable at ph 4.0 to 4.5. th ...200316233365
the respiratory chains of four strains of the alkaliphilic bacillus clausii.a comparative analysis of terminal respiratory enzymes has been performed on four strains of bacillus clausii used for preparation of a european probiotic. these four strains originated most probably from a common ancestor through early selection of stable clones for industrial propagation. they exhibit a low level of intra-specific diversity and a high degree of genomic conservation, making them an attractive model to study the different bioenergetics behaviors of alkaliphilic bacilli. the anal ...201425161879
bacillus clausii exerts immuno-modulatory activity in allergic subjects: a pilot study.bacillus clausii has been demonstrated to exert some immunomodulatory activities and to be safe. allergic subjetcs show th2 polarization and defect of t regulatory cells. aim of the study was to investigate whether bacillus clausii administration in allergic subjects might modulate cytokine pattern. ten subjects (mean age 22.3 years) suffering from allergic rhinitis were enrolled. bacillus clausii spores (enterogermina: 2 billions spores/vial) were administered at the dosage schedule of 3 vials ...200515916013
bacillus shacheensis sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from a saline-alkali soil.a moderately halophilic bacterium, strain hna-14(t), was isolated from a saline-alkali soil sample collected in shache county, xinjiang province. on the basis of the polyphasic taxonomic data, the isolate was considered to be a member of the genus bacillus. the organism grew optimally at 30 °c and ph 8.0. it was moderately halophilic and its optimum growth occurred at 5-10% nacl. the diamino acid found in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid and the predominant menaquinone wa ...201425008165
characterization of an alkali- and halide-resistant laccase expressed in e. coli: cota from bacillus clausii.the limitations of fungal laccases at higher ph and salt concentrations have intensified the search for new extremophilic bacterial laccases. we report the cloning, expression, and characterization of the bacterial cota from bacillus clausii, a supposed alkalophilic ortholog of cota from b. subtilis. both laccases were expressed in e. coli strain bl21(de3) and characterized fully in parallel for strict benchmarking. we report activity on abts, sgz, dmp, caffeic acid, promazine, phenyl hydrazine, ...201424915287
production of extracellular protease and glucose uptake in bacillus clausii in steady-state and transient continuous cultures.the production of the extracellular alkaline protease savinase (ec and glucose uptake in a non-sporulating strain of bacillus clausii were investigated by analysing steady-state and transients during continuous cultivations. the specific production rate was found to have an optimum at a dilution rate between 0.14 and 0.17 h(-1), whereas the yield of savinase on glucose was found to increase with decreasing specific growth rate. a linear relationship between the ribosomal rna content a ...200212084482
a comparative genomic analysis of the alkalitolerant soil bacterium bacillus lehensis g1.bacillus lehensis g1 is a gram-positive, moderately alkalitolerant bacterium isolated from soil samples. b. lehensis produces cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (cgtase), an enzyme that has enabled the extensive use of cyclodextrin in foodstuffs, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. the genome sequence of b. lehensis g1 consists of a single circular 3.99 mb chromosome containing 4017 protein-coding sequences (cdss), of which 2818 (70.15%) have assigned biological roles, 936 (23.30%) have conserved domai ...201424811681
purification and characterisation of a malto-oligosaccharide-forming amylase active at high ph from bacillus clausii bt-21.bacillus clausii bt-21 produced an extracellular malto-oligosaccharide-forming amylase active at high ph when grown on starch substrates. the enzyme was purified to homogeneity by affinity and anion-exchange chromatography. the molecular weight of the enzyme estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide electrophoresis was 101 kda. the enzyme showed an optimum of activity at ph 9.5 and 55 degrees c. maltohexaose was detected as the main initially formed starch hydrolysis product. maltotetra ...200011086690
comparative secretome analysis of four isogenic bacillus clausii probiotic strains.the spore-bearing alkaliphilic bacillus species constitute a large, heterogeneous group of microorganisms, important for their ability to produce enzymes, antibodies and metabolites of potential medical use. some bacillus species are currently being used for manufacturing probiotic products consisting of bacterial spores, exhibiting specific features (colonization, immune-stimulation and antimicrobial activity) that can account for their claimed probiotic properties. in the present work a compar ...201323816335
efficacy of bacillus clausii strain ubbc-07 in the treatment of patients suffering from acute diarrhoea.this study was conducted to evaluate the anti-diarrhoeal activity of bacillus clausii strain ubbc 07 in patients suffering from acute diarrhoea. a total of 27 patients (average age of 35.44±8.08 years) with acute diarrhoea were included in a prospective, phase ii clinical study after informed consent and ethical committee approval. the criteria included for all subjects were ≥3 loose stool motions within 24 hours and for more than 7 days. all patients were assigned to receive one capsule of b. c ...201323443952
purification and characterization of alkaline pectin lyase from a newly isolated bacillus clausii and its application in elicitation of plant disease resistance.alkaline pectin lyase (pnl) shows potential as a biological control agent against several plant diseases. we isolated and characterized a new bacillus clausii strain that can produce 4,180 u/g of pnl using sugar beet pulp as a carbon source and inducer. the pnl was purified to apparent homogeneity using ultrafiltration, ammonium sulfate fractionation, deae sepharose fast flow, and sephadex g-75 gel filtration. the purified pnl was found to be a monomeric protein with a molecular weight of 35 kda ...201222695924
the role of substrate specificity and metal binding in defining the activity and structure of an intracellular subtilisin.the dimeric intracellular subtilisin proteases (isps) found throughout gram-positive bacteria are a structurally distinct class of the subtilase family. unlike the vast majority of subtilisin-like proteases, the isps function exclusively within the cell, contributing the majority of observed cellular proteolytic activity. given that they are active within the cell, little is known about substrate specificity and the role of stress signals such as divalent metal ions in modulating isp function. w ...201223650602
(r,r)-butane-2,3-diol dehydrogenase from bacillus clausii dsm 8716(t): cloning and expression of the bdha-gene, and initial characterization of enzyme.the gene encoding a putative (r,r)-butane-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (bdha) from bacillus clausii dsm 8716(t) was isolated, sequenced and expressed in escherichia coli. the amino acid sequence of the encoded protein is only distantly related to previously studied enzymes (identity 33-43%) and exhibited some uncharted peculiarities. an n-terminally strepii-tagged enzyme variant was purified and initially characterized. the isolated enzyme catalyzed the (r)-specific oxidation of (r,r)- and meso-butane ...201728793235
gene identification and molecular characterization of solvent stable protease from a moderately haloalkaliphilic bacterium, geomicrobium sp. emb2.cloning and characterization of the gene encoding a solvent-tolerant protease from the haloalkaliphilic bacterium geomicrobium sp. emb2 are described. primers designed based on the n-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified emb2 protease helped in the amplification of a 1,505-bp open reading frame that had a coding potential of a 42.7-kda polypeptide. the deduced emb2 protein contained a 35.4-kda mature protein of 311 residues, with a high proportion of acidic amino acid residues. phylogenet ...201121364294
probiotic applications of two dominant gut bacillus strains with antagonistic activity improved the growth performance and immune responses of grouper epinephelus coioides.the effect of dietary administration of bacillus pumilus and bacillus clausii, the dominant bacteria with antagonistic activity in the gut of fast growing fish, on the growth performance and immune responses of grouper epinephelus coioides were assessed. the fish were fed for 60 days with three different diets: control (without probiotics), diet t1 supplemented with 1.0x10(8) cells g(-1) b. pumilus, diet t2 with 1.0x10(8) cells g(-1) b. clausii. no significant improvements of weight gain or spec ...201020637875
a chromosomal chloramphenicol acetyltransferase determinant from a probiotic strain of bacillus clausii.the mechanism of resistance to chloramphenicol was studied in four strains of bacillus clausii included in a probiotic mixture, which is administered to humans for prevention of gastrointestinal side effects due to oral antibiotic therapy. by cloning experiments, a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene, cat(bcl), coding for a putative 228-amino acid cat protein was identified in b. clausii sin. the deduced amino acid sequence displayed from 31% to 85% identity with 56 cat proteins from ot ...200919459958
optimization of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase production from bacillus clausii e16 in submerged fermentation using response surface methodology.cyclodextrin glucanotransferase production from bacillus clausii e16, a new bacteria isolated from brazilian soil samples was optimized in shake-flask cultures. a 2(4) full-factorial central composite design was performed to optimize the culture conditions, using a response surface methodology. the combined effect among the soluble starch concentration, the peptone concentration, the yeast extract concentration, and the initial ph value of the culture medium was investigated. the optimum concent ...200718478374
water miscible mono alcohols' effect on the proteolytic performance of bacillus clausii serine alkaline this study, our investigations showed that the increasing concentrations of all examined mono alcohols caused a decrease in the vm, kcat and kcat/km values of bacillus clausii gmbe 42 serine alkaline protease for casein hydrolysis. however, the km value of the enzyme remained almost the same, which was an indicator of non-competitive inhibition. whereas inhibition by methanol was partial non-competitive, inhibition by the rest of the alcohols tested was simple non-competitive. the inhibition ...201424092453
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