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a study on the role of birds in the spread of infections.during three expeditions undertaken in march 1977 to june 1978, 797 cloacal swabs were collected from birds of 54 species. seven salmonella strains of six serotype were isolated from larus ridibundus (five strains), corvus frugilegus and acrocephalus schoenobaenus (one each). four strains of influenza a (hav2 na4v) virus were isolated from larus ridibundus. for the first time in czechoslovakia, two strains of yucaipa paramyxovirus were isolated, both of them from troglodytes troglodytes. these r ...1979575902
argas (argas) vulgaris filippova, 1961, a new member of czechoslovak tick fauna.in the eastern part of the czechoslovak socialist republic the occurrence of the soft tick argas (a.) vulgaris fil., 1961 was established in four localities. all findings were made in synanthropic nesting sites of columbia livia gm. and corvus frugilegus l. in the belfries and lofts of churches.19761010496
[new faunal and biological observations on ticks in abruzzo].ticks collected during the years 1975-76 in abruzzo (prov. l'aquila and chieti) italy are reported. the following species have been identified: ixodes canisuga, ixodes frontalis, ixodes hexagonus, ixodes ricinus, dermacentor marginatus, haemaphysalis sulcata, rhipicephalus bursa, rhipicephalus sanguineus, hyalomma marginatum. new hosts are: felis catus for ixodes canisuga; scolopax rusticola, motacilla flava, corvus cornix for ixodes frontalis; sciurus vulgaris for haemaphysalis punctata; garrul ...19761032325
influence of environmental temperature and photoperiod on temporal structure of sleep in corvids.a survey is presented of the author's own investigations on the effects of ambient temperature and photoperiod on sleep in corvids. daily sleep patterns of rook, corvus frugilegus and magpie, pica pica have been studied electrographically under natural ambient conditions of light and temperature. the daily amount of total sleep time (tst) was positively correlated with night duration, whereas the proportion of tst spent in paradoxical sleep (ps) was strongly reduced in low ambient temperature (t ...19892638547
[characterization of campylobacter spp. from wild birds].bacteria of the genus campylobacter were isolated from 28 rooks (corvus frugilegus), 1 red kite (milvus milvus), 1 lapwing (vanellus vanellus), 1 coot (fulica atra), 1 common moorhen (gallinula chloropus) and 1 northern mallard (anas platyrhynchos). altogether, c. jejuni biovar 1, was isolated 19x, c. jejuni biovar 2 8x and c. coli 5x. among c. jejuni biovar 1 and 2 there were 5 isolates tolerating a content of 1.5% nacl in the medium. h2s proof of 3 c. jejuni biovar 2 and 1 c. coli isolates res ...19892930449
sleep pattern in the rook, corvus frugilegus.in the rook, corvus frugilegus, electrographic and behavioural correlates of sleep and wakefulness have been determined under natural lighting conditions. slow wave sleep (sws) was characterized by high amplitude slow eeg activity, low neck emg, and behavioural inactivity. paradoxical sleep (ps) was characterized by low amplitude fast eeg activity and inconsistent decrease in emg. ps episodes always commenced with head downward. several eye movements occurred activity were present. the rook spen ...20033591362
daily distribution of sleep states in the rook corvus frugilegus.sleep and wake states were monitored polygraphically in the rook corvus frugilegus, under the natural photoperiod and temperature. the indices of sleep and wake states in the rook were similar to those described previously for birds in general. the appearance of sleep episodes was confined to the dark part of the photoperiod. slow wave sleep (sws) showed a tendency to increase during the course of the night, while paradoxical sleep (ps) showed the opposite trend. the distribution of short sws ep ...19873625580
[squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus in a free-living rook].in a free living rook (corvus frugilegus) a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma without keratinization arising from the oesophageal mucosa was found. this tumour had grown around the right main bronchus and so caused marked respiratory distress.19863715849
development and comparative morphology of the nasal apparatus of the rook (corvus frugilegus l.). (morphogenesis of the nasal capsule, the nasal epithelial tube and the organ of jacobson in sauropsida xi). 19853988176
[the uropygial gland secretion of the rook (corvus frugilegus)]. 19704395539
[the rate of digestive system development during the postnatal period of young corvus monedula l. jackdaws and corvus frugilegus l. rooks (a morphometric study)]. 20064476962
sensory nerve endings in the joint capsules of the large limb joints in the domestic hen (gallus domesticus) and the rook (corvus frugilegus). 19705433957
pathological features of 3-chloro-4-methyl benzamine hcl toxicity in rooks (corvus frugilegus l.) and pheasants (phasianus colchicus l.).gross and microscopic changes in response to single po. doses of avicide 3-chloro-4-methyl benzamine hcl were studied in rooks (corvus frugilegus l.) and pheasants (phasianus colchicus l.). the observed changes followed a dose- and survival time related pattern and rooks were considerable more susceptible than pheasants to the toxicity of the compound. no effect was found in rooks and pheasants which survived safely 0.7 to 1.0 and 7.0 to 10.0 mg/kg doses, respectively. early acute effect, in roo ...19827152225
seasonal cycle of gonadal, thyroid, and adrenocortical function in the rook (corvus frugilegus). 19827180511
[epizootiology and pathogenesis of avian mycobacteriosis in the field rook (corvus frugilegus)].the occurrence of avian mycobacteriosis in the rook (c. frugilegus) was investigated in the years 1966-1985. a total of 188 birds captured at three localities of the czech republic were subjected to patho-morphological examination and to culture examination. patho-anatomic lesions were observed in five rooks (2.6%), m. avium was isolated from 10 rooks (5.3%). positive findings occurred in each examined locality. rook sensitivity to m. avium infection was tested by experimental infections. after ...19948053122
isolation and primary structure of a novel avian pancreatic polypeptide from five species of eurasian crow.chicken pancreatic polypeptide is the prototype of the neuropeptide y (npy)/pp superfamily of regulatory peptides. this polypeptide was appended the descriptive term avian, despite the presence of some 8600 extant species of bird. additional primary structures from other avian species, including turkey, goose and ostrich, would suggest that the primary structure of this polypeptide has been highly-conserved during avian evolution. avian pancreatic polypeptides structurally-characterised to date ...19938234905
[the occurrence of avian mycobacteriosis in wild birds during various epizootic conditions of tuberculosis in poultry].the occurrence of tuberculosis in free-living birds was studied in relation to a certain epidemiological situation in a long-term study from 1966 to 1990. a total of 3210 birds were examined. mycobacteria were isolated in five cases from free-living birds in the environment of six poultry rearing farms where tuberculosis was found in domestic fowl. at individual localities, the occurrence of mycobacteria was 3.5-50.0%. generalized tuberculosis was found in one case in house sparrow (passer domes ...19938346617
safety study of the sag2 rabies virus mutant in several non-target species with a view to its future use for the immunization of foxes in europe.the safety of the sag2 virus, a low virulence mutant of the sad strain, was investigated in ten species of mammals and seven species of birds liable to consume vaccine baits. these species are the western hedgehog (erinaceus europaeus), the meadow vole (microtus arvalis), the bank vole (clethrionomys glareolus), the water vole (arvicola terrestris), the field mouse (apodemus flavicollis or a. sylvaticus), the norway rat (rattus norvegicus), the european badger (meles meles), the domestic ferret ...19969014291
prevalence of listeria sp. in droppings from urban rooks (corvus frugilegus).droppings from 112 urban rooks (corvus frugilegus) were cultured for the presence of listeria sp. overall, 46% of rooks sampled harboured one or more listeria species. of all birds examined, 33%, 24% and 8%, respectively, were infected with listeria monocytogenes, listeria innocua and listeria seeligeri. differentiation of l. monocytogenes and l. seeligeri carried out by several phenotypic typing methods proved the diversity of strains and the major role of rooks which widely contribute to sprea ...19979172407
the spatial distribution and size of rook (corvus frugilegus) breeding colonies is affected by both the distribution of foraging habitat and by intercolony competition.explanations for the variation in the number of nests at bird colonies have focused on competitive or habitat effects without considering potential interactions between the two. for the rook, a colonial corvid which breeds seasonally but forages around the colony throughout the year, both the amount of foraging habitat and its interaction with the number of competitors from surrounding colonies are important predictors of colony size. the distance over which these effects are strongest indicates ...200010983832
[detection of west nile virus in birds in the territories of baraba and kulunda lowlands (west siberian migration way) during summer-autumn of 2002].west nile virus (wnv) was discovered in 3 species of birds collected in summer-autumn, 2002, in the south of western siberia. wnv was identified by elisa and rt-pcr. three of 5 dead rooks (corvus frugilegus), which were found in the territory of the kulunda plain, were wnv-infected. wnv rna was detected in 2% of samples of internal organs of aquatics birds, i.e. teal (anas crecca) and garganey (anas querquedula), caught in the chany lake (baraba plain). nucleotide sequencing of the 300-472 aa fr ...200415188656
investigating physical cognition in rooks, corvus frugilegus.although animals (particularly tool-users) are capable of solving physical tasks in the laboratory , the degree to which they understand them in terms of their underlying physical forces is a matter of contention. here, using a new paradigm, the two-trap tube task, we report the performance of non-tool-using rooks. in contrast to the low success rates of previous studies using trap-tube problems , seven out of eight rooks solved the initial task, and did so rapidly. instead of the usual, concept ...200616581516
[ultrastructural study of liver cells from rooks living in ecologically unfavorable areas].the ultrastructure of liver cells was studied in rooks (corvus frugilegus) living in radioactive and chemical contamination areas. the ultrastructure of liver cells from rook as well as jackdaw (corvus monedula) and hooded crow (corvus cornix) (corvidae family) from a conventionally clean area was studied as control. control hepatocytes proved to contain a great number of mitochondria, many of which were swollen and had clear matrix and disorganized cristae. the cristae nearly lacked glycogen an ...201616634429
what do rooks (corvus frugilegus) understand about physical contact?rooks (corvus frugilegus) do not use tools, but rapidly solve tests of physical cognition. the authors tested whether rooks understand the concept of physical contact using a task comprising a clear horizontal tube containing a stick with a disk attached to it and a piece of food. the rooks chose which side to pull the stick from to make the food accessible. two configurations were used, with either the food or disk central along the tube. all 8 rooks solved the food-central configuration, but f ...200616893266
local environmental effects and spatial effects in macroecological studies using mapped abundance classes: the case of the rook corvus frugilegus in scotland.1. the study of the spatial pattern of species abundance is complicated by statistical problems, such as spatial autocorrelation of the abundance data, which lead to the confusion of environmental effects and dispersal. 2. atlas-derived data for the rook in scotland are used as a case study to propose an approach for assessing the likely contribution of dispersal and local environmental effects, based on a bayesian conditional autoregressive (car) approach. 3. the availability of moist grassland ...200616922849
non-tool-using rooks, corvus frugilegus, solve the trap-tube problem.the trap-tube problem is used to assess whether an individual is able to foresee the outcome of its actions. to solve the task, an animal must use a tool to push a piece of food out of a tube, which has a trap along its length. an animal may learn to avoid the trap through a rule based on associative processes, e.g. using the distance of trap or food as a cue, or by understanding relations between cause and effect. this task has been used to test physical cognition in a number of tool-using spec ...200717171360
postconflict third-party affiliation in rooks, corvus frugilegus.conflict features in the lives of many animal species and induces social stress mediated by glucocorticoid hormones [1]. postconflict affiliation, between former opponents (reconciliation) or between former opponents and a bystander (third-party affiliation), has been suggested as a behavioral mechanism for reducing such stress [2], but has been studied almost exclusively in primates [3]. as with many primates, several bird species live in social groups and form affiliative relationships [4]. do ...200717240341
food of the european rook (corvus frugilegus). 189617732654
antibiotic resistant escherichia coli and salmonella in russian rooks (corvus frugilegus) wintering in the czech republic.to characterize antibiotic resistant escherichia coli and salmonella isolates in rooks wintering in the czech republic.200717916127
phylogeographic patterns in widespread corvid birds.intraspecific genetic diversity and phylogeography of corvus corone was investigated using the mitochondrial (mt) control region as a molecular marker. a split into two distinct mt lineages was observed. one represents individuals from a wide geographic range spanning from england to the russian far east (kamchatka), while the other one was found in the primorye and khabarovsk regions (southern parts of russian far east) as well as japan. for comparison, we investigated several widespread palear ...200717920300
cooperative problem solving in rooks (corvus frugilegus).recent work has shown that captive rooks, like chimpanzees and other primates, develop cooperative alliances with their conspecifics. furthermore, the pressures hypothesized to have favoured social intelligence in primates also apply to corvids. we tested cooperative problem-solving in rooks to compare their performance and cognition with primates. without training, eight rooks quickly solved a problem in which two individuals had to pull both ends of a string simultaneously in order to pull in ...200818364318
incidence of toxoplasma gondii in populations of wild birds in the czech republic.the protozoan parasite toxoplasma gondii was isolated from 193 individuals of 25 wild avian species, in a survey between 1981 and 90 in which 5880 individuals, comprising 76 species, were examined. the incidence of t. gondii was 18% in rooks (corvus frugilegus), 12% in mallards (anas platyrhynchos), 8% in common buzzards (buteo buteo), 2% in pheasants (phasianus colchicus) and 0.5% in house sparrows (passer domesticus) and differed significantly in these species (x(2) test, p<0.001). in rooks, t ...199218670984
[interpretation of the epizootic outbreak among wild and domestic birds in the south of the european part of russia in december 2007].the paper presents the results of interpreting the epizootic outbreak etiologically associated with high-virulent influenza virus a/h5n1 among domestic and wild birds in the zernogradsky and tselinsky districts of the rostov region. epizooty was characterized by a high infection rate in the synanthropic birds of a ground-based complex. rt-pct revealed influenza virus a/h5 in 60% of pigeons and crows and in around 20% of starlings, and in 10% of tree sparrows. fifteen viral strains from chickens ...200818756811
intestinal spirochetes isolated from wild-living jackdaws, hooded crows and rooks (genus corvus): provisionally designated "brachyspira corvi" sp. nov.intestinal spirochetes of genus brachyspira are commonly isolated from mammalian and avian hosts, and several species have been reported to cause enteric disease in pigs and birds. except for a previous publication on three isolates from corvid birds (order passeriformes, family corvidae, genus corvus), of which two are further studied in this paper, no other reports exist on brachyspira spp. of passerine birds. in this study, cloacal and intestinal swabs of small and large intestines were colle ...200818952187
the performance of rooks in a cooperative task depends on their temperament.in recent years, an increasing number of studies demonstrated the existence of consistent individual differences in behaviour, often referred to as differences in temperament or personality, in a wide range of animal species. there notably is a growing body of evidence showing that individuals differ in their propensity for risk taking or reacting to stressful situations. this variation has been related to differences in learning abilities or performance in cognitive tasks. in the present study, ...201020020166
redescription of sphaerirostris picae (acanthocephala: centrorhynchidae) from magpie, pica pica, in northern iran, with special reference to unusual receptacle structures and notes on histopathology.adults of sphaerirostris picae (rudolphi, 1819) golvan, 1956 are described from european magpie, pica pica linnaeus (corvidae), collected in 2008 from wooded areas near the northern iranian town of tonekabon by the southern shores of the caspian sea. other specimens also were collected from corvus cornix linnaeus, corvus corone linnaeus, and corvus frugilegus linnaeus (corvidae) in the same location, as well as from some of these hosts in other locations. our specimens had 31-38 proboscis hook r ...201020557203
identification of 20 polymorphic microsatellite loci in european crow (corvus corone) from existing passerine loci.the european crow (corvus corone) occurs in two subspecies (or species) with distinct plumage coloration: the black carrion crow (c. c. corone) and the grey and black hooded crow (c. c. cornix). we tested 42 passerine microsatellite loci for amplification in the european crow and identified 20 loci that were both polymorphic and easy to score. in 50 individuals sampled in the danish part of the species' pan-european hybrid zone, the number of alleles ranged between two and 21. one locus deviated ...200821585909
investigations into an outbreak of corvid respiratory disease associated with pasteurella multocida.the possible cause of disease and mortality in corvids on an outdoor pig unit in the north of england between august 2007 and march 2008 was investigated. nine carrion crows (corvus corone corone) and nine rooks (corvus frugilegus), comprising five live-caught birds with clinical signs of respiratory disease, one live-caught bird without respiratory disease, and 12 birds submitted dead were examined. clinical signs, gross and histopathological examination, microbiology and toxicology indicated t ...201121711193
gaze direction - a cue for hidden food in rooks (corvus frugilegus)?other individual's head- and eye-directions can be used as social cues indicating the presence of important events. among birds, ravens and rooks have been shown to co-orient with conspecifics and with humans by following their gaze direction into distant space and behind visual screens. both species use screens to cache food in private; also, it had been suggested that they may rely on gaze cues to detect hidden food. however, in an object-choice task, ravens failed to do so, and their competit ...201121855614
plant establishment and invasions: an increase in a seed disperser combined with land abandonment causes an invasion of the non-native walnut in europe.successful invasive species often are established for a long time period before increasing exponentially in abundance. this lag phase is one of the least understood phenomena of biological invasions. plant invasions depend on three factors: a seed source, suitable habitat and a seed disperser. the non-native walnut, juglans regia, has been planted for centuries in central europe but, until recently, has not spread beyond planted areas. however, in the past 20 years, we have observed a rapid incr ...201122072603
gastrointestinal helminths of magpies (pica pica), rooks (corvus frugilegus) and carrion crows (corvus corone) in mazandaran province, north of iran.corvidae is a cosmopolitan family of oscine birds including crows, rooks, magpies, jays, chough, and ravens. these birds are migratory species, especially in the shortage of foods, so they can act like vectors for a wide range of microorganisms. they live generally in temperate climates and in a very close contact with human residential areas as well as poultry farms. there is no available information in the literature concerning the parasitic infections of these three species of corvidae in maz ...201122347286
plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in fecal bacteria from rooks commonly wintering throughout europe.this study concerned the occurrence of fecal bacteria with plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (pmqr) genes in rooks (corvus frugilegus, medium-sized corvid birds) wintering in continental europe during winter 2010/2011. samples of fresh rook feces were taken by cotton swabs at nine roosting places in eight european countries. samples were transported to one laboratory and placed in buffered peptone water (bpw). the samples from bpw were enriched and subcultivated onto macconkey agar (mca) sup ...201222731858
essential and nonessential elements in nestling rooks corvus frugilegus from eastern poland with a special emphasis on their high cadmium contamination.concentration of minerals (sodium, potassium, calcium [ca], magnesium, iron [fe], copper, zinc [zn], manganese [mn], and cobalt) as well as toxic metals (cadmium [cd], lead [pb]) were determined in five tissues (liver, lung, kidney, muscle, and bone) of nestling rooks (corvus frugilegus; 1 to 13 days old) found dead in seven breeding colonies in eastern poland. cd concentration in all analyzed tissues was in the narrow range of 17.0-17.2 mg/kg dry weight (dw) cd, which in the light of the litera ...201222945854
vancomycin-resistant enterococci in rooks (corvus frugilegus) wintering throughout europe.this study's aims were to assess the prevalence of, and to characterize, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (vre) from rooks (corvus frugilegus) wintering in europe during 2010/2011. faeces samples were cultivated selectively for vre and characterized. pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing (mlst) were used to examine epidemiologic relationships of vana-containing vre. the vana-carrying vre were tested in vitro for mobility of vancomycin resistance traits. vre were found i ...201323116146
comparison of esbl--and ampc producing enterobacteriaceae and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa) isolated from migratory and resident population of rooks (corvus frugilegus) in austria.in order to test whether rooks (corvus frugilegus) represent good indicators for the potential circulation of antibiotics in their native habitat, two populations with different migratory behavior were tested for the presence of beta-lactamase producing enterobacteriaceae and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa). in all, 54 and 102 samples of fresh feces of a migratory and a resident population were investigated. a total of 24 and 3 cefotaxime-resistant enterobacterial isolates wer ...201324391878
trace-element interactions in rook corvus frugilegus eggshells along an urbanisation gradient.concentrations of seven trace elements [arsenic (as), chromium (cr), nickel (ni), lead (pb), copper (cu), zinc (zn), and cadmium (cd)] in the eggshells of rooks corvus frugilegus, a focal bird species of eurasian agricultural environments, are increased above background levels and exceed levels of toxicological concern. the concentrations of cr, ni, pb, cu, and zn are greater in eggshells from urban rookeries (large cities) compared with rural areas (small towns and villages) suggesting an urban ...201424793193
sibling recognition in the rook (corvus frugilegus ).in this study we tested whether rook siblings were able to recognize each other vocally when 2-2 1 2 months-old and, if so, whether this recognition still persisted about 10 months later. twelve rook nestlings were hand-reared. vocal recognition by the young birds (aged 2-2 1 2 months) was tested. the birds responded significantly more frequently to the call of a sibling than to the call of a non-sibling. this indicates that audible cues are at least important for sibling recognition. the indivi ...198424896518
why do distress calls evoke interspecific responses? an experimental study applied to some species of birds.distress calls of birds are well-known to elicit interspecific responses when they are broadcast to different species. we suggest that the interspecificity phenomenon results from the use of similar laws of decoding by all species. to support this hypothesis, we broadcast a simplified synthetic call to five species of birds (larus argentatus, l. ridibundus, vanellus vanellus, corvus frugilegus and sturnus vulgaris). this synthetic call was built by keeping all the parameters involved in the proc ...199124897723
residues of chromium, nickel, cadmium and lead in rook corvus frugilegus eggshells from urban and rural areas of poland.we examined the concentrations of chromium (cr), nickel (ni), cadmium (cd) and lead (pb) in rook corvus frugilegus eggshells from 43 rookeries situated in rural and urban areas of western (=intensive agriculture) and eastern (=extensive agriculture) poland. we found small ranges in the overall level of cr (the difference between the extreme values was 1.8-fold; range of concentrations=5.21-9.40 cr ppm), ni (3.5-fold; 1.15-4.07 ni ppm), and cd (2.6-fold; 0.34-0.91 cd ppm), whereas concentrations ...201424914534
plasmid-mediated resistance to cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones in various escherichia coli sequence types isolated from rooks wintering in europe.extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (esbl)-producing, ampc beta-lactamase-producing, and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (pmqr) gene-positive strains of escherichia coli were investigated in wintering rooks (corvus frugilegus) from eight european countries. fecal samples (n = 1,073) from rooks wintering in the czech republic, france, germany, italy, poland, serbia, spain, and switzerland were examined. resistant isolates obtained from selective cultivation were screened for esbl, ampc, and pm ...201525381245
first report of hepatic cysticercosis in a rook (corvus frugilegus) (passerifomes, corvidae).cysticercosis is an infection with the larval (cysticercus) stage of taenia spp. that it is seen as cysts in various human and animal tissues. in this study, pathologic findings of hepatic cysticercosis in a rook (corvus frugilegus) is described. to our knowledge, there is no report on hepatic cysticercosis in rook and this study shows that rooks may play a role as intermediate hosts in the transmission of parasitic infections.201425706432
vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecium with vana gene isolated for the first time from wildlife in slovakia.corvids have been identified as an important vector of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (vre) in several european countries. the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of vre in wildlife in slovakia and to characterize vana-carrying vre. at the beginning of 2013, we collected 287 fecal samples of common raven (corvus corax) in petrovce and 99 fecal samples of rooks (corvus frugilegus) in kosice. samples were cultured selectively on slanetz-bartley agar with vancomycin and screened for va ...201626675586
threat-sensitive anti-predator defence in precocial wader, the northern lapwing vanellus vanellus.birds exhibit various forms of anti-predator behaviours to avoid reproductive failure, with mobbing-observation, approach and usually harassment of a predator-being one of the most commonly observed. here, we investigate patterns of temporal variation in the mobbing response exhibited by a precocial species, the northern lapwing (vanellus vanellus). we test whether brood age and self-reliance, or the perceived risk posed by various predators, affect mobbing response of lapwings. we quantified ag ...201627738383
effect of spatial resolution of soil data on predictions of eggshell trace element levels in the rook corvus frugilegus.although a considerable research effort has gone into studying the dietary pathways of metals to the bodies of laying female birds and their eggs in recent years, no detailed investigations have yet been carried out relating the properties of the biogeochemical environment at large spatial scales to eggshell trace element levels in typical soil-invertebrate feeding birds under natural conditions. we used data from a large-scale nationwide monitoring survey of soil quality in poland (3724 samplin ...201627814545
seasonal changes in neophobia and its consistency in rooks: the effect of novelty type and dominance position.neophobia, or the fear of novelty, may offer benefits to animals by limiting their exposure to unknown danger, but can also impose costs by preventing the exploration of potential resources. the costs and benefits of neophobia may vary throughout the year if predation pressure, resource distribution or conspecific competition changes seasonally. despite such variation, neophobia levels are often assumed to be temporally and individually stable. whether or not neophobia expression changes seasona ...201627890937
analysis of the normal electrocardiogram in wild rooks ( corvus frugilegus ).to describe the normal electrocardiographic (ecg) patterns and values in unanesthetized rooks ( corvus frugilegus ), standard bipolar (i, ii, and iii) and augmented unipolar limb (avr, avl, and avf) lead ecgs were recorded from 10 clinically healthy wild rooks. wave forms were analyzed in all leads at 50 mm/s and at 10 mm = 1 mv to determine pr, qrs, st, and qt durations; the net qrs complex; and p and t amplitudes. the polarity of each waveform was tabulated in all leads. the mean electrical ax ...201628107074
survey for zoonotic microsporidian pathogens in wild living urban rooks (corvus frugilegus).microsporidia are opportunistic pathogens in nature infecting all animal phyla. there is a potential risk of microsporidian spores transmission from urban rooks inhabiting some metropolitan cities to people through casual interactions. the aim of this study was to identify microsporidia species in the droppings of rooks in wroclaw, poland. a total of 15 collective sets of droppings were examined using nested-pcr method. amplification of its rrna gene revealed the presence of enterocytozoon biene ...201728199765
age-specific differences in the winter foraging strategies of rooks corvus frugilegus.foraging efficiency and intraspecific competition were compared between wild adult and immature rooks corvus frugilegus with respect to flock size. behavioural time budgets, and observations of prey selection and prey energetic values revealed that adult rooks in large flocks (> 50 individuals) consumed smaller, less profitable prey, but allocated more time to feeding and fed at a faster rate and with greater success than adults in small flocks. by contrast, immature rooks in flocks of more than ...199128312495
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