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[deoxyribonucleic acids from pasteurella multocida and pasteurella haemolytica].pasteurella multocida and p. haemolytica strains contain between 1.5 and three per cent phosphorus, between nine and 14 per cent nitrogen, between two and four per cent dna, and between five and 18 per cent rna, the precise figures depending on culturing conditions. high-molecular dna may be isolated by means of bacteriolysis, using deoxycholate or dodecylsulphate and the usual steps of purification, with yield and purity differing by strains. dna with sufficient purity can be obtained from seph ...197993955
experimental infection of specific pathogen-free lambs with parainfluenza virus type 3 and pasteurella haemolytica. 1978207749
the effect of vaccination with a parainfluenza type 3 virus on pneumonia resulting from infection with parainfluenza type 3 virus and pasteurella haemolytica. 1978207750
concurrent infection of lambs with parainfluenza virus type 3 and pasteurella haemolytica. 1977208027
pneumonia in calves produced with aerosols of bovine herpesvirus 1 and pasteurella haemolytica.in each of 11 experiments, four calves were exposed first to an aerosol of bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv1, virus of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis) and second to an aerosol of pasteurella haemolytica. the interval between aerosols was three to five days. in two other experiments, calves were exposed only to a bacterial aerosol. climate was controlled for all experiments from the day of viral exposure and for eight of the experiments it was also controlled for four to six days before the first aer ...1978210912
inability of passively acquired antibody to protect lambs against experimental pasteurellosis.an experimental model of pneumonic pasteurellosis in sheep was used to investigate the role of serum antibody in resistance to this disease. lambs which had been vaccinated with a sodium salicylate extract of pasteurella haemolytica type a1 were protected against challenge with pi3 virus followed by p. haemolytica type a1 7 days later. the majority of untreated lambs and lambs which had received either 200 ml of antiserum to p. haemolytica or 200 ml of control serum intraperitoneally 18 h before ...1979227797
pathology of an experimental infection of specific pathogen-free lambs with parainfluenza virus type 3 and pasteurella haemolytica. 1979231053
differentiation of pasteurella haemolytica biotypes a and t with growth inhibitors.differentiation of type a and type t cultures of pasteurella haemolytica was accomplished by paper disks containing 0.3 microgram of penicillin g, which produced zones of inhibition larger than 10 mm with type a but not with type t strains. basic fuchsin (0.2 microgram/ml), brilliant green (0.005 microgram/ml), methylene blue (3.1 micrograms/ml) in brain heart infusion broth permitted the growth of type t but that of type a isolates.1979259607
experimental studies of chronic pneumonia of sheep.strains of mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and pasteurella haemolytica isolated from sheep affected with chronic pneumonia were inoculated by endobronchial route to conventionally-reared and spf (specific pathogen-free) lambs. changes resembling those of the naturally-occurring disease were produced in most lambs given the organisms in combination and in some given m. ovipneumoniae alone. similar but less extensive changes were seen in spf lambs and fewer animals were affected. different strains of m. ...1979318238
[chemically defined and partially defined media for pasteurella multocida and pateurella hemolytica].two culturing recipes were suggested for pasteurella multocida and pasteurella haemolytica, one partialy defined nutritive defined nutritive medium with 0.5 per cent yeast extract and one chemically defined medium. both had been composed on the basis of studies into nutrient demand and into the effects of complex nutritive substrates. both nutritive media are applicable also to culturing other bacterial species. (among the strains tested so far were streptococci, staphylococci, escherichia coli, ...1977322633
non-specific resistance of mice to pasteurella haemolytica.a technique for challenge infection of mice with pasteurella haemolytica is described. mice were challenged intraperitoneally with p haemolytica in gastric mucin, and viable counts were performed 6 h later on liver suspensions. viable counts of p haemolytica in the livers of unvaccinated control mice had increased 6 h after infection. mice were injected subcutaneously with a commercial pasteurella vaccine at various time intervals before challenge. in those given vaccine two weeks, one week, 48 ...1979396619
pasteurella haemolytica and respiratory disease in cattle. 1979400027
two new serotypes of pasteurella haemolytica from sheep in ethiopia. 1979442208
improved method for obtaining streptomycin-dependent mutants from pasteurella multocida and pasteurella haemolytica, using n-methyl-n'-nitro-n-nitrosoguanidine.n-methyl-n'-nitro-n-nitrosoguanidine was used in a modified and improved procedure to obtain streptomycin-dependent mutants of type a pasteurella multocida and type 1 pasteurella haemolytica. the relative virulence of these mutants was determined by mouse inoculation with and without streptomycin.1979475104
experimental bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis. i. prevention of the disease.fifteen three- to six-month old hereford-cross calves were divided into three groups. the first group was inoculated with bovid herpersvirus 1 (strain 108), the second with a commercial intranasal vaccine against bovid herpesvirus 1 and the third group acted as controls. at least three weeks after vaccination, all calves were weaned, placed in an environmental chamber at 25.0 degrees c (days) and -13.3 degrees c (nights) and challenged with an aerosol of bovid herpesvirus 1 followed four days la ...1979487247
experimental bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis. ii. genesis and prevention.two experiments were conducted. in the first, 16 crossbred hereford calves were divided into two equal groups. the first group was vaccinated intranasally with a commercial vaccine against bovid herpesvirus 1 and the second group was unvaccinated. the calves were later exposed to an aerosol of bovid herpesvirus 1 (strain 108) for five minutes. four calves from each group were subjected to transportation and four calves from each group were kept in an environmental chamber for four days. four day ...1979487248
antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the a and t types of pasteurella haemolytica.minimal concentrations of penicillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, erythromycin, nitrofurantoin, kanamycin and gentamicin inhibitory to pasteurella haemolytica biotypes a and t were determined. they were found to be significantly higher for t than for a type strains in the case of all the antimicrobial drugs tested except the two aminoglycosides kanamycin and gentamicin, for which no differences were observed. in the case of penicillin the differences were so marked th ...1979515520
pathological and microbiological studies on calf pneumonia occurring in mass rearing facilities.pathological and microbiological studies were conducted on lesions in the lungs of 194 calves from mass rearing facilities. macroscopically, the lesions were classified into six forms: nonlesion, atelectasis, mild pneumonia, moderate pneumonia, advanced pneumonia, and advanced pneumonia accompanied with abscess. histopathological examination revealed bronchopneumonia in most of the calves. lesions more advanced than moderate pneumonia were complicated with desquamation, severe exudation, and nec ...1979522891
a mouse model of pasteurella haemolytica infection and its use in assessment of the efficacy of p haemolytica vaccines.a method for infecting mice with pasteurella haemolytica is described. mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with p haemolytica incorporated in gastric mucin, killed at various time intervals thereafter and viable counts of bacteria were performed on liver suspensions. p haemolytica grew at an exponential rate in the livers of normal mice. mice vaccinated against p haemolytica a1 were protected against homologous challenge and viable counts decreased rapidly in their livers. mice given trivalen ...1979523808
a serological comparison of pasteurella haemolytica vaccines containing different adjuvants.five adjuvants were compared for their ability to enhance the serological response of sheep to capsule extract of pasteurella haemolytica biotype a serotype 6. vaccines of this antigen were inoculated with incomplete freund's adjuvant, complete freund's adjuvant, incomplete freund's adjuvant containing a water soluble extract of mycobacterium tuberculosis, aluminium hydroxide gel or a combination of aluminium hydroxide gel and incomplete freund's adjuvant. this latter vaccine induced significant ...1979523817
sequential titration of bovine lung and serum antibodies after parenteral or pulmonary inoculation with pasteurella haemolytica.calves were vaccinated by intrabronchial or subcutaneous injection of formalinized pasteurella haemolytica. antibody in serum, nasal washings, and bronchoalveolar washings was titrated sequentially before and after calves were vaccinated and then challenge exposed with live homologous bacteria. bronchoalveolar washings were collected by fiberoptics bronchoscopy, and antibody was titrated by indirect (antiglobulin) bacterial agglutination. responsiveness to vaccination was related in initial seru ...1979525887
a field outbreak of suspected stachybotryotoxicosis in sheep.an outbreak of mortality in a flock of mutton merino sheep in which 109 out of 568 sheep died in the south-western cape province, is described. it was characterized by haemorrhagic septicaemia, anaemia, leucocytopaenia and haemorrhagic tendencies. mortalities followed unseasonal and heavy summer rain, extended over a period of 6 months and were associated with the uninterrupted consumption of sheep cubes processed on the farm severly fungus-infested wheat, barley and rye straw for a period of at ...1979575906
demonstration of cross-protection between pasteurella multocida type a and pasteurella haemolytica, serotype 1.mice immunized with the potassium thiocyanate extract of pasteurella haemolytica, serotype 1, were found to resist a challenge infection of p. multocida type a, thus demonstrating cross-protection. this finding was further supported by the finding that an antiserum directed against the potassium thiocyanate extract of p. haemolytica was bactericidal to p. multocida and vice versa.1977591058
serological types of pasteurella haemolytica in kenya.the 12 known serotypes of p. haemolytica and two biotypes a and t were found to occur in kenya. biotype t was more common in disease conditions than biotype a, which was more common in the nasal passages of healthy animals. only biotypes a strains were recovered from cattle and the majority were serotypes 1 and 2, but serotypes 4 and 11 were also isolated. all serotypes were found to occur in sheep and goats, but serotypes 3, 4, 6, 8 and 10 were more commonly associated with pneumonia. it was ob ...1978618717
rapid plate agglutination procedure for serotyping pasteurella haemolytica.a specific, rapid plate agglutination procedure for serotyping pasteurella haemolytica was performed. the procedure did not require special antigen preparation and yielded essentially the same results as the indirect hemagglutination procedure.1978632345
induction of pneumonia in mice with pasteurella haemolytica. 1978670447
the bovine alveolar macrophage. ii. in vitro studies with pasteurella haemolytica.bovine alveolar macrophages were cultured in vitro and challenged with suspensions of live and dead bacteria. these cells showed severe cytotoxic morphological changes and a low rate of phagocytosis after exposure to live pasteurella haemolytica type i was readily phagocytosed and produced only mild cytotoxic changes.1978688077
[respiratory enzootics in sheep caused by pasteurella haemolytica].bacteriologically in 25 per cent of the materials taken from lambs, weaned lambs, and adult sheep pasteurella haemolytica was invariably isolated. serologic typing revealed that serotypes a2 and a6 were mostly widespread. the remaining serotypes proved to be encountered. widely occurring were likewise the carriers of pasteurella haemolytica both among the diseased animals and among the normal contacts--30 and 6 per cent, respectively. the serotype of the isolated strains (swab samples) was shown ...1978749330
nonspecific immunosuppression induced in mice with killed pasteurella haemolytica in freund's complete adjuvant.killed pasteurella haemolytica type i in combination with freund's complete adjuvant, induced suppression of murine primary response to srbc. the suppression could be adoptively transferred with spleen cells depleted of t or b lymphocytes and was best expressed when viable cells were transferred. some normal rabbit serum has the ability to nullify immunosuppressive effects of the transferred cells.1976773844
[nitrofurantoin-test for the differentiation of bordetella bronchiseptica (author's transl)].bordetella bronchiseptica is primarily resistant against nitrofurantoin (mic greater than 200 mug/ml), and this feature can be used for the differentiation of the organism from other gram-negative coccobacteria. nitrofurantoin paper disks (300 mug) failed to affect the growth of 150 strains of b. bronchiseptica isolated from different animal hosts, but they produced marked inhibition zones in the cultures of the followingspecies: pasteurella multocida, pasteurella pneumotropica, pasteurella haem ...1975809944
bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis: experimental induction in vaccinated and nonvaccinated calves.a study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the immune response induced by combined aerosol and parenteral vaccination on the lung lesions induced in calves by pasteurella haemolytica ai. twenty-four calves, twelve of which had been vaccinated with killed p. haemolytica by aerosol and subcutaneous injection in freund's complete and incomplete adjuvant were challenged by intratracheal inoculation of live p. haemolytica. serological response to vaccination was not marked but was best meas ...1977832192
serotypes of pasteurella haemolytica in ovine pasteurellosis.the serotypes of 406 strains of pasteurella haemolytica were determined. these came from cases of pasteurellosis in sheep of all ages. serotype a2 was the most frequent and comprised 33 per cent of all strains recovered. serotypes t3, t4 and t10 comprised 16, 14 and 12 per cent of the total respectively. serotypes a1 and a6 contributed 5 per cent each, a7, 18, a9, a11 and a12 a total of 8 per cent collectively, serotype a5 was not isolated at all while 6 per cent of strains were serologically un ...1977841198
[problems in the use of radioactively marked bacteria in animal experiments. 1. labeling of pasteurella multocida, pasteurella haemolytica and salmonella dublin with eh, 14c, 32p, 59fe, 99mtc, 125j1].several methods are suggested by which to use the radionuclides 3h, 14c, 32p, 59fe, 99mtc, and 125j for labelling or doublelabelling of pasteurella multocida, pasteurella haemolytica, and salmonella dublin, with particular reference being made to labelling ofr animal experiments. suitable radioactive substrates for internal labelling in chemically defined or partially defined nutritive media include 3h-thymin, 3h-thymidine, 14c-glucose, 14c-mannose, 14c-aspartic acid, as well as 3h-uracil, 3h-ur ...1977849104
pasteurella haemolytica infection in two neonatal foals. 1977869809
[biochemical properties of different serotypes of pasteurella haemolytica].studied were the morphologic and biochemic properties of 85 pasteurella haemolytica strains belonging to the known 12 serotypes after biberstein, gills (2). the biochemical properties of the strains were studied after the pattern of bosworth and lovell (4) with regard to arabinose, trehalose, xylose, manose, salysin, and lactose. it was found that the biochemical properties correlated with the biotype classification of the strains. thus, the biochemical reaction with trehalose and arabinose may ...1976960554
the effect of route of immunization on the lapine immune response to killed pasteurella haemolytica and the influence of aerosol challenge with the live organism.appearance of anti-pasteurella haemolytica antibody in the serum and broncho-alveolar washings of rabbits is independent of the route of immunization and is similar in both locations. the most influential factor in development of a humoral response is exposure to live p. haemolytica and prior exposure to the killed bacterium has no significant effect upon titre determined following aerosol challenge with live organisms.19761000399
multiple drug resistance in pasteurella multocida and pasteurella haemolytica from cattle and swine.the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing on 262 strains of pasteurella multocida and 141 strains of pasteurella haemolytica isolated from cattle and swine from 1971 to 1974 were analyzed for patterns of resistance to streptomycin, penicillin, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol, using a modified kirby-bauer procedure. resistance was recorded for 80.5% of the isolants of p multocida and 92.2% of those of p haemolytica. resistance to streptomycin was most frequent, followed by resistance ...19761048955
experimental infection of lambs with an aerosol of pasteurella haemolytica.specific pathogen free lambs were exposed to an aerosol of pasteurella haemolytica. ten lambs vaccinated with an adjuvanted killed p haemolytica vaccine and nine units of p haemolytica administered in an aerosol. pneumonia histologically indistinguishable from natural pneumonic pasteurellosis occurred in one vaccinated lamb and in four control lambs.19751144931
protein electrophoretic pattern of pasteurella haemolytica.electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels of the constituent proteins of the 12 serotypes and an untypable strain of pasteurella haemolytica showed a pattern of bands that divided the group into two. this division conformed to the a and t biotype groupings of smith (1959) although the serotype a9 showed only minor band difference from the three t serotypes 3, 4 and 10. it was not possible by this method to separate all the type strains from each other by the specific recognition of the patterns of ...19751144932
[serologic typing of strains of pasteurella haemolytica isolated from sheep].typed were a total of 85 strains of pasteurella haemolytica isolated from lambs, weaned lambs, and adult sheep in cases of septicemia and broncho-pneumonia applying the hemagglutination-inhibition reaction and making use of capsule antigens and anti-capsule hyperimmune sera. it was found that 74 strains belong to biotype a, five belong to biotype t, and six remained untyped. most wide spread in this country proved serotype a2--35 strains, followed by serotype a6--14 strains.19751226701
the glycoprotease of pasteurella haemolytica a1 eliminates binding of myeloid cells to p-selectin but not to e-selectin.hl-60 cells and neutrophils treated with the glycoprotease from pasteurella haemolytica a1, an enzyme which is specific for o-sialoglycoproteins, were found to be incapable of binding p-selectin but still bound e-selectin. comparative analysis of [35-s] cysteine labeled proteins from hl-60 cells by 2-dimensional electrophoresis indicated that two major proteins with m(r) 100 and 115 kd were significantly removed from cells which had been treated.19921280121
a characterization of monoclonal antibodies prepared against pasteurella haemolytica serotype 1 surface antigens.the production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against pasteurella haemolytica serotype 1 is described. ten monoclonal antibodies were produced and divided, on the basis of their properties, into six different groups. one produced bacteria agglutination only of p. haemolytica serotype 1. three antibodies bound with p. haemolytica serotypes 1, 5-8 and 12 and the antigen was identified in immunoblots as lipopolysaccharide. two antibodies bound p. haemolytica serotypes 1, 2, 5-8 and 1 ...19921280877
lipopolysaccharide heterogeneity in pasteurella haemolytica isolates from cattle and sheep.lipopolysaccharide (lps) from 40 isolates of pasteurella haemolytica, comprising 23 serotype a1, seven serotype a2, one serotype t4, one serotype t10 and eight untypable isolates, obtained from diseased and healthy cattle or sheep, was characterized by sds-page and western blotting. ten different sds-page lps profiles, five smooth and five rough, were identified among the biotype a and untypable isolates and designated lps types 1-10. lps types 1 and 2 were smooth, had similar o-antigen banding- ...19921282533
controlling tick infestations and diseases in sheep by pour-on formulations of synthetic pyrethroids. a field study.the use of synthetic pyrethroids in pour-on formulations reduced tick infestations and the incidence of tick-associated diseases in lambs more than dipping in organophosphate acaricides. though the use of pyrethroids did not prevent the lambs from being infected with tick-borne fever (tbf), the incidence of lambs with lameness (tick pyaemia) or lambs suddenly found dead (pasteurella haemolytica septicaemia), which often are seen in association with tbf, was reduced. the use of pyrethroids for th ...19921295204
pasteurella haemolytica diagnosis questioned. 19921298273
pasteurella haemolytica infection in a goeldie's monkey.an adult male callimico goeldii died spontaneously. at necropsy, small whitish foci were found randomly distributed on the liver surface. histologically, the foci were composed of mixed inflammatory cells with predominant polymorphonuclear cell infiltration and central areas of necrosis. microbiological cultures revealed a gram-negative coccoid-bacilli with bipolar staining. biochemical analysis revealed that the microorganism was pasteurella haemolytica.19921307760
release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha from bovine alveolar macrophages stimulated with bovine respiratory viruses and bacterial endotoxins.the release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (tnf-alpha) from cultured bovine alveolar macrophages (bam) was evaluated following stimulation of bam with bovine herpesvirus-1 (bhv-1), parainfluenza-3 (pi-3) virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv), escherichia coli 0111:b4 endotoxin, pasteurella haemolytica type 1 endotoxin, pasteurella multocida endotoxin, and virus/endotoxin combinations. a cytotoxic assay system using georgia bovine kidney cells as targets was used to measure tnf-alpha a ...19921312264
effects of pasteurella haemolytica a1 leukotoxin on bovine neutrophils: degranulation and generation of oxygen-derived free radicals.to further define the role of pasteurella haemolytica a1 leukotoxin in the pathogenesis of bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis, its in vitro effects on bovine neutrophils were investigated. leukotoxin-containing culture supernatant, from p. haemolytica, stimulated a neutrophil respiratory burst as measured by the generation of oxygen-derived free radicals o2- and h2o2. this effect was immediate because preincubation of neutrophils with the culture supernatant for 5 min or longer substantially suppre ...19921321532
pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin enhances production of leukotriene b4 and 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes.the influence of the leukotoxin of pasteurella haemolytica on the generation of arachidonic acid metabolites by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (pmns) was investigated. pmns released 5-, 12-, and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (5-, 12-, and 15-hete) and leukotriene b4 (ltb4) upon stimulation with arachidonic acid. the leukotoxin preparations dose dependently enhanced the release of the 5-lipoxygenase products 5-hete and ltb4 in arachidonic acid-stimulated pmns, whereas the release of 12- a ...19921322370
using ribosomal rna gene restriction patterns in distinguishing isolates of pasteurella haemolytica from bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis).pasteurella haemolytica isolates (n = 31) from two isolated captive herds of rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis) were characterized and compared phenotypically (biotype, serotype, hemolytic activity) and by a genomic fingerprinting method known as ribotyping. seven to nine distinct phenotypes were observed. depending on the method used for serotyping, one to three phenotypes were common to both herds. eighteen isolates, recovered from both herds, were non-hemolytic, biotype ...19921324994
characterization of plasmids with antimicrobial resistant genes in pasteurella haemolytica a1.two r plasmids, pyfc1 and pyfc2, from pasteurella haemolytica a1 encoding sulfonamide, streptomycin (pyfc1), and ampicillin (pyfc2) resistances have been characterized by restriction endonuclease digestions, subcloning or dna sequencing. pyfc1 consists of 4225 bp and is 51.9% in at content. physical mapping indicated a highly conserved region of restriction sites among pyfc1, rsf1010, pgs05, pfm739, phd148 and pgs03b. pyfc1 encoded a dihydropteroate synthase (29.8 kda), and streptomycin kinase ( ...19921333838
serological titers to bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza 3 virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus and pasteurella haemolytica in feedlot calves with respiratory disease: associations with bacteriological and pulmonary cytological variables.acute and convalescent serum samples were taken from 59 calves with signs of respiratory disease (cases) and 60 clinically normal animals (controls) during their first month in the feedlot. sera were analyzed for antibodies to bovine parainfluenza 3 (pi3) virus by hemagglutination inhibition, to bovine viral diarrhea (bvd) virus, bovine respiratory syncytial (brs) virus and bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv1) by virus neutralization, and to pasteurella haemolytica by indirect agglutination (phia) and cy ...19921335831
cleavage of the cell-surface o-sialoglycoproteins cd34, cd43, cd44, and cd45 by a novel glycoprotease from pasteurella haemolytica.the study of structural/functional characteristics of the cell-surface glycoproteins of leukocytes has led to a better understanding of the differentiation and maturation of hematopoietic cells. we have assessed the ability of a unique metalloprotease that is secreted by the bovine fibrinous pneumonia pathogen pasteurella haemolytica, to cleave cell-surface glycoproteins expressed on human leukocytes. biochemical analysis shows that the o-glycosylated cell surface ag cd34, cd43 (leukosialin), cd ...19921371528
characterization of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody to pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin.six hybridoma clones producing monoclonal antibodies (mabs) reactive with pasteurella haemolytica a1 leukotoxin were derived from mice immunized with leukotoxin excised from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. of the six mabs, only one, ltx-2, neutralized leukotoxin in a bl-3 cell cytotoxicity assay. mab ltx-2 blocked association of a1 leukotoxin to bl-3 cells, as measured by flow cytometric analysis. the epitope recognized by ltx-2 was localized to the carboxyl half of the native protei ...19921373398
antigenic analysis of iron-regulated proteins in pasteurella haemolytica a and t biotypes by immunoblotting reveals biotype-specific epitopes.the antigenic relationships of the iron-regulated proteins (irps) in pasteurella haemolytica a and t biotype strains were examined by sds-page and immunoblotting. p. haemolytica cells of the a biotype, grown under conditions of iron-limitation, expressed two irps, of 35 and 70 kda. all t biotype strains expressed irps with slightly different molecular masses of 37 and 78 kda. immunoblotting of all 16 p. haemolytica serotypes was carried out using a panel of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies r ...19921373434
differential sensitivity of cd34 epitopes to cleavage by pasteurella haemolytica glycoprotease: implications for purification of cd34-positive progenitor cells.our previous studies have shown that a unique glycoprotease from pasteurella haemolytica specifically cleaves only proteins containing sialylated o-linked glycans. the hematopoietic progenitor cell antigen, cd34, which is heavily glycosylated with both n- and o-linked glycans, is readily cleaved by this protease. in this study, we demonstrate that the epitopes detected by five of the seven cd34 monoclonal antibodies are removed by the glycoprotease. the differential sensitivity of the cd34 epito ...19921375160
comparison of antibody responses in cattle to outer membrane proteins from pasteurella haemolytica serotype 1 and from eight untypeable strains.membrane associated proteins from 8 untypeable pasteurella haemolytica strains were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and compared with those of p haemolytica serotypes 1 and 2. cattle antisera obtained from p haemolytica serotype 1 vaccine trials were used in immunoblotting assays to compare the membrane proteins from the 8 untypeable strains with those from p haemolytica serotypes 1 and 2. densitometry was used to identify bands, and using linear regression ...19921378250
retention of progenitor cell function in cd34+ cells purified using a novel o-sialoglycoprotease.we previously showed that the sialoglycoprotein, cd34, which is expressed on primitive human hematopoietic progenitor cells, is cleaved by a unique glycoprotease from pasteurella haemolytica (p.h. glycoprotease). this proteolytic enzyme specifically cleaves glycoproteins rich in o-sialoglycans. glycoproteins containing only n-linked glycans are not cleaved. cleavage of the cd34 antigen results in the loss of epitopes detected by five of seven cd34-designated antibodies. in this study, we investi ...19921381456
cloning and molecular analysis of the poly(3-hydroxyalkanoic acid) gene locus of pseudomonas aeruginosa pao1.from genomic libraries, the polyhydroxyalkanoate gene locus of pseudomonas aeruginosa pao1 was cloned and characterised at the molecular level. two genes coding for polyhydroxyalkanoate synthases, phac1pa and phac2pa, a polyhydroxyalkanoate depolymerase gene, phadpa, and four adjacent open reading frames (orf1, orf2, orf3 and orf4) were identified from the nucleotide sequence. two transcriptional start sites, which were preceded by sequences resembling the escherichia coli consensus sequences fo ...19921396693
co-migrating and shared antigens of selected pasteurella haemolytica untypable strains.bacterial cell envelope preparations from eight untypable strains of pasteurella haemolytica were compared by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting with rabbit antisera prepared against the eight untypable strains (one untypable strain per rabbit) and with cattle antisera prepared against p. haemolytica serotypes 1, 2, 5, 6, 9 and against one heterologous untypable strain. numerous comigrating and shared antigens were recognized by the eight rabbit antiser ...19921413477
the synthesis and function of the escherichia coli hemolysin and related rtx exotoxins.the rtx group of exotoxins represents a branch of a family of exoproteins produced by gram-negative bacteria which share the properties of being secreted by a leader-independent pathway and a tandemly-repeated nine-amino-acid sequence that is responsible for calcium binding. the escherichia coli hemolysin (hlya) is the prototype for the rtx exotoxin family which includes the leukotoxins of pasteurella haemolytica and actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and hemolysins from four gram-negative gen ...19921419112
changes in the bacterial flora of the upper and lower respiratory tracts and bronchoalveolar lavage differential cell counts in feedlot calves treated for respiratory diseases.serial nasopharyngeal swab and bronchoalveolar lavage cultures were used to estimate changes in the bacterial flora of the respiratory tracts of calves during the first month after arrival in the feedlot. bronchoalveolar lavage (bal) differential cell counts served to evaluate pulmonary inflammatory changes during this period. two groups of calves were studied, one consisting of clinically normal controls (n = 60), the other, of cases (n = 59) which received treatment for respiratory disease (pe ...19921423052
effects of pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxic culture supernatant on bovine neutrophil aggregation.pasteurella haemolytica a1 leukotoxic culture supernatant was evaluated for its ability to cause aggregation of bovine peripheral neutrophils. neutrophils were isolated by a hypotonic lysis method and incubated with zymosan-activated plasma (zap), leukotoxic culture supernatant, antileukotoxin serum, calcium and magnesium-free media, p-bromophenacyl bromide and protein kinase c inhibitors. aggregation was evaluated by changes in infrared light transmittance. leukotoxic culture supernatant caused ...19921423054
activation of bovine neutrophils by pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin is calcium dependent.in this study, we used the fluorescent probe fluo-3 to show that an increase in cytosolic free calcium, [ca2+]i, occurred when suspensions of bovine neutrophils were incubated with sublethal concentrations of p. haemolytica leukotoxin. this increase in [ca2+]i was dependent on the concentration of leukotoxin present in the medium and, at a given concentration of leukotoxin, dependent on the external calcium concentration. the calcium channel blocker verapamil and the beta-adrenergic antagonist p ...19921431567
nuclear-magnetic-resonance analysis of the capsular antigen of actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 9. its identity with the capsular antigen of escherichia coli k62 (k2ab), neisseria meningitidis serogroup h and pasteurella haemolytica serotype t15.the specific capsular antigen of actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 9 was characterized by one-dimensional and two-dimensional high-field nuclear-magnetic-resonance methods, and by chemical analyses, as a teichoic-acid-type polymer of a repeating unit having the structure [formula: see text] the basic polymer structure is identical to capsular antigens of neisseria meningitidis group h, escherichia coli k62 (k2ab) and pasteurella haemolytica serotype t15.19921446664
construction of a broad host range shuttle vector for gene cloning and expression in actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and other pasteurellaceae.we have constructed a pair of broad host range expression vectors, pjff224-nx and pjff224-xn, based on plasmid rsf1010, which enable cloning and efficient expression of genes in actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and pasteurella haemolytica and in escherichia coli. the vectors consist of the minimal autonomous replicon of the broad host range plasmid rsf1010 and a type ii chloramphenicol acetyl transferase gene for chloramphenicol resistance selection. in addition, they contain a gene expression ca ...19921448612
ovine pulmonary surfactant induces killing of pasteurella haemolytica, escherichia coli, and klebsiella pneumoniae by normal serum.pulmonary surfactant has been shown to play an increasingly important role in bacterial clearance at the alveolar surface in the lung. this study describes a bactericidal mechanism in which ovine pulmonary surfactant induces killing of pasteurella haemolytica by normal serum. to demonstrate killing, six bacterial species were incubated first with pulmonary surfactant for 60 min at 37 degrees c and then with serum for an additional 60 min at 37 degrees c. p. haemolytica type a1 strains 82-25 and ...19921452351
sequence analysis of the rob-1 beta-lactamase gene from actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.the rob-1 beta-lactamase gene from actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was cloned and sequenced. the structural gene encodes a 305 amino acid polypeptide. the rob-1 beta-lactamase gene sequence is identical to that derived from pasteurella haemolytica and only one amino acid different from that of haemophilus influenzae, suggesting that they are derived from the same ancestor, and transformed from one to another.19921455627
systemic and pulmonary antibody responses of calves to pasteurella haemolytica after intrapulmonary inoculation.systemic and pulmonary antibody responses of calves to pasteurella haemolytica were evaluated by measuring immunoglobulin production in blood for 9 days and in pulmonary lavage fluid for 7 days after intrapulmonary inoculation. clinical signs, pulmonary lesions, pulmonary and systemic inflammatory response, and amount of antigen in lavage fluid were used to evaluate the response of calves to challenge with p haemolytica. the pulmonary response consisted of production of igg, ige, and igm antibod ...19921456537
strain diversity within bovine pasteurella haemolytica serovar 2 respiratory tract isolates. 19921457554
a comparison of the intratracheal, intravenous and intratonsillar routes of inoculation of goats with pasteurella haemolytica. 19921466144
pharmacokinetic evaluation of ceftiofur in serum, tissue chamber fluid and bronchial secretions from healthy beef-bred calves.ceftiofur is a new broad spectrum cephalosporin marketed for the treatment of acute bovine respiratory disease. in this investigation ceftiofur was administered by intramuscular injection, at 24 h intervals, to healthy beef-bred calves for four days at dosages of 2.2 and 4.4 mg/kg of body weight, with 4 wk intervals between dosing regimens. serum, tissue chamber fluid (tcf), and bronchial secretion (bs) concentrations of ceftiofur were measured by microbiological assay after the first and fourth ...19921477795
an analysis of the codon usage of pasteurella haemolytica a1.analysis of approximately 17 kbp of nucleotide sequences from three different regions of the genome of pasteurella haemolytica a1 showed that the mol% g+c of p. haemolytica a1 dna is 38.5%. when only the coding sequences (approx. 10 kbp) were analysed, a similar value of 38.8% was obtained. a comparison of the relative synonymous codon usage values of the cloned genes showed that p. haemolytica a1 has a very different codon usage pattern from that of escherichia coli.19921478451
[occurrence and drug resistance of bacteria pathogenic to the lungs from autopsy material of swine].eight hundred and fifty-four piglets which died or were euthanized due to pneumonia or rhinitis atrophicans, were investigated during the period of 1986-1990. of the animals, 569 showed bronchopneumonia, 218 had pleuritis, pericarditis and peritonitis, 165 had rhinitis atrophicans, 58 pleuropneumonia, and 9 animals had fibrinous pneumonia. pasteurella multocida, haemophilus parasuis, bordetella bronchiseptica, actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and pasteurella haemolytica were isolated in 59.1%, 29 ...19921481214
causes of mortality and parasites and incidental lesions in dolphins and whales from british waters.detailed post mortem examinations were carried out on 18 dolphins and whales found dead on the coast of the united kingdom. the commonest causes of death were pneumonia and entanglement in fishing gear. of the non-fatal conditions, parasitoses of various organs were common and there was a wide variety of other conditions. in total 124 diseases and other lesions were found, giving an average of 6.9 conditions per animal.19921496768
evidence of immunosuppression by bovine respiratory syncytial virus.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is a major respiratory pathogen in human infants and calves. calves and lambs infected with bovine rsv show mild clinical signs but they are more susceptible to secondary infection with pasteurella haemolytica. lambs infected with p. haemolytica 6 days after experimental infection with bovine rsv had significantly greater magnitudes of fever, higher disease and lesion scores and higher mortality rates than those infected with p. haemolytica or bovine rsv alone ( ...19921514055
pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin inhibits mitogen-induced bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation in vitro.in this study we demonstrate that partially purified pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin inhibits the proliferative response of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) to mitogens in vitro. inhibition of pbmc proliferation did not appear to be due to cell death. addition of a neutralizing anti-leukotoxin monoclonal antibody restored a normal proliferative response.19921522801
increased elastase activity in nasal mucus associated with nasal colonization by pasteurella haemolytica in infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus-infected calves.four healthy calves were inoculated with pasteurella haemolytica serotype 1 by instillation of a broth culture into the middle nasal meatus of the left nostril. four weeks later, calves were exposed to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus by aerosol into both nostrils. all calves became ill, from approximately day 3 through day 10 after virus exposure, and shed increased amounts of nasal mucus. two calves were induced to shed p haemolytica by the virus infection, and 2 calves required reinocu ...19921524285
sequential development of antigens and toxins of pasteurella haemolytica serotype 1 grown in cell culture medium.pasteurella haemolytica was grown in nonsupplemented cell culture medium, or in medium supplemented with bovine serum albumin (bsa) for 24 hours. the production of leukotoxin (lkt) and endotoxin was sequentially evaluated, as were bacterial antigens associated with bacterial cell lysates and culture supernates. supplementation of medium with bsa had no effect on bacterial growth curves; however, lkt activity was detected earlier and was greater in culture supernates from bsa-supplemented media t ...19921524287
use of an indwelling bronchial catheter model of bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis for evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of various compounds.a model of bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis, using an indwelling bronchial catheter for inoculation and subsequent lavage of a single main stem bronchus of the lung, was evaluated in a preliminary efficacy trial of an experimental therapeutic compound. inoculation of 10(7) pasteurella haemolytica organisms into the bronchus consistently induced a focal pneumonic lesion with typical morphology of pneumonic pasteurellosis in the left or right caudal lung lobe. the experimental treatment caused sign ...19921524292
response of pasteurella haemolytica to erythromycin and dexamethasone in calves with established infection.a subcutaneous soft tissue infection model in calves was used to study the in vivo response of pasteurella haemolytica to erythromycin and dexamethasone. two tissue chambers were implanted sc in each of 12 calves. at 45 days after implantation, all tissue chambers were inoculated with an erythromycin-sensitive strain of p haemolytica. starting 24 hours after inoculation, calves were allotted to 4 groups of equal size and a 2 x 2-factorial arrangement of treatments was applied: 3 calves were give ...19921524293
distinct plasmid profiles of pasteurella haemolytica serotypes and the characterization and amplification in escherichia coli of ampicillin-resistance plasmids encoding rob-1 beta-lactamase.thirty-five isolates of pasteurella haemolytica from cattle or sheep were screened for the presence of plasmids and for resistance to a range of antibiotics. eight strains (four of serotype a1, three of serotype a2 and one untypable) contained plasmid dna and isolates of the same serotype had similar plasmid profiles, which were different from those of the other serotypes. all but one of the plasmid-bearing strains were isolated from pneumonic animals or from animals in contact with pneumonic ca ...19921527493
pasteurella haemolytica a1 and bovine respiratory disease: pathogenesis.the severe fibrinonecrotic pneumonia associated with pneumonic pasteurellosis usually results from colonization of the lower respiratory tract by pasteurella haemolytica biotype a, serotype 1(a1). despite recent research efforts, the authors lack a detailed understanding of the interactions and host response to p. haemolytica in the respiratory tract. the authors hypothesize that management and environmental stress factors or viral infection alters the upper respiratory tract (urt) epithelium al ...19921548621
alveolar macrophage and neutrophil interactions in pasteurella haemolytica-induced endothelial cell injury.pasteurella haemolytica, the cause of fibrinous pleuropneumonia in cattle, produces extensive microvascular endothelial cell damage. this study investigated endothelial cell-leukocyte interactions by using a millicell coculture assay system that modeled the bovine pulmonary alveolar defense system and showed that p. haemolytica-mediated endothelial cell damage was enhanced by the presence of alveolar macrophages, presumably due to soluble alveolar macrophage products. the alveolar macrophage-enh ...19921552194
the effect of the intra-mammary inoculation of lactating ewes with pasteurella haemolytica isolates from different sources.lactating welsh mountain ewes were inoculated, 3 weeks after lambing, with between 1000 and 10,000 colony forming units of a number of isolates of pasteurella haemolytica. isolates from severe, acute mastitis in a ewe, from ovine and bovine pneumonic lesions and from the nasal cavity of healthy lambs, all gave rise to severe, acute mastitis that was clinically indistinguishable from that seen naturally. two isolates from the milk of ewes with subclinical mastitis did not cause clinical disease a ...19921556261
[the significance of antibodies to pasteurella haemolytica a1 in the colostrum of cows and blood serum of calves].antibodies to p. haemolytica were detected in colostral sera of cows and blood sera of calves by means of indirect haemagglutination (iha) and elisa. the elisa titres of the colostral sera of the dams and of the blood sera of the calves showed a significantly positive correlation. there is a positive correlation between the titres of the two serological methods. the results of the challenge infection with p. haemolytica a 1 do not show a correlation between the titres and the severity of the dis ...19921575671
comparison of antigens of pasteurella haemolytica serotype 1 grown in vitro and in vivo.to determine whether antigenic differences exist in pasteurella haemolytica serotype 1 grown in different culture conditions, the bacteria was grown on solid enriched medium, in broth culture, and in tissue chambers subcutaneously implanted in the flanks of calves. the organisms obtained by each culture method were comparable with respect to encapsulation and lipopolysaccharide content. in the bacteria grown in vivo, several unique high molecular-mass (greater than 150 kda) protein antigens were ...19921586014
colonization of the tonsils of calves with pasteurella haemolytica.tonsils of 10 calves were inoculated with pasteurella haemolytica (ph) and the degree of colonization was followed by collecting sequential tonsil. wash specimens. tonsils were colonized for at least 3 weeks after instillation of ph into the tonsillar sinus. calves with colonized tonsils responded with serum and nasal secretion antibody responses to ph and to leukotoxin. pasteurella haemolytica was detected in nasal mucus specimens of 2 calves during the week after inoculation of the tonsils, bu ...19921586016
molecular characterization of an rtx toxin determinant from actinobacillus suis.rtx cytolysins are a family of calcium-dependent, pore-forming, secreted toxins found in a variety of gram-negative bacteria. the prototypical member of this family is the alpha-hemolysin of escherichia coli. the rtx genetic determinants from seven members of the family pasteurellaceae, pasteurella haemolytica, actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, and a. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1,5,7, and 9 were previously cloned and sequenced. using the leukotoxin determinant from p. haemolytica serotype a1 ...19921587585
pulmonary immunity in calves following stimulation of the gut-associated lymphatic tissue by bacterial exotoxin.antibodies in serum and pulmonary lavage fluids were measured in calves following stimulation of the gut-associated lymphatic tissue (galt) by inoculation of crude leukotoxin of pasteurella haemolytica into the duodenum through a surgically placed catheter. nine calves free of p. haemolytica were divided into two groups. group 1 received an intraduodenal (id) inoculation of leukotoxin and group 2 received an id inoculation of phosphate buffered saline. serum and pulmonary lavage fluids were coll ...19921591657
the effect of inoculation of pasteurella haemolytica into the lactating mammary gland of mice, rats, rabbits, sows and cows.an isolate of pasteurella haemolytica (a9), which consistently produced severe mastitis in ewes, was inoculated into the lactating mammary glands of a variety of species. mastitis did not develop after the inoculation of log-phase bacteria into the mammary gland of lactating mice, rats, rabbits or sows but did so in the mammary gland of two cows. another a9 isolate from a ewe with mastitis and an a1 isolate from a bovine pneumonic lung also induced mastitis in cows. thus, in this study, p. haemo ...19921602056
molecular cloning and expression of ptxa, the gene encoding the 120-kilodalton cytotoxin of actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2.the genetic determinants of the 120-kda cytotoxin of actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 were isolated from a lambda dna library by a plaque immunoblot technique. expression of the 120-kda polypeptide was confirmed by western immunoblot analysis of infected escherichia coli cell lysates, which were shown to be toxic for porcine alveolar macrophages in vitro. the genetic determinants of the toxin were subcloned into the plasmid vector puc18. this plasmid (pptx1) directed the synthesis and ...19921612740
interaction of ruminant transferrins with transferrin receptors in bovine isolates of pasteurella haemolytica and haemophilus somnus.the interactions of ruminant transferrins with receptors on bovine isolates of pasteurella haemolytica and haemophilus somnus were compared by growth studies and direct and competitive binding assays. isolates of p. haemolytica were capable of utilizing and binding transferrin from sheep, goat, or cattle, whereas isolates of h. somnus were capable of utilizing and binding only bovine transferrin.19921612764
tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 alpha enhance lipopolysaccharide-mediated bovine endothelial cell injury.alveolar macrophages (ams) are important in the host response to aerogenous pulmonary bacterial infections, such as pasteurella haemolytica-induced pneumonia in cattle. previous work has shown that ams enhance p. haemolytica-mediated pulmonary endothelial cell (ec) damage in vitro. the purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism of am-enhanced ec damage using an in vitro am-ec coculture system consisting of ams cultured on culture plate insert membranes and ecs in the underlying chamber ...19921613394
characterization of lipopolysaccharides from four pasteurella haemolytica serotype strains: evidence for presence of sialic acid in serotypes 1 and 5.highly purified lipopolysaccharides (lps) obtained from four strains of pasteurella haemolytica representative of four different serotypes were studied to ascertain their overall structural elements and sugar and fatty acid compositions. sds-page analysis revealed that each lps was of the smooth-type although they differed in migration patterns. somewhat unusual features of these lps included the presence of: (a) rhamnose in the core oligosaccharides of serotypes 2 and 3; and (b) sialic acid in ...19921624117
characterisation and biological activity of monoclonal antibodies specific for pasteurella haemolytica a1 capsule and lipopolysaccharide.monoclonal antibodies (mab) against both pasteurella haemolytica a1 capsule and lipopolysaccharide (lps) were produced. anti-capsule mab reacted with the homologous a1 serotype only, whereas mab against lps reacted with p. haemolytica serotypes a2, a5, a8, a12, a14 and a16 but not with 33 bacterial species or rough lps mutant strains tested. both capsule and lps antigens were visualised on the surface of bacteria by immunogold electron microscopy. neither of the mabs demonstrated antibody-depend ...19921626366
[results of experimental immunization of calves with different pasteurella antigens].calves immunised with different pasteurella antigens (inactivated whole cells, sodium chloride extract) where challenged two weeks after the second immunization with the homologous strain. the intracutaneous application of whole cells of p. haemolytica a1 and p. multocida a was effective. the incidence of pneumonia was reduced and the pneumonic lesions were less severe. the sodium chloride extract was not effective.19921638965
outer-membrane protein and lipopolysaccharide variation in pasteurella haemolytica serotype a1 under different growth conditions.growth characteristics, as well as outer-membrane protein (omp) and lipopolysaccharide (lps) profiles in sds-polyacrylamide gels, of two serotype a1 isolates of pasteurella haemolytica were examined under different in vitro growth conditions. the two isolates were chosen as representatives of disease (s/c 82/1) and non-disease (w/d 83/4) isolates, respectively. the growth rates and final cell densities of both isolates increased as the degree of aeration increased. in particular, the final cell ...19921645128
differential induction of tumor necrosis factor alpha in ovine pulmonary alveolar macrophages following infection with corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, pasteurella haemolytica, or lentiviruses.soluble mediators such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (tnf-alpha) may be important in the pathogenesis of many chronic pulmonary infections. we examined the ability of corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, pasteurella haemolytica, and ovine lentiviruses (ovlv) to induce tnf-alpha secretion by pulmonary alveolar macrophages (pam). bronchoalveolar lavage cells, composed of greater than 90% pam, were obtained from normal sheep. bronchoalveolar lavage cells were cultured for 2, 24, 48, 72, or 168 h in ...19911652561
clinical pharmacokinetics of parenterally administered danofloxacin in cattle.danofloxacin is a new fluoroquinolone antibacterial, developed specifically for veterinary use. its in vitro activity and pharmacokinetic properties have been investigated to assess its potential for use in the therapy of respiratory disease in cattle. the minimum inhibitory concentration of danofloxacin against 90% (mic90) of contemporary european and north american field isolates of pasteurella haemolytica, pasteurella multocida and haemophilus somnus, the most important bacterial respiratory ...19911663562
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