targetoid lesions in the emergency department. bed bug bites (cimex lectularius) with targetoid lesions on initial presentation. 201323553426
a quantitative analysis of a modified feeding method for rearing cimex lectularius (hemiptera: cimicidae) in the laboratory.a modified artificial feeding system was developed for rearing cimex lectularius and compared with the most widely used artificial feeding method which requires custom-made glassware and a circulating water bath to warm the blood. the petri dish method reduces some of the drawbacks from the current water bath method, such as the possibility of flooding bed bug rearing jars with water or blood and the need for expensive custom-made glassware.201323509084
evaluation of an insecticide dust band treatment method for controlling bed bugs.current bed bug, cimex lectularius l., control usually involves insecticide applications that pose a high risk of insecticide exposure to residents and applicators. to minimize these risks and the amount of insecticides used, we designed and evaluated a dust band treatment technique. the laboratory assay showed that 1% cyfluthrin dust treated bands are highly effective in killing bed bugs. we further evaluated this technique in bed bug infested apartments. the "dust band" treatment consisted of ...201323448050
molecular characterization of genes encoding inward rectifier potassium (kir) channels in the bed bug (cimex lectularius).the molecular genetics of inward-rectifier potassium (kir) channels in insects is poorly understood. to date, kir channel genes have been characterized only from a few representative dipterans (i.e., fruit flies and mosquitoes). the goal of the present study was to characterize kir channel cdnas in a hemipteran, the bed bug (cimex lectularius). using our previously reported bed bug transcriptome (rna-seq), we identified two cdnas that encode putative kir channels. one was a full-length cdna that ...201323416179
human travel and traveling bedbugs.a dramatic increase of reported bedbug (cimex lectularius and cimex hemipterus) infestations has been observed worldwide over the past decade. bedbug infestations have also been detected across a wide range of travel accommodations, regardless of their comfort and hygiene levels. travelers are increasingly exposed to the risks of bedbug bites, infestation of personal belongings, and subsequent contamination of newly visited accommodations and their homes.201223379708
comparison of multiple steam treatment durations for control of bed bugs (cimex lectularius l.).the factors contributing to the current resurgence of bed bug cimex lectularius l. populations across the united states and elsewhere include, among others, the development of resistance to chemical insecticides and population management practices. this has led to the development and attempted refinement of many non-chemical control methods that contribute to an ipm approach to solving the current bed bug population density increase in urban dwellings. one such approach is the use of heat in the ...201323371878
efficacy of commercially available ultrasonic pest repellent devices to affect behavior of bed bugs (hemiptera: cimicidae).little is known about the potential for acoustic communication in bed bugs, cimex lectularius l. (hemiptera: cimicidae), or the use of sound as cues in host location, although many hemipterans are known to communicate with sound. most behavioral research has focused on bed bug pheromones that are used in aggregation and as alarm signals. we investigated the influence of sound as a deterrent and as an attractant, either of which could ultimately be used to monitor and control bed bugs. female bed ...201223356076
bedbugs: a primer for the health-system pharmacist.the history and life cycle of bedbugs, the identification and supportive treatment of bedbug bites, and the eradication and prevention of bedbug infestations are reviewed.201323292265
otitis from the common bedbug.there is a resurgence of interest in the biology and clinical disease associated with cimex lectularius, as the common bed bug is becoming more prevalent in well-developed countries. a patient presented with complaints of right ear irritation for several days' duration. a foreign body was lavaged from the ear canal, which proved to be an engorged nymphal form of cimex lectularius. the parasite had apparently obtained a blood feed from the tympanic membrane. the resolution of the illness was unre ...201223277805
evaluation of blood regimen on the survival of cimex lectularius l. using life table parameters.knowledge of bed bug development under varying conditions can lead to more sophisticated management techniques. development rate, age and stage-specific life tables were compared for a laboratory strain (hs) and field strain (ecl-05) of bed bug cimex lectularius l. (hemiptera: heteroptera) reared on two blood regimens: human or rabbit blood. harlan and ecl-05 bed bugs reared on human blood had a life expectancy of 207 and 208 days respectively from the egg stage. egg to adult development of hs b ...201326464390
behavioral responses of the bed bug to permethrin-impregnated activeguard™ fabric.activeguard™ mattress liners have been used to control house dust mites, and they also are commercially available as an integrated pest management tool for use against bed bugs (cimex lectularius). the aim of our study was to evaluate responses of numerous populations of the bed bug to the permethrin-impregnated fabric, with particular regard to contact toxicity, repellency, and feeding inhibition. continuous exposure to activeguard fabric resulted in rapid intoxication for three of four populat ...201326464388
effectiveness of a reduced-risk insecticide based bed bug management program in low-income housing.bed bug (cimex lectularius l.) infestations are becoming increasingly common in low-income communities. once they are introduced, elimination is very difficult. as part of the efforts to develop effective and safe bed bug management programs, we conducted a laboratory study evaluating the efficacy of a reduced-risk insecticide-alpine aerosol (0.5% dinotefuran). we then conducted a field evaluation of a reduced-risk insecticide based integrated pest management (ipm) program in low-income family a ...201326462533
what's eating you? bedbugs revisited (cimex lectularius). 201223259201
susceptibility of cimex lectularius (hemiptera: cimicidae) to pyrethroid insecticides and to insecticidal dusts with or without pyrethroid insecticides.relative increases of bed bug, cimex lectularius l., populations are probably due in large measure to their resistance to pyrethroids, which have been used extensively against urban pests. a connecticut population of bed bugs was assessed for sensitivity to pyrethroids and exposed to commonly-used commercial insecticides applied to various substrates on which the residues were allowed to age for 0-24 wk. type i and type ii pyrethroids differed in toxicity when applied at a high dosage (1 microg) ...201223156178
potential population growth and harmful effects on humans from bed bug populations exposed to different feeding regimes.effects of host availability and feeding period on bed bugs, cimex lectularius (l.) (hemiptera: cimicidae), were measured. population growth and the potential harmful effect of bed bug populations on human hosts were modelled. bloodmeal sizes were affected by both feeding length and frequency, with >2-fold difference between insects fed daily or weekly. blood consumption increased >2-fold between bed bugs fed occasionally and often, and 1.5-fold between occasional and daily feeding. bed bugs fed ...201323046478
carbon dioxide fumigation for controlling bed bugs.we investigated the potential of carbon dioxide (co2) fumigation as a method for controlling bed bugs, cimex lectularius l. the effect of bed bug developmental stage, temperature, and co2 concentration on the minimum time to kill 100% of bed bugs was determined. the minimum co2 concentration lethal to all bed bug stages was approximately 30% with 24 h exposure time at 25 degrees c. the minimum fumigation time required to kill 100% of eggs using 100% co2 at 20, 25, and 30 degrees c were 3, 7, and ...201223025189
mental health effects from urban bed bug infestation (cimex lectularius l.): a cross-sectional assess whether bed bug infestation was linked to sleep disturbances and symptoms of anxiety and depression.201223015597
tracking bed bugs (cimex lectularius): a study of the effect of physiological and extrinsic factors on the response to bed bug-derived volatiles.the common bed bug, cimex lectularius, feeds on the blood of mammal and bird hosts, and is a pest of global importance. semiochemicals are chemicals involved in animal communication that may affect behaviour and/or physiology. attractive semiochemicals that play a role in mediating bed bug behaviour could be exploited for the development of a highly effective novel monitoring device. tracking software was used to record the response of bed bugs to volatiles from paper previously exposed to consp ...201322996447
genetic analysis of bed bug populations reveals small propagule size within individual infestations but high genetic diversity across infestations from the eastern united states.bed bugs (cimex lectularius l.) are a resurgent pest worldwide and infestations within the united states are increasing at a rapid rate. because of the physical and psychological discomfort inflicted by their blood feeding habits, and allergies and secondary infections associated with bites, bed bugs are recognized as a significant public health problem. although bed bug infestations are spreading and becoming more prevalent, we have a poor understanding of their dispersal patterns and sources o ...201222897047
effects of juvenile hormone analog formulations on development and reproduction in the bed bug cimex lectularius (hemiptera: cimicidae).bed bugs (cimex lectularius l.) have become a common insect pest in urban areas and are often difficult to manage. eradication is made more problematic by widespread insecticide resistance, raising interest in alternative control products. juvenile hormone analogs (jhas) such as methoprene and hydroprene are relatively harmless to non-arthropods and have proved to be effective against other urban insect pests. two jha products (gentrol(®) and precor(®), central life sciences, schaumburg, il) wer ...201322888044
ineffectiveness of over-the-counter total-release foggers against the bed bug (heteroptera: cimicidae).field-collected bed bugs (cimex lectularius l.) showed little, if any, adverse effects after 2-h direct exposure to the aerosolized pyrethroid(s) from three over-the-counter total-release foggers ('bug bombs' or 'foggers'); hotshot bedbug and flea fogger, spectracide bug stop indoor fogger, and eliminator indoor fogger. one field-collected population, epm, was an exception in that there was significant mortality at 5-7 d when bugs out in the open had been exposed to the spectracide fogger; morta ...201222812136
molecular markers reveal infestation dynamics of the bed bug (hemiptera: cimicidae) within apartment buildings.the bed bug, cimex lectularius l. (hemiptera: cimicidae), has experienced an extraordinary global resurgence in recent years, the reasons for which remain poorly understood. once considered a pest of lower socioeconomic classes, bed bugs are now found extensively across all residential settings, with widespread infestations established in multiapartment buildings. within such buildings, understanding the population genetic structure and patterns of dispersal may prove critical to the development ...201222679860
bedbugs (cimex lectularius): identifying and managing an infestation. 201222635257
gaseous chlorine dioxide as an alternative for bedbug control.this study evaluated the efficacy of gaseous chlorine dioxide (clo(2)) for extermination of bedbugs (cimex lectularius and cimex hemipterus).201222476276
mitochondrial dna and morphology show independent evolutionary histories of bedbug cimex lectularius (heteroptera: cimicidae) on bats and humans.the bedbug, cimex lectularius, is a well-known human ectoparasite that is reemerging after a long absence of several decades in developed countries of north america and western europe. bedbugs' original hosts were likely bats, and the bedbugs are still common in their roosts. using morphometry and sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit i and 16s genes, we showed that the populations on bats and humans are largely isolated and differ in morphology. the character of the morphologica ...201222392133
ige against bed bug (cimex lectularius) allergens is common among adults bitten by bed bugs. 201222305681
simultaneous sampling and analysis of indoor air infested with cimex lectularius l. (hemiptera: cimicidae) by solid phase microextraction, thin film microextraction and needle trap device.air in a room infested by cimex lectularius l. (hemiptera: cimicidae) was sampled simultaneously by three different sampling devices including solid phase microextraction (spme) fiber coatings, thin film microextraction (tfme) devices, and needle trap devices (ntds) and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc-ms). the main focus of this study was to fully characterize indoor air by identifying compounds extracted by three different microextraction formats and, therefore, perfor ...201222284870
smelling your way to food: can bed bugs use our odour?the resurgence in developed countries of the common bed bug, cimex lectularius, has led to a search for new sustainable methods to monitor and control this human ectoparasite. because of increased resistance to insecticides, traps baited with attractive cues are considered a promising method to be developed into efficient monitoring tools for bed bugs. despite their potential as attractants, only a few studies have investigated the odorant cues implicated in the attraction of bed bugs to human h ...201222279069
bed bug (cimex lectularius l.) population composition as determined by baited traps.two established field populations of bed bugs were sampled using host-mimicking traps baited with a combination of co2, heat and a synthetic kairomone. the proportion of first instar nymphs (between 52% and 78% of all captured insects) was significantly higher than reported in previous studies, which had employed different sampling methods. the proportion of adults was correspondingly much lower than previously reported, between 5% and 7% of total capture. as many as 120 bed bugs were captured i ...201226466537
comparison of three bed bug management strategies in a low-income apartment building.bed bug (cimex lectularius l.) infestations are currently controlled by a variety of non-chemical and chemical methods. there have been few studies on the comparative effectiveness of these control techniques. we evaluated three bed bug management strategies in an apartment building: (1) non-chemical methods only (n = 9); (2) insecticides only (n = 6); and (3) integrated pest management including both non-chemical methods and insecticides (n = 9). the apartments were one-bedroom units occupied b ...201226466533
temperature and time requirements for controlling bed bugs (cimex lectularius) under commercial heat treatment conditions.developing effective alternative approaches for disinfesting bed bugs from residential spaces requires a balance between obtaining complete insect mortality, while minimizing costs and energy consumption. one method of disinfestation is the application of lethal high temperatures directly to rooms and contents within a structure (termed whole-room heat treatments). however, temperature and time parameters for efficacy in whole-room heat treatments are unknown given the slower rate of temperature ...201126467736
reproductive potential of field-collected populations of cimex lectularius l. and the cost of traumatic insemination.egg production was compared among three field-collected bed bug strains over the course of 13 feeding/oviposition cycles, each of which lasted ~10 days. no significant differences were found among bed bug strains in the mean number of eggs/female/day (~1.0 egg). however, significant differences were found among strains in their patterns of egg production throughout the study period. specifically, differences were observed in the timing of peak egg production and the rapidity of egg production de ...201126467730
moving from the old to the new: insecticide research on bed bugs since the resurgence.the scarcity of bed bugs in many countries over the last 50 years has resulted in a lack of modern research into the toxicology of this pest. although bed bugs resurged in the late 1990s, published research related to insecticides has lagged behind and only began to appear in 2006. the difficulty in controlling bed bugs triggered the interest of both private and academic sectors to determine the value of currently available insecticides. what follows, is updated information on effectiveness of p ...201126467623
host searching and aggregation activity of recently fed and unfed bed bugs (cimex lectularius l.).groups of starved, virgin adult male or female bed bugs were stimulated to search for a host by the presence of a heated artificial feeder. some of the bed bug groups were allowed to obtain a blood meal and some were not. after the removal of the feeder, bed bugs were observed throughout the scotophase to record their searching and aggregation behavior. groups of male and female bed bugs that were unable to obtain a blood meal continued to search in the arena for the majority of the scotophase. ...201126467621
population growth potential of the bed bug, cimex lectularius l.: a life table analysis.experimental life tables were constructed and analyzed for three strains of the common bed bug: a pyrethroid-susceptible laboratory strain (hs), a highly resistant field strain (rr), and a field strain with a declining level of resistance (kr). egg to adult survival in the rr strain was 94% compared with 79% and 69% in the hs and kr strains, respectively. the rr strain also developed significantly faster from egg to adult (~35 days) than the other two strains (~40 days). analysis of a survivorsh ...201126467620
stress tolerance of bed bugs: a review of factors that cause trauma to cimex lectularius and c. hemipterus.recent emergence of bed bugs (cimex spp.) has prompted a significant expansion of research devoted to this pest. the ability to survive and recover from stress has significant implications on the distribution and survival of insects, and bed bugs are no exception. research on bed bug stress tolerance has shown considerable progress and necessitates a review on this topic. bed bugs have an extraordinary ability to resist dehydration between bloodmeals, and this represents a critical factor allowi ...201126467619
bed bugs: the australian response.australia has experienced a sudden and unexpected resurgence in bed bug infestations from both cimex lectularius l. and cimex hemipterus f. a survey in 2006 revealed that infestations had increased across the nation by an average of 4,500% since the start of the decade. in response, a multi-disciplinary approach to combat the rise of this public health pest was implemented and involved the coordinated efforts of several organizations. the key components of the strategy included the introduction ...201126467616
bed bug infestations and control practices in china: implications for fighting the global bed bug resurgence.the bed bug resurgence in north america, europe, and australia has elicited interest in investigating the causes of the widespread and increasing infestations and in developing more effective control strategies. in order to extend global perspectives on bed bug management, we reviewed bed bug literature in china by searching five chinese language electronic databases. we conducted telephone interviews of staff from 77 health and epidemic prevention stations in six chinese cities in november 2010 ...201126467615
host-seeking behavior in the bed bug, cimex lectularius.the reemergence of the bed bug, cimex lectularius linnaeus, has recently spawned a frenzy of public, media, and academic attention. in response to the growing rate of infestation, considerable work has been focused on identifying the various host cues utilized by the bed bug in search of a meal. most of these behavioral studies examine movement within a confined environment, such as a petri dish. this has prevented a more complete understanding of the insect's host-seeking process. this work des ...201126467497
karyotypes, male meiosis and comparative fish mapping of 18s ribosomal dna and telomeric (ttagg) n repeat in eight species of true bugs (hemiptera, heteroptera).eight species belonging to five true bug families were analyzed using dapi/cma3-staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) with telomeric (ttagg)n and 18s rdna probes. standard chromosomal complements are reported for the first time for deraeocoris rutilus (herrich-schäffer, 1838) (2n=30+2m+xy) and deraeocoris ruber(linnaeus, 1758) (2n=30+2m+xy) from the family miridae. using fish, the location of a 18s rdna cluster was detected in these species and in five more species: megaloceroea ...201124260641
identification of bat ectoparasite leptocimex inordinatus from bat-dwelling cave, kanchanaburi province, thailand.bat bugs are blood-feeding insects of bats or warm blooded animals and humans. since 2011, leptocimex spp (heteroptera: cimicidae) has been reported in thailand. however, microscopic examination of leptocimex spp is complicated, especially when the entire body of the specimen is not available. to confirm the phenotypic identification of l. inordinatus from a limestone bat cave in thailand, partial fragments of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (coi) gene and 16s mitochondrial ribosoma ...201627086421
no detectable insecticide resistance in swallow bugs (hemiptera: cimicidae) following long-term exposure to naled (dibrom 8).the swallow bug, oeciacus vicarius horvath, is a hematophagous ectoparasite of the cliff swallow, petrochelidon pyrrhonota vieillot, and is closely related to bed bugs (cimex spp.). evolution of insecticide resistance has been documented for bed bugs but not studied in oeciacus. for periods of 17 and 32 yr, two cliff swallow colonies in western nebraska were treated during the summer breeding season using the organophosphate insecticide dibrom. despite continual treatments, o. vicarius has been ...201728399289
functional characterization of aquaporin-like genes in the human bed bug cimex lectularius.the bed bug cimex lectularius is a blood-feeding re-emerging annoyance pest insect that has the ability to transmit trypanosoma cruzi under experimental laboratory conditions. aquaporins (aqps) are water channel proteins that are essential in biological organisms. c. lectularius are constantly exposed to water-related stress, suggesting that aqps may offer novel control avenues. we identified and cloned four aqps from c. lectularius, assessed tissue and lifestage-specific expression, and charact ...201728607409
bat ectoparasites (nycteribiidae, streblidae, siphonaptera, heteroptera, mesostigmata, argasidae, and ixodidae) from algeria.twenty two species of ectoparasites (family nycteribiidae: nycteribia (listropoda) schmidlii schmidlii, nycteribia (nycteribia) latreillii, nycteribia (nycteribia) pedicularia, penicillidia (penicillidia) dufourii, and phthiridium biarticulatum; family streblidae: brachytarsina (brachytarsina) flavipennis and raymondia huberi; order siphonaptera: rhinolophopsylla unipectinata arabs, nycteridopsylla longiceps, araeopsylla gestroi, ischnopsyllus intermedius, and ischnopsyllus octactenus; order het ...201728504443
toxicities of selected essential oils, silicone oils, and paraffin oil against the common bed bug (hemiptera: cimicidae).the common bed bug [cimex lectularius l. (hemiptera: cimicidae)] and tropical bed bug [cimex hemipterus f. (hemiptera: cimicidae)] resurged in the united states and many other countries over the past decades. the need for safe and effective bed bug control products propelled the development of numerous 'green insecticides', mostly with essential oils listed as active ingredients. various inorganic and organic oils also were used for bed bug management. however, there are no published studies on ...201729220500
insecticide resistance and resistance mechanisms in bed bugs, cimex spp. (hemiptera: cimicidae).the worldwide resurgence of bed bugs [both cimex lectularius l. and cimex hemipterus (f.)] over the past two decades is believed in large part to be due to the development of insecticide resistance. the transcriptomic and genomic studies since 2010, as well as morphological, biochemical and behavioral studies, have helped insecticide resistance research on bed bugs. multiple resistance mechanisms, including penetration resistance through thickening or remodelling of the cuticle, metabolic resist ...201728662724
genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of cytochrome c oxidase subunit i in cimex hemipterus (hemiptera: cimicidae) populations in malaysia.the tropical bed bug is scientifically recognized as a significant public health problem. while there is an increased awareness about their resurgence by medical and life science committees, efficient bed bug management still remains unresolved. the solution may soon arise, as information about bed bugs' infestation dynamics and systematics are becoming more distinguishable. recent developments in studies about bed bugs are based on molecular intervention by determining their genetic variation a ...201728399302
bed bug dermatitis, description of two cases in rio de janeiro, brazil.bed bugs are hematophagous insects which due to their morphological and biological characteristics are able to easily adapt themselves to human households. the authors describe two cases of dermatitis caused by bed bug bites in the city of rio de janeiro, brazil. patients presented linear lesions in the usual "breakfast, lunch and dinner" arrangement, suggesting this diagnosis. a visit to their dwellings showed infestation of insects identified as cimex hemipterus. the knowledge of these insects ...201525830996
bed bug outbreak in a neonatal unit.there has been a worldwide increase in bed bug infestations over the last 10-15 years. a major stigma is placed upon the institutions found to be infested. we report our experience with an outbreak of the tropical bed bug, cimex hemipterus, in a neonatal unit. the outbreak not only affected the admitted newborns and mothers by causing a wide variety of rashes and inducing sleeplessness, but also impinged upon the health professionals and their families by producing similar symptomology. it is im ...201525591490
duplicated female receptacle organs for traumatic insemination in the tropical bed bug cimex hemipterus: adaptive variation or malformation?during mating, male bed bugs (cimicidae) pierce the female abdomen to inject sperm using their needle-like genitalia. females evolved specialized paragenital organs (the spermalege and associated structures) to receive traumatically injected ejaculates. in leptocimex duplicatus, the spermalege is duplicated, but the evolutionary significance of this is unclear. in cimex hemipterus and c. lectularius, in which females normally develop a single spermalege on the right side of the abdomen, similar ...201424586643
new methods for the maintenance of a laboratory colony of bed-bugs, cimex hemipterus fabricius, with observations on its biology. 196114005331
an early holocene record of cimex (hemiptera: cimicidae) from western north america.the subfossil remains of 14 cimicids (hemiptera: cimicidae) were recovered during archaeological investigations of the paisley five mile point cave site (35lk3400), an exceptionally well-dated (n = 229 radiocarbon dates) late pleistocene-early holocene rock shelter site in south-central oregon. nine of the specimens have been assigned to three modern species of nearctic cimicidae-cimex antennatus usinger & ueshima, cimex latipennis usinger & ueshima, and cimex pilosellus (horváth)-whereas the re ...201728399298
survival and transstadial persistence of trypanosoma cruzi in the bed bug (hemiptera: cimicidae).bed bug populations are increasing around the world at an alarming rate and have become a major public health concern. the appearance of bed bug populations in areas where chagas disease is endemic raises questions about the role of these insects in the transmission of trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of the disease. in a series of laboratory evaluations, bed bug adults and nymphs were experimentally fed with t. cruzi-infected blood to assess the ability of t. cruzi to survive inside the ...201829381783
trypanosoma cruzi infection does not decrease survival or reproduction of the common bed bug, cimex lectularius.although not presently implicated as a vector of human pathogens, the common bed bug, cimex lectularius, has been suspected of carrying human pathogens because of its close association with humans and its obligate hematophagy. recently, we characterized the vectorial competence of c. lectularius for the parasite trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of chagas disease. we observed that c. lectularius can acquire t. cruzi infection when fed on t. cruzi-carrying mice, and subsequently transmit t. ...201829363461
pest prevalence and evaluation of community-wide integrated pest management for reducing cockroach infestations and indoor insecticide residues.pest infestations in residential buildings are common, but community-wide pest survey data are lacking. frequent insecticide applications for controlling indoor pests leave insecticide residues and pose potential health risks to residents. in this study, a community-wide pest survey was carried out in a housing complex consisting of 258 units in 40 buildings in new brunswick, new jersey. it was immediately followed by implementation of an integrated pest management (ipm) program in all the cockr ...201829361010
regular wounding in a natural system: bacteria associated with reproductive organs of bedbugs and their quorum sensing abilities.during wounding, tissues are disrupted so that bacteria can easily enter the host and trigger a host response. both the host response and bacterial communication can occur through quorum sensing (qs) and quorum sensing inhibition (qsi). here, we characterize the effect of wounding on the host-associated bacterial community of the bed bug. this is a model system where the male is wounding the female during every mating. whereas several aspects of the microbial involvement during wounding have bee ...201729326722
knockdown of the chromatin remodeling gene brahma by rna interference reduces reproductive fitness and lifespan in common bed bug (hemiptera: cimicidae).the common bed bug, cimex lectularius l. (hemiptera: cimicidae) is a nuisance household pest causing significant medical and economic impacts. rna interference (rnai) of genes that are involved in vital physiological processes can serve as potential rnai targets for insect control. brahma is an atpase subunit of a chromatin-remodeling complex involved in transcription of several genes for cellular processes, most importantly the homeotic genes. in this study, we used a microinjection technique t ...201729272428
climbing ability of teneral and sclerotized adult bed bugs and assessment of adhesive properties of the exoskeletal fluid using atomic force microscopy.we observed that teneral adults (<1 h post-molt) of cimex lectularius l. appeared more adept at climbing a smooth surface compared to sclerotized adults. differences in climbing ability on a smooth surface based on sclerotization status were quantified by measuring the height to which bed bugs climbed when confined within a glass vial. the average maximum height climbed by teneral (t) bed bugs (n = 30, height climbed = 4.69 cm) differed significantly (p< 0.01) from recently sclerotized (rs) bed ...201729244819
dynamics of bed bug infestations in three low-income housing communities with various bed bug management programs.infestations of the common bed bug, cimex lectularius l., have become common in low-income communities in the united states over the last 15 years. we evaluated community-based integrated pest management (ipm) programs for reducing bed bug infestations. two housing authorities (bayonne and hackensack) implemented bed bug ipm programs. a third housing authority (paterson) was used as the control site. building-wide surveys were conducted in all communities, three times, to evaluate the effectiven ...201729243884
common child and adolescent cutaneous infestations and fungal infections.cutaneous infections and infestations are common among children and adolescents. ectoparasitic infestations affect individuals across the globe. head lice, body lice, scabies, and infestations with bed bugs are seen in individuals who reside in both resource poor areas and in developed countries. superficial cutaneous and mucosal candida infections occur throughout the life cycle. dermatophyte infections of keratin-containing skin and skin structures result in tinea capitis (scalp), tinea corpor ...201829198783
endosymbiosis and its significance in dermatology.proposed at the beginning of the twentieth century to explain the origin of eukaryotic organelles from prokaryotes, endosymbiosis is now medically defined by various interaction patterns between microorganisms and their residing hosts, best exemplified by the bacterial endosymbiont wolbachia identified in arthropods and filarial nematodes, which can influence normal development, reproduction, survival and transmission of the hosts. based on the transmission modes, vertical or horizontal, and the ...201729194776
clinical issues-december 2017.bed bugs key words: bed bugs, pest management, infestation, transmission. warming irrigation fluids key words: irrigation fluid, warming fluid, hypothermia, warming cabinet. fasting before surgery key words: fasting, npo, liquids, solids. advanced cardiac life support requirements for perioperative nurses key words: advanced cardiac life support, acls certification, pediatric advanced life support, pals certification, basic life support.201729173380
all things bed bugs: a primer for nephrology nurses.bed bug infestation is on the rise, affecting individuals across all demographics and geographics worldwide. of concern is nursing's lack of knowledge about bed bug transmission, prevention, elimination, and the management of bed bug bites. this article explores the evidence about the lifecycle of the bed bug, its typical presentation, and ways to prevent and eliminate bed bug infestation. ways that the nephrology nurse can assist in eradication and policy development are discussed, and resource ...201729165969
neuropeptidomics of the bed bug cimex lectularius.the bed bug cimex lectularius is a globally distributed human ectoparasite with fascinating biology. it has recently acquired resistance against a broad range of insecticides, causing a worldwide increase in bed bug infestations. the recent annotation of the bed bug genome revealed a full complement of neuropeptide and neuropeptide receptor genes in this species. with regard to the biology of c. lectularius, neuropeptide signaling is especially interesting because it regulates feeding, diuresis, ...201829148801
the let's beat the bug! campaign--a statewide active public education against bed bugs in minnesota.bed bugs continue to affect society and place a burden on public health systems. experiences of the let’s beat the bug! campaign are presented to help information networks prepare personnel to effectively address questions about this pest. following recommendations from the minnesota state bed bug working group, an information line was established and the web site ( was revised. data from both services were analyzed by geographic region and type of information requested. info ...201729144076
virulence of entomopathogenic bacteria in the bed bug, cimex lectularius.due in part to the development of insecticide resistance, the common bed bug, cimex lectularius, has overcome human intervention efforts to make a global resurgence. the failure of chemical pesticides has created a need for novel strategies to combat bed bugs. while a number of insect pests are susceptible to the use of entomopathogenic microbes or microbial-derived toxins, biological control methods have not been thoroughly explored in bed bugs. here, we tested the virulence of three entomopath ...201729079532
the all-rounder sodalis: a new bacteriome-associated endosymbiont of the lygaeoid bug henestaris halophilus (heteroptera: henestarinae) and a critical examination of its evolution.hemipteran insects are well-known in their ability to establish symbiotic relationships with bacteria. among them, heteropteran insects present an array of symbiotic systems, ranging from the most common gut crypt symbiosis to the more restricted bacteriome-associated endosymbiosis, which have only been detected in members of the superfamily lygaeoidea and the family cimicidae so far. genomic data of heteropteran endosymbionts are scarce and have merely been analyzed from the wolbachia endosymbi ...201729036401
aggregation behavior and reproductive compatibility in the family cimicidae.bed bugs (cimex lectularius) provide a unique opportunity to understand speciation and host-associated divergence in parasites. recently, two sympatric but genetically distinct lineages of c. lectularius were identified: one associated with humans and one associated with bats. we investigated two mechanisms that could maintain genetic differentiation in the field: reproductive compatibility (via mating crosses) and aggregation fidelity (via two-choice sheltering assays). effects were assessed at ...201729030574
bed bug bites limited to exposed skin. 201728991496
effects of cyclic feeding and starvation, mating, and sperm condition on egg production and fertility in the common bed bug (hemiptera: cimicidae).bed bugs (cimex lectularius l.) are now endemic in most major cities, but information regarding their basic biology is still largely based on research done over four decades ago. we investigated the effects of starvation, mating, sperm storage, and female and male age on egg production and hatch. egg production cycles varied with the number of bloodmeals that females received. once-mated females fed every 5 d had constant egg production for ∼75 d followed by a monotonic decline to near zero. per ...201728981678
effect of moxidectin on bed bug feeding, development, fecundity, and survivorship.the common bed bug, cimex lectularius l. (hemiptera: cimicidae), is a blood-feeding ectoparasite which experienced world-wide resurgence during recent decades. the control of bed bugs is often challenging, due to their cryptic nature and resistance to commonly used insecticides. in this study, we evaluated the effect of the antiparasitic drug moxidectin on bed bug survival, reproduction, and development. the lc50 (lethal concentration to kill half the members of a tested population) of moxidecti ...201728973981
bed bug aggregation on dirty laundry: a mechanism for passive dispersal.bed bugs have shown a recent and rapid global expansion that has been suggested to be caused by cheap air travel. how a small, flightless and anachoretic insect that hides within its host's sleeping area manages to travel long distances is not yet clear. bed bugs are attracted to the odour of sleeping humans and we suggest that soiled clothing may present a similarly attractive cue, allowing bed bugs to 'hitch-hike' around the world after aggregating in the laundry bags of travellers. we show th ...201728959030
forces to pierce cuticle of tarsi and material properties determined by nanoindentation: the achilles' heel of bed bugs.the mechanical properties of bed bug (cimex lectularius l.) tarsi and pretarsi were investigated in order to evaluate their vulnerability to piercing by plant trichomes (sharp microscopic hairs). nanoindentation was used to measure the force required to insert a sharp probe into the cuticle of these different regions, as well as to determine creep and reduced elastic moduli for the cuticle. scanning electron microscopy was used to visualize the indents that had been generated by nanoindentation. ...201728935816
phylogenetic analyses of bat-associated bugs (hemiptera: cimicidae: cimicinae and cacodminae) indicate two new species close to cimex lectularius.bats are regarded as the primary (ancestral) hosts of bugs of the family cimicidae. the historically and economically most important species in the family is the common bedbug (cimex lectularius), because of its worldwide occurrence and association with humans. this molecular-phylogenetic study was initiated in order to expand the knowledge on the phylogeny of cimicid bugs of bats, by investigating samples from hungary, romania (representing central-eastern europe) and two further countries (sou ...201728934957
testing a threshold-based bed bug management approach in apartment buildings.we tested a threshold-based bed bug (cimex lectularius l.) management approach with the goal of achieving elimination with minimal or no insecticide application. thirty-two bed bug infested apartments were identified. these apartments were divided into four treatment groups based on apartment size and initial bed bug count, obtained through a combination of visual inspection and bed bug monitors: i- non-chemical only in apartments with 1-12 bed bug count, ii- chemical control only in apartments ...201728933720
locomotion inhibition of cimex lectularius l. following topical, sublethal dose application of the chitin synthesis inhibitor date, few studies have evaluated chitin synthesis inhibitors against bed bugs, although they would provide an alternative mode of action to circumvent insecticide resistance. acute and sublethal effects of lufenuron were evaluated against two strains of the common bed bug. combined acute and sublethal effects were used to calculate effective doses. the dose that was effective against 50% of harlan strain bed bugs was 0.0081% (w/v), and was much higher against bradenton strain bed bugs (1.11% ...201728862646
behavioral responses of the common bed bug, cimex lectularius, to insecticide dusts.bed bugs have reemerged recently as a serious and growing problem not only in north america but in many parts of the world. these insects have become the most challenging pest to control in urban environments. residual insecticides are the most common methods used for bed bug control; however, insecticide resistance limits the efficacy of treatments. desiccant dusts have emerged as a good option to provide a better residual effect for bed bug control. several studies have focused on determining ...201728786920
a screen of pharmaceutical drugs for their ability to cause short-term morbidity and mortality in the common bed bug, cimex lectularius l.the common bed bug, cimex lectularius l., is a hematophagous ectoparasite that preferentially feeds on humans. pharmaceuticals present in a person's blood may adversely affect c. lectularius when it feeds. we fed >10,000 c. lectularius on blood samples containing more than 400 different drug doses and drug combinations using an in vitro feeding system to determine insect mortality. the majority of drug doses approximated the peak plasma concentration in humans taking those drugs. twenty-one drug ...201728776226
analysis of the life stages of cimex lectularius captured within a medical centre suggests that the true numbers of bed bug introductions are under-reported.little is known about the epidemiology of bed bugs within the healthcare system, but nymphal stages predominate in natural infestations. this study determined the life stages of bed bugs captured within a medical centre, and found that older bed bugs were more likely to be captured than younger insects. the numbers of first instars, third-fifth instars and adult females captured were significantly different compared with the numbers of each life stage found in a natural infestation (p<0.01). a s ...201728760637
[the common bed bug (cimex lectularius) - biology, medical relevance, possibilities for the detection and control].bed bugs have become a major concern worldwide in the 21st century and are therefore intensively investigated. the new findings not only extend the knowledge of their biology, medical relevance, and causes of the resurgence, but also can be used in bed bug management. a brief overview is provided of some of the most important research results and opinions, published in the last few years in prestigious international journals.201728691833
host association and selection on salivary protein genes in bed bugs and related blood-feeding ectoparasites.reciprocal selective pressures can drive coevolutionary changes in parasites and hosts, and result in parasites that are highly specialized to their hosts. selection and host co-adaptation are better understood in endoparasites than in ectoparasites, whose life cycles may be more loosely linked to that of their hosts. blood-feeding ectoparasites use salivary proteins to prevent haemostasis in the host, and maximize energy intake. here we looked for signals of selection in salivary protein genes ...201728680688
molecular basis of n,n-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet) in repelling the common bed bug, cimex the most extensively used chemical repellent, n,n-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet) displayed repellency to a wide range of insects, including the common bed bug, cimex lectularius. while the neuronal or molecular basis involved in deet's repellency have been majorly focused on mosquitos and fruit flies, deet's repellency to the common bed bug is largely unreached. to gain new insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms in deet's repellency to the common bed bug, we characterized the n ...201728676765
effect of feeding history and time elapsed from field collection on the movement behavior and response to stimulation in cimex lectularius (hemiptera: cimicidae).the common bed bug (cimex lectularius l.) (hemiptera: cimicidae) is an obligate blood-sucking insect that has been resurging in many countries. researching this pest's behavior will help design more effective control methods. in this study, we evaluated the effect of feeding history and time elapsed from field collection on bed bug movement behavior and response to chemical lure or carbon dioxide stimulation in the laboratory. after co2 was released, bed bugs unfed for 3 d began to return to har ...201728541568
impact of sublethal exposure to a pyrethroid-neonicotinoid insecticide on mating, fecundity and development in the bed bug cimex lectularius l. (hemiptera: cimicidae).sublethal exposure to an insecticide may alter insect feeding, mating, oviposition, fecundity, development, and many other life history parameters. such effects may have population-level consequences that are not apparent in traditional dose-mortality evaluations. earlier, we found that a routinely used combination insecticide that includes a pyrethroid and a neonicotinoid (temprid® sc) had deleterious effects on multiple bed bug (cimex lectularius, l.) behaviors. here, we demonstrate that suble ...201728489937
bed bug dermatitis: detection dog as a useful survey tool for environmental research of cimex lectularius. 201728436016
a survey of patients with bed bugs in the emergency department.bed bugs are one of the most important human ectoparasites in the united states, and a growing problem in the emergency department. we evaluated 40 emergency department (ed) patients found with a bed bug. the data show that ed patients with bed bugs are statistically more likely to be male, older, more likely to be admitted to the hospital, have higher triage emergency severity index (esi) scores, and arrive by ambulance than the general ed patient population (p<0.05). on average bed bugs were f ...201728077253
laboratory and field evaluation of brown dog tick behavioral responses to potential semiochemicals.the brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (parasitiformis: ixodidae), is an ectoparasite of dogs that can be found worldwide. this tick poses unique difficulties in management because it can complete its entire life cycle indoors and has demonstrated acaricide resistance. the ability to monitor for tick presence and abundance is necessary for developing effective control programs. as such, an evaluation of adult brown dog tick behavioral responses to 16 potential semiochemicals was ...201727914935
modeling the spread of bed bug infestation and optimal resource allocation for disinfestation.a patch-structured multigroup-like $sis$ epidemiological model is proposed to study the spread of the common bed bug infestation. it is shown that the model exhibits global threshold dynamics with the basic reproduction number as the threshold parameter. costs associated with the disinfestation process are incorporated into setting up the optimization problems. procedures are proposed and simulated for finding optimal resource allocation strategies to achieve the infestation free state. our anal ...201627775392
transient complete heart block secondary to bed bug insecticide: a case of pyrethroid cardiac toxicity.pyrethroids are the major components of various commercially used insect repellants. these are less toxic to humans due to their slow absorption and rapid metabolism. however, cases of suicidal and accidental poisoning with household insecticides are not uncommon. we report a case of a 59-year-old female who presented with syncope after an accidental exposure to bed bug repellant spray at home. she was found to be in complete heart block and was treated conservatively. there was complete resolut ...201827344675
grandeur alliances: symbiont metabolic integration and obligate arthropod hematophagy.several arthropod taxa live exclusively on vertebrate blood. this food source lacks essential metabolites required for the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis, and as such, these arthropods have formed symbioses with nutrient-supplementing microbes that facilitate their host's 'hematophagous' feeding ecology. herein we highlight metabolic contributions of bacterial symbionts that reside within tsetse flies, bed bugs, lice, reduviid bugs, and ticks, with specific emphasis on b vitamin and cofact ...201627236581
[if you go looking for trouble you'll find it. urticarial reactions to insects of our local areas].itchy skin rashes are a frequent reason to seek medical advice. the symptoms may be caused by hypersensitivity reactions to arthropod bites, waterborne parasites or setae from moth caterpillars and are sometimes mistaken for spontaneous urticaria or eczema. some of these pests are resurging in switzerland and elsewhere and increasingly responsible for emergency consultation. in this article we review itchy skin rashes caused by bed bugs, scabies, lice, cercariae, pyemotes spp, caterpillars and h ...201627197324
systemic reactions caused by bed bug bites. 201627118788
effects of ultralow oxygen and vacuum treatments on bed bug (heteroptera: cimicidae) survival.control of bed bugs is problematic, balancing among efficacy, safety, and cost. in this study, ultralow oxygen (ulo) and vacuum treatments were tested on bed bugs to develop a safer, effective, and environmentally friendly solution to kill bed bugs on infested items. ulo treatments were established by flushing sealed enclosures with nitrogen. all life stages of bed bugs were found to be susceptible to ulo and vacuum treatments, and efficacy of the treatments increased with reduced oxygen levels, ...201627106228
fmc verifi traps are not effective for quantifying the burden of bed bugs in an emergency department. 201627061255
evidence for metabolic pyrethroid resistance in the common bed bug (hemiptera: cimicidae).resistance to insecticides, especially the pyrethroids, in the common bed bug,cimex lectulariusl., has been well-documented. however, the presence and relative contribution of metabolic detoxifying microsomal oxidases and hydrolytic esterases to the observed resistance has yet to be fully elucidated. this is due, in part, to the absence of a simple bioassay procedure that appropriately isolates esterases from potentially competing oxidases. recently, an analogue of piperonyl butoxide (pbo) was d ...201627018436
using single sensillum recording to detect olfactory neuron responses of bed bugs to semiochemicals.the insect olfactory system plays an important role in detecting semiochemicals in the environment. in particular, the antennal sensilla which house single or multiple neurons inside, are considered to make the major contribution in responding to the chemical stimuli. by directly recording action potential in the olfactory sensillum after exposure to stimuli, single sensillum recording (ssr) technique provides a powerful approach for investigating the neural responses of insects to chemical stim ...201626862929
western blotting of human sera-can it help diagnose bed bug bites? 201526790502
the cost of decontaminating an ed after finding a bed bug: results from a single academic medical center. 201626783149
bed bugs: they still are among us!! 201526489137
prevalence, knowledge, and concern about bed bugs.recent research suggests that the resurgence of bed bugs in the u.s. has occurred at an alarming rate. assumptions have been made that socioeconomic status is not associated with the prevalence of bed bug infestations. little information is available at the local level, however, about the prevalence of bed bugs in private homes. the authors' pilot study aimed to identify prevalence, knowledge, and concern about bed bugs in one higher income village in ohio utilizing survey methodology. responses ...201526427264
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