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x-ray crystallographic studies of the alanine-specific racemase from bacillus stearothermophilus. overproduction, crystallization, and preliminary characterization.to facilitate large-scale purification and crystallographic study, we have subcloned the gene for the alanine racemase of bacillus stearothermophilus from picr401 (inagaki, k., tanizawa, k., badet, b., walsh, c. t., tanaka, h., and soda, k. (1986) biochemistry 25, 3268-3274) and overproduced the enzyme in escherichia coli w3110 laciq using the tac promoter of pkk223-3. this system yields alanine racemase as 6% of the bacterial cytosolic protein. purification by a modification of the procedure of ...19873680197
effect of an hypercholesterolemic diet on the level of several serum lipids and apolipoproteins in nine rat strains.to detect the response of different strains of rats to an hypercholesterolemic diet, 9 different strains of male rats were fed successively a control diet (c) containing 20% casein for 4 weeks, then a high-protein, cholesterol-rich diet (hc) containing 50% casein and 1.2% cholesterol for 12 weeks. when the rats were fed the control diet, the highest cholesterolemia was found in the lou strain and the lowest in the wag and brown-norway (bn) strains. the latter strain had the highest free to ester ...19873685615
ethyl acrylate distribution, macromolecular binding, excretion, and metabolism in male fisher 344 rats.we have demonstrated previously that ethyl acrylate causes severe acute forestomach (nonglandular portion of the stomach) toxicity in rats. ethyl acrylate was also shown to cause forestomach tumors when administered to rats chronically by gavage. the current studies were designed to investigate ethyl acrylate distribution, excretion, and metabolism, as well as the macromolecular interactions of ethyl acrylate (etac) in the forestomach (target organ) and liver (nontarget organ). 2,3-[14c]ethyl ac ...19873691998
nosocomial rotaviral diarrhea: pattern of spread on wards in a children's hospital.nosocomial gastroenteritis in a 315-bed hospital for children was examined prospectively from january 11 through may 31, 1985. there were 85 cases of nosocomial diarrhea during the study period, and these were identified on each of the 13 hospital wards. rotavirus was identified in 40% of cases. incidence of nosocomial rotavirus was highest on wards where most children were less than 2 years of age, except for the infectious diseases (isolation) ward (0.24 versus 2.30 cases per 100 admissions, p ...19873694179
quantitative investigation of the morphological plasticity of synaptic junctions in rat dentate gyrus during aging.the morphological plasticity of synaptic junctions was investigated by means of quantitative stereology in the dentate gyrus supragranular layer of young (3 months), adult (12 months) and old (30 months) female fisher 344 rats. the numerical (nv) and surface (sv) density and the average surface area (s) of epta-stained synaptic junctions were calculated on 100 em pictures per age group. we found that nv significantly increased between the young and adult group and decreased in old animals when c ...19863697677
renal and hepatic interactions between 2-hexanone and carbon tetrachloride in f-344 rats.fisher-344 rats were pretreated with 2-hexanone (hx) and challenged with carbon tetrachloride (ccl4) in a replicated 3 x 4 factorial experiment to determine if hx potentiated ccl4-induced renal and hepatic damage. rats given both hx and ccl4 demonstrated more severe hepatic injury at 24 and 48 h than did controls. however, in contrast to our experience with chloroform (chcl3), ccl4-induced renal injury in hx-pretreated rats was only slightly greater than in vehicle-pretreated controls.19863715912
nadph binding induced proton ionization as a cause of nonlinear heat capacity changes in glutamate dehydrogenase.functional group interactions involved in the formation of the glutamate dehydrogenase-nadph binary complex have been studied by three independent but complementary approaches: the ph dependence of the overall dissociation constant measured by an improved differential spectroscopic technique; the ph dependence of the enthalpy of complex formation measured by flow calorimetry; and the ph dependence of the number of protons released to, or taken up from, the solvent in the complex formation reacti ...19863718928
the effect of co2 laser excision on local tumor recurrence.this study was undertaken to determine the effect of co2 laser surgery on the incidence of local recurrence following tumor recurrence and to study the effect of "sterilization" of the operative site on this phenomenon. sixty fisher 344 rats were implanted with r323oac mammary carcinoma. animals were anesthetized with intraperitoneal pentobarbital, and all tumors were completely excised at 21 days postimplantation. the animals were randomized into groups of 12 as follows: group s underwent excis ...19863724334
alleviation of estrogen-induced hyperprolactinemia through intracerebral transplantation of hypothalamic tissue containing dopaminergic neurons.prolactin-secreting pituitary tumors can be induced in young rats through prolonged estrogen treatment. recent evidence suggests that such tumors are associated with a degeneration of tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (ti-da) neurons, which normally inhibit prolactin secretion by the anterior pituitary's lactrophs. for this study, chronic hyperprolactinemia was induced in young, ovariectomized fisher 344 rats through silastic capsule implants of 17 beta-estradiol, placed subcutaneously for 1 month ...19863736784
evaluation of the effects of photoradiation therapy on brain tumors with in vivo p-31 mr spectroscopy.in vivo phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance (mr) spectra were obtained by a surface coil method from rat glioma tissue inoculated subcutaneously in cd fisher rats, and the effects of photoradiation therapy on tumors were evaluated by sequentially observing spectral changes. in the control group, the nucleoside triphosphate (ntp) and phosphomonoester peaks were large, the phosphocreatine peak was small, and the inorganic phosphate (pi) peak was intermediate. in all eight cases in the group in which ...19863737923
susceptibility of rats to infection with toxocara pteropodis.infective eggs of toxocara pteropodis were administered to wistar rats via oral and parenteral routes. third-stage larvae were recovered from the livers of suckling young 8 days after oral infection, and from livers and lungs after intraperitoneal or subcutaneous inoculation of eggs. these larvae were short-lived as none were found in suckling mice killed 2 weeks post-infection. larvae were not recovered from tissues of rats aged 22 days or more when inoculated orally, indicating that refractori ...19863751231
a physico-chemical comparison of aortic receptors in rat hypertension models.rat models of genetic hypertension include spontaneous hypertension and resistance or sensitivity to mineralocorticoid and salt induced hypertension. previously, altered aldosterone binding to corticoid receptor i was found in aortic smooth muscle cells cultured from fischer 344 rats which are extremely resistant to steroid and salt induced hypertension. the corticoid receptor i of fisher 344 rats had a lower affinity than that of salt sensitive wistar-kyoto controls, as well as spontaneously hy ...19863762307
in vitro covalent binding of 14c-mibolerone to rat liver microsomes.mibolerone (17-hydroxy-7,17-dimethylestr-4-en-3-one; 7 alpha-17 alpha dimethyl-19-nortestosterone) is being marketed by the upjohn company for the inhibition of estrus in bitches. the aim of this study was to determine the extent of covalent binding of mibolerone to rat liver microsomes. liver microsomes were obtained from control and phenobarbitol-treated female fisher rats, and were incubated with 14c-mibolerone at 37 degrees c for 10 minutes. no covalent binding to macromolecules was observed ...19863766302
a comparison of the response of woodchucks and rats to variations in dietary lipotrope and protein content.juvenile woodchucks and weanling fisher f344 rats were fed purified diets with or without supplemental lipotropic factors (choline, methionine, folic acid and vitamin b-12). the diets contained 10 or 20% protein. lower weight gain due to low protein was observed in both species, while lipotrope depletion resulted in lower gain in male rats only. urinary excretion of formimino-glutamic acid was higher due to low lipotrope in both species, as was relative liver weight. in rats, lipotrope depletion ...19863772530
independence of in vitro iron absorption from mucosal transferrin content in rat jejunal and ileal segments.isolated non blood-perfused intestinal segments from normal and iron-deficient rats were used in vitro. a modification of the luminal perfusion method according to fisher and parsons allowed the comparison of iron and transferrin quantities in the serosal fluid at 15 min intervals. iron transfer in jejunal and ileal segments was directly proportional to the luminal iron concentration within a dose range of 1 to 100 mumol/l, did not show saturation characteristics and was linear over time. jejuna ...19863779112
2,3-dialkyl(dimethylamino)indoles: interaction with 5ht1, 5ht2, and rat stomach fundal serotonin receptors.2,3-dialkyl(dimethylamino)indoles, synthesized via the fisher indole synthesis, were found to weakly bind to 5ht1 and 5ht2 sites in brain cortical membranes (ic50 greater than 1 microm at both sites for all compounds). these (dimethylamino)indoles were relatively potent antagonists of the serotonin receptor in the rat stomach fundus. at higher concentrations, several of the compounds were weak agonists at this receptor. for direct comparison with data obtained in the isolated rat fundus, antagon ...19863783602
dispersal and other population parameters of aedes aegypti in an african village and their possible significance in epidemiology of vector-borne diseases.dispersal of aedes aegypti aegypti adults within shauri moyo, an african village in the rabai area north of mombasa, kenya, was studied using the mark-release-recapture method. a total of 920 mosquitoes were captured and uniquely marked, of which 828 (90%) were released and 332 (40%) recaptured. a great majority of mosquitoes were recaptured once, but some individuals were recaptured up to 10 times. most females visited 1 or 2 houses (40.8%, 44.9%, respectively), but there were females that visi ...19863789275
preneoplastic and neoplastic growth of xenotransplanted lung-derived human cell lines using deepithelialized rat tracheas.the human lung tumor-derived cell lines a549, calu-1, calu-3, hut292, and sw900 and the transformed human bronchial epithelial cell line tbe-1, that was transfected with the v-harvey-ras oncogene, were inoculated into deepithelialized fisher 344 rat tracheas (5 x 10(5) cells/trachea). after the ends of the tracheas were sealed, the tracheas were transplanted into s.c. tissues of nude mice. in a parallel experiment, 1 x 10(6) cells from each of these cell lines were injected s.c. histological exa ...19873791242
mechanical responses of developing fisher rat heart. effects of steroid hormone.age-dependent changes in the mechanical responses of developing fisher rat heart during the first three postnatal weeks were studied in relation to the hypothesis that the abnormality observed in the mechanical responses of the rat heart might be calcium related. therefore the effect of frequency of stimulation as well as the response to calcium, epinephrine and ouabain on hearts of untreated and cortisol-treated rats was compared. the positive force-frequency response observed in fetal rat hear ...19863794225
lipid deposition in the aorta of adjuvant arthritic rats with hypercholesterolemia.this study offers findings which should aid in the development of a convenient animal model of atherosclerosis. inbred fisher strain rats were fed an atherogenic diet containing 1.5% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid and given a single subcutaneous injection of adjuvant (mycobacterium butyricum) into the base of the tail. the animals were maintained for 8 weeks. rats given the atherogenic diet showed markedly increased serum cholesterol levels, and all of those given the adjuvant injection develo ...19863795624
age-related increased susceptibility of male fischer 344 rats to acetaminophen nephrotoxicity.male fischer 344 rats classified as young (2-4 months), middle-aged (12-14 months) and aged (22-25 months) received 300, 600 or 800 mg/kg acetaminophen (apap) intraperitoneally and were sacrificed 24 hr later. blood urea nitrogen (bun) concentration and urinary glucose and osmolality were determined. in addition, kidneys were evaluated for histopathological changes. apap did not affect osmolality or bun concentrations and failed to produce lesions after any dose in young rats. osmolality was dec ...19863796197
met-enkephalin, age and anatomy: a microiontophoretic study in the hippocampus.met-enkephalin, administered microiontophoretically, produced a greater increase in firing in cells in area ca 3-4 in the hippocampus of both young and aged fisher 344 rats than it did in the ca 1 area. furthermore, the effect of met-enkephalin on neuronal firing rates was not as great in old rats as it was in young rats. finally, 20-40 na of met-enkephalin produced an increase in firing in old rats that was equivalent to the difference (2.5 spikes/sec) in baseline firing between old (2.6 spikes ...19873796220
blood flow in diethylstilbestrol-induced anterior pituitary gland hyperplasia.anterior pituitary hyperplasia was developed in female fisher 344 rats by subcutaneously implanted slow-release diethylstilbestrol (des) capsules. blood flow was measured in two separate areas of the adenohypophysis using hydrogen clearance method at 6, 9, 10, and 13 weeks after the implantation. blood flow progressively decreased while the des capsules were in place (normal values in ml/g/min, mean +/- sd: 0.93 +/- .12 laterally and 1.15 +/- .11 medially, decreasing to 0.25 +/- .07 and 0.24 +/- ...19863797420
teratogenic potential of the mycotoxin, citreoviridin, in rats.citreoviridin produced by the fungus penicillium citreo-viride was administered by gavage to groups of 9-16 pregnant fisher 344 rats either on days 8-11 (group a) or on days 12-15 (group b) of gestation. doses of 0, 5, 10 or 15 mg/kg body weight were given daily in a constant volume of 1 ml/kg body weight in dimethylsulphoxide. six rats in each high-dose group died during the dosing period. compared with control groups, mean daily feed consumption was significantly reduced in the 10- and 15-mg/k ...19863804134
black adolescents: a descriptive study of their self-concepts and academic achievement.this study was designed to determine the relationships among global self-concept, self-concept of academic ability, and academic achievement of black american adolescents. the subjects were 211 tenth-grade students in five public high schools in the pacific northwest school district who volunteered to participate in the study. global self-concept was measured by the coopersmith self-esteem inventory (sei), self-concept of academic ability by the brookover self-concept of ability (general) scale, ...19863812075
ethanol and aging effects on movement initiation can be dissociated from general behavioral impairment using a high-speed lever-release task in rats.an animal model of human reaction time was used to assess the effects of ethanol on reactive capacity (rc) as a function of age. three doses of ethanol (0.5, 1.0 & 1.5 g/kg of 20% v/v, i.p.) were confirmed by gas chromatographic analysis of blood samples taken immediately following every behavioral test. fisher 344 rats were trained to use their forepaws to hold down a lever until the onset of a buzzer and light that signalled impending foot shock, which occurred within 200-1000 msec of the stim ...19873828002
co-carcinogenic effects of several korean foods on gastric cancer induced by n-methyl-n'-nitro-n-nitrosoguanidine in rats.in study i, 48 aci and fisher inbred rats were given mnng 100 micrograms/ml, with or without 1 per cent or 3 per cent red pepper diet; in study ii, 164 sprague-dawley rats given mnng 100 micrograms/ml, with or without 5 per cent or 10 per cent nacl; in study iii, 181 wistar rats given mnng 83 micrograms/ml with or without maejoo 10 gm per cent/diet; in study iv, 78 wistar rats given mnng 83 micrograms/ml with or without ginseng extract 150 micrograms/ml; in study v, 120 wistar rats given mnng 83 ...19853831496
intravenous self-administration of ethanol and acetaldehyde by rats.fisher strain rats were allowed to self-administer 2, 6, and 18 microm/kg/infusion of ethanol and acetaldehyde into the jugular vein for 22 to 28 days. thirty-three percent of the rats self-administered 18 microm/kg/infusion of ethanol. thirty-three, 40, and 33 percent of the rats initiated self-administration of 2, 6, and 18 microm/kg/infusion of acetaldehyde, respectively. it is suggested that acetaldehyde may possess stronger reinforcing effects than ethanol in intravenous self-administration ...19853832687
functional analysis of mononuclear cells infiltrating into tumors: differential cytotoxicity of mononuclear cells from tumors of immune and nonimmune rats.a million syngeneic gliosarcoma (t-9) cells injected subcutaneously are sufficient to kill fisher rats within 2 mo. fisher rats became resistant to t-9 cells by surgical removal of the implanted tumor and repeated immunization with mmc-treated t-9 cells. histopathologic studies revealed massive accumulation of mononuclear cells in tumor tissues of immune rats that were rejecting syngeneic t-9 tumors, whereas very few mononuclear cells were found in tumor tissues of nonimmune rats. cell populatio ...19853855260
[regional blood flow of experimental brain tumors with special reference to effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy].regional blood flow and capillary permeability in the experimental brain tumors and their surrounding brain tissue of rats were measured with quantitative 14c-antipyrine and 14c-alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (aib) autoradiographic method. the pharmacokinetic implications with respect to drug delivery to tumor tissue and the effect of ionizing irradiation were discussed in these physiological measurement. a suspension of 1 x 10(4) rat glioma cells (e239 rg 12) was stereotactically implanted into the ...19853860212
a monoclonal antibody (gf 22.1) detecting different patterns of hla class i cross-reactivities at different dilutions.a murine cytotoxic monoclonal antibody (gf 22.1) was produced by balb/c immunization with gra human lymphoblastoid cells. hla-a, b and c blanketing and sds-page analysis of the immunoprecipitate demonstrated mhc class i structures as the targets. cytotoxic assays were performed with peripheral blood lymphocytes from 84 unrelated donors and from members of 15 families at different antibody dilutions. statistical analysis was performed by fisher test on each dilution separately and by mann-whitney ...19853863262
effect of age on fever and acute-phase response of rats to endotoxin and salmonella typhimurium.age-related effects on endogenous pyrogen-mediated febrile and acute-phase responses to endotoxin and salmonella typhimurium challenge were investigated in young adult and aged fisher 344 rats. after injection of endotoxin, the febrile response over 6 h and the fall in plasma iron and zinc after 6 h were determined in 14 young adult and 14 aged rats in their thermoneutral zone (26 degrees c) and in 14 young adult and 14 aged rats maintained in a cold environment (15 degrees c). although at 26 de ...19853880718
penetrating corneal transplantation in the inbred rat: a new model.a model of orthotopic penetrating keratoplasty has been developed in the inbred rat using both avascular and prevascularized recipient beds. the surgical procedure is conventional and can be achieved with standard instrumentation. isografts into avascular recipient beds (fisher 344 into fisher 344 strain combination) were successful and survived indefinitely with excellent corneal function judged either visually by clarity and lack of oedema, or histologically at autopsy. allografts into avascul ...19853881365
prodynorphin immunoreactivity is located in different neurons than proenkephalin immunoreactivity in the cerebral cortex of rats.reported here is a description of the distribution and cellular morphology of neurons containing dynorphin b immunoreactivity (ir) and a comparison with cells containing bovine adrenal medullary peptide ir in the cerebral cortex of colchicine treated rats. dynorphin b-ir was found in bipolar and multipolar cells in neocortical layers ii-iii and v-vi and in pyramidal and polymorph cells in olfactory cortical layers ii and iii. in the hippocampus, dynorphin b-ir was found in dentate granule cells ...19853889694
restriction of gut-derived endotoxin impairs dna synthesis for liver regeneration.the influence of restricting gut-derived endotoxin availability on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy was evaluated. partial hepatectomy was performed by 67% liver resection of ether-anesthetized rats. liver regeneration was quantified after partial hepatectomy by [3h]thymidine incorporation into hepatic dna; endotoxemia due to absorption of endogenous endotoxin from the gut into the portal circulation was determined by qualitative lysate assay of perchloric acid-extracted plasma sampl ...19853904484
[levels of inorganic and organic substances in the femur of fisher rats treated with derivatives of vitamin d]. 19853917131
time course of induction of prolactin-secreting pituitary tumors with diethylstilbestrol in male rats: response of tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurons.3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) accumulation and dopamine (da) and noradrenaline levels were measured in the median eminence (me) of fisher 344-derived inbred male rats. these animals had been treated with silastic capsules containing 8-9 mg diethylstilbestrol (des) or with empty capsules for 3, 7, 14, or 30 days and had the pellets removed 22 days before killing. in an additional group of rats, the des pellets were continuously present until killing. blood was collected before treatment was s ...19853917247
the efficacy of total parenteral nutrition in malnourished tumor-bearing rats.the current study was designed to compare the efficacy of total parenteral nutrition (tpn), provided either before or after tumor removal, in replenishing protein stores in the malnourished tumor-bearing (tb) host. fisher 344 rats bearing a transplantable methylcholanthrene (mca)-induced sarcoma were used. after the animals were cachectic from their tumor, a central venous catheter was inserted. at the time of catheter insertion, the animals were randomized into two groups. group i rats had the ...19853918782
monoclonal antibodies prepared against the major drosophila nuclear matrix-pore complex-lamina glycoprotein bind specifically to the nuclear envelope in situ.a high molecular weight glycoprotein found associated with a nuclear matrix-pore complex-lamina (nmpcl) preparation obtained from drosophila melanogaster embryos has been shown by in vitro analyses to be largely confined to this subcellular fraction. in contrast with several of the nmpcl proteins, this glycoprotein remains completely insoluble after treatment with 5 m urea. it has, therefore, been possible to separate the glycoprotein from other nmpcl components by differential urea extraction. ...19853919018
presence of high affinity dopamine receptors in estrone-induced, prolactin-secreting rat pituitary adenomas: a model for human prolactinomas.adenomatous cells obtained from a pituitary tumor induced in fisher 344/lis rats by the subcutaneous implantation of estrone (e1) were found to secrete large amounts of prolactin (prl). the secretion of prl was stimulated by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (trh) and low concentrations of dopamine (da), while micromolar concentrations of da were inhibitory. high affinity binding sites for 3h-spiroperidol (3h-spir) were found to be present on the cells and to conform to the criteria of dopaminergic ...19853920132
polylactosamine glycosylation on human fetal placental fibronectin weakens the binding affinity of fibronectin to gelatin.gelatin-binding chymotryptic fragments from placental fibronectin contain polylactosamine carbohydrates (zhu, b.c.r., fisher, s.r., pande, h., calaycay, j. shively, j.e., and laine, r.a. (1984) j. biol. chem. 259, 3962-3970). we have separated polylactosamine-containing gelatin-binding fragments of placental fibronectin from their counterparts containing smaller "complex" n-linked saccharides using sephadex g-200 gel permeation chromatography. the peptide portions of both fragments have similar ...19853920213
delayed enzyme expression: a defect of aging rat gut.to evaluate the effect of aging upon the small intestine, the distribution, content, and concentration of epithelial cell enzymes at different levels along the crypt-villus column were measured in aging and young adult, male, fisher 344 rats. specific activities of sucrase, maltase, lactase, and adenosine deaminase in mucosal homogenates were lower in the upper intestines of aging than in young animals, whereas the specific activity and content of thymidine kinase was higher. enzyme activities w ...19853930340
the effect of parenteral nutrition on gastrointestinal immunity. the importance of enteral stimulation.secretory iga (s-iga), an immunoglobulin present in secretions, prevents the adherence of bacteria to mucosal cells and is the principle component of the gut mucosal defense system. the purpose of this study was to determine whether the route of nutrient administration affects s-iga. twenty-five female fisher rats were randomized into three groups. groups i and ii were fed an isonitrogenous, isocaloric standard hyperalimentation solution, group i intravenously and group ii via a gastrostomy. gro ...19853935061
residuals in multiple regression analysis.an examination of residuals can be used as a technique to determine the best model for use in multiple-regression analysis. in addition to r2 and the fisher f ratio, a complete analysis of residuals has been used by statisticians for many years to estimate bias and to choose the best equation to fit physicochemical as well as biological and psychosociological data. however, residual analysis has seldom appeared in studies in pharmaceutics, pharmacology, or medicinal chemistry. this report gives ...19853935772
maternal epilepsy and birth defects: a case-control study in the italian multicentric registry of birth defects (ipimc).a case control study on the association between maternal epilepsy, anticonvulsants use during pregnancy and birth defects was carried out in the italian multicentric registry of birth defects (ipimc). in the period 1980-1983, 7,607 malformed babies out of 439,717 total births (still + live) were registered. fourty-one malformed babies with maternal epilepsy were identified (5.39 x 1,000). the overall relative risk of having a malformed baby among pregnant epileptic women was 1.87. spina bifida, ...19853939491
alterations in calmodulin levels in tissues from aged animals.we measured the levels of calmodulin in brain tissue as well as in other tissues by a specific radioimmunoassay. fisher-344 rats with ages of 3, 13, 23, and 29 months were used. ir-calmodulin levels were reduced in the cortex, striatum, and anterior pituitary but not in the hypothalamus (although there was a tendency for reduction in the latter tissue). no significant decreases in ir-calmodulin were observed in gastrocnemius, kidney, or heart of the oldest group of rats, and, in fact, the levels ...19863941252
acetylcholine, aging and anatomy: differential effects in the hippocampus.the response to acetylcholine (ach) administered microiontophoretically was determined for single units in ca1 and ca3-4 areas of the hippocampi of both young (3-5 months) and old (24-26 months) fisher 344 rats. single units in ca1 showed a greater response to ach (20 na) than single units in ca3-4 in young and in old rats. however, the response to ach in single units of young rats was significantly greater than in single units of old rats. baseline firing rates in old rats were lower than those ...19863942863
human iga as a heterovalent ligand: switching from the asialoglycoprotein receptor to secretory component during transport across the rat hepatocyte.asialoglycoproteins are taken up by the rat liver for degradation; rat polymeric iga is taken up via a separate receptor, secretory component (sc), for quantitative delivery to bile. there is negligible uptake of these ligands by the converse receptor, and only a low level of missorting of ligands to opposite destinations. the two pathways are not cross-inhibitable and operate independently (schiff, j.m., m. m. fisher, and b. j. underdown, 1984, j. cell biol., 98:79-89). we report here that when ...19863949883
decremental vasopressin release after repeated stimulation of superfused neurohypophyses of fisher 344 rats of different ages.we studied the effect of aging on the decline in vasopressin (vp) release from the rat neurohypophyses (nh) as evoked by repeated stimuli with high k+ (56 mm) locke's solution in vitro. isolated nhs, without pars intermedia, of 2-, 12- and 30-month-old male fisher 344 rats arbitrarily labeled as young, adult, and old were individually superfused with synthetic medium tc 199. following the initial traumatic release, the glands were stimulated three times for 10 min each with recovery periods of 3 ...19863950338
reduction of motor behavioral deficits in senescent animals via chronic prolactin administration. ii. non-stereotypic behaviors.the effects of chronic prolactin administration on three non-stereotypic psychomotor behaviors (inclined screen performance, rod walking and wire hanging) were examined in senescent (24 month) fisher 344 rats. prolactin (150 ng/hr) was administered for 7 days via alzet minipumps to rats which had been pretested on the three tasks. the animals were tested on days 4 and 7 following the implants and the pumps were removed after testing on day 7. in order to assess the persistence of any prolactin e ...19863951657
abnormal cytodifferentiation in leiomyosarcomas induced with injection of nickel subsulfide into skeletal muscles of rats. light and electron microscopic observations.seven leiomyosarcomas, induced individually with a single injection of nickel subsulfide (0.4 mg) into skeletal muscles of fisher 344 male rats were studied with the light and with the electron microscope. the tumors consisted of fibroblast-like cells lacking the cytoplasmic filaments found in normal maturing and mature smooth muscle, and of cells in which the appearance of these filaments occurred in the following sequence: first, actin filaments in concomitance with intermediate filaments; sec ...19863963732
the effects of prolactin on rat testicular steroidogenic enzyme activities.to investigate whether hyperprolactinemia directly affects rat testicular steroidogenesis, we examined the effects of prolactin (prl) on microsomal 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta-hsd) 17-hydroxylase (17-oh), 17,20-desmolase (17,20-d), 17-ketosteroid reductase (17-ksr) and aromatase enzyme activities. adult hypophysectomized, gonadotropin-treated fisher rats were rendered hyperprolactinemic by isografting pituitaries under the kidney capsule. the controls received skeletal muscle. al ...19853967847
effect of surgery on tumor-induced accelerated coagulation in a rat carcinoma.accelerated coagulation detected by thromboelastography has been reported in early stages of tumor growth. the present investigation was conducted to determine the changes in tumor-induced accelerated coagulation following complete and partial resection of the tumor. male fisher rats were divided into four groups: (1) control, (2) tumor-bearing rats, (3) complete resection, (4) partial resection. in groups 2, 3, and 4 a 2-mm3 piece of squamous cell carcinoma (nci 11095) was implanted subcutaneou ...19853968872
inhibitory effects of secretin on gastrin-stimulated rat colon neoplasms.a study was done to determine if continuous administration of exogenous secretin would inhibit the trophic effect of elevated endogenous gastrin on colon neoplasms in rats. colon tumors were induced in 37 fisher rats by subcutaneous injection of 1,2-symdimethylhydrazine, 20 mg/kg, weekly for 18 weeks. elevation of endogenous gastrin was achieved by antral exclusion surgery. control rats received a sham operation. subcutaneous osmotic minipumps delivered 35.5 u/kg/day of secretin for 7 days befor ...19853971292
approaches to prostatic cancer chemotherapy using the dunning r3327h prostatic adenocarcinoma.androgen-responsive cells: to determine if testosterone or dihydrotestosterone is the main trophic hormone of prostatic adenocarcinoma, we have treated dunning r3327h prostatic adenocarcinoma-bearing rats with 6-methylene progesterone, which blocks conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. copenhagen-fisher rats were treated with steroid (20 mg/kg daily) immediately following implantation of tumor and thereafter for 117 days. there was a 92% inhibition of growth of tumors and a lesser e ...19853975175
effects of phenobarbital and skf-525a on in vitro hepatic metabolism of verapamil and nifedipine.both verapamil and nifedipine are first-generation calcium-entry antagonist drugs which are eliminated by hepatic metabolism. to evaluate the effects of enzyme induction and suppression on the biotransformation of these compounds, liver homogenate fractions were prepared from male fisher (f344) rats, which were either untreated, or injected intraperitoneally with phenobarbital or with skf-525a prior to sacrifice. known concentrations of verapamil or nifedipine were incubated with the 9,000 g sup ...19853975261
lesions of articular, sternal and growth plate cartilage in rats.degenerative osteoarthritis was observed in the femur and sternum in specific pathogen free fisher 344 rats at 13 and 19 months of age. histological changes consisted of degeneration of the matrix and erosion in the articular cartilage of the femur. in the sternal cartilage, degeneration and necrosis of the matrix, formation of cysts, and cleft-like fractures were observed. in addition, degeneration of the matrix, appearance of eosinophilic streaking, and necrosis and fissure between the growth ...19853976132
reduced calcium uptake by rat brain mitochondria and synaptosomes in response to aging.synaptosomes were isolated from cerebral cortex of 3-, 18- and 24-month-old male, fisher 344 rats and 45ca2+ uptake was measured at 1, 3, 5, 15 and 30 s time periods following 65 mm kcl depolarization. identical experiments were performed in which 5 mm kcl was added to examine age-related changes in resting 45ca2+ accumulation by synaptosomes. both 'fast-' and 'slow-phase' voltage-dependent 45ca2+ uptake were significantly reduced in synaptosomes from 18- and 24- vs 3-month-old rats. no age-rela ...19853978439
measles outbreak in a pediatric practice: airborne transmission in an office setting.in february 1981, a measles outbreak occurred in a pediatric practice in dekalb county, ga. the source case, a 12-year-old boy vaccinated against measles at 11 1/2 months of age, was in the office for one hour on the second day of rash, primarily in a single examining room. on examination, he was noted to be coughing vigorously. seven secondary cases of measles occurred due to exposure in the office. four children had transient contact with the source patient as he entered or exited through the ...19853982900
effects of factors derived from a tumor clonal cell line on dna synthesis of transformed and non transformed cells.conditioned medium from neoplastic thyroid cell cultures, extracts of tumors developed by identical cells in isogeneic fisher 344 rats and serum from those tumor-bearing animals, were tested in pulse thymidine labelled experiments on a transformed and two non transformed cell lines. tumor extract and conditioned medium inhibited dna synthesis. tumor-bearing rat serum increased dna synthesis in a cerebellar transformed cell line, but no in chick embryo fibroblasts or in aorta non transformed cell ...19853986917
image analysis of gfa-positive astrocytes from adolescence to senescence.smears of fresh rat brain tissue combined with immunohistochemistry using antiserum to glial fibrillary acidic protein (gfa) were used to visualize individual astrocytes in different cortical regions of rats ranging in age from 1 to 30 months. by computerized image analysis, the cell area and the cell perimeter were determined. using 4-month-old male sprague-dawley rats, it was found that gfa-positive astrocytes from cerebellum and hippocampus were significantly larger, both in terms of cell are ...19853987847
effects of chronic bromocriptine treatment of an estrone-induced, prolactin-secreting rat pituitary adenoma.bromocriptine (brom), a dopamine (da) agonist, is commonly and successfully used for long-term treatment of human prolactinomas. we have studied the effects of chronic brom administration to female 344 fisher/lis rats bearing an estrone-induced, prolactin (prl)-secreting pituitary tumor recently characterized as a model for human prolactinoma. the animals were injected twice daily with brom (2.5 mg/kg) or with diluent. after 1 month of treatment, the animals were sacrificed, and plasma collected ...19853997065
a macrophage-mediated factor that increases the high energy phosphate content of skeletal muscle.a marked cellular infiltrate accompanies wounding. the phagocytic and bacteriocidal activities of this infiltrate require increased substrate and o2 consumption. this rapid utilization of available oxygen and substrates could jeopardize an already compromised resident cellular component of a wound. recent studies have demonstrated macrophage-mediated cell stimulatory agents which induce proliferation of nonlymphoid mesenchymal cells. this study was designed to examine macrophage-resident tissue ...19853999732
growth-depressing effects of alcohol and nicotine in two strains of rats.inbred buffalo and fisher rats were submitted to daily treatment with alcohol and nicotine for a period of 6 months. alcohol treatment was pre- and postnatal, nicotine treatment postnatal only. all parameters of bone length and weight were depressed in both experiments in spite of the continuous growth of the rats. although the level of depression was greater in some areas than in others, a clear target area applicable to both sexes and strains could not be found. fisher and buffalo females tole ...19854003023
macrophage interaction with skeletal muscle: a potential role of macrophages in determining the energy state of healing wounds.a decrease in atp and creatine phosphate (cp) is characteristic of local injury to skeletal muscle. recent data have suggested adequate potential for high-energy phosphate production in the wounded tissue. thus, an adequate explanation for the deficit in the high-energy tissue content in wounds was lacking. since the wound has multiple components (muscle + cellular infiltrate), the tissue content represents the summation of these components. therefore, a technique to separate these components wa ...19854020909
correlation of human bladder tumor recurrence with changes in clonogenicity of urothelial cells.over a 2-year period 340 cystoscopies were performed on 174 patients (126 men and 48 women) followed up for previously treated transitional cell tumor of the bladder or new cases suspected of having bladder tumor. bladder washings taken at cystoscopy in 66% yielded cells for clonogenic assay. patients with transitional cell tumors had an average clonogenic index (ci) of 14 (+/- 5) colonies per 10(5) viable urothelial cells, whereas previously tumorous patients with tumor-free bladders had an ave ...19854027894
in vivo and in vitro antiestrogenic action of 3-hydroxytamoxifen, tamoxifen and 4-hydroxytamoxifen.this study demonstrates in vivo and in vitro properties of the non-steroidal antiestrogens tamoxifen (tam), 4-oh-tamoxifen (4-oh-tam) and 3-oh-tamoxifen (k 060 e). in immature rabbit uteri 4-oh-tam and k 060 e bound to the respective estrogen receptors with a ten-fold higher affinity than tam. furthermore, k 060 e exhibited less agonistic (estrogenic) but higher antagonistic (antiestrogenic) activity in the immature rat uterus than tam and 4-oh-tam (change of uterine weight). the ratio of agonis ...19854043181
long-term consequences of cis-platinum-induced renal injury: a structural and functional study.previous studies have shown that a single dose of the antitumor drug, cis-platinum, causes renal cyst formation in rats 1-6 months after drug injection. this observation led to a further evaluation of the long-term effects of cis-platinum on the kidney of the rat. fisher 344 rats (n = 13) were given either a single intraperitoneal injection of cis-platinum (6 mg/kg body weight) or saline (control) and 15 months later renal function and pathology were assessed. the glomerular filtration rate and ...19854061878
post-partum antibody-dependent cell-mediated immunity in the rat following perinatal exposure to iodine-131.a study was recently completed which indicated the first generation of adult rats that had been exposed perinatally to iodine-131 possessed peripheral blood lymphoid-cells capable of expressing cytotoxicity towards cultured small bowel adenocarcinoma target cells, i.e., active antitumor cell-mediated immunity (cmi). the results gathered during the current investigation suggest that such animals similarly express anti-tumor antibody-dependent cell-mediated immunity (adcc). the animal model employ ...19854062256
arousal deficit shown in aged rat's quantitative eeg and ameliorative action of pramiracetam compared to piracetam.the basal eeg profile of the aged fisher-344 rat was consistently different from that of the young rat, showing dominant high voltage slow-wave components. these slow waves were present in both the frontal cerebral cortex and dorsal hippocampus. absent or greatly attenuated in the aged rat's hippocampal eeg was rhythmic theta activity, which was always dominant in the young awake rat's hippocampus. these eeg differences were clearly apparent only under basal test conditions, i.e., following habi ...19854065299
a walker 256 tumor-induced osteogenic small animal model for the evaluation of [99mtc] diphosphonate radiopharmaceuticals.a mammalian model has been developed for the in vivo evaluation of bone imaging agents. the model is based upon the quantification of a discrete, initial secondary periosteal osteogenesis induced in cortical bone immediately adjacent to an intramuscularly implanted walker 256 tumor in fisher 344 rats. evaluation of the model consists of a histopathological examination of the periosteal bone formation, biodistribution studies on 99mtc-mdp and 99mtc-hmdp commercial kit preparations, and biodistrib ...19854066198
modification of experimental gentamicin nephrotoxicity by selective parathyroidectomy.dietary calcium loading reduces gentamicin nephrotoxicity in rats. since parathyroid hormone increases renal brush border membrane anionic phospholipids, the putative gentamicin receptors, the effects of selective parathyroidectomy on gentamicin nephrotoxicity were examined. male fisher 344 rats underwent parathyroidectomy or sham surgery. all animals were fed a diet containing 0.5% calcium for 2 wk prior to gentamicin, 20 mg/kg twice daily for 6 and 10 days. other parathyroidectomized rats were ...19854073266
comparison of the energetics of the uncatalyzed and glutamate dehydrogenase catalyzed alpha-imino acid-alpha-amino acid interconversion.the thermodynamic and activation parameters for the reduction of delta 1-pyrroline-2-carboxylic acid (an alpha-imino acid) by reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (nadph) are compared with those for the reduction of the same imino acid by the glutamate dehydrogenase-nadph complex. the enthalpies of activation and standard free energy changes for these two reactions are found to be virtually the same. the catalysis by the enzyme, expressed as the ratio of the reactivity of the enzy ...19854074700
an all-glass perfusator for investigation of the intestinal transport and metabolism of foreign compounds in vitro.the in vitro perfusion technique of surviving intestinal segments as described by fisher and parsons (1949) and modified by rummel and stupp (1960) was further improved by the introduction of an all-glass perfusator for studying the intestinal transport and metabolism of lipophilic xenobiotics.19854079445
tyrosine motions in relation to the ferric spin equilibrium of cytochrome p-450cam.second derivative spectroscopy was used to determine the percentage of tyrosine residues that are exposed to solvent in cytochrome p-450cam isolated from pseudomonas putida. the ratio between two peak to trough second derivative absorbance differences has been shown to be dependent on the polarity of the microenvironment surrounding tyrosine residues [ragone, r., colonana, g., balestrieri, c., servillo, l., & irace, g. (1984) biochemistry 23, 1871]. with a number of camphor analogues that indepe ...19854084552
strain differences and laminar localization of structural neurochemical changes in aging rat.to obtain comparisons of age-related microchemical changes in cerebral cortex of two commonly employed rat strains (fischer 344 and sprague-dawley), neurochemical assays of substances regarded as quantitative indices of structural entities in brain were performed. these included dna as a marker for cells, lipid sialoganglioside as an index of neuronal membrane mass, and galactocerebroside as an index of myelin. fischer 344 rats were studied at 3-4 months (young), 14-16 months (middle age) and 25 ...19854088423
[cerebral lymphoma associated with lesions of multiple sclerosis].a 24 year-old man experienced a left retrobulbar neuritis which improved completely after 2 months of non-steroid antiinflammatory therapy. one month after the end of the treatment he developed a korsakoff-like amnestic syndrome. three months later he complained of horizontal diplopia. a ct scan showed a diffuse enhancement of the periventricular areas, corpus callosum and fornix. diplopia and ct scan abnormalities disappeared after the administration of tetracosactide. subsequently a progressiv ...19854089407
pseudomonas endocarditis: hemagglutinating antibodies to fisher-devlin-gnabasik immunotypes in sera. 19744213766
application of cell fractionation techniques in the study of cells infected with polyoma virus and newcastle disease virus.fisher, harold w. (university of rhode island, kingston), hidemi matsumiya, and masanobu azuma. application of cell fractionation techniques in the study of cells infected with polyoma virus and newcastle disease virus. j. bacteriol. 91:1645-1651. 1966.-techniques which permitted rigorous separation of nuclei and cytoplasm were applied to the study of the formation of newcastle disease virus (ndv) in an established line of chinese hamster cells and of polyoma virus (pyv) in mouse embryo fibrobla ...19664286455
transplantation of pituitary "mammotropic" tumor (mtt.f4) from fisher to sprague-dawley rats. 19664287660
dependence of intestinal glucose absorption on sodium, studied with a new arterial infusion technique.1. a new preparation of isolated rat jejunum plus ileum (ca. 100 cm) is described in which a saline infusate is pumped into the superior mesenteric artery, the superior mesenteric vein having been ligated.2. the arterial infusate washes out the tissue spaces: the lumen is perfused in a single pass with a segmented flow as by fisher & gardner (1974).3. at an arterial infusion rate of 3 ml./min, steady states are set up in the tissue fluid within 10-15 min: the compositions of the fluids bathing b ...19744422318
what is schistosoma intercalatum fisher, 1934? 19724625897
characterization of a heat-stable protease of pseudomonas fluorescens p26.a heat-stable, extracellular proteolytic enzyme was isolated from pseudomonas fluorescens p26. brain heart infusion broth (fisher scientific co.), ph 7.5, and incubation at 21 c provided the optimal conditions for bacterial growth for enzyme production. the organism had a d value of 2.6 min at 62.8 c (145 f). the enzyme, however, was quite heat-stable, requiring 15 hr at 62.8 c, 8 hr at 71.4 c, and 9 min at 121 c for complete inactivation. milk, whey, and casein each had a protective effect on t ...19734631436
possibility of in vitro alterations in cultures of mammary carcinoma cells, and altered immunological response in the rat: acquired capacity to reject injections of mammary carcinoma cells and implants of mammary carcinoma. 19724672286
immunotherapy of the dunning leukaemia with thymic extracts. 19734759937
allografts in genetically defined rats: difference in survival between kidney and skin.although skin allografts from inbred donors of the fisher strain to inbred male lewis recipients regularly show acute rejection within 12 days, orthotopic kidney allografts between untreated animals, in this same combination of strains, usually remain functionally intact for longer than 100 days. since such renal allografts persist despite previous or concomitant rejection of skin allografts, neither acquired tolerance nor nonspecific immunosuppression can explain the surprisingly prolonged kidn ...19684880787
photoreceptor-pigment epithelial cell relationships in rats with inherited retinal degeneration. radioautographic and electron microscope evidence for a dual source of extra lamellar material.protein synthesis and displacement in photoreceptor and pigment epithelial cells of inbred normal (fisher) and mutant (rcs) rats with inherited retinal degeneration has been studied by light and electron microscope radioautography. groups of animals 14, 15, 17, 19, 27, 35, and 50 days of age were injected with amino acids-h(3) and killed at subsequent time intervals. in normal rats, radioactive protein synthesized in the rod inner segments was incorporated into outer segment saccules and displac ...19725013595
repair of radiation-induced damage to the cell division mechanism of escherichia coli.adler, howard i. (oak ridge national laboratory, oak ridge, tenn.), william d. fisher, alice a. hardigree, and george e. stapleton. repair of radiation-induced damage to the cell division mechanism of escherichia coli. j. bacteriol. 91:737-742. 1966.-microscopic observations of irradiated populations of filamentous escherichia coli cells indicated that filaments can be induced to divide by a substance donated by neighboring cells. we have made this observation the basis for a quantitative techni ...19665327364
production of staphylococcal enterotoxins a, b, and c in various media.the effect of initial ph and of length of incubation time at 37 c in four different growth media on the production of staphylococcal enterotoxins a, b, and c was determined. a starting ph of 6.8 gave higher yields of enterotoxins b and c than either ph 6.0 or 5.3. the production of enterotoxin a was, however, not materially affected by the low initial ph of 5.3. prolonged incubation (48 to 72 hr) resulted only occasionally in higher yields of enterotoxin. the effect of the media on the amount of ...19695370657
a note on the fisher-parsons surface area formula in the light of mucosal fresh and dry weights of rat small intestine. 19685655253
an evaluation of the variance of leukocyte counts as performed with the hemocytometer, coulter, and fisher intruments. 19665981660
chronic inhalation of diesel exhaust and coal dust: effect of age and exposure on selected enzyme activities associated with microsomal cytochrome p-450 in rat lung and liver.male fisher-344 rats were exposed by inhalation to low levels of diesel exhaust and coal dust, alone or in combination, or to filtered air, 7 h/d, 5 d/wk for 24 mo. cytochrome p-450-associated benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase and 7-ethoxycoumarin deethylase activities were assayed in lung and liver microsomes after 3, 6, and 24 mo. age-related changes in enzyme activities were observed, but they were not altered by the exposures. when the data were adjusted for age, only one difference was observed. l ...19846084065
simian virus 40 illegitimate recombination occurs near short direct repeats.we have analysed nucleotide sequences at the junction between simian virus 40 (sv40) and cellular dna in the fisher rat transformed line tsa30-n2. this line contains a single insertion of one complete sv40 genome with a terminal duplication of 267 nucleotides, the recombination sites being located at nucleotides 439 and 705 in the late region of sv40. these two positions are located within short direct repeats in the virus genome. in order to test the significance of such repeats with respect to ...19846086940
a single rat fibronectin gene generates three different mrnas by alternative splicing of a complex exon.three fibronectin mrnas exist in rat liver, differing by the presence or absence of segments of 285 or 360 bases at a point within the coding region. we previously proposed that the three mrnas are encoded by a single gene and arise via alternative splicing of a common transcript. in order to test this hypothesis, we have isolated clones spanning approximately half of the fibronectin gene from a fisher rat genomic library; blot hybridization analyses reveal the presence of only one fibronectin g ...19846089177
enhanced ouabain sensitivity of the heart and myocardial sodium pump in aged rats.tolerance to arrhythmogenic actions of digitalis decreases with advanced age. to determine if aged myocardium has reduced glycoside tolerance, ouabain sensitivity and associated biochemical changes were examined in young (3-month), adult (8-month) and aged (26-month old) fisher 344 rats, because age-related changes in physiology and biochemistry are well characterized in this strain of rats. although rats are uniquely tolerant to digitalis, basic mechanisms leading to inotropic and toxic actions ...19846092116
less than 40% of the simian virus 40 large t-antigen-coding sequence is required for transformation.f8dl is a simian virus 40 early-region deletion mutant that lacks the simian virus 40 dna sequences between 0.168 and 0.424 map units. despite this large deletion, cloned f8dl dna transforms fisher rat f111 cells and balb/3t3 clone a31 mouse cells as efficiently as does cloned simian virus 40 wild-type dna. these results indicate that less than 40% of the large t-antigen-coding sequence is required for efficient transformation.19846092929
site of synthesis of the alpha and beta subunits of the na,k-atpase in brine shrimp nauplii.developing nauplii (embryos) of the brine shrimp artemia salina are an excellent model system for studying the biogenesis of the sodium- and potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase (na,k-atpase). the nauplii exhibit a burst of na,k-atpase synthesis between 6 and 32 h of development (peterson, g. l., churchill, l., fisher, j. a., and hokin, l. e. (1982) j. exp. zool. 221, 295-308). we have now determined the sites of synthesis of the alpha and beta subunits of the na,k-atpase in developing a ...19846094544
characterization of the cholinergic stimulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis in rat brain slices.the stimulation of the formation of inositol phosphates by various cholinergic agonists and antagonists was studied in rat brain cortical slices. incubation of the slices with [3h]inositol led to the incorporation of radioactivity into inositol lipids. the accumulation of inositol phosphates was then followed in the presence of 8 mm lithium which blocks the hydrolysis of inositol phosphate. the release of inositol phosphate was linear up to 15 min when stimulated by 1 mm carbachol. acetylcholine ...19846094748
[metastatic properties of rat fr 3t3 cells, transformed by polyomavirus in the fisher rat]. 19846098323
rescue of silent integrated polyoma genomes suggests homologous recombination between resident and transfected dna fragments.two defective polyoma virus genomes, deleted in the nucleotide sequences coding the n-termini of the tumor antigens, were introduced into fisher 3t3 rat cells by dna-mediated gene transfer (transfection). the resulting integrated genomes were incapable of conferring a transformed phenotype to the cells. however, after transfection of these lines with small polyoma fragments overlapping the deleted sequences, transformed clones were isolated. these clones were analyzed by southern genomic blot hy ...19846100071
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