the impact of temperature stress and pesticide exposure on mortality and disease susceptibility of endangered pacific salmon.anthropogenic stressors, including chemical contamination and temperature stress, may contribute to increased disease susceptibility in aquatic animals. specifically, the organophosphate pesticide malathion has been detected in surface waters inhabited by threatened and endangered salmon. in the presence of increasing water temperatures, malathion may increase susceptibility to disease and ultimately threaten salmon survival. this work examines the effect of acute and sublethal exposures to mala ...201424559935
sensitivity and specificity of histology for diagnoses of four common pathogens and detection of nontarget pathogens in adult chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in fresh water.histology is often underutilized in aquatic animal disease screening and diagnostics. the agreement between histological classifications of infection and results using diagnostic testing from the american fisheries society's blue book was conducted with 4 common salmon pathogens: aeromonas salmonicida, renibacterium salmoninarum, ceratomyxa shasta, and nanophyetus salmincola. adult chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in oregon were evaluated, and agreement between tests was calculated. liv ...201323536613
polyphasic characterization of aeromonas salmonicida isolates recovered from salmonid and non-salmonid fish.michigan's fisheries rely primarily upon the hatchery propagation of salmonid fish for release in public waters. one limitation on the success of these efforts is the presence of bacterial pathogens, including aeromonas salmonicida, the causative agent of furunculosis. this study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of a. salmonicida in michigan fish, as well as to determine whether biochemical or gene sequence variability exists among michigan isolates. a total of 2202 wild, feral and hat ...201323444966
development and validation of a real-time pcr assay for the detection of aeromonas salmonicida.a real-time pcr assay using a molecular beacon was developed and validated to detect the vapa (surface array protein) gene in the fish pathogen, aeromonas salmonicida. the assay had 100% analytical specificity and analytical sensitivities of 5 ± 0 fg (dna), 2.2 × 10(4) ± 1 × 10(4) cfu g(-1) (without enrichment) and 40 ± 10 cfu g(-1) (with enrichment) in kidney tissue. the assay was highly repeatable and proved to be robust following equivalency testing using a different real-time pcr platform. f ...201323121198
a cytotoxicity and comparative antibacterial study on the effect of zataria multiflora boiss, trachyspermum copticum essential oils, and enrofloxacin on aeromonas hydrophila.this study designed to test the antibacterial potency of enrofloxacin (enr) and essential oils from zataria multiflora boiss (zeo) and trachyspermum copticum (teo) on aeromonas hydrophila.201225050249
nocardiosis in freshwater reared chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha).an investigation was conducted to identify the cause of mortalities in freshwater reared chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha). mortalities occurred in juvenile salmon, at a salmon rearing facility in the south island of new zealand. the affected fish were from a pen inside the facility with no surrounding pens or other year classes affected.201728372487
human influence on the spatial structure of threatened pacific salmon remain viable, populations must be resilient to both natural and human-caused environmental changes. we evaluated anthropogenic effects on spatial connections among populations of chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (o. mykiss) (designated as threatened under the u.s. endangered species act) in the lower columbia and willamette rivers. for several anthropogenic-effects scenarios, we used graph theory to characterize the spatial relation among populations. we plotted varian ...201121797926
genetic diversity of flavobacterium psychrophilum isolates from three oncorhynchus spp. in the united states, as revealed by multilocus sequence typing.the use of a multilocus sequence typing (mlst) technique has identified the intraspecific genetic diversity of u.s. flavobacterium psychrophilum, an important pathogen of salmonids worldwide. prior to this analysis, little u.s. f. psychrophilum genetic information was known; this is of importance when considering targeted control strategies, including vaccine development. herein, mlst was used to investigate the genetic diversity of 96 f. psychrophilum isolates recovered from rainbow trout (onco ...201627016570
The use of a real-time PCR primer/probe set to observe infectivity of Yersinia ruckeri in Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), and steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).Yersinia ruckeri is the causative agent of enteric redmouth disease (ERM), a common pathogen affecting aquaculture facilities and implicated in large losses of cultured fish. Fisheries scientists continue to gain a greater understanding of the disease and the pathogen by investigating methods of identification and pre- and post-infection treatment. In this study, a real-time PCR probe set for Y. ruckeri was developed to detect daily changes in the bacterial load during pathogen challenges. Two s ...201121916903
sphaerothecum destruens pathology in cyprinids.sphaerothecum destruens is a significant intracellular parasite of fish which has caused disease and mortalities in cultured north american chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha and atlantic salmon salmo salar. several hosts for s. destruens have been identified within the salmonidae family, and the histopathology of the infection can differ between hosts. recently, s. destruens has been associated with the most invasive cyprinid species in europe, topmouth gudgeon pseudorasbora parva. accurat ...201121848122
gamete-associated flavobacteria of the oviparous chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in lakes michigan and huron, north america.flavobacterial diseases, caused by multiple members of the family flavobacteriaceae, elicit serious losses in wild and farmed fish around the world. flavobacteria are known to be transmitted horizontally; however, vertical transmission has been suspected but proven only for one fish-pathogenic flavobacterial species (e.g., flavobacterium psychrophilum). herein, we report on the isolation and molecular identification of multiple flavobacterium and chryseobacterium taxa from the ovarian fluid and ...201627350613
reproductive success of captively bred and naturally spawned chinook salmon colonizing newly accessible habitat.captively reared animals can provide an immediate demographic boost in reintroduction programs, but may also reduce the fitness of colonizing populations. construction of a fish passage facility at landsburg diversion dam on the cedar river, wa, usa, provided a unique opportunity to explore this trade-off. we thoroughly sampled adult chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at the onset of colonization (2003-2009), constructed a pedigree from genotypes at 10 microsatellite loci, and calculated ...201223467446
effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine on glucose release from chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) liver incubated in vitro.the effects of two catecholamines, epinephrine (ep) and norepinephrine (ne), on carbohydrate metabolism were studied by incubating chinook salmon liver in vitro. basal release of glucose over the course of a 5-h incubation was 7.93 +/- 1.70 mumol/g dry weight. both ep and ne (2 x 10(-7) m) stimulated glucose release rapidly during the first hour. after 5 h, ep and ne significantly increased glucose release over basal levels to 43.55 +/- 9.01 and 32.75 +/- 6.17 mumol/g dry weight, respectively. e ...20102904478
changes in brain gonadotropin-releasing hormone, pituitary and plasma gonadotropins, and plasma thyroxine during smoltification in chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tschawytscha).concentrations of brain salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sgnrh), plasma gonadotropin i (gth i), and pituitary gth i and gth ii were determined in yearling chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tschawytscha) during the parr-smolt transformation in two successive seasons. there were significant elevations in brain sgnrh content from february to march in 1988, and from february to april in 1989. increases in brain sgnrh content coincided with elevations in plasma thyroxine levels that occurred from fe ...20061426949
salmonid alphavirus replication in mosquito cells: towards a novel vaccine production system.salmonid alphavirus (sav) causes pancreas disease and sleeping disease in atlantic salmon (salmo salar) and rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) and confers a major burden to the aquaculture industry. a commercial inactivated whole virus vaccine propagated in a salmon cell line at low temperature provides effective protection against sav infections. alphaviruses (family togaviridae) are generally transmitted between vertebrate hosts via blood-sucking arthropod vectors, typically mosquitoes. sav i ...201424418177
flavobacterium psychrophilum infections in salmonid broodstock and hatchery-propagated stocks of the great lakes basin.bacterial coldwater disease (bcwd), caused by flavobacterium psychrophilum, threatens wild and propagated salmonids worldwide and leads to substantial economic losses. in addition to being horizontally transmitted, f. psychrophilum can be passed from infected parents to their progeny, furthering the negative impacts of this pathogen. in michigan, both feral and captive salmonid broodstocks are the gamete sources used in fishery propagation efforts. a 5-year study was initiated to follow the prev ...201526636411
high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of oxytetracycline in chinook salmon following administration of medicated feed.a high-performance liquid chromatographic assay was developed to detect oxytetracycline (otc) in chinook salmon muscle tissue. a solid-phase extraction protocol was used to recover otc and the internal standard, epitetracycline hydrochloride, from the salmon tissue samples. otc was analyzed using a mobile phase of methanol-0.02 m phosphate buffer, ph 2.25 (60:190), an ultraviolet detection wavelength of 365 nm and 250 mm x 4.6 mm i.d. ultrasphere ods column. a linear calibration curve (r2 = 0.99 ...19781818082
full-genome sequencing and confirmation of the causative agent of erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome in coho salmon identifies a new type of piscine orthoreovirus.erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome (eibs) causes mass mortality in farmed salmonid fish, including the coho salmon, onchorhynchus kisutchi, and chinook salmon, o. tshawytscha. the causative agent of the disease is a virus with an icosahedral virion structure, but this virus has not been characterized at the molecular level. in this study, we sequenced the genome of a virus purified from eibs-affected coho salmon. the virus has 10 dsrna genomic segments (l1, l2, l3, m1, m2, m3, s1, s2, s3, and ...201627788206
a survey of microparasites present in adult migrating chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in south-western british columbia determined by high-throughput quantitative polymerase chain reaction.microparasites play an important role in the demography, ecology and evolution of pacific salmonids. as salmon stocks continue to decline and the impacts of global climate change on fish populations become apparent, a greater understanding of microparasites in wild salmon populations is warranted. we used high-throughput, quantitative pcr (ht-qrt-pcr) to rapidly screen 82 adult chinook salmon from five geographically or genetically distinct groups (mostly returning to tributaries of the fraser r ...201728188649
a polyprotein-expressing salmonid alphavirus replicon induces modest protection in atlantic salmon (salmo salar) against infectious pancreatic necrosis.vaccination is an important strategy for the control and prevention of infectious pancreatic necrosis (ipn) in farmed atlantic salmon (salmo salar) in the post-smolt stage in sea-water. in this study, a heterologous gene expression system, based on a replicon construct of salmonid alphavirus (sav), was used for in vitro and in vivo expression of ipn virus proteins. the large open reading frame of segment a, encoding the polyprotein nh2-pvp2-vp4-vp3-cooh, as well as pvp2, were cloned and expresse ...201525606973
the pacific white shrimp β-actin promoter: functional properties and the potential application for transduction system using recombinant baculovirus.a newly isolated pacific white shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei) beta-actin promoter sbap and its derivative compact construct sbap (enx) have recently been demonstrated to promote ectopic gene expression in vitro and in vivo. to further explore the potential transduction application, this newly isolated shrimp promoter sbap was comparatively tested with cytomegalovirus (cmv), simian virus 40 (sv40), polyhedrin (polh), and white spot syndrome virus immediate early gene 1 (wssv ie1) four constitutive ...201627177910
in situ biomonitoring of caged, juvenile chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the lower duwamish waterway.contaminated sediments may have wide-ranging impacts on human and ecological health. a series of in situ caged exposure studies using juvenile chinook salmon was conducted in the lower duwamish waterway (ldw). chemical analysis of sediment, water, and fish tissue were completed. additionally, in 2004, dna adducts in hepatic and gill tissues were measured. gills contained significantly higher dna adducts at stations b2 and b4, prompting further analysis of gills in 2006 and 2007. fluorescent arom ...201121906759
in vitro characteristics of the microsporidian: enterocytozoon salmonis.enterocytozoon salmonis, as intranuclear microsporidian of salmonid fish, was propagated in vitro using chinook salmon mononuclear leukocytes. characteristic morphology and infectivity of the cultured parasites were evaluated to determine the effect of in vitro maintenance and passage on the parasites. cultured parasites developed through several stages from meronts to infectious spores. parasites obtained from in vitro passages tested up to the 17th subculture, retained their morphological char ...20067620465
experimental horizontal transmission of enterocytozoon salmonis to chinook salmon, oncorhynchus tshawytscha.enterocytozoon salmonis was transmitted to chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha by feeding tissues infected with the parasite and by cohabitation of noninfected fish with experimentally infected fish. affected fish (dead and survivors) in both transmission trials had gross and microscopic signs of the disease and merogonic and sporogonic stages of the parasite. there were no morbidities or mortalities, or evidence of the parasite among control fish in either study. results suggest that the pa ...20061453359
detection of the intranuclear microsporidium nucleospora salmonis in naturally and experimentally exposed chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha by in situ hybridization.nucleospora salmonis, an intranuclear microsporidian parasite of salmonid fish, is often difficult to observe in histological sections or wet mount preparations from lightly infected tissues because of its small size and location within the nuclei of lymphoblast-type cells. diagnosis of infections by conventional light microscopy is directly dependent upon distinguishing different stages of the parasite from host cell nuclear material or vacuoles. to assist detection of stages of the parasite in ...200717605006
comparison of small subunit ribosomal rna gene and internal transcribed spacer sequences among isolates of the intranuclear microsporidian nucleospora salmonis.nucleospora salmonis is an intranuclear microsporidian associated with a proliferative disorder of the lymphoid cells of captive salmonid fish in the northwestern and northeastern regions of north america, in france, and in chile. newer diagnostic approaches have used the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) to detect the parasite in fish tissues. the target sequences for these assays lie in the small subunit ribosomal rna (ssu rrna) gene or internal transcribed spacer (its) as determined from n. sal ...200611140452
effect of the microsporidian enterocytozoon salmonis on the immune response of chinook salmon.the protozoan parasite enterocytozoon salmonis is an intranuclear microsporidian of salmonid mononuclear leukocytes. experimental infections were initiated in chinook salmon to determine the effects of parasitism on selected host immune functions. the humoral antibody response to dinitrophenylated-keyhole limpet hemocyanin and the in vitro blastogenic responses of isolated mononuclear leukocytes to mitogens (concanavalin a, lipopolysaccharide and phytohemagglutinin-p) were evaluated. the humoral ...19958578694
multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat genotyping of renibacterium salmoninarum, a bacterium causing bacterial kidney disease in salmonid fish.bacterial kidney disease (bkd), caused by renibacterium salmoninarum, is a bacterial disease of fish, which is both geographically widespread and difficult to control. previously, application of various molecular typing methods has failed to reliably discriminate between r. salmoninarum isolates originating from different host species and geographic areas. the current study aimed to utilize multilocus variable number tandem repeats (vntr) to investigate inter-strain variation of r. salmoninarum ...201324313994
genetic variation in bacterial kidney disease (bkd) susceptibility in lake michigan chinook salmon and its progenitor population from the puget sound.mass mortality events in wild fish due to infectious diseases are troubling, especially given the potential for long-term, population-level consequences. evolutionary theory predicts that populations with sufficient genetic variation will adapt in response to pathogen pressure. chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha were introduced into lake michigan in the late 1960s from a washington state hatchery population. in the late 1980s, collapse of the forage base and nutritional stress in lake michi ...201424689954
susceptibility of ocean- and stream-type chinook salmon to isolates of the l, u, and m genogroups of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (ihnv).this study examined the susceptibility of chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha to viral strains from the l, u, and m genogroups of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (ihnv) present in western north america. the goal of this investigation was to establish a baseline understanding of the susceptibility of ocean- and stream-type chinook salmon to infection and mortality caused by exposure to commonly detected strains of l, u, and m ihnv. the l ihnv strain tested here was highly infectious a ...201627596856
isolation and molecular characterization of a novel infectious pancreatic necrosis virus strain in returning atlantic salmon salmo salar from the connecticut river, usa.after 22 years of negative viral screening results, the viral pathogen infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (ipnv) was isolated from the ovarian fluid of two pooled samples of returning connecticut river atlantic salmon salmo salar during the 2007 spawning season at richard cronin national salmon station (rcnss), hadley, massachusetts. cytopathic effect was observed in chinook salmon embryo (chse-214) cells, and ipnv was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr). sequ ...201222838076
bench-top validation testing of selected immunological and molecular renibacterium salmoninarum diagnostic assays by comparison with quantitative bacteriological gold standard assay exhibiting error-free classification of results has been identified for detection of renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of salmonid bacterial kidney disease. validation of diagnostic assays for r. salmoninarum has been hindered by its unique characteristics and biology, and difficulties in locating suitable populations of reference test animals. infection status of fish in test populations is often unknown, and it is commonly assumed that the assay yielding th ...201323346868
cutthroat trout virus as a surrogate in vitro infection model for testing inhibitors of hepatitis e virus replication.hepatitis e virus (hev) is one of the most important causes of acute hepatitis worldwide. although most infections are self-limiting, mortality is particularly high in pregnant women. chronic infections can occur in transplant and other immune-compromised patients. successful treatment of chronic hepatitis e has been reported with ribavirin and pegylated interferon-alpha, however severe side effects were observed. we employed the cutthroat trout virus (ctv), a non-pathogenic fish virus with rema ...201323916729
pcr testing can be as accurate as culture for diagnosis of ichthyophonus hoferi in yukon river chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha .we evaluated the comparability of culture and pcr tests for detecting ichthyophonus in yukon river chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha from field samples collected at 3 locations (emmonak, chena, and salcha, alaska, usa) in 2004, 2005, and 2006. assuming diagnosis by culture as the 'true' infection status, we calculated the sensitivity (correctly identifying fish positive for ichthyophonus), specificity (correctly identifying fish negative for ichthyophonus), and accuracy (correctly identify ...201323836767
fugu double u6 promoter-driven long double-stranded rna inhibits proliferation of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (vhsv) in fish cell lines.a long double-stranded rna (dsrna)-producing vector driven by fugu double u6 promotors, in which the two promoters were arranged in a head-to-head fashion, was newly constructed. to determine whether the dna-vector-based long dsrnas can induce sequence-specific rna interference (rnai), epithelioma papulosum cyprini (epc) cells and chinook salmon embryonic (chse-214) cells were transfected with the long dsrna vector targeting the g gene of vhsv, and its effect on expression of the g gene and vira ...201222398916
comparative evaluation of molecular diagnostic tests for nucleospora salmonis and prevalence in migrating juvenile salmonids from the snake river, usa.nucleospora salmonis is an intranuclear microsporidian that primarily infects lymphoblast cells and contributes to chronic lymphoblastosis and a leukemia-like condition in a range of salmonid species. the primary goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of n. salmonis in out-migrating juvenile hatchery and wild chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead o. mykiss from the snake river in the u.s. pacific northwest. to achieve this goal, we first addressed the following concern ...201121699133
early interactions of edwardsiella ictaluri, with pangasianodon catfish and its invasive ability in cell lines.commercial pangasianodon catfish production is heavily impacted by bacillary necrosis of pangasius (bnp) caused by edwardsiella ictaluri. this study aimed to investigate the early bacterium-host interactions following immersion challenge and to compare the retrieved data with the invasion ability of the used isolates in fish cell lines. firstly, pangasianodon hypophthalmus fingerlings were challenged via immersion using e. ictaluri isolate ho2 or 223. at different times post inoculation, fish we ...201222422551
differential response of the senegalese sole (solea senegalensis) mx promoter to viral infections in two salmonid cell proteins are main effectors of the antiviral innate immune defence mediated by type i interferon (ifn i). the ifn i response is under a complex regulation; hence, one of the key issues in understanding virus-host interaction is the knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms governing this response. with this purpose, in this study chinook salmon embryo cells (chse-214) and rainbow trout gonad cells (rtg-2) were transiently transfected with a vector containing the luciferase reporter gene under th ...201425217803
effects of temperature on renibacterium salmoninarum infection and transmission potential in chinook salmon, oncorhynchus tshawytscha (walbaum).renibacterium salmoninarum is a significant pathogen of salmonids and the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease (bkd). water temperature affects the replication rate of pathogens and the function of the fish immune system to influence the progression of disease. in addition, rapid shifts in temperature may serve as stressors that reduce host resistance. this study evaluated the effect of shifts in water temperature on established r. salmoninarum infections. we challenged chinook salmon wit ...201626449619
testing of candidate non-lethal sampling methods for detection of renibacterium salmoninarum in juvenile chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha.non-lethal pathogen testing can be a useful tool for fish disease research and management. our research objectives were to determine if (1) fin clips, gill snips, surface mucus scrapings, blood draws, or kidney biopsies could be obtained non-lethally from 3 to 15 g chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha, (2) non-lethal samples could accurately discriminate between fish exposed to the bacterial kidney disease agent renibacterium salmoninarum and non-exposed fish, and (3) non-lethal samples could ...201525958804
development of an in vitro system to measure the sensitivity to the antiviral mx protein of fish is a structural protein, induced by type i interferon (ifn), with direct antiviral properties. in fish the inherent contribution of mx protein to viral protection is unknown. the transgenic chinook salmon embryonic (chse)-tof cell line was genetically modified to express the rainbow trout mx (rbtmx1) protein under the control of the tetracycline derivative, doxycycline (dox). two clones chse-tof-mx8 and chse-tof-mx10 were isolated and characterised by qpcr. the level of resistance to infectio ...201222405879
isolation of a novel gene from photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida and analysis of the recombinant antigen as promising vaccine candidate.photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (pdp) is the causative agent of fish pasteurellosis, a bacterial disease causing important losses in marine aquaculture. vaccines against the pathogen can be a way to control the infection and avoid antibiotic treatments. however, a satisfactory protective vaccine against fish pasteurellosis is not commercially available. in this study, a biotechnogical approach based on reverse vaccinology has been used to identify potential vaccine candidates for the de ...201323219776
tissue engineering of fish skin: behavior of fish cells on poly(ethylene glycol terephthalate)/poly(butylene terephthalate) copolymers in relation to the composition of the polymer substrate as an initial step in constructing a robotic/living tissue hybrid.this study presents the development of a biosynthetic fish skin to be used on aquatic robots that can emulate fish. smoothness of the external surface is desired in improving high propulsive efficiency and maneuvering agility of autonomous underwater vehicles such as the robotuna (triantafyllou, m., and triantafyllou, g. sci. am. 272, 64, 1995). an initial step was to determine the seeding density and select a polymer for the scaffolds. the attachment and proliferation of chinook salmon embryo ( ...200615009926
the detection of fish pathogenvibrio anguillarum in water and fish using a species-specific dna probe combined with membrane filtration.the marine bacteriumvibrio anguillarum causes disease in fish worldwide and is particularly devastating in aquaculture. little is known about the ecology ofv. anguillarum in the environment and how this may relate to the pathogenicity of this organism. combining membrane filtration and a species-specific dna probe, culturablev. anguillarum cells were detected in water from three habitats and in chinook salmon (onchorynchus tshawytscha) tissue samples. results show that different marine habitats ...199424186556
epidemiological investigation of renibacterium salmoninarum in three oncorhynchus spp. in michigan from 2001 to 2010.bacterial kidney disease (bkd) has caused mortalities and chronic infections in wild and farm-raised salmonids throughout the world. in the laurentian great lakes of north america, bkd was associated with several large-scale mortality events of oncorhynchus spp. throughout the 1980s and 1990s. in response to these mortality events, the state of michigan implemented several enhanced biosecurity measures to limit the occurrence of bkd in state-operated hatcheries and gamete-collection weirs. the o ...201222874662
occupancy modeling for improved accuracy and understanding of pathogen prevalence and dynamics.most pathogen detection tests are imperfect, with a sensitivity < 100%, thereby resulting in the potential for a false negative, where a pathogen is present but not detected. false negatives in a sample inflate the number of non-detections, negatively biasing estimates of pathogen prevalence. histological examination of tissues as a diagnostic test can be advantageous as multiple pathogens can be examined and providing important information on associated pathological changes to the host. however ...201525738709
infections by renibacterium salmoninarum and nanophyetus salmincola chapin are associated with reduced growth of juvenile chinook salmon, oncorhynchus tshawytscha (walbaum), in the northeast pacific ocean.we examined 1454 juvenile chinook salmon, oncorhynchus tshawytscha (walbaum), captured in nearshore waters off the coasts of washington and oregon (usa) from 1999 to 2004 for infection by renibacterium salmoninarum, nanophyetus salmincola chapin and skin metacercariae. the prevalence and intensities for each of these infections were established for both yearling and subyearling chinook salmon. two metrics of salmon growth, weight residuals and plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-1, were ...201524720546
toxicity of forest fire retardant chemicals to stream-type chinook salmon undergoing parr-smolt transformation.long-term fire retardants are used to prevent the spread of wildland fires. these products are normally applied by aircraft and are intended specifically for terrestrial application, but fire retardants have entered aquatic habitats by misapplication and/or accidental spills and have resulted in fish mortalities. the authors examined the toxicity of two fire retardant products, phos-chek 259f and lc-95a, to salmon undergoing parr-smolt transformation. yearling stream-type chinook salmon at the s ...201323161484
disease susceptibility of hatchery snake river spring-summer chinook salmon with different juvenile migration histories in the columbia river.various methods have been developed to mitigate the effects of dams on juvenile pacific salmon oncorhynchus spp. migrating to the pacific ocean through the columbia river basin. in this study, we examined the health of hatchery snake river spring and summer chinook salmon relative to two mitigating strategies: dam bypass and transportation (e.g., barging). the health of out-migrants was assessed in terms of the difference in the incidence of mortality among fish, categorically grouped into no-by ...200626599158
neoparamoeba perurans loses virulence during clonal culture.amoebic gill disease affects farmed salmonids and is caused by neoparamoeba perurans. clonal cultures of this amoeba have been used for challenge experiments, however the effect of long-term culture on virulence has not been investigated. here we show, using in vitro and in vivo methods, that a clone of n. perurans which was virulent 70 days after clonal culture lost virulence after 3 years in clonal culture. we propose that this is related either to the lack of attachment to the gills or the ab ...201526008963
dietary exposure to individual polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners bde-47 and bde-99 alters innate immunity and disease susceptibility in juvenile chinook salmon.polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes), used as commercial flame-retardants, are bioaccumulating in threatened pacific salmon. however, little is known of pbde effects on critical physiological functions required for optimal health and survival. bde-47 and bde-99 are the predominant pbde congeners found in chinook salmon collected from the pacific northwest. in the present study, both innate immunity (phagocytosis and production of superoxide anion) and pathogen challenge were used to evaluate h ...201525938634
infectivity study of streptococcus phocae to seven fish and mammalian cell lines by confocal microscopy.streptococcus phocae is a beta-haemolytic bacterium that causes systemic infections in atlantic salmon, salmo salar l., cultured in southern chile and also in seals. in this study, the host-pathogen interaction between s. phocae and seven types of cell lines (fish and mammalian) was examined using an indirect fluorescent antibody and confocal microscopy (cm). chinook salmon embryo (chse-214), epithelioma papulosum cyprini (epc), salmon head kidney (shk-1) and atlantic salmon kidney were used as ...201222524521
virulence of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (vhsv) genotypes ia, iva, ivb, and ivc in five fish species.the susceptibility of yellow perch perca flavescens, rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss, chinook salmon o. tshawytscha, koi cyprinus carpio koi, and pacific herring clupea pallasii to 4 strains of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (vhsv) was assessed. fish were challenged via intraperitoneal injection with high (1 × 106 plaque-forming units, pfu) and low (1 × 103 pfu) doses of a european strain (genotype ia), and north american strains from the west coast (genotype iva), great lakes (genotype iv ...201324334352
molecular epidemiology of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (vhsv) in british columbia, canada, reveals transmission from wild to farmed fish.viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (vhsv) is a fish pathogen found throughout the northern hemisphere and is capable of infecting and causing mortality in numerous marine and freshwater hosts. in the coastal waters of british columbia, canada, the virus has been detected for 20 yr with many occurrences of mass mortalities among populations of pacific herring clupea pallasii (valenciennes) and sardine sardinops sagax as well as detections among cultured atlantic salmo salar and chinook oncorhyn ...201323709462
in vivo and in vitro phenotypic differences between great lakes vhsv genotype ivb isolates with sequence types vcg001 and vcg002.viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (vhsv) is an aquatic rhabdovirus first recognized in farmed rainbow trout in denmark. in the past decade, a new genotype of this virus, ivb was discovered in the laurentian great lakes basin and has caused several massive die-offs in some of the 28 species of susceptible north american freshwater fishes. since its colonization of the great lakes, several closely related sequence types within genotype ivb have been reported, the two most common of which are vcg0 ...201425722533
a review of fish lectins.lectins have been reported from various tissues of a diversity of fish species including japanese eel, conger eel, electric eel, bighead carp, gibel carp, grass carp, arabian gulf catfish, channel catfish, blue catfish, catfish, pike perch, perch, powan, zebrafish, toxic moray, cobia fish, steelhead trout, japanese trout, atlantic salmon, chinook salmon, olive rainbow smelt, rainbow smelt, white-spotted charr, tilapia, blue gourami, ayu, potca fish, spanish mackerel, gilt head bream, tench, roac ...201525929869
developmental regulation of growth hormone binding in the gilthead sea bream, sparus aurata.the occurrence of growth hormone (gh) binding was investigated in the gilthead sea bream larva, sparus aurata, using recombinant trout ghii (rtgh) as a tracer. gh binding was detected in all the specimens examined (5, 17, 27 and 40 days after hatching). at 40 days after hatching, we observed a concentration of gh binding in the head region. specific binding was dependent on protein membrane concentration and scatchard plots showed a single class of high affinity and low capacity binding sites. s ...19948193580
identification, library synthesis and anti-vibriosis activity of 2-benzyl-4-chlorophenol from cultures of the marine bacterium shewanella halifaxensis.summer gut syndrome (sgs) is caused by various vibrio bacterial species and can have negative effects on aquaculture farms worldwide. in new zealand, sgs is caused by vibrio harveyii infecting king salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha). to find leads for the prevention of sgs, we screened the inhibitory effects of 16 strains of shewanella upon v. harveyii growth in competitive solid phase cultures. the detailed investigation of shewanella halifaxensis irl548 revealed 2-benzyl-4-chlorophenol (1), a k ...201627185331
the visual systems of euryhaline fishes.1. the retinas of all marine fishes so far examined except the labridae, and of all terrestrial vertebrates contain the rhodopsin system alone; those of fresh water fishes the porphyropsin system alone. in the present paper the visual systems of a number of euryhaline fishes are examined-fishes capable of existence in a wide range of salinities, though usually restricted in spawning either to the sea (catadromous) or to fresh water (anadromous). 2. the retinas of the anadromous salmonids (brook ...194119873269
ichthyophonus parasite phylogeny based on its rdna structure prediction and alignment identifies six clades, with a single dominant marine type.despite their widespread, global impact in both wild and cultured fishes, little is known of the diversity, transmission patterns, and phylogeography of parasites generally identified as ichthyophonus. this study constructed a phylogeny based on the structural alignment of internal transcribed spacer (its) rdna sequences to compare ichthyophonus isolates from fish hosts in the atlantic and pacific oceans, and several rivers and aquaculture sites in north america, europe, and japan. structure of ...201627409236
the development of a noncompetitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for oncorhynchid growth hormone using monoclonal antibodies.the development of a sensitive and specific two-site, or sandwich, noncompetitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for oncorhynchid growth hormone (gh) using monoclonal antibodies (mcas) is reported. the mcas were generated by the fusion of myeloma cells with spleen cells from mice that had been immunized with chum salmon (oncorhynchus keta) recombinant gh. the mcas specifically recognized the gh-secreting acidophils in the proximal pars distalis of immature male rainbow trout (oncorhyn ...19911879674
multimedia environmental monitoring: 50 years at hanford.environmental monitoring has been an ongoing activity on the u.s. department of energy's hanford site in southeastern washington for almost 50 years. objectives are to detect and assess potential impacts of site operations on air, surface and ground waters, foodstuffs, fish, wildlife, soil and vegetation. data from monitoring effects are used to calculate the overall radiological dose to humans working onsite or residing in nearby communities. in 1989, measured hanford site perimeter concentrati ...199324220840
method to measure the force to pull and to break pin bones of fish.a texture measurement device was modified to measure the force required to pull pin bones from king salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha), snapper (pagrus auratus), and kahawai (arripis trutta). pulled bones were also subjected to tension to measure the breaking force. for all fish, the pulling force depended on the size of the fish, and on the length of the pin bone (p < 0.05). in general, larger fish required greater pulling force to remove pin bones. for example, fresh small salmon (about 1500 g ...201525604165
conservation of the chromatophore pigment response.toxicant sensing technology has evolved to include biological sensors, such as cell-based biosensors, which rely on viable cells to convey a measurable physiological signal. chromatophores are a class of pigment cells that have been investigated as cell-based biosensors. we report the characterization of oncorhynchus tshawytscha melanophores and describe the melanophore pigment response to neurotransmitters in terms of pigment area occupied. compared with the previously described model, betta sp ...201020809546
antisomatostatin-induced growth acceleration in chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha).since somatostatin (srif) inhibits the release of growth hormone (gh), its immunoneutralization may provide an alternative to gh therapy as a means of enhancing somatic growth in fish. the present study examined the feasibility of accelerating growth in juvenile chinook salmon by means of antisrif administration. yearling salmon of nicola river stock (bc, canada) were injected intraperitoneally every 5 days, for a total of 40 days, with either srif (1 μg g-1 body wt.), antisrif (soma-10, 1 μg g( ...199424198208
purification of chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) gh for receptor study.a method for the purification of chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) gh, which retains its biological activity, is described. the biological activity was investigated with an established radioreceptor assay using liver membranes from pregnant rabbits and bovine gh as standard and labelled hormone. the enrichment of the preparation was checked with electrophoresis (sds-page). extraction and further steps were carried out using low molarity alkaline buffer (ph 8-10, m = 100 mm). three chroma ...198924221778
comparison of three species of fish consumed as part of a western diet: effects on platelet fatty acids and function, hemostasis, and production of thromboxane.this study examined the effect of the consumption of moderate amounts of three species of fish on platelet fatty acid profile (pfa), bleeding time (bt), platelet aggregation, and ex vivo production of thromboxane b2 (txb2). twenty-three healthy, young men consumed 200 g/d of dover sole. chinook salmon, and sablefish for 18 d in a three-way crossover design as part of a western diet. salmon and sablefish compared with sole caused significant increases in the eicosapentaenoic acid content of the p ...19911858697
complexity of bioindicator selection for ecological, human, and cultural health: chinook salmon and red knot as case studies.there is considerable interest in developing bioindicators of ecological health that are also useful indicators for human health. yet, human health assessment usually encompasses physical/chemical exposures and not cultural well-being. in this paper, we propose that bioindicators can be selected for all three purposes. we use chinook or king salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and red knot (calidris canutus rufa, a sandpiper) as examples of indicators that can be used to assess human, ecological, ...201525666646
the spermiation of goldfish (carassius auratus) as a bioassay for salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) gonadotropin. 19685659183
comparison of three species of dietary fish: effects on serum concentrations of low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein in normotriglyceridemic information is available comparing the effect of different species of fish on serum low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (ldl-c) and apolipoprotein b (apo b) concentrations. we fed 21 normotriglyceridemic males diets containing different species of fish (200 g dover sole, chinook salmon, or sablefish) for 18 d in a three-period crossover design. concentrations of apo b and ldl-c rose on the salmon and sablefish diets compared with the sole diet (p = 0.02 for apo b, 0.08 for ldl-c). these ...19911907090
the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the chinook salmon, oncorhynchus tshawytscha.the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of chinook salmon, oncorhynchus tshawytscha, has been determined. the circular genome consisting of 16,644 base pairs encodes thirteen proteins, the 12s and 16s ribosomal rnas, and 22 transfer rnas. these genes are ordered in the same way as most other vertebrates. the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the ribosomal rnas and the thirteen protein-coding genes were compared with those of other salmonids such as oncorhynchus mykiss, salmo salar ...200314513717
species-specific differences and structure-activity relationships in the debromination of pbde congeners in three fish species.previous studies have suggested that there may be species-specific differences in the metabolism of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes) among different fish species. in this study, we investigated the in vitro hepatic metabolism of eleven individual pbde congeners (tri- through decabdes) in three different fish species: rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss), common carp (cyprinus carpio), and chinook salmon (o. tschwatcha). in addition, we evaluated the influence of pbde structural characterist ...201121291240
in vitro hepatic metabolism of 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (bde 99) in chinook salmon (onchorhynchus tshawytscha).polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes) are brominated flame retardants that persist in the environment and are present in geographically widespread fish species. pbde concentrations can be particularly high in resident chinook salmon (onchorhynchus tshawytscha) in the puget sound, washington. although pbde residues in salmon and other fish are often dominated by lower brominated congeners, these congeners are not produced commercially in the greatest quantity, suggesting bioaccumulation of the l ...200919346012
brain acetylcholinesterase activity in shiner perch (cymatogaster aggregata) and juvenile chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) after application of carbaryl to control burrowing shrimp within willapa bay, washington.carbaryl has been applied in willapa bay, washington, for five decades to control burrowing shrimp (neotrypaea californiensis and upogebia pugettensis) on commercial oyster (crassostrea gigas) beds. concerns about effects on nontarget species, including fishes, have led to restrictions in use despite a lack of data on in situ exposure. we measured brain acetylcholinesterase (ache) activity in adult shiner perch (cymatogaster aggregata) and juvenile chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) after ...201324042340
cooking fish is not effective in reducing exposure to perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances.consumption of fish is considered a part of a healthy diet; however, health risks from fish consumption exist due to potential exposure to various contaminants accumulated in fish. cooking fish can reduce exposure to many organic chemicals in fish. similar results have been presented for low levels of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (pfass), a class of contaminants of emerging concern, in grocery store fish. we examined the effectiveness of three cooking methods (i.e., baking, broi ...201424561272
in vitro cultivation model for heterosporis saurida (microsporidia) isolated from lizardfish, saurida undosquamis (richardson).heterosporis saurida is a microsporidian that infects lizardfish, saurida undosquamis (richardson, 1848), in the arabian sea. spores were isolated from infected lizardfish and used to infect derived fish cell lines: common carp brain (ccb), epithelioma papulosum cyprinid (epc), fathead minnow epithelial (fhm), rainbow trout gonad (rtg), bluegill fry (bf-2) and chinook salmon embryo (chse). non-fish cell lines were also tested that include: insect (sf-9), rabbit (rk-13) and african green monkey ( ...201423957717
the impact of rice pesticides on the aquatic ecosystems of the sacramento river and delta (california).since the early 1980s, when molinate was demonstrated to have killed carp in agricultural drains, an intensive research effort has been undertaken to assess the impact of rice pesticides on aquatic ecosystems in the sacramento river and delta. no impact has been found that can be clearly attributed to rice pesticides. however, the rice insecticides methyl parathion and carbofuran, and probably also bufencarb, reached levels in the river and delta that, based on laboratory bioassays, would have b ...19999921140
development and validation of a highly sensitive radioimmunoassay for chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) growth hormone.this study describes the development of a highly specific and very sensitive radioimmunoassay for salmonid growth hormone. antiserum raised against chinook (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) gh2, which did not recognize 125i-sprl and 125i-sgth (at 1:1000 initial dilution), was able to inhibit growth when injected into rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss). 125i-sgh2, used as tracer, was not recognized by anti-sgth or by anti-sprl. mammalian gh and acth and salmonid gth, tsh, and prl did not cross-react in ...19911879675
toxicity to daphnia magna, hyalella azteca, oncorhynchus kisutch, oncorhynchus mykiss, oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and rana catesbeiana of atrazine, metolachlor, simazine, and their formulated products. 200616404660
method for somatic cell nuclear transfer in zebrafish.this chapter presents a detailed methodology for somatic cell nuclear transfer-cloning of zebrafish. we aim to place the reader in a virtual lab experience to assist acquisition of the technical skills required for reproducing the published protocol. all materials, including catalog numbers for reagents and techniques for their preparation, are provided. our protocols describe laser inactivation of egg chromosomes, the transfer of a cell through the oocyte micropyle, and spontaneous activation o ...201627443929
aluminium oxide nanoparticles induced morphological changes, cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in chinook salmon (chse-214) cells.aluminium oxide nanoparticles (al2 o3 nps) are increasingly used in diverse applications that has raised concern about their safety. recent studies suggested that al2 o3 nps induced oxidative stress may be the cause of toxicity in algae, ceriodaphnia dubia, caenorhabditis elegans and danio rerio. however, there is paucity on the toxicity of al2 o3 nps on fish cell lines. the current study was aimed to investigate al2 o3 nps induced cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and morphological abnormality of ...201525875951
molecular speciation of fish sperm phospholipids: large amounts of dipolyunsaturated phosphatidylserine.the molecular species compositions of the main diacyl phosphoglyceride classes and ether-linked subclasses from sperm of three species of fish, sea bass dicentrarchus labrax, atlantic salmon salmo salar and chinook salmon onchorhynchus tsawytscha, were determined. the phospholipids from sperm were highly unsaturated, dipolyunsaturated fatty acid (dipufa) molecular species comprised 64.6 to 71.8% of phosphatidylserine (ps), 10.1 to 17.4% of phosphatidylethanolamine (pe), and 3.3 to 10.1% of phosp ...19979358435
public willingness to pay for recovering and downlisting threatened and endangered marine species.nonmarket valuation research has produced economic value estimates for a variety of threatened, endangered, and rare species around the world. although over 40 value estimates exist, it is often difficult to compare values from different studies due to variations in study design, implementation, and modeling specifications. we conducted a stated-preference choice experiment to estimate the value of recovering or downlisting 8 threatened and endangered marine species in the united states: loggerh ...201222827248
lateral line pore diameters correlate with the development of gas bubble trauma signs in several columbia river fishes.gas bubble trauma (gbt) caused by gas supersaturation of river water continues to be a problem in the columbia river basin. a common indicator of gbt is the percent of the lateral line occluded with gas bubbles; however, this effect has never been examined in relation to lateral line morphology. the effects of 115, 125 and 130% total dissolved gas levels were evaluated on five fish species common to the upper columbia river. trunk lateral line pore diameters differed significantly (p<0.0001) amo ...200312781831
automated sperm head morphology analyzer for open-source software.sperm head morphology has been identified as a characteristic that can be used to predict a male's semen quality. in the present study, we have developed an automated sperm head morphology analysis (asma) plug-in for open-source imagej software ( we describe the plug-in's functionality, and confirm its validity for sperm head morphology analysis using fish sperm. sperm head morphological measurements (length and width) made with the asma plug-in did not differ from man ...201121962916
evaluating signals of oil spill impacts, climate, and species interactions in pacific herring and pacific salmon populations in prince william sound and copper river, alaska.the exxon valdez oil spill occurred in march 1989 in prince william sound, alaska, and was one of the worst environmental disasters on record in the united states. despite long-term data collection over the nearly three decades since the spill, tremendous uncertainty remains as to how significantly the spill affected fishery resources. pacific herring (clupea pallasii) and some wild pacific salmon populations (oncorhynchus spp.) in prince william sound declined in the early 1990s, and have not r ...201728296895
predation on the invasive copepod, pseudodiaptomus forbesi, and native zooplankton in the lower columbia river: an experimental approach to quantify differences in prey-specific feeding rates.invasive planktonic crustaceans have become a prominent feature of aquatic communities worldwide, yet their effects on food webs are not well known. the asian calanoid copepod, pseudodiaptomus forbesi, introduced to the columbia river estuary approximately 15 years ago, now dominates the late-summer zooplankton community, but its use by native aquatic predators is unknown. we investigated whether three species of planktivorous fishes (chinook salmon, three-spined stickleback, and northern pikemi ...201526618851
sea lice, lepeophtheirus salmonis, transfer between wild sympatric adult and juvenile salmon on the north coast of british columbia, canada.we examine sea lice, lepeophtheirus salmonis, on juvenile and adult salmon from the north coast of british columbia between 2004 and 2006 in an area that does not at present contain salmon farms. there is a pronounced zonation in the abundance of l. salmonis on juvenile pink salmon, oncorhynchus gorbuscha, in the skeena and nass estuaries. abundances in the proximal and distal zones of these estuaries are 0.01 and 0.05 respectively. the outer zones serve as feeding and staging areas for the pink ...200919245630
bioassay for salmon prolactin using hypophysectomized fundulus heteroclitus.a bioassay for salmon prolactin (prl) is described. this assay which is based on the sodium-retaining action of prl in the hypophysectomized killifish, fundulus heteroclitus, has proved to be rapid, sensitive (250 pg prl per gram of fish), and specific. the procedure has been used to characterize the biological activity of a highly purified prl from the pituitaries of the chinook salmon, oncorhynchus tschawytscha, and a similar prl isolated (by acid buffer polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis ...19846714653
salmon blood plasma: effective inhibitor of protease-laden pacific whiting surimi and salmon mince.the effect of salmon plasma (sp) from chinook salmon on proteolytic inhibition was investigated. sp was found to inhibit both cysteine and serine proteases as well as protease extracted from pacific whiting muscle. sp was found to contain a 55kda cysteine protease inhibitor through sds-page inhibitor staining. freeze dried salmon plasma (fsp) and salmon plasma concentrated by ultrafiltration (csp) were tested for their ability to inhibit autolysis in pacific whiting surimi and salmon mince at co ...201525624255
modeling magnetic fields from a dc power cable buried beneath san francisco bay based on empirical measurements.the trans bay cable (tbc) is a ±200-kilovolt (kv), 400 mw 85-km long high voltage direct current (dc) buried transmission line linking pittsburg, ca with san francisco, ca (sf) beneath the san francisco estuary. the tbc runs parallel to the migratory route of various marine species, including green sturgeon, chinook salmon, and steelhead trout. in july and august 2014, an extensive series of magnetic field measurements were taken using a pair of submerged geometrics magnetometers towed behind a ...201626915084
effects of pyrethroid insecticides in urban runoff on chinook salmon, steelhead trout, and their invertebrate prey.pyrethroid insecticides can affect salmonids either indirectly through toxicity to their prey or directly by toxicity to the fish themselves. in support of a study on pyrethroid impacts to chinook salmon and steelhead trout in the american river (sacramento, california, usa), 96-h median effective concentration (ec50) and median lethal concentration (lc50) values for the pyrethroid bifenthrin were determined for taxa not traditionally used for toxicity testing but of interest as salmonid prey, i ...201525545717
effects of temperature on disease progression and swimming stamina in ichthyophonus-infected rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum).rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss, were infected with ichthyophonus sp. and held at 10 degrees c, 15 degrees c and 20 degrees c for 28 days to monitor mortality and disease progression. infected fish demonstrated more rapid onset of disease, higher parasite load, more severe host tissue reaction and reduced mean-day-to-death at higher temperature. in a second experiment, ichthyophonus-infected fish were reared at 15 degrees c for 16 weeks then subjected to forced swimming at 10 degrees c, 15 de ...200919570061
flavobacterium spartansii sp. nov., a pathogen of fishes, and emended descriptions of flavobacterium aquidurense and flavobacterium araucananum.two strains (t16(t) and s12) of a gram-reaction-negative, rod-shaped, yellow-pigmented bacterium were recovered from kidneys of feral spawning adult chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and the gills of captive-reared chinook salmon fingerlings suffering a mortality episode, respectively. polyphasic characterization revealed that these strains possessed gliding motility, contained a flexirubin-type pigment, proteolysed multiple substrates (i.e. gelatin, casein and elastin), and had a mean d ...201424096350
toxicity evaluation of new antifouling compounds using suspension-cultured fish cells.a simple, rapid toxicity test was developed using the suspension-cultured fish cell line chse-sp derived from chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha embryos in order to assess the toxicity of new marine antifouling compounds. the compounds tested were copper pyrithione, diuron, irgarol 1051, kh101, sea-nine 211, and zinc pyrithione, all of which have been nominated in japan as possible replacements for organotin compounds. the in vitro acute toxicity (24-h ec50) of the six compounds to these fi ...200211999777
chinook salmon embryo (chse-sp) cells for fish virus research. 19938320177
myxobolus insidiosus sp. n., a myxosporidian from the musculature of oncorhynchus tshawytscha (walbaum). 196314084203
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