4-oxo-aldehydes from the dorsal abdominal glands of the bed bug (hemiptera: cimicidae).analyses of the dorsal abdominal glands of fourth- and fifth-instar nymphs of the bed bud, cimex lectularius l. (hemiptera: cimicidae), indicated the predominant constituents were (e)-2-hexenal and (e)-2-octenal, with lesser amounts of 4-oxo-(e)-2-hexenal and 4-oxo-(e)-2-octenal. the latter two compounds have not been reported previously as occurring in bed bugs. there were no differences in the chemical composition of the dorsal abdominal glands excised from exuviae left behind by either male o ...201020380293
characterization of the antennal olfactory system of the bed bug (cimex lectularius).the common bed bug cimex lectularius (hemiptera; cimicidae) is a temporary ectoparasite on humans that is currently reinvading the developed countries. like other haematophagous arthropods, host seeking and orientation in c. lectularius is partially mediated by olfaction. in this study, we reconfirmed the distribution of the 44 olfactory sensilla and identified 3 different sensillum types located at the distal tip of c. lectularius antenna by external morphology mapping. using a panel of relevan ...201020032111
from the cover: drinking a hot blood meal elicits a protective heat shock response in mosquitoes.the mosquito's body temperature increases dramatically when it takes a blood meal from a warm-blooded, vertebrate host. by using the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti, we demonstrate that this boost in temperature following a blood meal prompts the synthesis of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70). this response, elicited by the temperature of the blood meal, is most robust in the mosquito's midgut. when rna interference is used to suppress expression of hsp70, protein digestion of the blood meal is ...201121518875
evaluation of piperonyl butoxide as a deltamethrin synergist for pyrethroid-resistant bed understanding of the mechanisms of insecticide resistance in the bed bug, cimex lectularius l., has the potential to lead to new approaches for the control of resistant populations. we used the cytochrome p450 monooxygenase (p450) inhibitor piperonyl butoxide (pbo) to assess the role of p450s in deltamethrin resistance in three field-collected bed bug strains, la-1, cin-1 and wor-1. in addition, we exposed two highly resistant strains, cin-1 and wor-1 (resistance ratio [rr] >2,500-fold), to d ...200920069862
a carbon dioxide, heat and chemical lure trap for the bedbug, cimex lectularius.a trap for the collection of bedbugs, cimex lectularius linnaeus (hemiptera: cimicidae), is described. the trap was baited with co2 (50-400 ml/min), heat (37.2-42.2 degrees c) and a chemical lure comprised of 33.0 microg proprionic acid, 0.33 microg butyric acid, 0.33 microg valeric acid, 100 microg octenol and 100 microg l-lactic acid, impregnated into a gel. laboratory studies, conducted in a square arena measuring 183 cm on each side, showed that traps with and without baits captured adult be ...200919499616
bedbugs as vectors for drug-resistant the editor: over the past 10 years in north america and western europe, a resurgence of bedbugs (cimex lectularius) has occurred (1). although the basis for this resurgence is unclear, large bedbug infestations have been attributed to increased worldwide travel, altered insecticide management, and increased resistance to pesticides (2). marginalized populations in large urban centers appear to be disproportionately affected; ~30% of shelters in toronto, ontario, canada, report bedbugs (1). we ...201121749792
a case of imported bedbug (cimex lectularius) infestation in israel. 200818605368
rapid rise in bed bug populations: the need to include them in the differential diagnosis of mysterious skin rashes. 200818622343
a bioassay for studying behavioural responses of the common bed bug, cimex lectularius (hemiptera: cimicidae) to bed bug-derived volatiles.the common bed bug, cimex lectularius (hemiptera: cimicidae), has recently re-emerged in increasing numbers, distribution and intensity of infestation in many countries. current control relies on the application of residual pesticides; but, due to the development of insecticide resistance, there is a need for new tools and techniques. semiochemicals (behaviour and physiology modifying chemicals) could be exploited for management of bed bugs. however, in order to identify semiochemicals that can ...201120102661
acute illnesses associated with insecticides used to control bed bugs--seven states, 2003--2010.the common bed bug, cimex lectularius, is a wingless, reddish-brown insect that requires blood meals from humans, other mammals, or birds to survive. bed bugs are not considered to be disease vectors, but they can reduce quality of life by causing anxiety, discomfort, and sleeplessness. bed bug populations and infestations are increasing in the united states and internationally. bed bug infestations often are treated with insecticides, but insecticide resistance is a problem, and excessive use o ...201121937972
circadian rhythm of spontaneous locomotor activity in the bed bug, cimex lectularius l.bed bugs must avoid detection when finding hosts and returning to hidden harborages. their stealthy habits include foraging when hosts are asleep. characteristics of spontaneous locomotor activity rhythm of bed bugs with different feeding histories were studied. in the absence of host stimuli, adults and nymphs were much more active in the dark than in the light. the onset of activity in the scotophase commenced soon after lights-off. the free-running period (tau) for all stages was longer in co ...201020452356
the efficacy of neem seed extracts (tre-san, mitestop on a broad spectrum of pests and parasites.the paper summarizes the acaricidal and insecticidal effects of a patented neem seed extract when diluted 1:10 with shampoo or 1:20, 1:30, 1:33, 1:40, respectively, 1:66 with tap water. it was shown that a broad range of pests and parasites, such as house dust mites, poultry mites, harvest mites, ixodes and rhipicephalus ticks, cat fleas (adults, larvae), bed bugs (all stages), head lice and mallophaga, cockroaches (genera blatta, blattella, gomphadorhina), raptor bugs (triatoma), and even food- ...201020461406
[bedbug dermatitis (cimex lectularius)]. 201020110070
practical solutions for treating laundry infested with cimex lectularius (hemiptera: cimicidae).the common bed bug, cimex lectularius (l.) (hemiptera: cimicidae) is known to become associated, from time to time, with clothing or linen. in such locations, it may escape insecticide treatment, and may be carried to new locations. we test the suggestion that laundering is sufficient to kill all life stages and thus help prevent reinfestation and dispersion. we establish minimum temperatures for washing and minimum temperatures and times for tumble-drying, as well as testing cold soaking, dry c ...201020214378
effects of life stages and feeding regimes on active movement behavior of the tropical bed bug, cimex hemipterus (hemiptera: cimicidae).this study examined the effects of different life stages (first, second, third, fourth, and five instars; adult females and adult males) and feeding regimes (starved and blood fed) on the active movement activity of the tropical bed bug, cimex hemipterus (f.), under mixed-stage conditions. we used an extended arena made from tygon tube coils and observed the movement frequency and movement distance at selected time intervals up to 120 h. the fifth instars and adult males and females showed signi ...201020496576
taking a bite out of the bed bug sialome. 201020593899
evaluation of chlorfenapyr for control of the bed bug, cimex lectularius l.the presence of bed bug populations resistant to pyrethroids demands the development of new control tactics, including the use of insecticides with new modes of action. insecticides that disrupt oxidative phosphorylation in insect mitochondria can be an option. laboratory assays were used to measure the toxicity of chlorfenapyr to susceptible strains and two strains highly resistant to pyrethroids. the effectiveness of two chlorfenapyr-based formulations was compared, and behavioral responses of ...201020661938
establishment of quantitative sequencing and filter contact vial bioassay for monitoring pyrethroid resistance in the common bed bug, cimex lectularius.two point mutations (v419l and l925i) in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel alpha-subunit gene have been identified in deltamethrin-resistant bed bugs. a quantitative sequencing (qs) protocol was developed to establish a population-based genotyping method as a molecular resistance-monitoring tool based on the frequency of the two mutations. the nucleotide signal ratio at each mutation site was generated from sequencing chromatograms and plotted against the corresponding resistance allele frequ ...201020695274
a calcium-activated nucleotidase secreted from ostertagia ostertagi 4th-stage larvae is a member of the novel salivary apyrases present in blood-feeding arthropods.apyrases (atp-diphosphohydrolase) comprise a ubiquitous class of glycosylated nucleotidases that hydrolyse extracellular atp and adp to orthophosphate and amp. one class of newly-described, ca2+-dependent, salivary apyrases known to counteract blood-clotting, has been identified in haematophagous arthropods. herein, we have identified a gene (oos-apy-1) encoding a protein that structurally conforms to the ca2+-activated apyrase from the bed bug, cimex lectularius, by immunologically screening an ...201120809998
semiochemicals of the common bed bug, cimex lectularius l. (hemiptera: cimicidae), and their potential for use in monitoring and control.the recent resurgence of the common bed bug, cimex lectularius l., has driven an increase in research into the biology and behaviour of this pest. current control is reliant on the application of insecticides, but, owing to the development of insecticide resistance, there is a need for new tools and techniques. semiochemicals (behaviour- and physiology-modifying chemicals) could be exploited for management of bed bugs. the aim of this review was to evaluate studies undertaken in bed bug chemical ...201120859928
uninvited guests: traditional insect repellents in estonia used against the clothes moth tineola bisselliella, human flea pulex irritons and bedbug cimex lectularius.extensive folklore records from pre-modern estonia give us an excellent opportunity to study a variety of local plant knowledge and plant use among the peasantry in various parts of the country. one important biocultural domain where plant knowledge has been crucial was in the various methods of combating different ectoparasites that cohabited and coexisted with humans and their domestic animals. some of these methods were widely known (world-wide, eurasia, europe, baltic rim), while others were ...201021070174
bunnies, bed bugs, and blackberries. 201021133309
laboratory identification of arthropod ectoparasites.the collection, handling, identification, and reporting of ectoparasitic arthropods in clinical and reference diagnostic laboratories are discussed in this review. included are data on ticks, mites, lice, fleas, myiasis-causing flies, and bed bugs. the public health importance of these organisms is briefly discussed. the focus is on the morphological identification and proper handling and reporting of cases involving arthropod ectoparasites, particularly those encountered in the united states. o ...201424396136
hematological changes in mice exposed to biting of the bedbug: cimex lectularius l. (hemiptera: cimicidae).the studies on hematologic changes in humans or animals as a result of bedbug bites are lacking. this study was undertaken to examine changes in the blood picture of mice (mus musculus) exposed to cimex lectularius biting. as compared to the check animals, mice exposed to bedbug bites either once or twice within 7 days showed insignificantly higher wbc's (1.6 and 2.8% increase, respectively) and lower hgb content (0.5 and 0.8% decrease, respectively) and significantly higher plt's (p < 0.01) by ...201021268536
transcriptomics of the bed bug (cimex lectularius).bed bugs (cimex lectularius) are blood-feeding insects poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the united states. resistance of c. lectularius to insecticides/pesticides is one factor thought to be involved in its sudden resurgence. despite its high-impact status, scant knowledge exists at the genomic level for c. lectularius. hence, we subjected the c. lectularius transcriptome to 454 pyrosequencing in order to identify potential genes involved in pesticide resistance.201121283830
unique features of a global human ectoparasite identified through sequencing of the bed bug genome.the bed bug, cimex lectularius, has re-established itself as a ubiquitous human ectoparasite throughout much of the world during the past two decades. this global resurgence is likely linked to increased international travel and commerce in addition to widespread insecticide resistance. analyses of the c. lectularius sequenced genome (650 mb) and 14,220 predicted protein-coding genes provide a comprehensive representation of genes that are linked to traumatic insemination, a reduced chemosensory ...201626836814
bed bugs and infectious disease: a case for the arboviruses. 201323966852
insecticide resistance and management strategies in urban ecosystems.the increased urbanization of a growing global population makes imperative the development of sustainable integrated pest management (ipm) strategies for urban pest control. this emphasizes pests that are closely associated with the health and wellbeing of humans and domesticated animals. concurrently there are regulatory requirements enforced to minimize inadvertent exposures to insecticides in the urban environment. development of insecticide resistance management (irm) strategies in urban eco ...201626751480
bed bugs and possible transmission of human pathogens: a systematic review.the global population of bed bugs (cimex lectularius and cimex hemipterus, family cimicidae) has undergone a significant resurgence since the late 1990s. this is likely due to an increase in global travel, trade, and the number of insecticide-resistant bed bugs. the global bed bug population is estimated to be increasing by 100-500 % annually. the worldwide spread of bed bugs is concerning, because they are a significant socioeconomic burden and a major concern to public health. according to the ...201627295087
bed bugs: clinical relevance and control options.since the late 1990s, bed bugs of the species cimex lectularius and cimex hemipterus have undergone a worldwide resurgence. these bed bugs are blood-sucking insects that readily bite humans. cutaneous reactions may occur and can start out as small macular lesions that can develop into distinctive wheals of around 5 cm in diameter, which are accompanied by intense itching. occasionally, bullous eruptions may result. if bed bugs are numerous, the patient can present with widespread urticaria or ey ...022232375
rna interference of nadph-cytochrome p450 reductase results in reduced insecticide resistance in the bed bug, cimex lectularius.nadph-cytochrome p450 reductase (cpr) plays a central role in cytochrome p450 action. the genes coding for p450s are not yet fully identified in the bed bug, cimex lectularius. hence, we decided to clone cdna and knockdown the expression of the gene coding for cpr which is suggested to be required for the function of all p450s to determine whether or not p450s are involved in resistance of bed bugs to insecticides.201222347424
arthropod surveillance programs: basic components, strategies, and analysis.effective entomological surveillance planning stresses a careful consideration of methodology, trapping technologies, and analysis techniques. herein, the basic principles and technological components of arthropod surveillance plans are described, as promoted in the symposium "advancements in arthropod monitoring technology, techniques, and analysis" presented at the 58th annual meeting of the entomological society of america in san diego, ca. interdisciplinary examples of arthropod monitoring f ...026543242
development of resistance to ddt by anopheles sacharovi in greece.the ddt house-spraying programme carried out throughout greece between 1946 and 1950 proved highly effective against both the local malaria-vectors (anopheles sacharovi and a. superpictus) and other domestic pests. however, during 1947 the housefly (musca domestica) began to reappear in large numbers, and in subsequent years the development of a similar resistance to ddt was noticed among other domestic pests, such as culex molestus, fleas, bed-bugs, and cockroaches. in 1951, signs of a weakenin ...013066984
metabolic resistance in bed bugs.blood-feeding insects have evolved resistance to various insecticides (organochlorines, pyrethroids, carbamates, etc.) through gene mutations and increased metabolism. bed bugs (cimex lectularius) are hematophagous ectoparasites that are poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the united states. currently, c. lectularius has attained a high global impact status due to its sudden and rampant resurgence. resistance to pesticides is one factor implicated in this phenomenon. ...201126467498
the odorant receptor co-receptor from the bed bug, cimex lectularius l.recently, the bed bug, cimex lectularius l. has re-emerged as a serious and growing problem in many parts of the world. presence of resistant bed bugs and the difficulty to eliminate them has renewed interest in alternative control tactics. similar to other haematophagous arthropods, bed bugs rely on their olfactory system to detect semiochemicals in the environment. previous studies have morphologically characterized olfactory organs of bed bugs' antenna and have physiologically evaluated the r ...201425411789
suppression of bedbug's reproduction by rna interference of vitellogenin.recent resurgence of the bedbug cimex lectularius is a global problem on the public health. on account of the worldwide rise of insecticide-resistant bedbug populations, exploration of new approaches to the bedbug control and management is anticipated. in this context, gene silencing by rna interference (rnai) has been considered for its potential application to pest control and management, because rnai enables specific suppression of target genes and thus flexible selection of target traits to ...201627096422
control of cimex lectularius using heat combined with dichlorvos resin strips.successful management of the bed bug, cimex lectularius l. (hemiptera: cimicidae), is difficult because of its pesticide resistance, which can allow a reduction in population, but not elimination. we evaluated the effect of heat and/or air circulation on the efficacy of dichlorvos resin strips in the control of bed bugs. treatments were performed in unoccupied dormitory rooms and consisted of dichlorvos resin strips containing 18.6% active ingredient, the same strips + fan, and strips + fan + he ...201121332764
effectiveness of bed bug monitors for detecting and trapping bed bugs in apartments.bed bugs, cimex lectularius l., are now considered a serious urban pest in the united states. because they are small and difficult to find, there has been strong interest in developing and using monitoring tools to detect bed bugs and evaluate the results of bed bug control efforts. several bed bug monitoring devices were developed recently, but their effectiveness is unknown. we comparatively evaluated three active monitors that contain attractants: cdc3000, nightwatch, and a home-made dry ice ...201121404868
bed bugs, public health, and social justice: part 1, a call to action.the resurgence of bed bugs poses an urgent situation since infestations are rampant globally, nationally, and locally. in ohio, bed bugs have become a virtual epidemic in many towns and cities, especially in central and southwestern regions of the state. these blood-feeding insects cause an array of adverse health effects in humans. furthermore, bed bugs disproportionately occur in urban areas, and housing and the built environment are now recognized as dominant influences on health. bed bugs' p ...201121488465
genome assembly and geospatial phylogenomics of the bed bug cimex lectularius.the common bed bug (cimex lectularius) has been a persistent pest of humans for thousands of years, yet the genetic basis of the bed bug's basic biology and adaptation to dense human environments is largely unknown. here we report the assembly, annotation and phylogenetic mapping of the 697.9-mb cimex lectularius genome, with an n50 of 971 kb, using both long and short read technologies. a rna-seq time course across all five developmental stages and male and female adults generated 36,985 coding ...201626836631
juvenile hormone regulation of female reproduction in the common bed bug, cimex begin studies on reproduction in common bed bug, cimex lectularius, we identified three genes coding for vitellogenin (vg, a protein required for the reproductive success of insects) and studied their hormonal regulation. rna interference studied showed that expression of vg3 gene in the adult females is a prerequisite for successful completion of embryogenesis in the eggs laid by them. juvenile hormone (jh) receptor, methoprene-tolerant (met), steroid receptor coactivator (src) and gataa but ...201627762340
human odorant reception in the common bed bug, cimex lectularius.the common bed bug cimex lectularius is a temporary ectoparasite on humans and currently resurgent in many developed countries. the ability of bed bugs to detect human odorants in the environment is critical for their host-seeking behavior. this study deciphered the chemical basis of host detection by investigating the neuronal response of olfactory sensilla to 104 human odorants using single sensillum recording and characterized the electro-physiological responses of bed bug odorant receptors t ...201526522967
role of vision and mechanoreception in bed bug, cimex lectularius l. behavior.the role of olfactory cues such as carbon dioxide, pheromones, and kairomones in bed bug, cimex lectularius l. behavior has been demonstrated. however, the role of vision and mechanoreception in bed bug behavior is poorly understood. we investigated bed bug vision by determining their responses to different colors, vertical objects, and their ability to detect colors and vertical objects under low and complete dark conditions. results show black and red paper harborages are preferred compared to ...201525748041
survivorship during starvation for cimex lectularius l.four bed bug strains (cimex lectularius) with different levels of pyrethroid resistance were evaluated to determine their ability to survive extended periods of starvation. first instar bed bugs of all strains were the most vulnerable to starvation (13.8-36.3 days mean survival time). fifth instars and adults survived the longest during starvation (41.5-142.6 days). significant differences in survivorship during starvation were observed between resistant and susceptible strains of bed bugs. over ...201126467625
bed bugs, public health, and social justice: part 2, an opinion survey.bed bug infestations have resurged globally, nationally, and locally, yet the public health community in the u.s. has yet to mount a coordinated response to the escalating bed bug problem. surveys of attendees at the 2009 national environmental health association annual educational conference & exhibition, 2009 ohio association of health commissioners fall conference, 2009 central ohio bed bug summit, and 2010 hamilton county council on aging annual conference were conducted to gauge opinions ab ...201121488466
rna-seq and molecular docking reveal multi-level pesticide resistance in the bed bug.bed bugs (cimex lectularius) are hematophagous nocturnal parasites of humans that have attained high impact status due to their worldwide resurgence. the sudden and rampant resurgence of c. lectularius has been attributed to numerous factors including frequent international travel, narrower pest management practices, and insecticide resistance.201222226239
characterization of cimex lectularius (bedbug) defensin peptide and its antimicrobial activity against human skin microflora.antimicrobial peptides are components of both vertebrate and invertebrate innate immune systems that are expressed in response to exposure to bacterial antigens. naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides from evolutionarily ancient species have been extensively studied and are being developed as potential therapeutics against antibiotic resistant microorganisms. in this study, a putative cimex lectularius (bedbug, cl) defensin is characterized for its effectiveness against human skin flora incl ...201626802465
human parasites in the roman world: health consequences of conquering an empire.the archaeological evidence for parasites in the roman era is presented in order to demonstrate the species present at that time, and highlight the health consequences for people living under roman rule. despite their large multi-seat public latrines with washing facilities, sewer systems, sanitation legislation, fountains and piped drinking water from aqueducts, we see the widespread presence of whipworm (trichuris trichiura), roundworm (ascaris lumbricoides) and entamoeba histolytica that caus ...201726741568
correction: competence of cimex lectularius bed bugs for the transmission of bartonella quintana, the agent of trench fever. 201526075401
competence of cimex lectularius bed bugs for the transmission of bartonella quintana, the agent of trench fever.bartonella quintana, the etiologic agent of trench fever and other human diseases, is transmitted by the feces of body lice. recently, this bacterium has been detected in other arthropod families such as bed bugs, which begs the question of their involvement in b. quintana transmission. although several infectious pathogens have been reported and are suggested to be transmitted by bed bugs, the evidence regarding their competence as vectors is unclear.201526000974
resistance differences between chlorpyrifos and synthetic pyrethroids in cimex lectularius population from denmark.bed bug, cimex lectularius l., populations were investigated for resistance against permethrin and chlorpyrifos in a topical application bioassay, after an initial establishment of a discriminating dose with a susceptible population. for both insecticides, ca. two times the lethal dose ld(99) was selected: 2,560 ng of permethrin and 200 ng of chlorpyrifos per bed bug, respectively. bed bugs were collected from infested homes in denmark at ten locations and bred in the laboratory. the frequency o ...201121626157
male mating rate is constrained by seminal fluid availability in bedbugs, cimex lectularius.sexual selection, differences in reproductive success between individuals, continues beyond acquiring a mating partner and affects ejaculate size and composition (sperm competition). sperm and seminal fluid have very different roles in sperm competition but both components encompass production costs for the male. theoretical models predict that males should spend ejaculate components prudently and differently for sperm and seminal fluid but empirical evidence for independent variation of sperm n ...201121779378
corrigendum.jakubowski, t.l., perron, t.j., and teixeira, e. (2015). rashes in school: can they stay, or should they go? nasn school nurse, 30(5): 274-282. (original doi: 10.1177/1942602x15596815)in the september 2015 issue of nasn school nurse, the images for lyme disease and spider bites were reversed. the correct order appears below.spnas;31/1/61/table11942602x15621761t1table1-1942602x15621761table 5.bites/stings in childrendiagnosis(bites, stings, cutaneous infestations)rash descriptionsigns and symptom ...201626739936
survey of bartonella spp. in u.s. bed bugs detects burkholderia multivorans but not bartonella.bed bugs (cimex lectularius l.) have resurged in the united states and globally. bed bugs are hematophagous ectoparasites of humans and other animals, including domestic pets, chickens, and bats, and their blood feeding habits contribute to their potential as disease vectors. several species of bartonella are re-emergent bacterial pathogens that also affect humans, domestic pets, bats and a number of other wildlife species. because reports of both bed bugs and bartonella have been increasing in ...201324040015
insect bite reactions.insects are a class of living creatures within the arthropods. insect bite reactions are commonly seen in clinical practice. the present review touches upon the medically important insects and their places in the classification, the sparse literature on the epidemiology of insect bites in india, and different variables influencing the susceptibility of an individual to insect bites. clinical features of mosquito bites, hypersensitivity to mosquito bites epstein-barr virus nk (hmb-ebv-nk) disease ...201323442453
identification and characterization of three cholinesterases from the common bed bug, cimex lectularius.we identified and characterized the full-length cdna sequences encoding two acetylcholinesterases (clache1 and clache2) and a salivary gland-specific cholinesterase-like protein (clsche) from the common bed bug, cimex lectularius. all three cholinesterase genes (clac1, clace2 and clsce) have conserved motifs, including a catalytic triad, a choline-binding site and an acyl pocket. phylogenetic analysis showed that clache1 belongs to the insect ache1 clade, whereas clache2 belongs to the insect ac ...201122136067
artificial infection of the bed bug with rickettsia parkeri.although a variety of disease agents have been reported from bed bugs, the mechanical and biological disease transmission potential of bed bugs remains unelucidated. in this study we assayed survivability of the mildly pathogenic spotted fever group rickettsia, rickettsia parkeri, in bed bugs after feeding on r. parkeri-infected chicken blood. two groups of 15 adult bed bugs each were fed on infected or noninfected blood, and two groups of fourth-instar bed bugs also were fed on either infected ...201222897053
Multiplex polymerase chain reaction diagnostics of bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) is a widespread blood feeding pest of humans around the world, including North America, and has recently undergone a resurgence. A molecular diagnostic technique applying multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to distinguish bed bug eggs, leg fragments, and degraded samples from other arthropods that frequently occur in human dwellings. A 410-428-bp region of the mitochondrial DNA 16S rRNA gene was used. To design C. lectularius-specif ...201121845958
psychiatric consequences of actual versus feared and perceived bed bug infestations: a case series examining a current epidemic. 201222221725
the re-emergence of the bed bug as a nuisance pest: implications of resistance to the pyrethroid insecticides.a global resurgence of bed bugs (hemiptera: cimicidae) has led to renewed scientific interest in these insects. the current bed bug upsurge appears to have started almost synchronously in the late 1990s in europe, the u.s.a. and australia. several factors have led to this situation, with resistance to applied insecticides making a significant contribution. with a growing number of insecticides (ddt, carbamates, organophosphates etc.) being no longer available as a result of regulatory restrictio ...201222235873
increasing use of pyrethroids in canadian households: should we be concerned?pyrethroids are a class of plant-derived insecticides and their man-made analogues that are increasingly applied in canada as first choice for pest control in many agricultural and residential settings. their popularity is partly due to their alleged safety compared to the older organochlorine and organophosphate insecticides. application of pyrethroids is expanding because of recent increases in the level of pest infestations--such as bed bugs--and the decreased susceptibility of target species ...201223618016
bed bugs (cimex lectularius) as vectors of trypanosoma cruzi.populations of the common bed bug, cimex lectularius, have recently undergone explosive growth. bed bugs share many important traits with triatomine insects, but it remains unclear whether these similarities include the ability to transmit trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of chagas disease. here, we show efficient and bidirectional transmission of t. cruzi between hosts and bed bugs in a laboratory environment. most bed bugs that fed on experimentally infected mice acquired the parasite. a ...201525404068
bed bugs and public health: new approaches for an old share four canadian cities' experiences with bed bug infestations and to explore public health roles in managing them.201223618015
[bed bugs]. 201223451421
evolutionary origin of insect-wolbachia nutritional mutualism.obligate insect-bacterium nutritional mutualism is among the most sophisticated forms of symbiosis, wherein the host and the symbiont are integrated into a coherent biological entity and unable to survive without the partnership. originally, however, such obligate symbiotic bacteria must have been derived from free-living bacteria. how highly specialized obligate mutualisms have arisen from less specialized associations is of interest. here we address this evolutionary issue by focusing on an ex ...201424982177
insects and spiders: infestations and bites.despite successful eradication techniques and specific effective therapies, insect bites and infestations remain a source of great human misery. the current scabies pandemic shows no signs of abating. bed bugs, which through the ages have been second only to the malarial mosquito as an insect vector of fatal infection, have now been implicated in the transmission of hepatitis b and possibly african acquired immune deficiency syndrome (aids). the incidence of head- and pubic lice is on the rise, ...198721263961
infestation by pyrethroids resistant bed bugs in the suburb of paris, france.bed bugs are hematophagous insects responsible for a re-emerging and challenging indoor pest in many countries. bed bugs infestations may have health consequences including nuisance biting, cutaneous and systemic reactions. this resurgence can probably be attributed to factors such as increased international travel and development of resistance against insecticides. resistance against pyrethroids has been reported several times from the usa and rarely in europe. in france, very few data on bed b ...201223193523
bed bugs evolved unique adaptive strategy to resist pyrethroid insecticides.recent advances in genomic and post-genomic technologies have facilitated a genome-wide analysis of the insecticide resistance-associated genes in insects. through bed bug, cimex lectularius transcriptome analysis, we identified 14 molecular markers associated with pyrethroid resistance. our studies revealed that most of the resistance-associated genes functioning in diverse mechanisms are expressed in the epidermal layer of the integument, which could prevent or slow down the toxin from reachin ...023492626
cuticle thickening in a pyrethroid-resistant strain of the common bed bug, cimex lectularius l. (hemiptera: cimicidae).thickening of the integument as a mechanism of resistance to insecticides is a well recognised phenomenon in the insect world and, in recent times, has been found in insects exhibiting pyrethroid-resistance. resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in the common bed bug, cimex lectularius l., is widespread and has been frequently inferred as a reason for the pest's resurgence. overexpression of cuticle depositing proteins has been demonstrated in pyrethroid-resistant bed bugs although, to date, no ...201627073871
riboflavin provisioning underlies wolbachia's fitness contribution to its insect host.endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus wolbachia represent the most successful symbiotic bacteria in the terrestrial ecosystem. the success of wolbachia has been ascribed to its remarkable phenotypic effects on host reproduction, such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, whereby maternally inherited bacteria can spread in their host populations at the expense of their host's fitness. meanwhile, recent theoretical as well as empirical studies have unveiled that weak and/or conditional positive fitness ef ...201526556278
susceptibility of insecticide resistant bed bugs (cimex lectularius) to infection by fungal biopesticide.bed bugs are a public health concern, and their incidence is increasing worldwide. bed bug infestations are notoriously difficult to eradicate, further exacerbated by widespread resistance to pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides. this study evaluated the efficacy of the newly developed fungal biopesticide, aprehend™, containing beauveria bassiana, against insecticide-resistant bed bugs.201728321982
a preliminary evaluation of the potential of beauveria bassiana for bed bug control.residual biopesticide treatments of beauveria bassiana were tested against the bed bug cimex lectularius. an oil formulation of conidia was applied to different substrates. bed bugs were exposed for 1 h, transferred to an unsprayed environment and monitored for mortality. separate bioassays evaluated the effect of bed bug strain, sex, life stage, and exposure substrate on mortality. rapid mortality was observed in all bioassays, with bed bugs exposed to treated jersey knit cotton dying most rapi ...201222555012
bedbugs: an update on recognition and management.the common bedbug (cimex lectularius) is increasingly prevalent and a source of concern and questions for patients. in addition to a range of cutaneous presentations and potential for serious sequelae, bedbug bites cause significant psychological distress and create an economic burden associated with infestation control. recognition of characteristic entomology, clinical presentation, diagnostic features and differential diagnosis can support expedient identification of patients exposed to infes ...201121833462
bed bugs can cause severe anaemia in adults.a 60-year-old woman and her 67-year-old male partner, admitted for pneumonia and non-st elevation myocardial infarction, respectively, had severe anaemia (hb 5.3 and 5.2 g/dl, respectively), as a result from massive infestation with cimex lectularius. after two erythrocyte transfusions and thorough decontamination, their clinical course was unremarkable.201122190128
Multiple traumatic insemination events reduce the ability of bed bug females to maintain water balance.To examine how traumatic insemination, a wounding process to females inflicted by males during copulation, reduces the longevity of females of the bedbug, Cimex lectularius, we assessed if multiple bouts of mating impact water relations of females by measuring net transpiration water loss rates. Our studies show that net transpiration rate of females correlates with frequency of mating (small increase after exposure to low numbers of males; large increase after exposure to large numbers of males ...201121858473
Psychological Effects of Bed Bug Attacks (Cimex lectularius L.).In some individuals, psychological sequelae resulting from bed bug biting events include nightmares, flashbacks, hypervigilance (to keep the bugs away), insomnia, anxiety, avoidance behaviors, and personal dysfunction. These symptoms are suggestive of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).201222195533
Insecticide resistance in bedbugs in Thailand and laboratory evaluation of insecticides for the control of Cimex hemipterus and Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).Bedbugs are found in many countries around the world, and in some regions they are resistant to numerous insecticides. This study surveyed bedbugs in Thailand and determined their resistance to insecticides. The surveys were carried out in six provinces that attract large numbers of foreign tourists: Bangkok, Chonburi, Chiang Mai, Ubon Ratchathani, Phuket, and Krabi. Bedbugs were collected from hotels and colonized in the laboratory to evaluate their resistance to insecticides. Cimex hemipterus ...201121936321
deep sequencing of pyrethroid-resistant bed bugs reveals multiple mechanisms of resistance within a single population.a frightening resurgence of bed bug infestations has occurred over the last 10 years in the u.s. and current chemical methods have been inadequate for controlling this pest due to widespread insecticide resistance. little is known about the mechanisms of resistance present in u.s. bed bug populations, making it extremely difficult to develop intelligent strategies for their control. we have identified bed bugs collected in richmond, va which exhibit both kdr-type (l925i) and metabolic resistance ...201122039447
human fine body hair enhances ectoparasite detection.although we are relatively naked in comparison with other primates, the human body is covered in a layer of fine hair (vellus and terminal hair) at a relatively high follicular density. there are relatively few explanations for the evolutionary maintenance of this type of human hair. here, we experimentally test the hypothesis that human fine body hair plays a defensive function against ectoparasites (bed bugs). our results show that fine body hair enhances the detection of ectoparasites through ...201122171023
identification and validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in cimex lectularius.quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qrt-pcr) has emerged as robust methodology for gene expression studies, but reference genes are crucial for accurate normalization. commonly used reference genes are housekeeping genes that are thought to be nonregulated; however, their expression can be unstable across different experimental conditions. we report the identification and validation of suitable reference genes in the bed bug, cimex lectularius, by using qrt-pcr. the expression stab ...201121845960
effectiveness of a sugar-yeast monitor and a chemical lure for detecting bed bugs.effective bed bug (cimex lectularius l.) monitors have been actively sought in the past few years to help detect bed bugs and measure the effectiveness of treatments. most of the available active monitors are either expensive or ineffective. we designed a simple and affordable active bed bug monitor that uses sugar-yeast fermentation and an experimental chemical lure to detect bed bugs. the sugar-yeast mixture released carbon dioxide at a similar rate (average 405.1 ml/min) as dry ice (average 3 ...201526470258
effect of trap design, chemical lure, carbon dioxide release rate, and source of carbon dioxide on efficacy of bed bug monitors.bed bugs, (cimex lectularius l.), are difficult to find because of their nocturnal and secretive behavior. in recent years, a number of monitors containing carbon dioxide (co2), chemical lures, heat, or both, to attract bed bugs have been developed for detecting bed bugs. ineffective trap design, lack of attraction of chemical lures, high cost of the co2 delivery system, or insufficient co release rates are some factors that limited the wide adoption of these monitors. to develop an affordable a ...201324020296
colonization of cimex lectularius with methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus.a recent paper published by lowe and romney in emerging infectious diseases titled, bed bugs as vectors for drug-resistant bacteria has sparked a renewed interest in bed bug vector potential. we followed a pyrethroid resistant strain of the human bed bug (cimex lectularius, l.) fed either human blood or human blood with added methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa) for 9 days post-feeding. results indicated that while the bed bug midgut is a hospitable environment for mrsa, the bacter ...201424589308
insecticidal activity of an essential oil of tagetes patula l. (asteraceae) on common bed bug cimex lectularius l. and molecular docking of major compounds at the catalytic site of clache1.emerging resistance to insecticides has influenced pharmaceutical research and the search for alternatives to control the common bed bug cimex lectularius. in this sense, natural products can play a major role. tagetes patula, popularly known as dwarf marigold, is a plant native to north america with biocide potential. the aim of this work was to evaluate the biological activity of t. patula essential oil (eo) against adult common bed bugs via exposure to dry residues by the impregnated paper di ...201727838836
dermatologic infestations.head lice are transmitted by head to head contact. optimal therapy includes malathion lotion 0.5% repeated in one week left on for 30 minutes to 8 hours. spinosad topical suspension 0.9% repeated in one week left on for 10 minutes is another option. scabies is transmitted mainly by direct contact but also via heavily infested fomites due to crusted scabies. permethrin 5% cream to the body repeated in four days is often sufficient; however, scalp treatment with malathion lotion 0.5% is helpful in ...201222250620
cimex lectularius ("bed bugs"): recognition, management, and eradication. 201627811536
cimex lectularius ("bed bugs"): recognition, management, and eradication.reports of bed bug infestations in major cities in the united states and abroad have been in the public press. physicians and other clinicians who care for children need to be able to recognize bed bug bites and understand the social, psychological, and medical implications that this diagnosis will have on patients and their families. in this article, a case presentation serves to guide discussion regarding establishing the diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and the management of bed bug bites a ...201627811535
rna interference of nadph-cytochrome p450 reductase of the rice brown planthopper, nilaparvata lugens, increases susceptibility to insecticides.nadph-cytochrome p450 reductase (cpr) is essential for numerous biological reactions catalysed by microsomal cytochrome p450 monooxygenases (p450s). knockdown of cpr in several insects leads to developmental defects and increased susceptibility to insecticides. however, information about the role of cpr in the brown planthopper, nilaparvata lugens, is still unavailable.201524515640
knockdown of nadph-cytochrome p450 reductase results in reduced resistance to buprofezin in the small brown planthopper, laodelphax striatellus (fallén).nadph-cytochrome p450 reductase (cpr) plays an important role in cytochrome p450 function, and cpr knockdown in several insects leads to increased susceptibility to insecticides. however, a putative cpr gene has not yet been fully characterized in the small brown planthopper laodelphax striatellus, a notorious agricultural pest in rice that causes serious damage by transmitting rice stripe and rice black-streaked dwarf viruses. the objective of this study was to clone the cdna and to knock down ...201626821654
effects of starvation on deltamethrin tolerance in bed bugs, cimex lectularius l. (hemiptera: cimicidae).bed bugs, cimex lectularius l., are a major pest in the urban environment. their presence often results in physical, psychological, and financial distress of homeowners and apartment dwellers. although many insecticide bioassays have been performed on this pest, little attention has been paid to bed bug feeding status, which is closely linked to metabolism, molting, and mass. therefore, we evaluated the toxicity of topically applied deltamethrin on insecticide susceptible adult male bed bugs fed ...201526463068
exposure of bed bugs to metarhizium anisopliae at different humidities.bed bugs cimex lectularius l. were exposed to conidia (spores) of the entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae by feeding, aerosol spray, or contact with a treated surface. feeding experiments demonstrated that bed bugs were innately susceptible to this fungus. however, only at 98% humidity were mortality rates high, regardless of whether bed bugs were sprayed with a fungal solution or contacted a treated surface. mortality in treated bed bugs at ambient humidity did not increase when thes ...201426470085
evidence of tolerance to silica-based desiccant dusts in a pyrethroid-resistant strain of cimex lectularius (hemiptera: cimicidae).insecticide resistance in bed bugs (cimex lectularius and cimex hemipterus) has become widespread, which has necessitated the development of new ipm (integrated pest management) strategies and products for the eradication of infestations. two promising options are the diatomaceous earth and silica gel-based desiccant dusts, both of which induce dehydration and eventual death upon bed bugs exposed to these products. however, the impact of underlying mechanisms that confer resistance to insecticid ...201627941664
autofluorescence lifetime variation in the cuticle of the bedbug cimex lectularius.the decay time of the fluorescence of excited molecules, called fluorescence lifetime, can provide information about the cuticle composition additionally to widely used spectral characteristics. we compared autofluorescence lifetimes of different cuticle regions in the copulatory organ of females of the bedbug, cimex lectularius. after two-photon excitation at 720 nm, regions recently characterised as being rich in resilin showed a longer bimodal distribution of the mean autofluorescence lifetim ...201727913288
investigation of the midgut structure and ultrastructure in cimex lectularius and cimex pipistrelli (hemiptera: cimicidae).cimicidae are temporary ectoparasites, which means that they cannot obtain food continuously. both cimex species examined here, cimex lectularius (linnaeus 1758) and cimex pipistrelli (jenyns 1839), can feed on a non-natal host, c. lectularius from humans on bats, c. pipistrelli on humans, but never naturally. the midgut of c. lectularius and c. pipistrelli is composed of three distinct regions-the anterior midgut (amg), which has a sack-like shape, the long tube-shaped middle midgut (mmg), and ...201727553718
seasonal variability in bed-bug (cimex lectularius) activity in western europe, the united states, and australia using search engine query data as a surrogate outbreak measure. 201627543216
protein self-marking by ectoparasites: a case study using bed bugs (hemiptera: cimicidae).the ability to mark individuals is a critical feature of many entomological investigations, including dispersal studies. insect dispersal is generally investigated using mark-release-recapture techniques, whereby marked individuals are released at a known location and then captured at a measured distance. ectoparasite dispersal has historically been challenging to study, in part because of the ethical concerns associated with releasing marked individuals. here, we introduce the protein self-mark ...201627493250
discrimination between lineage-specific shelters by bat- and human-associated bed bugs does not constitute a stable reproductive barrier.the common bed bug cimex lectularius, has been recently shown to constitute two host races, which are likely in the course of incipient speciation. the human-associated lineage splits from the ancestral bat-associated species deep in the history of modern humans, likely even prior to the neolithic period and establishment of the first permanent human settlements. hybridization experiments between these two lineages show that post-mating reproductive barriers are incomplete due to local variation ...201727830371
horizontal transfer of diatomaceous earth and botanical insecticides in the common bed bug, cimex lectularius l.; hemiptera: cimicidae.horizontal transfer of insecticide occurs when insects contact or ingest an insecticide, return to an aggregation or a nest, and transfer the insecticide to other conspecific insects through contact. this phenomenon has been reported in a number of insects including social insects, however it has not been reported in bed bugs. since horizontal transfer can facilitate the spread of insecticide into hard to reach spaces, it could contribute greatly to the management of these public health pests.201324086593
evaluation of the potential for secondary kill for ingested insecticides in the common bed bug (hemiptera: cimicidae).baits are a preferred method of urban pest management. baits enable more targeted insecticide applications with a fraction of the active ingredient used in residual sprays. bait translocation by foragers, and consequent secondary kill of nonforagers, enhances bait effectiveness in social insects, and in other group-living species like german cockroaches (blattella germanica l.). we investigated the potential for secondary kill in bed bugs (cimex lectularius l.), another gregarious species, using ...201728334348
relatively small quantities of co2, ammonium bicarbonate, and a blend of (e)-2-hexenal plus (e)-2-octenal attract bed bugs (hemiptera: cimicidae).bed bugs, cimex lectularius l., feed on humans, have increased exponentially in the past two decades in many major cities throughout the world, have caused intense infestations, and have become a significant health concern. improved traps are needed to detect early infestations, to assess control programs, and for control of bed bugs. carbon dioxide released alone or simultaneously with other attractants into three types of traps at the relatively low rate of 1 ml/min caught significantly more b ...201728399295
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