PMID(sorted ascending)
[surgical treatment of aged patients with ruptured cerebral aneurysm; evaluation of the operations performed without using retractors].sixteen patients over 70 years of age with ruptured cerebral aneurysms in the anterior circulation were surgically treated via the pterional approach. self-retaining brain retractors (srbrs) were used in seven patients (group a), but not in nine other patients (group b). on admission there were no significant differences between the groups in terms of the neurological grading of hunt & kosnik or the ct grading of fisher. the timing of the operation was decided on the basis of the neurological gr ...19921598131
a study of the ability of an in situ remineralization model to differentiate between the effects of two fluoride dentifrices that produced significantly different clinical caries results.the purpose of this study was to determine whether an in situ remineralization model was able to show a difference in the effects of two dentifrices of different fluoride concentrations and significantly different clinical efficacies. three dentifrices were tested in a double-blind, cross-over study design. the products contained 0 ppm f, 250 ppm f, or 1000 ppm f from sodium fluoride and were formulated with a silica base according to the formulations used in a human caries trial (koch et al., 1 ...19921607435
the role of endothelin-1 in the origin of cerebral vasospasm in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (csf) endothelin (et)-1-like immunoactivity in 27 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (sah) was measured serially by radioimmunoassay for 2 weeks after sah onset. mean et-1-like immunoactivity levels in plasma of patients with sah were highly elevated during the whole study period, while the levels in csf of the same patients were not. plasma et-1-like immunoactivity levels in patients with sah classified as fisher computerized tomography (ct) group 3 ...19921607979
acute toxicity of trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal in fisher 344 rats [corrected].the potential toxicity of trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (hne), a product formed in vivo during lipid peroxidation, which is also present in foods, was investigated in fisher 344 rats. five groups of five male rats each were given by gavage 1000, 300, 100, 30 or 10 mg/kg body weight hne dissolved in 0.5 ml corn oil. the sixth group, the control, received corn oil alone. two rats died 6 and 8 hr after being treated with 1000 mg/kg hne. these two rats showed extensive acute tubular necrosis of the kidn ...19921608305
infection-induced airway fibrosis in two rat strains with differential susceptibility.chronic infections play a significant role in the morbidity and mortality of patients with chronic airflow limitation. by stimulating airway inflammation, persistent infection has the potential to cause airway fibrosis. however, in patient this condition is most typically found in lungs damaged by other factors, such as smoking, abnormal secretions, or barotrauma. we report the characterization of mycoplasma pulmonis infection-induced lung fibrosis in two immunocompetent rat strains with no pree ...19921612760
preoperative and postoperative analysis of site-specific pelvic support defects in 81 women treated with sacrospinous ligament suspension and pelvic reconstruction.the objectives of this study were to identify factors that predict long-term success, defined as the absence of anatomic defects, in women undergoing pelvic reconstruction and to identify which defects most frequently persist or recur.19921615985
mechanism of recurrent spontaneous abortion. i. ultrasonographic findings.our objective was to study the mechanisms of early pregnancy loss with ultrasonographic findings in pregnancies that terminated in repeat abortion in women with recurrent spontaneous abortion compared with patients with spontaneous abortion with no previous spontaneous abortion and with women with recurrent spontaneous abortion who had viable pregnancies.19921615994
immune system of the spontaneously hypertensive rat. i. sympathetic innervation.extensive bidirectional interactions are believed to exist between the sympathetic nervous system and the immune system. the spontaneously hypertensive rat (shr) is known to possess both increased sympathetic nervous system activity with increased tissue catecholamine levels in several peripheral organs and a moderate t lymphocyte immune deficiency. we examined the development of innervation in both primary (thymus) and secondary (spleen) organs of the immune system of the shr compared to immuno ...19921618286
[the long-term prognosis of breast cancer. retrospective study of 973 patients].in this study the outcome after 40 years of primary breast cancer therapy was analysed. 973 patients admitted between 1943-1964 were examined. at the time of evaluation 900 (92.5%) of these patients were deceased. the mean survival time was 7.02 years. tumor stage was the most important prognostic factor. in stage i patients after 40 years 17% of the patients were still alive. in stage ii patients the prognosis was significantly worse. after 3.5 years 50% of the patients were dead. young patient ...19921619978
detection of the ptc/rettpc oncogene in human thyroid cancers.we have investigated the ptc/rettpc oncogene, an activated form of ret proto-oncogene with a specific rearrangement, in thyroid malignancies. southern analysis was used to screen 36 thyroid papillary carcinomas (pc), 22 normal thyroid tissues from glands with pc elsewhere, three follicular carcinomas, eight follicular adenomas and 30 other non-malignant thyroids. rearrangements were detected in four pcs (11%) using probes derived from the ret proto-oncogene. genomic breakpoints from a pc and a p ...19921620547
chlorophyllin, an antimutagen, acts as a tumor promoter in the rat-dimethylhydrazine colon carcinogenesis model.chlorophyllin (chl), the water soluble sodium/copper salt of chlorophyll, was investigated for its effect on colorectal cancer risk in the rat-dimethyldrazine colon carcinogenesis model. ninety weanling fisher 344 male rats were treated with five weekly injections of 1,2 dimethylhydrazine (dmh), 20 mg base/kg body weight. rats had been previously divided into three groups, consuming either rat chow and water (group i), rat chow and chl 1.5 mm in water throughout the experiment (group ii), or wat ...19921622132
sensory root level recovery in patients with frankel a quadriplegia.this prospective study was designed to demonstrate root level recovery of sensation in the zone of partial preservation in patients with c4 through c8, frankel a spinal cord injuries. subjects were evaluated for pin (n = 18) and light touch (n = 17) sensation. all subjects had normal sensation at the level of injury, and decreased or absent sensation at all levels caudal to that level within the zone of partial preservation; they had absent sensation at all levels below the zone of partial prese ...19921622315
effect of lower limb on body propulsion.the purpose of this study was to analyze and compare the effects of the leg during swing and stance phases of forward propulsion of the body for both men and women. twelve able-bodied subjects, six men and six women, were studied with a vicon(a) gait-analysis system. a two-dimensional, sagittal-plane biomechanical analysis featuring a link-segment model was used to determine the force at the hip in the horizontal direction. integrating this force curve over time during the swing and stance gait ...19921622320
miller fisher syndrome: etiological significance of serial blink reflexes and mri study.we studied a patient with miller fisher syndrome using a serial mri and electrophysiological procedures. there were peripheral nerve pathology and cns dysfunction. in particular, mri showed a lesion at the level of the 3rd nerve nucleus.19921623849
localization of the pathological process in miller fisher syndrome.a 64 year old woman died at the third attack of mfs. histological examination demonstrated segmental demyelination and axonal swelling of the peripheral nerves studied, oculomotor included. in the c.n.s. only mild chromatolytic changes and rare pyknosis of the nerve cells in the midbrain were found without signs of primary inflammation. we reviewed the findings in all the 4 anatomoclinical cases of mfs and in 2 cases of gbs with ophthalmoplegia or ataxia. with one exception, they appear to be co ...19921624278
rates of obsessive compulsive disorder in first degree relatives of patients with trichotillomania: a research explore a possible relationship between trichotillomania, (ttm) (compulsive hair pulling) and obsessive compulsive disorder (ocd), 65 out of 69 (94%) first degree relatives of 16 female probands with severe chronic ttm were compared with two control groups for ocd and for ttm. three (19%) of the 16 ttm probands had at least one first degree relative with a lifetime history of ocd, and there was an age corrected rate of 6.4% of first degree relatives with ocd. no relative in control group (a) ...19921634595
rearrangement of chromosome 1p in breast cancer correlates with poor prognostic a cytogenetic study of breast cancer biopsies, clonal abnormalities of chromosome 1p were identified in 56% (14) of 25 informative patients. translocations predominated, involving 1p22 (n = 1), 1p35 (n = 1) or 1p36 (n = 10) breakpoints. chromosome 1p abnormalities were associated with estrogen receptor (er) negativity (p = 0.03, 2-tailed fisher exact probability test), high histological grade (p = 0.02, 2-tailed mann-whitney u-test) and an unfavourable melbourne prognostic score (nepa p = 0.0 ...19921637662
classification of pathologies by reduced sequential potential maps.body surface potential mapping (bspm) is an electrocardiographic measuring technique which produces the data as a series of three-dimensional maps. these maps are assumed to contain information which may help classify subjects for diagnostic purposes more effectively than standard ecgs. as quantitative classification of the complete sequences of maps is complex and cumbersome, the present study uses extracted features which characterise the data. the features, which have been presented and evalu ...19921640751
distribution of red blood cell velocity in capillary network, and endothelial ultrastructure, in aged rat skeletal muscle.although age-related structural and functional changes in skeletal muscle have been described extensively, little is known about the accompanying hemodynamic and structural changes in the microvasculature. the objective of this study was to use the extensor digitorum longus muscle in mid-aged (12 months) and old (28 months) fisher 344 male rats to evaluate (1) the distribution of microvascular flow in the resting state, (2) the distribution response to a complete 30-min tourniquet ischemia, and ...19921640874
preoperative spirometry predicts perioperative pulmonary complications after major vascular surgery.this study determined utility of preoperative spirometry for prediction of postoperative pulmonary complications (ppc) defined as pneumonia, ventilator dependence greater than 48 hours, and adult respiratory distress syndrome in 147 patients undergoing vascular surgery from june 1988 through march 1990 [39 aortic aneurysm repairs, 21 carotid procedures, and 87 operations for occlusive disease including aorto-ileofemoral, infra-inguinal, and visceral]. the incidence of ppc was 12.9 per cent, whil ...19921642387
[transesophageal echography and peripheral arterial embolism. a new etiologic approach. apropos of 87 cases].this prospective study (september 1989 to november 1990) was undertaken to evaluate the utility of transesophageal echocardiography in acute peripheral ischaemic syndromes. after embolectomy or thrombolysis, 87 patients with an average age of 69.7 years underwent not only the usual investigations (conventional echocardiography, abdominal ultrasonography and holter monitoring) but also transesophageal echocardiography within 2 days of the ischaemic events (lower limb 84%, multiple embolism 11%, r ...19921642500
cooperation of oncogenes in cell transformation and sensitization to killing by the parvovirus minute virus of mice.the established line of normal fisher rat fibroblasts (fr3t3) is naturally resistant to the parvovirus minute virus of mice (mvm), and was used as a model system to study the influence of stepwise transformation on the susceptibility of cells to this virus. when transformed with genes encoding the class i nuclear oncoproteins large t antigen of polyomavirus (pylt) or v-myc, cells retained a normal appearance, but acquired some ability to form colonies in soft agar. on the other hand, the class i ...19921645140
strain differences in expression of virulence by the 90 kilobase pair virulence plasmid of salmonella serovar typhimurium.a number of plasmidless strains were obtained by curing the 90 kilobase pair (kb) virulence plasmid from six strains, c5, tml, w118, sr11, lt2 and fisher, of salmonella serovar typhimurium. a number of transposon (tn5) tagged 90 kb plasmids, also derived from these typhimurium strains, were then transferred back into these plasmidless strains. plasmid-cured strains, reconstituted strains, and the parental strains were tested for their virulence in balb/c mice. there were two groups of typhimuriu ...19911654496
teaching the plantar reflex.the efficacy of an instructional videotape about the interpretation of the plantar response was evaluated during a two week neurological clerkship. experimental groups saw the videotape, control groups did not. all students (n = 65) assessed plantar responses of two to four different patients. their judgment was compared with that of one senior neurologist. only the students who had seen the videotape showed a significant improvement in performance on a second test (t-test, t = -2.26, p = 0.031) ...19911660372
hepatitis b virus infection markers in genetic haemochromatosis. a study of 272 patients.serum hepatitis b virus (hbv) infection markers were studied in 272 patients with homozygous genetic haemochromatosis complicated (n = 33) or not (n = 239) with primary liver cancer (plc). controls consisted of 255 029 healthy blood donors from whom age- and sex-matched control groups were extracted for statistical evaluation using the fisher exact test. in blood donors, hbsag was positive in 0.075% of males and 0.04% of females. this population was not screened for anti-hbs. anti-hbc alone (wit ...19911667016
[miller fisher syndrome: review of the literature and presentation of 2 cases].miller fisher syndrome (mfs), which is characterized by ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and tendon areflexia, is generally considered as a clinical variant of guillain-barré syndrome. however some features of the disease are still debated, particularly regarding possible central nervous system involvement. after presenting two new cases of mfs, the authors provide a critical review of the literature and discuss the nosographical position of the disease. the main conclusions can be summarized as follows: ...20061667714
[treatment of massive spasms with synthetic acth].ten infants with infantile spasms (is) and hypoarrhythmic eeg, received 0.5 mg i.m. of synthetic acth, three times a week for 2 weeks. six of them showed complete remission of seizures and dramatic eeg changes, and 3 cases resulted in a partial response. spasms were controlled during the first week in 5/6 cases where treatment was successful. a significant relationship was observed between treatment precocity and favourable outcome (fisher p < 0.02). synthetic acth treatment did not produce seve ...20151668972
[possibilities of using non-invasive techniques to predict pulmonary arterial pressure in chronic respiratory diseases].the value of non-invasive procedures for predicting pulmonary arterial pressure (pap) was assessed in 297 patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (cold) and in 73 patients with alveolitis in multicenter trials at 9 centres in 6 european countries. fev1, blood gases, ecg, radiographic dimensions of the pulmonary artery, right ventricle dimensions measured with m-mode echocardiography, and 201ta heart scintigraphy together with clinical examinations served the purpose. no single variable wa ...20081669086
first person account: what it is like to be treated like a cmi.the article that follows is part of the schizophrenia bulletin's ongoing first person accounts series. we hope that mental health professionals--the bulletin's primary audience--will take this opportunity to learn about the issues and difficulties confronted by consumers of mental health care. in addition, we hope that these accounts will give patients and families a better sense of not being alone in confronting the problems that can be anticipated by persons with serious emotional difficulties ...19911675483
metabolism and disposition of p-chloroaniline in rat, mouse, and monkey.the metabolism and disposition of [14c]p-chloroaniline was studied in the male fisher 344 rat, female c3h mouse, and male rhesus monkey. greater than 90% of the radiocarbon is eliminated through the urine in all species. a major route of metabolism is orthohydroxylation, whereby 2-amino-5-chlorophenyl sulfate is the major excretion product in all species. excretion of p-chloro-oxanilic acid and p-chloroglycolanilide, oxidation products of p-chloroacetanilide, is significant in the rat. the appea ...19911676638
transport of peptides in renal brush border membrane vesicles. suitability of 125i-labelled tyrosyl peptides as substrates.three tyrosine-containing peptides (tyr-pro, tyr-pro-phe and tyr-pro-phe-pro) were [125i]iodo-labelled and their uptake characteristics in renal brush border membrane vesicles was investigated to assess the suitability of these peptides as substrates in peptide transport studies. hydrolysis of these peptides during uptake measurements was avoided by using brush border membrane vesicles prepared from the kidneys of japan fisher 344 rats which genetically lack dipeptidylpeptidase iv activity. the ...19911681904
[use of etilefrin as local vasoconstrictor in lower gynecologic surgery ].in this randomized prospective study the authors have compared the effectiveness and side-effects of two local vasoconstrictor agents, etilefrine (effortil) and ornithine 8 vasopressin (por 8) in vaginal gynaecological surgery. thirty-three patients entered the trial and were divided into two groups: g1 (15 patients) received effortil, and g2 (18 patients) received por 8. the products, administered at random, were diluted in saline 40 ml and injected into the cervix through 6 points. a 3-minute ...19911683354
regional brain monoamine levels and utilization in middle-aged rats.significant changes in monoamine levels and utilization were noted in certain brain regions of middle-aged fisher 344 rats when compared with young adult controls. in the prefrontal cortex and septum, 3,4 dihydroxyphenylglycol (mhpg) and the mhpg/norepinephrine (ne) ratio were decreased. the septum also showed increases in dopamine (da) and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (dopac) but there was a decrease in the dopac/da ratio. the striatum showed an increase in the mphg/ne ratio and an increase in do ...19901689446
inhaled particle retention in rats receiving low exposures of diesel study the effects of a low concentration exposure on the retention and clearance of submicron particles from the lungs, we exposed male fisher 344 rats to diesel exhaust diluted to 50 micrograms diesel exhaust particles (dp)/m3, 20 h/d, 7 d/wk for 52 wk. lung burdens (amount of dp in lungs) and the alveolar macrophage burdens were measured up to 52 wk postexposure. by 1 yr postexposure at least 80% of the dp was eliminated from the lungs and similarly cleared from the lavaged pool of macropha ...19901691304
estrogen increases galanin immunoreactivity in hyperplastic prolactin-secreting cells in fisher 344 rats.galanin is a widely distributed regulatory peptide which modulates the pituitary secretion of prl and gh. estrogen administration strongly stimulates galanin gene expression in the rat anterior pituitary. in adult female fischer 344 rats, estrogen also induces hyperplasia of lactotropes. we used immunocytochemical analysis to assess the effects of estrogen on galanin-like immunoreactivity (gal-ir) in the rat pituitary and hypothalamus during sc diethylstilbestrol (des) implantation and after its ...19901693569
human monoclonal antibodies to pseudomonas aeruginosa type-specific lipopolysaccharides, toxin a and klebsiella capsular polysaccharides.a number of human monoclonal antibodies (hmab) recognizing type-specific determinants expressed by the lipopolysaccharide (lps) of pseudomonas aeruginosa and by the capsular polysaccharide (cps) of klebsiella were generated for potential treatment of nosocomial infections. the goal is to administer these type-specific hmab prophylactically as a "cocktail" providing broad coverage. lymphoblastoid cell lines (lcl) secreting hmab recognizing p. aeruginosa lps, toxin a or klebsiella cps were obtaine ...19901698165
comparison of growth, neovascularization, and enzymatic function of fetal intestinal grafts in the omentum and renal capsule.fetal tissues are less immunogenic and may be a useful donor source for organ transplantation. this report compares the fate of fetal small bowel segments transplanted in the omentum and renal capsule of recipient syngeneic rats. two-centimeter segments of fetal jejunum and ileum were obtained from 26 donor 19-day gestational age rat fetuses and transplanted into the subrenal capsule (n = 35) and omentum (n = 40) in syngeneic fisher rats (weight, 150 g) as free grafts. no immunosuppression was u ...19901698219
characterization of flat revertants isolated from cells transformed by abelson murine leukemia virus (ab-mulv).transformed fisher rat fibroblast cell lines by abelson murine leukemia virus frequently revert to the normal phenotype in usual culture conditions. molecular biological analysis of three revertant clones isolated from the transformants showed that their morphological reversions were due to inactivation of the v-abl oncogene at multiple steps including transcription, translation or v-abl protein kinase activity itself without any change in structural gene expression of helper virus. these findin ...19901703165
identification of an epitope encoded in the env gene of friend murine leukemia virus recognized by anti-friend virus cytotoxic t lymphocytes.we have previously shown that strong epitopes recognized by anti-friend virus (fv) cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctl) in h-2b mice are encoded in both the env and gag/pol regions of the helper friend leukemia virus genome. two approaches have been used to identify these epitopes. at the nucleic acid level, we have constructed env genes with either of two in-frame deletions: pkr2, an env gene with a 681-bp deletion in the gp70 region and inserted into the psv2-gpt-1 expression vector; and pkr1, an env ...19911704662
antibody-targeted photolysis. bacteriocidal effects of sn (iv) chlorin e6-dextran-monoclonal antibody conjugates.antibody-targeted photolysis is a technique for damaging or killing cells using light and an antibody-bound photosensitizer. in the present study, immunoconjugates were constructed to selectively kill pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria using tin (iv) chlorin e6 which was linked to dextran and then bound to the carbohydrate moiety of a monoclonal antibody specific for pseudomonas aeruginosa fisher type i polysaccharide antigen. killing of pseudomonas during mid-log phase growth was shown to be depen ...19911706578
amino acid sequence and post-translational modification of stem cell factor isolated from buffalo rat liver cell-conditioned medium.stem cell factor (scf) isolated from culture medium conditioned by buffalo rat liver cells was subjected to detailed structural analysis. attempts at direct n-terminal sequencing of the factor indicated that its n terminus is blocked as pyroglutamic acid (zsebo, k. m., wypych, j., mcniece, i. k., lu, h. s., smith, k. a., karkare, s. b., sachdev, r. k., yuschenkoff, v. n., birkett, n. c., williams, l. r., satyagal, v. n., bosselman, r. a., mendiaz, e. a., and langley, k. e. (1990) cell 63, 195-20 ...19911708771
t cell reactivity to an epitope of the mycobacterial 65-kda heat-shock protein (hsp 65) corresponds with arthritis susceptibility in rats and is regulated by hsp 65-specific cellular responses.adjuvant arthritis (aa) can be induced in genetically susceptible rats by immunization with heat-killed mycobacteria suspended in mineral oil. from our analysis of arthritogenic t cell clone a2b, obtained from an arthritic lewis rat and specific for the 180-188 epitope of mycobacterial 65-kda heat-shock protein (hsp 65), the possible origin of aa was explained by the existence of a molecular mimicry of the 180-188 epitope with a cartilage-associated self antigen. we now have shown that lewis rat ...19911709871
identification of t cell epitopes within a 23-kd antigen (p24) of toxoplasma gondii.among the potentially vaccinating antigens, the products excreted/secreted by the parasite t. gondii have been demonstrated to be excellent candidates. the molecular cloning of one of these antigens (p24) present in excreted/secreted antigens (esa) has recently been carried out in our laboratory. the recombinant antigen p24 corresponds to a native molecule of 23 kd. we were interested in determining the main epitopes of the p24 antigen eliciting a t lymphocyte response using synthetic peptides d ...19911710549
food restriction retards aging of the pineal gland.the effects of chronic (40%) food restriction from 6 weeks of age were studied in aging male fisher 344 rats. when compared with 3-month-old, ad libitum fed rats, pineal n-acetyltransferase (nat) activity had declined to less than 30% and pineal and serum levels of melatonin to 40% after 28 months when feeding had been ad libitum. food restriction significantly retarded this development (p less than 0.05) giving nat and melatonin levels which were twice as high as in the ad libitum fed group. ni ...19911713529
glycosylated and unglycosylated recombinant-derived human stem cell factors are dimeric and have extensive regular secondary structure.we have recently described the identification, isolation, and characterization of a factor, termed stem cell factor (scf), which acts on primitive hematopoietic progenitors of the marrow. a soluble form of the factor was isolated from the conditioned medium of a rat cell line (zsebo, k. m., wypych, j., mcniece, i. k., lu, h. s., smith, k. a., karkare, s. b., sachdev, r. k., yuschenkoff, v. n., birkett, n. c., williams, l. r., satyagal, v. n., tung, w., bosselman, r. a., mendiaz, e. a., and langl ...19911717457
photodynamic therapy using pheophorbide a and nd:yag laser.the authors describe a new photodynamic therapy (pdt) method for malignant brain tumors. pheophorbide a (ph-a), the photosensitizer, has low toxicity, causes no skin sensitization and is activated with an acoustic q switched neodymium yttrium-argon-garnet (nd:yag) laser which achieves deep tissue penetration. the ph-a distribution in fisher 344 (f344) rats bearing rat t9 glioma at 24 hours after intravenous injection was very low in the normal brain tissue, but significantly higher in the t9 gli ...19911717860
importance of administration method in high-dose anticancer chemotherapy from toxicological standpoint in rats.we examined death rates in fisher rats when chemotherapeutic drugs were administered in a prescribed amount by either a single or divided dose. lower death rates were observed when nimustine hydrochloride (acnu) was given in a divided dose, or when cyclophosphamide (cy), vindesine sulfate (vds) or vincristine (vcr) was administered as a single dose. lower hematological toxicity was observed when acnu was administered in 2 doses and cy in a single dose. with etoposide, we did not observe any sign ...19911720885
angiopolarity: a new design parameter for cell transplantation devices and its application to degradable systems.the purpose of this study was to obtain directional angiogenesis of small blood vessels and capillaries to an implant made from a resorbable polymer for hepatocyte transplantation. it was intended to mimic the native acinar structure of the liver in form to facilitate replication of the cells and organ growth. the implant device structure was designed for injection to minimize surgical trauma. hollow microspheres with an open porous wall structure and one large central opening were made from pol ...19911721514
the theoretical distribution of lengths of intact chromosome segments around a locus held heterozygous with backcrossing in a diploid species.when two different isogenic lines of a diploid species (or two different species) are crossed, the resulting f1 individuals should be heterozygous at all the loci fixed for different alleles in the two strains (in the limit, at all the loci of the genome). if one of these loci is then held heterozygous for several generations of repeated backcrossing to the same strain, the average length of intact chromosome segments (with reference to the original parental chromosome) on both sides of the sele ...19921732161
a comparison of hiv-1 antibody classes, titers, and specificities in paired semen and blood samples from hiv-1 seropositive men.twenty-eight paired blood and semen samples obtained from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) seropositive men at various stages of disease progression were evaluated for titer and immunoglobulin (ig) class by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). blood antibody titers ranged from 40,000 to 4,000,000 with a median of 40,000. semen titers ranged from 400 to 40,000 with a median of 400. hiv-1 antibody titers in matched semen and blood samples showed a strong positive correlation (r ...19921738088
inhibitory effect of 4-methylpyrazole on antipyrine clearance in rats.pyrazole and 4-methylpyrazole (4-mp) are potent, effective inhibitors of alcohol dehydrogenase. pyrazole and its derivatives also have been shown to affect the cytochrome p-450 dependent monooxygenase system. this study was performed to investigate the effect of 4-mp on the disposition kinetics of antipyrine (ap). groups of male fisher 344 rats were given an ip injection of 4-mp (100 mg/kg) or 4-mp hcl (equivalent to 4-mp 100 mg/kg) or an equivalent volume of saline. ap (20 mg/kg) was injected i ...19921740974
phospholipase a2 engineering. x-ray structural and functional evidence for the interaction of lysine-56 with mutagenesis studies of bovine pancreatic phospholipase a2 (pla2, overproduced in escherichia coli) showed that replacement of surface residue lys-56 by a neutral or hydrophobic amino acid residue resulted in an unexpected and significant change in the function of the enzyme. the kcat for phosphatidylcholine micelles increases 3-4-fold for k56m, k56i, and k56f and ca. 2-fold for k56n and k56t but does not change for k56r. these results suggest that the side chain of residue 56 has s ...19911751497
application of plasma perfusion in hepatic evaluate the efficacy of plasma perfusion as a liver-assistance system, 17 patients with hepatic failure were treated with a total 37 sessions of plasma perfusion and 43 sessions of plasma exchange. for plasma perfusion, plasma-flo ap-08-h was used as a plasma separator, and the separated plasma was passed through an adsorber, bespore upc-iii (, hiroshima) or br 350 (asahi med. co., tokyo). the mean treated plasma volume was 5.0 liters. the mean proportion of bilirubin removed b ...19911751670
nerve regeneration in rat composite-tissue allografts.reinnervation of composite-tissue allografts was examined in a rat hind-limb transplant model under cyclosporin a (cya) immunosuppression. two groups of animals were studied. group 1 consisted of 10 composite-tissue allografts using inbred fisher rats (f344) as recipients and inbred lewis rats (lew) as donors. recipient animals received 15 mg/kg/day cya subcutaneously for three weeks and then twice weekly for three months. group 2 consisted of 10 composite-tissue isografts undergoing no immunosu ...19911753370
tumor necrosis factor alpha is elevated in the peritoneal fluid from women with ruptured ectopic pregnancies.the purpose of this study was to determine whether exposure of the peritoneum to fetal tissue is associated with elevated tumor necrosis factor alpha (tnf alpha) levels in the peritoneal cavity. we measured tnf alpha levels in the peritoneal fluids and serum from women with ruptured ectopic, unruptured ectopic and intrauterine pregnancies, as well as nonpregnant women undergoing tubal ligation. the results showed that patients with ruptured ectopic pregnancies were more likely to have tnf alpha ...19911756995
developmental expression of the basic fibroblast growth factor gene in rat brain.basic fibroblast growth factor (bfgf) is a trophic factor for a variety of neuronal/glial cell populations. the rnase protection assay, with a crna complementary to the coding region of bfgf mrna, was used to investigate the brain distribution and developmental regulation of bfgf mrna expression. in adult rats bfgf mrna is distributed throughout the brain, the highest levels being observed in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and spinal cord. the levels of bfgf mrna in all the brain structures are lo ...19911760872
cicaprost inhibits metastases of animal tumors.since an involvement of platelet aggregation in the metastatic process has been found, platelet activation inhibitors were investigated for their potential to reduce tumor metastases. recent in-vitro and in-vivo investigations showed an antimetastatic effect of prostacyclin (pgi2) and stable prostacyclin analogues. this study concentrates on the effect of the stable prostacyclin analogue cicaprost (schering ag) on tumor metastases in two metastasizing tumors of rodents. c57bl/6 mice bearing s.c. ...19911763201
changes in hepatic haemodynamics in rats with overt liver tumour.overt liver tumour was induced in fisher rats by intraportal administration of 1.6 x 10(7) walker carcinosarcoma cells. control groups of rats received similar volumes of dead cells or saline intraportally. all animals were studied at 3 weeks when overt tumour was present. the hepatic perfusion index (hpi) was significantly raised in rats with overt tumour compared to both groups of control animals. portal flow and portal venous inflow were significantly reduced in the presence of overt tumour b ...19911764371
correlation between class i antigen expression and the ability to generate tumour infiltrating lymphocytes from bladder tumour biopsies.analysis of tissue sections from transurethrally resected bladder tumours using anti-cd3 antibody showed the presence of t lymphocytes in intra-epithelial layers in eight of 12 cases investigated. in a larger group of patients, tumour infiltrating lymphocyte (til) growth was established from six of 19 cases using interleukin-2 (il-2) and conditioned medium (cm) and resulted in the expansion of tils up to 100-fold. tils from these individuals were phenotyped with w6/32 (anti-hla-a,b,c), hb55 (ant ...19911764393
factor xiii of blood coagulation inhibits the oxidative phagocyte metabolism and suppresses the immune response in vivo.factor xiii of blood coagulation (f xiii) belongs to the family of transglutaminases and is a major cell product of certain subsets of macrophages. the gene for f xiiia is coupled to the immune response genes of the hla-region on chromosome 6. f xiii dose- dependently inhibits the in vitro chemiluminescence response of human phagocytes. about 0.1 units of f xiii/ml (final) decreased the chemiluminescence response to about 50%. in addition, about 0.6 units of f xiii/ml inhibits 50% of the release ...19911771628
reconstructive internal carotid artery surgery over forty years (october 20, 1951-1991).the background and history of internal carotid reconstruction are presented. high-lights in the early development of this technique include the research of john ramsay hunt, moniz, and leriche, and the surgical techniques of carrel and guthrie. miller fisher published his extensive studies on cerebrovascular disease and carotid occlusion in 1951. pioneering operations by carrea and molins in argentina, strully, hurwitt, and blankenberg in new york and debakey in houston soon followed. debakey's ...19911772768
[study on morbidity and relative factors of postmenopausal osteoporosis in 340 women in chengdu].in this cross-sectional study, the radius bone mineral content (bmc) of 340 postmenopausal women (mean age: 53; mean years since menopause: 5.56) were assessed by single photon absorptiometry (spa) for determining prevalence rate of postmenopausal osteoporosis in chengdu, and some factors relative to bmc were investigated. eighty-five of 340 postmenopausal women were diagnosed osteoporosis by spa. the prevalence rate, which increases with year since menopause and age, is 25%. there is significan ...20041774038
invited commentary on r. a. fisher. 19911776613
re: "when genius errs: r. a. fisher and the lung cancer controversy". 19911776621
bone mineral density in patients with cervical and trochanteric fractures of the proximal femur.the bone mineral density (bmd) of the proximal femur, spine and radius shaft was determined in 75 women with atraumatic fractures of the proximal femur (fxf) (average age: 70.1 +/- 9.6 years) and 51 controls of similar age. fractures were classified as either cervical (n = 36) or trochanteric (n = 39) on the basis of radiographic and surgical finding. the bmd of spine and proximal femur was determined by dual-photon absorptiometry (lunar dp3) and the bmd of the radius shaft by single photon abso ...19911790397
relationship between glial reaction to a stab wound and tumor development after receiving transplacental ethylnitrosourea in the rat.fisher 344 rats born from mothers treated with ethylnitrosourea (enu) 50 mg/kg intravenously were injured at the 1st and 2nd month of extrauterine life by a transcranial stab. the wound affected cerebral cortex, white matter and basal ganglia. the animals were killed 15 and 45 days and 5 months after injury and cell reaction was studied histologically and immunohistochemically. bromodeoxyuridine (brdurd) was administered 1 h before sacrifice and the labeled cells were evaluated. in enu-treated r ...19911792863
actions of phosphomonoesters on ca1 hippocampal neurons as revealed by a combined electrophysiological and nuclear magnetic resonance study.phosphomonoesters (pmes), precursors of membrane phospholipids, are found in high levels in the developing brain and alzheimer's disease brain. the present study details the neurophysiological and metabolic effects of acute pme elevation on the fisher 344 rat in vitro hippocampal slice. two abundant pmes, phosphoethanolamine (pe) and l-phosphoserine (ps), reliably altered properties of synaptic transmission at the schaffer collateral/commissural-ca1 cell synapse. specifically, pe reversibly depr ...19911796353
neuropeptide y radio-immunoassay: characterization and application.1. a sensitive and specific neuropeptide y (npy) radio-immunoassay has been developed. this radio-immunoassay does not detect the npy-related peptides pancreatic polypeptide or peptide yy. npy extracted from rat plasma using sequential c18 sorbent and affinity chromatography co-eluted with synthetic rat npy when applied to high pressure liquid chromatography. 2. the procedure of stabilization of platelets followed by high speed centrifugation reduced basal values of npy by 60%, and this may be c ...19911797447
recurrent miscarriage--outcome after supportive care in early hundred and thirty three couples were investigated at a recurrent miscarriage clinic. in their next pregnancy 42 women (group 1) with unexplained recurrent miscarriage were managed with a programme of formal emotional support and close supervision at an early pregnancy clinic. two women were seen in 2 pregnancies (44 supervised pregnancies); 86% (38 of 44) of these pregnancies were successful. four of the 6 miscarriages had an identifiable causal factor. nine women (group 2), also with unexp ...19911799343
[a variant form of guillain-barre syndrome: a study of clinical and pathology of sural nerve biopsy].this study reported four cases of variant of guillain-barre syndrome (gbs). clinical features showed muscle fasciculation, fisher syndrome, gbs with family leber's disease and idiopathic dysautonomia. there were oligoclonal protein in 3 patients and elevation of protein of csf in 4 cases. the neurogenic lesion of limb muscle was confirmed by emg and ncv in all patients. the sural nerve biopsy was characterized by inflammatory demyelination. the diagnosis and pathogenesis were discussed.19911800055
restoration of impaired drug metabolism of rats with adjuvant induced disease by two steroids with different influence on drug biotransformation.adjuvant induced disease (aid) produced by intradermal administration of freund's adjuvant to fisher female rats, caused inflammation and severe impairment of the drug metabolic activity of the liver. treatment with pregnenolone-16 alpha-carbonitrile (1), or triamcinolone (2) caused a mild and a great reduction of the produced arthritis, respectively, while these steroids completely restored the established drug metabolic impairment of the aid rats. it is concluded that: (i) there is a cross-lin ...19911803389
[study of the capillary microscopy changes in scleroderma and their association with organ disease, clinical manifestations and disease progression].the changes of nailfold capillaries detected by capillary microscopy is a characteristic frequently observed in systemic sclerosis. the relationship between the different capillary microscopic changes and clinical manifestation, organic disease and disease progression were studied.20061805078
sampling design of multiwave studies with an application to the massachusetts health care panel study.a technique is presented which provides guidance on the spacing of follow-up waves in a multiwave study. only information from the baseline wave is needed, as well as rough parameter estimates for the survival distribution. the computations use the expected fisher information; a new method for its calculation is given. an analysis of the effects of simplifying assumptions, such as presuming that a distributional parameter is known, shows that gross discrepancies may result. data from the massach ...19911805320
influence of subepithelial deposits on permeability of the glomerular capillary wall in serum sickness nephritis in the rat.serum sickness nephritis was induced in male fisher rats by immunization with egg albumin (ea). correlations of subepithelial deposits (sd) with size and charge barriers of the glomerular filter were investigated using native (nf) and cationized (cf) ferritin as tracer probes. in proteinuric animals large numbers of nf molecules perfused from the abdominal aorta were observed to cross the glomerular basement membrane (gbm) and enter sd. the concentration of nf molecules was higher in gbm segment ...19911806651
urinary metabolites of [1,2,3-13c]acrylonitrile in rats and mice detected by 13c nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.acrylonitrile, a carcinogen in rats, undergoes extensive metabolism via two routes: direct glutathione conjugation or epoxidation. metabolism to cyanoethylene oxide may mediate the carcinogenic and toxic activity of acrylonitrile. to characterize comprehensively the metabolism in vivo of acrylonitrile, the detection and identification of metabolites in urine of rodents dosed with acrylonitrile have been carried out using nmr spectroscopy. following administration of [1,2,3-13c]acrylonitrile to m ...19911807451
pharmacodynamic and protective properties of a murine lipopolysaccharide-specific monoclonal antibody in experimental pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in mice.we employed a pseudomonas aeruginosa mouse pneumonia model to evaluate the ability of a murine monoclonal antibody (mab) specific for the o-side chain of p. aeruginosa fisher immunotype-1 lipopolysaccharide (lps) to achieve and sustain therapeutic levels in plasma and lung tissue, reduce bacterial populations in the lung, and prevent pneumonia-associated mortality. an igg3 mab (y1-5a4) administered to mice i.v. over a dose range of 125-1,000 micrograms/mouse produced plasma and lung tissue level ...19911808464
in response to article by dr. fisher et al. 19911809415
intestinal iron transfer after ileojejunal transposition.little is known on how longitudinal differences in intestinal iron absorption develop and to what extent distal segments can adapt to a more proximal location after surgical intervention. therefore, 3 weeks after ileojejunal transposition in rats adaptational changes of intestinal iron transfer were measured together with those of glucose and water transfer, intestinal dry weight and villus surface. in vitro iron transfer (fisher-parsons technique) was significantly increased in transposed segme ...19911812044
resistance of humidifiers, and inspiratory work imposed by a ventilator-humidifier circuit.the pressures and resistances of a bubble humidifier (bennett cascade) and a blow-by humidifier (fisher and paykel) were measured and computed at gas flow rates from 4.5 to 100 litre min-1. pressures increased with flows, with the bennett pressures being greater at all flows. the resistance of the fisher-paykel increased with flows, but remained less than that of the bennett. an inverse resistance-flow relationship was seen with the bennett up to a flow of 35 litre min-1. the work of breathing t ...19911817633
low-dose cyclophosphamide enhances helper-to-non-helper ratios.this study was conducted to analyze the effect of different doses of cyclophosphamide (cy) on the lymphocyte populations in the rat. monoclonal antibodies against rat determinants were used: w3/13 (t lymphocytes), w3/25 (t helper), ox-8 (non-helper), and ox-33 (b lymphocytes). blood samples were collected on days 0, 3, 7, and 14 from four groups of f-344 fisher rats (n = 4): three that received 25, 50, or 75 mg/kg of cy and a control group. the duration and severity of lymphocyte depletion were ...19911829393
depth measurements and histopathological characterization of photodynamic therapy generated normal brain necrosis as a function of incident optical energy dose.the response of normal brain to photodynamic therapy (pdt) was investigated in 62 fisher rats. the animals were injected i.p. with photofrin ii (12.5 mg/kg). forty-eight hours following injection, an area of dura 5 mm in diameter over the frontal cortex was photoactivated with red light (632 +/- 2 nm) at 100 mw cm-2, with no contributing thermal increases, at optical energy doses ranging from 1-140 j cm-2 from an argon-pumped dye laser. appropriate controls were also prepared. brain tissue sampl ...19911835100
physiologic properties of human dentate granule cells in slices prepared from epileptic patients.the neurophysiological properties of human dentate granule cells were studied in hippocampal slices prepared from patients undergoing surgical treatment for medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy. in 24 neurons which were morphologically identified as dentate granule cells by intracellular staining with biocytin, there were 2 types of synaptic responses to perforant path stimulation: one showed an epsp-ipsp sequence (n = 10) and the other showed prolonged epsps without accompanying hyperpo ...19911835928
[bacterial count as an infection prognostic factor in the delayed primary closure of abdominal surgical wounds].to determine the prognostic value of the soft-tissue biopsy to handle contaminated or infected surgical wounds with delayed primary closure.20101839190
sexual abuse, disordered personality and eating disorders.standardised personality assessments were administered to 50 consecutive referrals to an eating disorders clinic. a history of childhood sexual abuse was identified in 30% of patients using a modified version of the slei. this rate is comparable with those from other studies. overall, 52% of the patients were rated as having a personality disorder but a significantly higher proportion of women with a personality disorder had a history of childhood sexual abuse compared with those without a perso ...19911840747
response of serum zinc and copper to inflammatory stimulation in the rat with chronic liver measure the seric levels of zinc and copper in healthy and in hepatic damaged rats when an inflammatory stimulus is applied.19911844115
[auditory evoked potentials in fisher's syndrome. a clinical case].a 15 year old patient developed ataxia 2 weeks after an upper respiratory infection. absent reflexes, external ophthalmoplegia, bilateral ptosis, isochoric mydriasis and week photomotor reflexes (bell's phenomenon) were noted. a slight increase in protein but not cell content of the csf was observed. miller-fisher syndrome was diagnosed on clinical grounds and visual and auditory evoked potentials were explored and found to be normal. this is in complete agreement to the literature and indicates ...19911844757
purification and n-terminal amino acid sequence of a chondroitin sulphate/dermatan sulphate proteoglycan isolated from intima/media preparations of human aorta.a proteoglycan (pg) was purified to homogeneity from intima/media preparations of human aorta specimens by the following chromatographic steps: sepharose q anion exchange, sepharose cl-4b size exclusion, hydroxyapatite, monoq anion exchange and tsk g 4000 sw size exclusion. the purity of the preparation was established by sds/page using direct staining by silver or dimethylmethylene blue, as well as by western blots of biotin-labelled samples. the electrophoretic mobility of the native pg was le ...19911848758
purification and properties of the h(+)-nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase from rhodobacter capsulatus.1. h(+)-transhydrogenase from rhodobacter capsulatus is an integral membrane protein which, unlike the enzyme from rhodospirillum rubrum, does not require the presence of a water-soluble component for activity. 2. the enzyme from rb. capsulatus was solubilised in triton x-100 and subjected to ion-exchange, hydroxyapatite and then gel-exclusion column chromatography. sds/page of the purified enzyme revealed the presence of two polypeptides with apparent mr 53,000 and 48,000. other minor component ...19911849819
[clinical aspects of acute lesions of the brain stem of inflammatory origin].the diagnostic considerations of an inflammatory brainstem disease and its symptoms are shown in 22 cases. the diagnosis based on a topodiagnostic decision and the demonstration of an inflammatory genesis. the topodiagnosis has to take into consideration that a symptom can be caused by both a central lesion as well as a peripheral nerve lesion. electrophysiological methods (eeg, nerve conduction velocity, reflex studies and evoked potentials) were of only minor use in these decisions. the somato ...19911851128
trivers-willard effect in contemporary north american society.the trivers-willard hypothesis joins the ideas of r.a. fisher and a.j. bateman to model parental investment strategies. trivers and willard argue that any overall investment bias favoring either daughters or sons would be maladaptive. nevertheless, they suggest that, in effectively polygynous species, more complex, conditional sex biases could be adaptive. in particular, they predict that parents in good condition will bias their investment toward sons and that parents in poor condition will bia ...19911853943
[monitoring of protracted pregnancy. comparison of two methods].antepartum cardiotocographic patterns (nst:nonstress test) and echographic assessments of amniotic fluid pockets were retrospectively analysed in 63 postdate pregnancies. the results of nst (fisher-score) and ecographic examinations were correlated with obstetric outcome (5 minutes apgar-score). ecographic assessments of amniotic volumes seem more effective than nst for the lower frequency of false-positive results. anyhow, considering the low sensibility of nst and echography separatedly consid ...19911857519
cholestasis without cirrhosis alters regulatory liver gene expression and inhibits hepatic regeneration.partial hepatectomy (ph) initiates cellular signals for regeneration. sequential expression of nuclear and cytosolic protooncogenes accompanies the restoration of normal liver function and architecture. although cirrhosis is known to inhibit liver regeneration, the effects of noncirrhotic cholestasis on hepatocellular proliferation, differentiation, and regulatory gene expression are unknown. to examine this, 25 male fisher rats underwent common bile duct ligation and division. a 47% +/- 5% ph w ...19911858028
[the clinical significance of multifactor discrimination and analysis of maternal serum cu, zn, cd, mn contents in the diagnosis of abnormal fetus].in this paper we present pair-comparison test with serum contents of cu, zn, cd, mn, se in pregnant women with neural tube defects fetus (ntd), pregnant women with normal fetus and healthy with no pregnancy using bayes stepwise discrimination analysis and fisher discrimination analysis. the results showed: ntd of fetus was related to deficiency of maternal serum in cu, zn, mn and to excess of cd. the maternal serum levels of cu, cd and mn can be used as sensitive indicator to detect intrauterine ...19911860391
[does tissue ph measurement quantify circulation in the transplanted bronchus in lung transplantation].ischemia of the airway is the main cause of severe complications in lung transplantation. tissue-ph is used as an indicator of ischemia in the myocardium and various other tissues. we developed a ph needle probe which can be applied through a bronchoscope to enable repeated measurements of the ph in the bronchus mucosa. in 8 conditioned mongrel dogs (20-25 kg) an autotransplant of a 4-ring segment of the thoracic trachea was performed and wrapped with an omental pedicle flap in 4 of them (omentu ...19911864741
obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome in morbidly obese patients.twenty-seven morbidly obese patients (13 men and 14 women) with body mass index greater than or equal to 40 kg m-2 were examined. the mean age of the subjects was 36.9 +/- 8.2 years (range 23-51 years), and the mean bmi was 50.2 +/- 6.2 kg m-2 (range 40.0-62.9 kg m-2). a whole-night sleep recording was made for all patients with signs or symptoms indicative of possible obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (osas). if the first nocturnal sleep recording was abnormal, it was controlled after 1 year. e ...19911865163
failure of sucralfate in the treatment of refractory esophagitis versus high-dose famotidine. an endoscopic study.scarce data exist on the medical treatment of patients with peptic esophagitis who are non-responders to conventional or higher doses of h2-blocker agents, and no controlled trial on such patients has been published so far. we conducted a randomized single-blind study on the effects of 1 g sucralfate four times daily (n = 8), a mucosa-protective agent, versus 40 mg famotidine twice daily (n = 8), a new h2-blocker agent, administered for 12 weeks, in the treatment of peptic esophagitis (grades i ...19911871541
thermodynamic parameters for the glutamate dehydrogenase catalyzed alpha-imino acid-alpha-amino acid 1-piperidine 2-carboxylic acid, an alpha-imino acid, is reduced by 1,4-dihydropyridines to pipecolic acid, an alpha-amino acid, and the corresponding pyridinium ions. this nonenzymatic reaction occurs only in the direction of pipecolic acid production. glutamate dehydrogenase catalyzes this reaction when the reductant is nadph and gives as products l-pipecolic acid and nadp+. the reaction velocity for the enzyme-catalyzed reaction is measurable in either direction. the ph-independent equil ...19911873475
[development of peritubular myoid cells in the rat testis].in the testes of 47 embryos, fetuses and newborn rats (fisher strain), until the 15th day of life, the appearance and numerical dynamics of "premyoid" and myoid cells were analysed by light microscopy. the material was prepared routinely (fixed in bouin fluid, embedded in paraffin, and cut to the thickness of 7 micrometers). the embryos of the 12th to 17th day of gestation were serially sectioned in toto, while fetal testes on the 18th to 21th day of gestation were removed and serially cut as we ...19911875715
a quasi-exact test for comparing two binomial proportions.the use of the fisher exact test for comparing two independent binomial proportions has spawned an extensive controversy in the statistical literature. many critics have faulted this test for being highly conservative. partly in response to such criticism, some statisticians have suggested the use of a modified, non-randomized version of this test, namely the mid-p-value test. this paper examines the actual type i error rates of this test. for both one-sided and two-sided tests, and for a wide r ...19911876801
enhancement of antitumor drug cytotoxicity via laser photoactivation.we investigate the efficacy of daunomycin, some imino- and amino-substituted daunomycin analogues and the disubstituted aminoanthracenedione, mitoxantrone, in photosensitizing short-term cell kill upon irradiation in the long wavelength visible range, during incubation of fisher rat thyroid cells with the drugs. while all compounds exhibit similar cytocidal effects on our cell line, in the absence of irradiation, administering 86 j/cm2 at wavelengths either coincident or close to drug absorption ...19911886938
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