TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
mechanism of inhibition of rtem-2 beta-lactamase by cephamycins: relative importance of the 7 alpha-methoxy group and the 3' leaving group.cefoxitin is a poor substrate of many beta-lactamases, including the rtem-2 enzyme. fisher and co-workers [fisher, j., belasco, j. g., khosla, s., & knowles, j. r. (1980) biochemistry 19, 2895-2901] showed that the reaction between cefoxitin and rtem-2 beta-lactamase yielded a moderately stable acyl-enzyme whose hydrolysis was rate-determining to turnover at saturation. the present work shows first that the covalently bound substrate in this acyl-enzyme has a 5-exo-methylene-1,3-thiazine structu ...19863487346
the galaxy luminosity function and the redshift-distance controversy (a review).the mean relation between distance and redshift for galaxies is reviewed as an observational question. the luminosity function for galaxies is an important ingredient and is given explicitly. we discuss various observational selection effects that are important for comparison of the linear and quadratic distance-redshift laws. several lines of evidence are reviewed, including the distribution of galaxy luminosities in various redshift ranges, the luminosities of brightest galaxies in groups and ...198616593693
correlation of 1a afferent conduction with the ataxia of fisher syndrome.the pathophysiology of the ataxia in fisher syndrome (the syndrome of acute ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and areflexia) has been attributed to both peripheral nervous system pathology and cerebellar system dysfunction. pathologic studies have demonstrated no consistent central nervous system abnormalities. we present a case in which abnormalities of 1a sensory conduction were found to correlate directly with the degree of ataxia, without impairment of motor or cutaneous sensory conduction. we propos ...19863713737
the genetics of quantifiable homeostasis: i. the general issues.some fundamental issues in developing the quantitative genetics of heritable traits are addressed. such a trait must be capable of being represented as a quantity. choice of the metric can be satisfactorily made only in the light of some insight into the nature of the trait and what its revealing characteristics may be. this insight is likely to change as more is known about the process, so the form and detail of the analysis is not static but perhaps continually evolving. much has been made out ...19863706403
[electron microscopic microanalysis of prickle cell carcinoma, basaloma, malignant melanoma and normal skin].emma has been used in dermatology since 10 years. in 1981, fisher established the cu/zn index as a parameter for the prognosis of malignant melanoma. we tested the emma technique as a means to determine the cu/zn index in basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, and normal skin. our preliminary conclusions are: emma may be useful to determine the cu/zn index in skin tumors; it is possible to obtain useful data from tumors already fixed in paraffin; (c) the highest cu/zn ...19863716530
met-enkephalin, age and anatomy: a microiontophoretic study in the hippocampus.met-enkephalin, administered microiontophoretically, produced a greater increase in firing in cells in area ca 3-4 in the hippocampus of both young and aged fisher 344 rats than it did in the ca 1 area. furthermore, the effect of met-enkephalin on neuronal firing rates was not as great in old rats as it was in young rats. finally, 20-40 na of met-enkephalin produced an increase in firing in old rats that was equivalent to the difference (2.5 spikes/sec) in baseline firing between old (2.6 spikes ...19873796220
the effect of nicotine and alcohol on the fertility and life span of rats. a cytological analysis.inbred fisher and buffalo rats were exposed to nicotine and alcohol. fertility was greatly reduced in both strains with nicotine treatments being much more deleterious than alcohol use. fisher rats tolerated both toxins better than buffalo rats. both strains became 'extinct' after one generation of fetal and postnatal exposure to nicotine, but alcohol-ingesting fisher rats had 3 or more generations of offspring. the total reproductive period was significantly shortened in both strains under the ...19873548201
capillary tortuosity and degree of contraction or extension of skeletal muscles.the effect of muscle contraction, and extension, on capillary anisotropy was investigated in rat m. soleus fixed by vascular perfusion at sarcomere lengths ranging from 1.62 micron (tetanizing stimulation of sciatic nerve) to 2.85 micron (ankle joint maximally flexed. capillary length density and tortuosity were estimated by morphometry using two sets of sections (0 and 90 degrees to the fiber axis). capillary orientation distribution was evaluated from a series of sections taken at 0 to 90 degr ...19873550394
theoretical analysis of single-round transcription experiments on trp leader region.a kinetic model is proposed to reproduce the time courses of the concentration change in paused leader rna, terminated leader rna, and readthrough rna in the single-round transcription experiments on trp leader region of escherichia coli and its mutants, l132, l75, and l75l135 (winkler, m. e., and c. yanofsky, 1981, biochemistry, 20:3738-3744; fisher, r., and c. yanofsky, 1983, j. biol. chem., 258:9208-9212). this model fits the experimental results well and also captures the essential aspects o ...19873552070
degeneration of hippocampal fibers and spatial memory deficit in the aged rat.old and young fisher 344 rats were compared for their ability to learn a delayed alternation task. the old animals displayed significant impairment of alternation learning, and were slower than the young animals. the brains of these animals were examined using a silver degeneration stain, and among old rats there was conspicuous degeneration. the greatest density of degenerating fibers was seen in the hippocampus and in anatomically related tracts, but there was substantial fiber staining in the ...19873561664
ethanol and aging effects on movement initiation can be dissociated from general behavioral impairment using a high-speed lever-release task in animal model of human reaction time was used to assess the effects of ethanol on reactive capacity (rc) as a function of age. three doses of ethanol (0.5, 1.0 & 1.5 g/kg of 20% v/v, i.p.) were confirmed by gas chromatographic analysis of blood samples taken immediately following every behavioral test. fisher 344 rats were trained to use their forepaws to hold down a lever until the onset of a buzzer and light that signalled impending foot shock, which occurred within 200-1000 msec of the stim ...19873828002
growing familiarity with the test situation augments the vigilance deficit of aged rats.quantitative eeg profiles of aged and of young-adult fisher-344 rats were studied over 10 consecutive recording (3 h) sessions. the individual recording sessions were spaced regularly over a 6-week period. in the aged rats, in recordings from both the frontal cortex and dorsal hippocampus, the eeg characteristics of a vigilance deficit state increased in prominence up through 8 recording sessions before a stable level was reached. a similar trend was not seen in the young-adult rats; instead, th ...19872431885
immunochemical studies of human erythropoietin using site-specific anti-peptide antibodies. identification of a functional domain.anti-peptide antibodies that bind to the amino terminus of human erythropoietin (residues 1-26) do not inhibit the hormone's biological activity, indicating that this region of the protein does not play a role in receptor recognition (sytkowski, a. j., and fisher, j. w. (1985) j. biol chem. 260, 14727-14731). we have now identified six other regions of the primary sequence that are relatively hydrophilic and, therefore, have a higher probability of being accessible to such antibody probes. antib ...19872433274
effects of chemistry, manufacturing and concentration of the dye basic fuchsin regarding its use in quantitative cytophotometry.four separately manufactured preparations of basic fuchsin were compared to determine the effects of concentration, chemistry, and the manufacturing process for their quantitative value in the nuclear feulgen reaction. in order to make the necessary comparisons, the two wavelength method of quantitative cytophotometry was employed to analyse each stain application regarding dna measurements. chicken erythrocytes, and myxamoebae and plasmodia of didymium iridis were employed as experimental tissu ...19872438091
reversing the detrimental effect of adriamycin on skin grafts in rats.we evaluated in a rat model the effects of a homologous fibrin glue in reversing the effects of adriamycin on adherence and take of skin grafts. a total of 40 male fisher rats were used in the study. during the first phase of the experiment, the animals were assigned to either group i (n = 10) receiving normal saline or group ii (n = 10) receiving 6 mg/kg adriamycin by tail vein injection 24 hours before surgery. skin grafts with and without fibrin glue were placed over wounds in the backs of th ...19872443938
identification of kallikrein in cultures of adult renal cells.cortical tubular cultures enriched with distal segments were prepared from the kidney of adult fisher 344 rats bearing thyroid tumors. after two years of cultivation (20 passages) cell monolayers contained immunocytochemically detectable cytokeratin and kallikrein material in their cytoplasm. furthermore cell pellets showed a true renal type of kininogenase activity corresponding to active kallikrein which ranged from 22.3 to 1.5, and total kallikrein from 29.9 to 2.8 pg kinins/min per mg of pro ...19872446783
a sexual dimorphism of mucous cells in the submandibular salivary gland of rat.submandibular glands of both sexes from one week to six months-old were serially sectioned, and mucous cells showing a strong positive stain to alcian blue ph 2.5, first detected at two weeks, showed a high degree of inter-sectional and inter-individual variability. in males, the percentage of animals having mucous cells increased with sexual maturation and attained 100 per cent at age six months. in females, the maximum (60 per cent) was reached by four weeks and then decreased with sexual matu ...19872451903
enzyme histochemistry of the rat nasal mucosa embedded in cold glycol methacrylate.the nasal passages are anatomically complex, and while there have been a number of descriptions of nasal structure in many species, there is very little information available on the distribution of enzymes in the nasal mucosa. in rodents, this delicate mucosa is the first site within the respiratory tract to be exposed during inhalation toxicology studies designed to assess human risks from such exposures. however, the nasal mucosa presents problems for histologic preparation because it is encas ...19872887103
immunosuppression by succinylacetone. ii. prevention of graft-vs-host disease.succinylacetone is a seven-carbon organic ketoacid that we have previously shown to inhibit tumor allograft rejection as well as the primary antibody response to sheep erythrocytes in rats. because it appeared to be such a potent immunosuppressive agent in our initial studies, we evaluated succinylacetone for its ability to block graft-vs-host disease (gvhd) in adult f1 rats injected with parental strain spleen cells. untreated ace x lewis f1 rats given lewis strain spleen cells died of gvhd, wi ...19872889780
morphometric analysis of the cell outlines of normal and polyomavirus-transformed fr 3t3 fibroblasts.a method is described for the analysis of cell shape, using an image analyzer connected to a computer to assess the cell outline. a series of parameters to assess the contribution of large cytoplasmic expansions to cell morphology and to cell spreading on a planar substratum were used to quantify the visual morphologic differences between normal (nontransformed; n.3t3) and polyomavirus-transformed (py.3t3) fisher rat 3t3 fibroblasts. the results show that the py.3t3 fibroblasts are more spherica ...19872822058
induction of a novel ca2+-dependent protease in preneoplastic and neoplastic liver tissues during rat liver carcinogenesis.the activity of a novel ca2+-dependent protease in preneoplastic and neoplastic tissues of male fisher 344 rat liver was examined during experimental liver carcinogenesis. this protease activity is significantly high in hyperplastic nodules and hepatocellular carcinomas which were induced by the method of solt and farber. taken together with our previous report on the promoter-specific induction of this protease, the results suggest the possible importance of this protease in the promotion stage ...19872824086
lambda cro repressor complex with or3 dna: 15n nmr observations.15n nmr studies of the coliphage lambda cro repressor are presented. the protein has been uniformally labeled with 15n, and individual amino acids have been incorporated. although the four c-terminal residues (63-66) were not located in the original crystallographic studies of the protein [anderson, w.f., ohlendorf, d.h., takeda, y., & matthews, b.w. (1981) nature (london) 290, 754], it has been proposed that the c-terminus is involved in dna binding [ohlendorf, d.h., anderson, w.f., fisher, r.g ...19872962634
foodborne snow mountain agent gastroenteritis in a school 1984, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred at a school with 1,860 students in brooklyn, ny. in a single-stage cluster sample of 375 students, 129 (34%) had illnesses that met our case definition of vomiting or diarrhea. the mean incubation period was 26 hours, and the mean illness duration was 24 hours. all case students had eaten in the cafeteria on at least one day between nov 13 and 16, compared with 174/214 (81%) noncase students (p = 10(-8), fisher exact test). foods implicated were f ...19873029660
protection from ischemia-induced cerebral edema in the rat by u-50488h, a kappa opioid receptor agonist.u-50488 is a specific kappa opioid agonist which produces in rats water diuresis resulting in an elevation of plasma osmolarity. pretreatment with u-50488h (the methanesulfonate salt) in fisher rats prior to 4 h of bilateral carotid occlusion prevented the development of edema in the forebrain, and the effect was greater than that from pentobarbital anesthesia. an additional injection of an antidiuretic hormone which prevented the plasma hyperosmolarity also significantly reduced the anticerebra ...19873030502
cellular mutation mediates t-antigen-positive revertant cells resistant to simian virus 40 transformation but not to retransformation by polyomavirus and adenovirus type 2.t-antigen-positive transformation revertant cell lines were isolated from fully simian virus 40 (sv40)-transformed fisher rat embryo fibroblast cells (ref 52 cells) by methionine starvation. reversion of the transformed cells (sv-52 cells) was caused by a mutation within the cellular genome. to demonstrate this, we isolated sv40 dna from the host genome, inserted it into plasmid pspt18 dna, cloned it in escherichia coli, and microinjected it into the nuclei of the ref 52 cells. fully transformed ...19873033314
cloning the fisher rat thyroid cell line (frtl-5): variability in clonal growth and 3,'5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate response to investigate the stability of frtl-5 cells we cloned stock cells by limiting dilution in a 6-hormone medium with bovine tsh (btsh) (10 mu/ml) (6h medium). one third of the wells with irradiated fibroblast feeder cells developed frtl-5 colonies. one hundred and twenty clones were obtained, of which 29 (8%) developed sufficiently for functional analysis. clones were tested for growth responses to btsh stimulation as evidenced by 72-h [3h]thymidine uptake and tsh receptor activation by camp gener ...19873036476
age-dependent changes in rat brain mitochondria of synaptic and non-synaptic origins.synaptic and non-synaptic mitochondria were isolated from the brains of 3- 12-and 28-30-month-old female fisher 344 rats. total oxygen consumption and oxygen consumption due to mitochondrial respiration decreases 83% with increasing age in synaptic mitochondria using malate plus glutamate as substrate, but only 33% in non-synaptic mitochondria; succinate-driven activity is not affected. succinate-driven superoxide generation decreases over 90% in both fractions; malate plus glutamate-driven supe ...19873037204
on the fidelity of dna replication. isolation of high fidelity dna polymerase-primase complexes by immunoaffinity chromatography.error rates for conventionally purified dna polymerase-alpha from calf thymus, chicken, and human sources have been reported to be one in 10,000 to one in 40,000 nucleotides incorporated. isolation of polymerase-alpha by immunoaffinity chromatography yields a multiprotein high molecular weight replication complex that contains an associated dna primase (wong, s. w., paborsky, l. r., fisher, p. a., wang, t. s-f., and korn, d. (1986) j. biol. chem. 261, 7958-7968). we have isolated dna polymerase- ...19873038898
somatic antigens of pseudomonas aeruginosa. the structure of o-specific polysaccharide chains of the lipopolysaccharides from p. aeruginosa o5 (lányi) and immunotype 6 (fisher).lipopolysaccharides were isolated from dry bacterial cells of pseudomonas aeruginosa o5a,b,c, o5a,b,d, o5a,d (lányi classification) and immunotype 6 (fisher classification) by the westphal procedure. their polysaccharide chains were built up of trisaccharide repeating units containing d-xylose, 2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-d-galactose and a new sialic acid-like sugar, the di-n-acyl derivative of 5,7-diamino-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-l-glycero-l-manno-nonulosonic (pseudaminic) acid. formyl, acetyl and (r)-3- ...19873104041
[prevention using a pseudomonas immunoglobulin in burn patients].pseudomonas aeruginosa belongs to the most frequent pathogens isolated from patients with burns. in a mouse model for artificial burns it was found that prophylactic administration of a hyperimmune globulin with antibody titres against p. aeruginosa (fisher immunotypes 1, 2, 4 and 6) reduced mortality. therefore, the prophylactic administration of pseudomonas immunoglobulin was examined in a prospective randomized study in two groups of 13 patients each. severely burned patients with at least se ...19873106234
production of cytotoxin by clinical strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa.presence of cytotoxin was studied in extracts of 57 strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa (46 bacteremia, 4 environmental, and 7 fisher immunotype), 10 pseudomonas species, and 7 nonpseudomonas isolates. cytotoxin was identified by western immunoblot in extracts of all p. aeruginosa isolates. none of the pseudomonas species or nonpseudomonas isolates were shown to produce this protein. no immunologic cross-reactivity was observed between cytotoxin antibody and p. aeruginosa alkaline protease, toxin ...19873107788
comparison of the chinese schema and the international antigenic typing system for serotyping pseudomonas aeruginosa.twelve strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa representing 12 serogroups in the serogrouping schema used in the people's republic of china were compared with serogroups in the international antigenic typing system (iats). the first eight groups originated in the people's republic of china, and group ii appears to have a new major antigen that is not found in the iats. groups i, iii, iv, v, vi, vii, and viii correspond to groups 11, 6, 9, 4, 8, 3, and 1, respectively, of the iats. groups ix, x, xi, an ...19873108310
[pseudomonas immunoglobulin prophylaxis in patients with burn injuries].pseudomonas aeruginosa belongs to the most frequent pathogens isolated from patients with burns. in a mouse model for artificial burns it was found that prophylactic administration of a hyperimmune globulin with antibody titres against p. aeruginosa (fisher immunotypes 1, 2, 4 and 6) reduced mortality. therefore, the prophylactic administration of pseudomonas immunoglobulin was examined in a prospective randomized study in two groups of 13 patients each. severely burned patients with at least se ...19873112025
dose requirements, assay procedures and tissue specificity for pcb inductation of p-450 dependent mono-oxygenase activity in the rat: implications for design of studies measuring in vivo induction of human placental mono-oxygenases.pregnant sprague-dawley and fisher 344 rats were treated on day 15 of gestation with aroclor 1254 in a single dose ranging from 0 to 500 mg kg-1 body weight and killed on day 18 of gestation. in the small groups of animals used for this study, no effect was observed on mean maternal liver or placental weight, or the number of fetal resorptions at any of the doses tested. measurement of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (ahh) and 7-ethoxycoumarin o-deethylase (7ecd) activity in tissue homogenates, how ...19873114357
the role of humoral immunity in lactobacillus casei cell wall induced arthritis.although both cellular and humoral immunity have been shown to play important roles in the development of collagen induced arthritis, their roles in the pathogenesis of bacterial cell wall induced arthritis remain unclear. previous studies of humoral immunity in bacterial cell wall induced arthritis were carried out in outbred animals and measured the humoral response to only the eliciting bacteria. we compared the humoral immune responses of arthritis susceptible lewis and arthritis resistant f ...19873114482
somatic antigens of pseudomonas aeruginosa. the structure of o-specific polysaccharide chains of lipopolysaccharides of p. aeruginosa o3 (lányi), o25 (wokatsch) and fisher immunotypes 3 and 7.o-specific polysaccharides, obtained on mild acid degradation of lipopolysacchrides of the serologically related strains pseudomonas aeruginosa o3 (lányi classification), o25 (wokatsch classification) and immunotypes 3 and 7 (fisher classification), are built up of trisaccharide repeating units involving 2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-d-galactose (n-acetyl-d-fucosamine), 2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-d-mannuronic acid or 2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-l-guluronic acid and 3-acetamidino-2-acetamido-2,3-dideo ...19873115777
hemagglutination patterns of pseudomonas aeruginosa strains of different serogroups, habs and fisher types.pseudomonas aeruginosa strains of sixteen habs and three fisher types were examined for their hemagglutination activity using vertebrate erythrocytes including human ones. their carbohydrate-binding specificity as determined by hemagglutination-inhibition suggests a possible method of their purification. this study also indicates the possibility of an occurrence of multiple lectins of different specificity.19873118598
induction of rat thyroid cell mhc class ii antigen by thyrotropin and gamma-interferon.major histocompatibility (mhc) class ii antigen expression by thyroid epithelial cells has been widely implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease. we have examined rat mhc (rt1) class ii antigen gene regulation in 1b-6 cells, cloned in our laboratory from the fisher rat thyroid line frt-l5. 1b-6 cells are tsh dependent for growth and proliferation, and are responsive to more than 5 microu/ml bovine tsh (btsh) in terms of extracellular camp accumulation. recombinant rat gamma in ...19873119313
the mobility of concanavalin a receptors and surface immunoglobulins on rat hepatocyte plasma membranes.lateral mobilities of lectin receptors and surface immunoglobulins were measured in plasma membranes of hepatocytes prepared by smearing small pieces of rat liver tissue and then using the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (frap) technique. smears were treated with various doses of fluorescein isothiocyanate (fitc) conjugated concanavalin a (cona), succinylated cona (scona), wheat germ agglutinin (wga), and soybean agglutinin (sba), as well as with rabbit anti-rat igg (rara/igg) and goa ...19873098295
the intestinal zinc transport in aged determine if there are any age-related alterations in the intestinal zinc absorption that may contribute to zinc deficiency, we studied the zinc transport across the jejunal segments of 3-, 12- and 24-month-old fisher 344 male rats using the ussing chamber technique. we also evaluated the effect of 5 microm arachidonic acid in tissue bathing media. the zinc transport from mucosa to serosa in 24-month-old rats (55.0 +/- 3.5 nmol/h/cm2) was significantly greater than the transport in 12-month-o ...19873123812
metabolism of pyrilamine maleate in fischer 344 rats, part i: activity excretion profiles.male and female fisher 344 rats (12 per group) were dosed by gavage with either 2 or 10 mg (based on the free amine) pyrilamine maleate containing about 12 and 6 muci 14c-pyrilamine maleate, respectively, to determine excretion of the activity as a function of dose and sex with time. urine and feces were collected at timed intervals through 144 h. most of the dose (about 70%) was eliminated within 48 h through the urine and feces, but only about 80% of the total dose was recovered during the exp ...19873431093
enhanced expression of harvey-ras oncogene in fanft-induced transitional cell carcinoma.the level of mrna expression and dna structure of c-h-ras were examined in a transitional cell carcinoma (tcc) induced in c3h/he mice and fisher rats by n-(4,5-nitro-2-furylthiazolyl)formamide (fanft) and carried as serially transplanted tumors. neither amplification nor gross rearrangements were detected by southern analysis in the fanft tumor. increased expression of c-h-ras was detected by northern and in situ hybridization in both the fanft-induced mouse and rat tcc, as compared to normal ur ...19873433577
molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the cdna for small proteoglycan ii of bovine bone.the cdna for the full-length core protein of the small chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan ii of bovine bone was cloned and sequenced. a 1.3 kb clone (lambda pg28) was identified by plaque hybridization with a previously isolated 1.0 kb proteoglycan cdna clone (lambda pg20), positively identified previously by polyclonal and monoclonal antibody reactivity and by hybrid-selected translation in vitro [day, ramis, fisher, gehron robey, termine & young (1986) nucleic acids res. 14, 9861-9876]. the cdn ...19873435485
effect of lithium on circadian activity of ache (ec in the reticular formation of mouse brain stem under ld 12:12.the investigation was carried out on male mice 6-8 weeks old. control animals were fed standard chow without lithium, while the experimental ones received on additional 10 mmol licl/kg of chow. after 30 days feeding, 7 mice at a time were killed every 4h. the activity of free ache was assessed in the brain stem reticular formation according to the method of ellman. the results were statistically analyzed using student's t-test and fisher test. parameters of periodic function were then applied to ...19873446450
comparative ototoxicity of gentamicin in the guinea pig and two strains of rats.gentamicin ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity were compared in two strains of rats, sprague-dawley and fisher-344, and in the hartley albino guinea pig. treatment groups consisting of 8 male rats of each strain and four male guinea pigs were dosed subcutaneously for 14 days with either 80 or 100 mg/kg of gentamicin sulfate in saline. brainstem auditory evoked response (baer) thresholds were recorded from each animal in each group on day 11 post-administration. blood urea-nitrogen and serum creatinin ...19873446672
changes in the hepatic perfusion index during the growth and development of experimental hepatic micrometastases.micrometastases were induced in fisher rats using an intraportal inoculation of 0.2 ml of 8 x 10(7) walker carcinosarcoma cells. a control group received normal saline. the hepatic perfusion index (hpi) was measured during the growth and development of micrometastases. the hpi at 4 days (0.51 +/- 0.008) and at 6 days (0.65 +/- 0.16) was significantly raised when compared to controls (0.31 +/- 0.07) and at 2 days after inoculation (0.31 +/- 0.06). hepatic artery flow did not change throughout the ...19873449796
wheezing in infants: the response to epinephrine.there is significant controversy about the role of bronchodilator therapy for wheezing in infants. a double-blind, randomized trial of subcutaneous epinephrine upsilon normal saline was conducted in children less than 24 months of age evaluated at yale-new haven hospital. respiratory assessments using a newly developed respiratory distress assessment instrument were made at baseline and 15 minutes after each of two injections. relief of respiratory distress was assessed using strict a priori cri ...19873295741
expression and characterization of transforming growth factor alpha precursor protein in transfected mammalian cells.analysis of a cdna clone derived from retrovirus-transformed rat fibroblasts has recently suggested that the mature 50-amino-acid form of transforming growth factor alpha (tgf alpha) is derived from a 159-amino-acid transmembrane precursor by proteolytic cleavage. to understand the processing of the tgf alpha precursor molecule in more detail, we have expressed this protein in baby hamster kidney (bhk) fibroblasts under control of the metal-ion-inducible metallothionein promoter and characterize ...19873299049
laser-assisted end-to-side anastomosis.the milliwatt co2 laser was used to anastomose rat carotid arteries in an end-to-side fashion, and this technique was compared to the standard suture technique. vessels were studied at two to six weeks. all anastomosis were patient and overall, there was a 78.6 percent rate of aneurysm formation in the laser cohort, compared with 7.1 percent with suture (p less than 0.001 fisher exact). vessels and aneurysm histology were similar to those previously reported for the end-to-end technique.19873309274
reimplantation injury after lung transplantation in a rat model.distant procurement of organs for transplantation requires satisfactory preservation to reduce injury during ischemia and the initial phase of reperfusion. we have studied the mechanism of reimplantation injury after unilateral lung transplantation in isogeneic fisher rats. the heart and lungs were removed en bloc from donor rats and preserved at 4 degrees c. after 5 hours the left lung was transplanted into a recipient. radiographic and histologic evidence of pulmonary edema in the transplanted ...19873312534
preneoplastic and neoplastic growth of xenotransplanted lung-derived human cell lines using deepithelialized rat tracheas.the human lung tumor-derived cell lines a549, calu-1, calu-3, hut292, and sw900 and the transformed human bronchial epithelial cell line tbe-1, that was transfected with the v-harvey-ras oncogene, were inoculated into deepithelialized fisher 344 rat tracheas (5 x 10(5) cells/trachea). after the ends of the tracheas were sealed, the tracheas were transplanted into s.c. tissues of nude mice. in a parallel experiment, 1 x 10(6) cells from each of these cell lines were injected s.c. histological exa ...19873791242
genitalia in children's drawings: an association with sexual abuse.many sexual abuse victims have been observed to draw genitalia on human figures. to test the hypothesis that sexually abused children draw genitalia on human figures more often than do nonabused children, drawings from 57 children, 3 through 7 years of age, who were referred to child protective services as alleged sexual abuse victims, were compared with drawings from an age-, sex-, race-, and socioeconomically matched group of 55 nonabused children receiving well-child care in medical settings. ...19873540833
development of an experimental animal model for reactive arthritis induced by yersinia enterocolitica infection.we attempted to induce experimental arthritis in rats by systematically testing the effect of yersinia infections in five strains of rats, using the intragastric, intraperitoneal, and intravenous routes of inoculation. we observed that lewis rats which were given 10(4) to 10(5) yersinia enterocolitica wa organisms via the intravenous route consistently developed arthritis. the arthritis was most severe at 3 weeks and subsided at 6 weeks. no arthritis was observed when this bacterial strain was a ...19873493220
co-purification of transforming growth factor beta-like activity with pth-like and bone-resorbing activities from a tumor associated with humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy.humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (hhm) is caused by a circulating bone-resorbing factor or factors. suggestions as to the nature of this factor include pth-like proteins, transforming growth factors, and bone-resorbing factors distinct from either of the first two classes of polypeptides. we investigated the occurrence of these three activities in a highly purified extract of the h-500 leydig cell tumor which causes hhm when implanted into fisher rats. pth-like adenylate cyclase-stimulating a ...19873494596
direct stimulation of the adrenal cortex by interleukin-1.the impact of human recombinant beta-interleukin-1 (il-1) on adrenocortical stimulation was investigated. this study asked three questions: does il-1 increase the corticosterone levels of rat serum? is there a direct effect on the adrenal cortex? what is the mechanism of this effect? the intraperitoneal injection of il-1 (70 micrograms) in anesthetized male fisher rats resulted in elevated corticosterone levels at 30 minutes and reached a maximum at 180 minutes (94 +/- 12 versus 34 +/- 4 microgr ...19873497458
heat-stress proteins of rat lung endothelial and mammary adenocarcinoma cells.a rat mammary adenocarcinoma cell clone, mtc, and a rat lung endothelial cell clone, rle cl.4, both syngeneic to the fisher 344 rat, were compared for proteins synthesized at 37 degrees c and after a 1-h, 42 degrees c heat dose. the heat stress-induced or -enhanced synthesis of a series of molecular mass groups and isoelectric point species (isomers) was observed in both equilibrium and nonequilibrium two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. tumor and endothelial cell heat-stress proteins (hsp) were ...19873562792
ligand blotting with 125i-fluoresceinamine-heparin.a highly sensitive method for ligand blotting with heparin has been developed. this ligand-blotting method is successful largely due to the ability to prepare heparin derivatives of high radiospecific activity. heparin was modified with fluoresceinamine according to the method of c.g. glabe, p.k. harty, and s.d. rosen [1983) anal. biochem. 130, 287-294), and this fluoresceinamine-derivatized heparin can be radioiodinated to a specific activity of 100,000 cmp/ng of uronic acid. this is a 500-fold ...19873565746
laboratory proficiency test results on use of selective media for isolating pseudomonas cepacia from simulated sputum specimens of patients with cystic fibrosis.pseudomonas cepacia colonization of or infection in patients with cystic fibrosis (cf) has been associated with increased morbidity and premature death. however, current data on national incidence may be biased because of interlaboratory differences in the methods of culturing sputa of patients with cf. we conducted three tests to evaluate the proficiency of microbiology laboratories at cf centers in identifying and isolating p. cepacia and to assess the value of using selective media for p. cep ...19873571451
growth of 9-l and rt-9 gliosarcoma in female rats.published studies of 9-l and rt-9 gliosarcoma have been done only in male rats and it is widely assumed that these tumors do not grow in female rats. in this study 9-l and rt-9 gliosarcoma was inoculated into the brains of male and female fisher cd rats. the tumors grew with essentially the same incidence and survival time in both sexes, confirming that female rats can be used as well as male rats in experiments using rt-9 and 9-l gliosarcomas.19873598624
effects of dichloroacetate in spinal stroke in the rabbit.high levels of brain lactate may contribute to cellular death and dysfunction in acute cerebral ischemia. although sodium dichloroacetate (dca) has been shown to lower brain lactate in incomplete cerebral ischemia, functional outcome has not been assessed with dca. we examined the effects of dca treatment on functional neurologic outcome using a previously developed model for "spinal stroke" in the rabbit. thirty male new zealand white rabbits weighing 1.3-2.8 kg were studied. after anesthesia w ...19873613862
initiating activity in a two-stage mouse skin model of nine mutagenic pyrolysates of amino acids, soybean globulin and proteinaceous food.trp-p-1, trp-p-2, mea alpha c, a alpha c, glu-p-1, glu-p-2, lys-p-1, iq and phe-p-1 were tested for tumour initiating activity in a two-stage skin carcinogenesis model using 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (tpa) as the promoter. the total initiating doses were 20 mg for trp-p-1, trp-p-2, glu-p-1 and glu-p-2, 40 mg for mea alpha c and a alpha c, 5 mg for lys-p-1, 7.5 mg for iq and 100 mg for phe-p-1. 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene was used as a positive control compound at a total dose of 10 ...19873621463
the effect of indomethacin on burn-induced immunosuppression.recent interest in the role of prostaglandin inhibitors as immunomodulators following major injury prompted us to study the effect of indomethacin on burn-induced immunosuppression in rats as measured by the delayed-type hypersensitivity (dth) skin test response, ability to contain an intradermal bacterial challenge (10(8) staphylococcus aureus 502a injected intradermally), and overall survival from spontaneous burn wound sepsis. fifty male sprague-dawley rats sensitized to keyhole limpet hemocy ...19873626543
strain differences in circadian drinking behaviors of ethanol and water in rats.voluntary drinking responses to an alternating three-bottle, two-choice paradigm to tap water or to 5% ethanol were measured in adult male fisher (fshr; n = 14) and spontaneously hypertensive (sp; n = 16) rats for 6-9 days. all animals were singly caged and housed separately in isolation chambers. the animals received light from 0600 to 1800 (cst) daily (ld 12:12) or remained in constant darkness (dd) at room temperature (23 degrees c). food was freely available. water and ethanol bottles were c ...19873628356
bha (2(3)-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole)-mediated modulation of acetaminophen phase ii metabolism in vivo in fisher 344 male fisher 344 rats (190-220 g), were given an intravenous dose (10 mg/rat) of bha. pretreated and control rats received an intravenous dose of [g-3h] acetaminophen (25 mg/rat). bile was collected prior to dosing and for 5-6 hours after dosing at varying time intervals. separate aliquots of 0.2 ml were incubated with beta-glucuronidase and sulfatase, respectively. these incubation mixtures were then extracted and analyzed by reverse phase hplc. in all cases control animals showed a greate ...19873628963
critical role of gonadal hormones on the genotoxic activity of the hepatocarcinogen dl-zami 1305.the dna damaging capacity of the sex-dependent hepatocarcinogen beta-blocker dl-1-(2-nitro-3-methyl-phenoxy)-3-tert-butylamino-propan-2-ol (dl-zami 1305) was evaluated in different sex hormonal conditions. a single injection of dl-zami 1305 causes dna damage in the liver of the female but not the male wistar rat. when the hormonal environment of the female rat is converted to 'male type' by ovariectomy and 1 week of treatment with testosterone, dna damage by dl-zami 1305 is completely abolished. ...19873652027
lens protein composition, glycation and high molecular weight aggregation in aging rats.because of minimal or no turnover, lens proteins are subjected to substantial post-translational modifications which in turn disrupt lens architecture and change the optical properties leading to senile cataract formation. progressive glycation is believed to have the potential to initiate the changes that are conducive to lens opacification. fisher 344 rats were systematically followed from juvenile to older and aged phases of their life to study the relationship between lens glycation and high ...19873654142
gentamicin-induced loss of basolateral surface area of rat proximal convoluted tubules.this study was performed to find the quantitative relationship between basolateral surface alterations of proximal convoluted tubules (pct) and renal failure in 26 fisher 344 rats receiving 20 mg/kg of gentamicin twice daily up to 28 days. they were sacrificed on day 14 (renal failure, 13 rats) and day 28 (recovering, 13 rats). control rats were used for morphologic studies (19) and serum creatinine studies (6 of 19). pcts (14th and 28th day) were graded as to severity with transmission electron ...19873669615
genetic variability in response to dietary calcium.supplemental dietary calcium has been shown to reduce blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats while restricted calcium diets cause an elevation in blood pressure. this latter nutrient effect has been enhanced by modest sodium restriction and is associated with a reduction in serum ionized calcium concentration. to determine whether alterations of dietary calcium and sodium have a similar influence on blood pressure in genetically normotensive rats, fisher 344, wistar furth, and aci rat ...19873669918
x-ray crystallographic studies of the alanine-specific racemase from bacillus stearothermophilus. overproduction, crystallization, and preliminary facilitate large-scale purification and crystallographic study, we have subcloned the gene for the alanine racemase of bacillus stearothermophilus from picr401 (inagaki, k., tanizawa, k., badet, b., walsh, c. t., tanaka, h., and soda, k. (1986) biochemistry 25, 3268-3274) and overproduced the enzyme in escherichia coli w3110 laciq using the tac promoter of pkk223-3. this system yields alanine racemase as 6% of the bacterial cytosolic protein. purification by a modification of the procedure of ...19873680197
effect of an hypercholesterolemic diet on the level of several serum lipids and apolipoproteins in nine rat detect the response of different strains of rats to an hypercholesterolemic diet, 9 different strains of male rats were fed successively a control diet (c) containing 20% casein for 4 weeks, then a high-protein, cholesterol-rich diet (hc) containing 50% casein and 1.2% cholesterol for 12 weeks. when the rats were fed the control diet, the highest cholesterolemia was found in the lou strain and the lowest in the wag and brown-norway (bn) strains. the latter strain had the highest free to ester ...19873685615
ethyl acrylate distribution, macromolecular binding, excretion, and metabolism in male fisher 344 rats.we have demonstrated previously that ethyl acrylate causes severe acute forestomach (nonglandular portion of the stomach) toxicity in rats. ethyl acrylate was also shown to cause forestomach tumors when administered to rats chronically by gavage. the current studies were designed to investigate ethyl acrylate distribution, excretion, and metabolism, as well as the macromolecular interactions of ethyl acrylate (etac) in the forestomach (target organ) and liver (nontarget organ). 2,3-[14c]ethyl ac ...19873691998
nosocomial rotaviral diarrhea: pattern of spread on wards in a children's hospital.nosocomial gastroenteritis in a 315-bed hospital for children was examined prospectively from january 11 through may 31, 1985. there were 85 cases of nosocomial diarrhea during the study period, and these were identified on each of the 13 hospital wards. rotavirus was identified in 40% of cases. incidence of nosocomial rotavirus was highest on wards where most children were less than 2 years of age, except for the infectious diseases (isolation) ward (0.24 versus 2.30 cases per 100 admissions, p ...19873694179
heat shock-induced changes in the structural stability of proteinaceous karyoskeletal elements in vitro and morphological effects in situ.karyoskeletal protein fractions prepared from drosophila melanogaster embryos contain morphologically identifiable remnants of nuclear pore complexes and peripheral lamina as well as what appears to be an internal nuclear "matrix" (fisher, p. a., m. berrios, and g. blobel, 1982, j. cell biol., 92: 674-686). structural stability of these proteinaceous assemblies is dependent on thermal incubation in vitro (37 degrees c, 15 min) before subfractionation of nuclei. in the absence of such incubation, ...19872821008
magnetic resonance imaging and the "one-and-a-half" syndrome: a case report.a patient is described who had magnetic resonance imaging (mri) findings of a left paramedian pontine ischemic stroke. it was associated with right motor sensory and left cerebellar dysfunction and the "one-and-a-half" syndrome of fisher.19872958509
neuropathy in the miller fisher syndrome: clinical and electrophysiologic findings.the clinical and electrophysiologic findings in 10 patients with miller fisher syndrome (ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, and areflexia) were reviewed. all patients had motor and sensory nerve conduction studies and emg in the arm and the leg, and seven patients had cranial nerve conduction studies. electrodiagnostic abnormalities were found in all patients and were characteristic of an axonal neuropathy or a neuronopathy with predominant sensory nerve changes in the limbs and motor damage in the crania ...19872819783
mri in miller fisher variant of guillain-barré syndrome. 19873614677
[neurophysiological studies in a case of miller fisher syndrome]. 19873423387
bootstrap techniques for error estimation.the design of a pattern recognition system requires careful attention to error estimation. the error rate is the most important descriptor of a classifier's performance. the commonly used estimates of error rate are based on the holdout method, the resubstitution method, and the leave-one-out method. all suffer either from large bias or large variance and their sample distributions are not known. bootstrapping refers to a class of procedures that resample given data by computer. it permits deter ...198721869421
increased incidence of abnormal foetuses in the offspring of cyclophosphamide-treated male mice.the incidence of morphologically abnormal foetuses in the litters of cyclophosphamide (cp)-treated male mice was investigated and compared with control values. in two experiments (100 mg/kg) cp was shown to increase the incidence of grossly abnormal foetuses over that seen in the controls, although neither was statistically significant in isolation. when the probabilities from the two tests of significance were combined using the method of fisher the result was significant (p = 0.02). these resu ...19873574337
an interview with: richard p. fisher. 198710282642
the bingo model of survivorship. iii. genetic principles.the broad relationships are explored between the genetic and the phenotypic structures of the bingo-gamma model (ie, the shortest waiting time among competing, independent, multiple-hit systems). finite algorithms are derived to compute in closed form the joint and marginal distributions; the distribution, density, and hazard functions of time to failure; the respective total probabilities of dying from failure of each competing system; and the raw and central moments. the algorithm is the compu ...19873565481
evaluation of contextual analysis for computer classification of cervical smears.a procedure for automated analysis of cervical smears has been implemented in an image cytometry system. smears are described exclusively in terms of global and contextual information extracted by pattern-recognition algorithms and represented by a vector of proportions of cellular object types. linear discriminant functions, based on a fisher criterion, are derived to classify smears with a cross-section of diagnoses into two broad categories, normal and abnormal. results obtained from 83 smear ...19873556101
1986 elda e. anderson award presented to darrell reed fisher. 19873546201
effects of carotid compression, as assessed by near infrared spectroscopy, upon cerebral blood volume and hemoglobin oxygen saturation.near infrared spectroscopy, a recently developed optoelectronic technique, has been studied as a possible method of monitoring the adequacy of cerebral perfusion in 22 patients who were candidates for carotid endarterectomy. using this technique, changes in haemoglobin volume, haemoglobin oxygen saturation and redox level of cytochrome-c-oxidase were recorded from the frontoparietal region during routine carotid compression tests performed under continuous electroencephalographic (eeg) monitorin ...19873560151
fisher information in the logistic model. 19872977701
a case of recurrent miller-fisher syndrome. 19873435804
effect of digitoxin on cardiac arrhythmias in hemodialysis patients.digitoxin is considered a risk factor for ventricular arrhythmias in hemodialysis patients. in a randomized, crossover controlled study, 55 hemodialysis outpatients with sinus rhythm were prospectively investigated in two 48-h periods of electrocardiographic monitoring, one on and one off digitoxin or vice versa. the frequency of ventricular ectopic beats (mean +/- sd) which were found in 31 of 55 patients (56%), was slightly higher on hemodialysis (10 +/- 28 beats/h) than in the following 20 h ...19872447325
a new approach to monoclonal antibody production. in vitro immunization with antigens on nitrocellulose using drosophila myosin heavy chain as an example.a methodology of broad applicability is described for the production of monoclonal antibodies to antigens with interesting developmental properties using drosophila myosin heavy chain to exemplify the procedure. the technique consists of two parts. (1) identification of the antigen with any tool which allows its detection on a western blot. in the present case, this was achieved by monospecific polyclonal antibodies, prepared as described by smith and fisher (j. cell biol. (1984) 99, 20), which ...19873117889
variants of guillain-barré syndrome: miller fisher syndrome, facial diplegia and multiple cranial nerve palsies.we report the experience at a large teaching hospital over a 10 year period with miller fisher syndrome, facial diplegia, and multiple cranial nerve palsies. in these patients, absence of drowsiness on examination, normal cranial ct scans, albumino-cytological dissociation on csf examination and slowing of nerve conduction, all suggest that a peripheral nerve dysfunction is the underlying mechanism. pertinent literature is reviewed, in an attempt to separate these probable variants of guillain-b ...19873690433
sodium citrate in paediatric determine whether the gastric content ph of paediatric patients could be raised in an effort to decrease post-aspiration morbidity and mortality, the antacid sodium citrate (0.4 was given preoperatively to 25 patients aged 1 to 14 (6.0 +/- 3.5, mean +/- sd) years. their gastric content ph was measured following induction of anaesthesia. these values were compared to those obtained from a control group (n = 20) ranging in age from seven months to nine (3.3 +/- 2.7) years. a gastric co ...19873677279
the comparative validities of six mmpi repression scales.the validities of six mmpi repression scales were compared using each of the other five and an independent measure as criteria (n = 190). the data gave little support to the eichman, welsh, and haan repression scales as operational definitions of this construct. the results for the little-fisher denial, byrne et al. r-s, and haan denial scales showed more promise.19873667939
optimal experiment design for nonlinear models subject to large prior uncertainties.classical experiment design generally yields an experiment that depends on the value of the parameters to be estimated, which are, of course, unknown. assuming that the model parameters belong to a population with known statistics, we propose to take the a priori parameter uncertainty into account by optimizing the mathematical expectation of a functional of the fisher information matrix. this optimization is performed with a stochastic approximation algorithm that makes robust experiment design ...19873631311
postirradiation alterations of neuronal chromatin structure.previous work from our laboratory suggested that neuronal chromatin structure may be altered immediately after exposure to ionizing radiation. in the present study, whole brains of 4-month-old male fisher 344 rats were irradiated with a dose of 25 gy. the kinetics of restoring the chromatin structure to its unirradiated state was investigated in rat cerebellar neurons using three different approaches: (1) measurement of changes in the dna superhelical structure by the fluorescent halo assay, (2) ...19883353510
features of the in vitro established rat large granular lymphocyte leukaemia rnk-16.a large granular lymphocyte (lgl) leukaemia cell line from the fisher/f344 rat strain called rnk-16 has been established in vitro, maintaining the same surface markers as tumour cell growing in vivo. the tumour has also maintained its specificity pattern and cytotoxic reactivity and serves as a suitable source of natural killer (nk)-like effector cells in vitro. the cells show no evidence of dependency on, or production of, interleukin 2 or interferons, nor is the cytotoxic capacity influenced b ...19883353687
comparative toxicity of halothane, isoflurane, hypoxia, and phenobarbital induction in monolayer cultures of rat hepatocytes.hypoxia, phenobarbital induction, and halothane anesthesia have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hepatotoxicity in the rat model. however, a controversy exists over the role of halothane in liver injury; does it act by reducing hepatic blood flow, thereby inducing hypoxia, or do its metabolites initiate the injury? these variables are difficult to separate during in vivo halothane exposure. in the present experiments, effects of halothane on hepatic perfusion were eliminated by exposing co ...19883354886
blood-brain barrier transport of choline is reduced in the aged age-related impairment in choline transport across the blood-brain barrier (bbb) may contribute to the cholinergic mechanisms of geriatric memory dysfunction. to test this hypothesis, the brain choline uptake in male fisher 344 rats at 2, 18 and 24 months of age was studied using the oldendorf technique. the vmax of choline transport in the 24-month-old rats (0.05 +/- 0.04 nmol/min/g) was significantly lower than that in the 2-month-old rat (2.5 +/- 1.0 nmol/min/g) (p less than 0.05). the km ...19883359216
molecular cloning of cdna corresponding to mrna species whose steady state levels in the thyroid are enhanced by thyrotropin. homology of one of these sequences with ferritin h.a lambda gt11 cdna library was constructed using poly(a)+ mrna from thyrotropin (tsh)-stimulated fisher rat thyroid (frtl5) cells. the library was screened for nonthyroglobulin cdna sequences by differential plaque filter hybridization using single-stranded cdna probes synthesized from mrna prepared from quiescent and tsh-stimulated frtl5 cells. thyroglobulin cdna-containing recombinants in the library were avoided by prehybridizing the tsh probe to excess thyroglobulin cdna. of 48,000 clones sc ...19883366767
photoperiodic sensitivity of prepubertal female fisher 344 rats.the laboratory rat is thought to be a poor model for study of the photoperiodic control of reproduction; however, this has only been investigated in a few rat strains. the purpose of the present investigation was to determine if the neuroendocrine-reproductive system of the fisher 344 (f344) rat, an inbred strain, is sensitive to light deprivation. all treatments were performed on 28-day-old female f344 rats and the animals maintained for 8 weeks in a 14:10 light:dark cycle. blinding resulted in ...19883367261
effects of nicotine on the fertility, cytology and life span of male rats.contrary to an earlier opinion that nicotine has no effect on the fertility of male animals or humans, the present experimental study using male inbred fisher rats demonstrates that the reproductive capacity of the animals is greatly reduced when injected with nicotine, and that the effect is much greater in male than in female fisher rats similarly injected with nicotine. this is in accord with some earlier histological and morphological studies which have shown that female rodents have a great ...19883369287
[changes in capillary permeability in experimental brain tumor].it is still controversial whether edema fluid around a malignant brain tumor is derived from capillaries inside the tumor itself or not only from tumor vessels but also from peritumoral tissue. the purpose of this study is to clarify the region where the capillary permeability is increased using double autoradiographic method. a suspension of 1 x 10(4) rat glioma cells (rg-12) was stereotactically implanted into the right basal ganglia of c-d fisher rats. in this model, all animals are dead 20 + ...19883370167
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