PMID(sorted ascending)
epidemiological studies on malayan filariasis in an inland area in kyungpook, korea 3. ecological survey of vector mosquitoes of brugia malayi.the species composition, population density, and seasonal prevalence of vector mosquitoes in an inland area of kyungpook province were studied, based on light trap and human bait trap collections, and the recent patterns of infestation for infective larvae of brugia malayi in these vector hosts were investigated from may to november in 1985. nine species in four genera of mosquitoes were collected by light trap, human bait trap, and/or by nets. anopheles sinensis wiedemann was the most abundant ...198612886104
seasonal prevalence of the vector mosquitoes of japanese encephalitis virus in kyungpook province, order to determine the seasonal prevalence and population density of vector mosquitoes in kyungpook province, a survey based on average number of female mosquito per trap-night, were carried out during the period from may to november in 1984. among the 34,571 mosquitoes collected in kyungsan county in animal shelters and human dwellings by light traps, approximately 45.0 % were culex tritaeniorhynchus, 34.0 % per cent culex pipiens pallens, and 19.0 per cent anopheles sinensis. by comparison, ...198512888695
collection of adult and larval mosquitoes in u.s. army compounds in the republic of korea during 1979~1983.this paper is the result of adult female mosquito and larval collection in u.s. army installations in korea from 1979 to 1983. new jersey light traps ere operated for ault collection from may to october. the primary concern of this surveillance is to determine when to recommend insecticide spraying for mosquito control in the army areas. the 5th preventive medicine unit have developed an "index" level of female mosquitoes in a light trap similar to other agencies in other parts of the w ...198412891039
[natural transition of endemicity of malayan flariasis in inland korea: pattern of change in microfilaria rate among inhabitants of yongpung (former yongju) area during the period of the last seven years]with a purpose to find out natural transition of endemicity of malayan filariasis in inland korea, a survey was conducted in june 1980 in isan-myeon of yongpung-gun (former yongju-gun) where an epidemiological investigation had been carried out in 1973 without any control activities such as chemotherapy. five sample villages were surveyed for microfilaremia by 20 microliter night blood examination among inhabitants and the results of the surveys conducted in 1973 and 1980 were compared to determ ...198012902727
[insecticide tests for resistance on adults of anopheles sinensis and culex tritaeniorhynchus in korea]during the summer season(july-august) in 1967, the insecticide tests for resistance on adult a. sinensis and c. tritaeniorhynchus were carried out in gobu-myun jeongup-gun, chollapuk-do, where many japanese encephalitis cases occur every year. 1)the mortality by 4.0% ddt in a. sinensis was 88.9% and by 4.0% dieldrin was 84.4%. therefore the lc-50 of ddt for a. sinensis was 1.75%, while lc-50 of dieldrin was 1.1%. 2)the mortality by 4.0% ddt in c. tritaeniorhynchus was 36.7%, and by 4.0% dieldrin ...196912913538
[study on natural infection of plasmodium vivax in anopheles sinensis in korea]on epidemiological grounds, anopheles sinensis has been suspected for many years to be the malaria vector in korea. of 7,517 dissections of a. sinensis, one specimen was found for the first time in korea naturally infected with sporozoites in august 1962. experimental infection of a. sinensis with plasmodium vivax had been successfully conducted at earlier date.196712913558
insecticide susceptibility tests on adults of anopheles sinensis in korea.the authors carried out two series of field test to determine the basic lines of ddt and dieldrin susceptibility of anopheles sinensis at andong(1961) and yoju(1962), where malaria endemicity is relatively high in korea. tests were performed in accordance with the standard method established by the world health oraganization(1960). the results were summarized as follows: 1. the lc-50 of ddt for a. sinensis caught at andong as 1.5 %, while for the same species in yoju was 1.3 %. 2. the lc-50 of d ...196712913564
malaria studies in japan after world war ii. part ii. the research for anopheles sinensis sibling species group. 196014429383
light, carbon dioxide, and octenol-baited mosquito trap and host-seeking activity evaluations for mosquitoes in a malarious area of the republic of korea.two field trials for commercially available and experimental mosquito traps variously baited with light, carbon dioxide, octenol, or combinations of these were evaluated in a malarious area at paekyeon-ri near tongil-chon (village) and camp greaves, paju county, kyonggi province, republic of korea. the host-seeking activity for common mosquito species was determined using hourly aspirator collections from a human- and propane lantern-baited shannon trap. the total number of mosquitoes and number ...200114529088
[malaria situation in the people's republic of china in 2002].this summary was made on the basis of the annual reports of malaria control from the professional institutions in the 21 provinces/municipality/autonomous region (p/m/a). the number of malaria cases reported in the country was 35,298 in the year 2002 and the incidence rate was 0.348/10,000, an increase of 68.2% than that of the last year and the largest increase since 1994. the total number of suspected cases was 136,902, and the death toll due to malaria was 42. based on the numbers of malaria ...200314628361
molecular identification of the malaria vectors anopheles anthropophagus and anopheles sinensis (diptera: culicidae) in central china using polymerase chain reaction and appraisal of their position within the hyrcanus central china, anopheles anthropophagus is considered the primary malaria vector and anopheles sinensis is a secondary vector. identification of these two cryptic species would facilitate studies on malaria transmission and the application of control measures. at present, the only reliable morphological markers occur in the egg stage, making this approach impractical for any large scale field studies. in this study, we report on the development of a polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-restriction ...200414989340
immune responses to mosquito saliva in 14 individuals with acute systemic allergic reactions to mosquito bites.mosquito bite-induced acute systemic allergic reactions are an increasing clinical concern and have not been optimally characterized immunologically.200415536430
[cloning and prokaryotic expression of anopheles sinensis defensin gene and preliminary bioactivity evaluation of the recombinant product].to clone the defensin gene of anopheles sinensis for its prokaryotic expression and preliminary bioactivity evaluation of the recombinant protein.200515837630
seasonal population density and daily survival of anopheline mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in a malaria endemic area, republic of korea.mosquito surveillance was conducted near the korean demilitarized zone (paju county, gyeonggi province) from april to october, 1999, where malaria cases were reported. adult mosquito surveillance, using black light and cdc uv light traps, was conducted at five and two sites, respectively. weekly larval collections were made at five rice paddies located adjacent to the adult collection sites. anopheles sinensis was the most abundant mosquito of 11 species collected throughout the surveillance per ...200516007953
evaluation of various control agents against mosquito larvae in rice paddies in taiwan.a field test was conducted in rice paddies adjacent to wufeng, taichung county in central taiwan to evaluate the efficacy of control agents against mosquito larvae. the agents included bacillus thuringienesis israelensis (bti), two lagenidium giganteum products (lg product a and t), and temephos. the major mosquito species found in the rice paddies were culex tritaeniorhynchus/vishnui and anopheles sinensis. compared to controls, a 7-day treatment with bti or lg products a and t caused overall r ...200516007966
identification and characterization of larval and adult anopheline mosquito habitats in the republic of korea: potential use of remotely sensed data to estimate mosquito distributions.plasmodium vivax malaria reemerged in the republic of korea in 1993, with more than 2,000 cases reported in the northwestern part of the country over the last 10 years. to better assess the risk of malaria transmission we conducted a surveillance study to identify and characterize the habitats that produce potential anopheles vector mosquitoes. immature and adult mosquito collection data were incorporated into a geographic information system (gis) along with remotely sensed satellite imagery, an ...200516011809
reproductive isolation between anopheles sinensis and anopheles pullus in korea.anopheles sinensis and an. pullus, the 2 predominant anopheline mosquito species in korea, are major malaria vectors. their morphological similarity makes them difficult to distinguish, and their taxonomic relationship remains unclear. kanda and oguma produced fertile f1 an. sinensis x an. pullus hybrids, suggesting a conspecific relationship. however, our recent internal transcribed spacer 2 dna sequence comparison of these taxa revealed 32.9% divergence, suggesting that an. sinensis and an. pu ...200516033116
enhanced t-cell response to mosquito extracts by nk cells in hypersensitivity to mosquito bites associated with ebv infection and nk cell lymphocytosis.hypersensitivity to mosquito bites is characterized by severe systemic as well as local symptoms, and associated with chronic active ebv infection and nk cell lymphocytosis. in this hen disease, we investigated the response of pbmc to msg extracts. pbmc were taken from three defined cases of hen disease, three borderline cases, five individuals with simple exaggerated reactions to mosquito bites without systemic symptoms (simple responders), and eight healthy donors. pbmc, or purified cd4+, cd8+ ...200516108834
studies on anopheles sinensis, the vector species of vivax malaria in korea.extensive previous studies on taxonomy, behavior/bionomics and control of anopheles sinensis are reviewed and summarized. recent molecular identification revealed that the population of an. sinensis complex includes an. sinensis, an. pullus, an. lesteri and at least two new species, and an. yatsushiroensis is synonmy of an. pullus. an. sinensis is the main vector species of vivax malaria in korea. larvae of an. sinensis breed in wide range of habitats which are naturally-made clean water, stagna ...200516192749
evaluation of anti-malarial effects of mass chemoprophylaxis in the republic of korea army.vivax malaria was endemic on the korean peninsula for many centuries until the late 1970's when the republic of korea (rok) was declared "malaria free". since its re-emergence in 1993, the number of malaria cases in the military increased exponentially through 2000 near the demilitarized zone. chemoprophylaxis with chloroquine and primaquine has been used in the rok army since 1997 in an attempt to reduce the number of the malaria cases throughout the rok. data show that chemoprophylaxis contrib ...200516224140
habitats and distribution of anopheles sinensis and associated anopheles hyrcanus group in japan.mosquito collections were carried out in august 2002 and july 2003 in japan. anopheles sinensis of the hyrcanus group, myzomyia series of anopheles, was the most common species encountered. the distribution and habitats of 5 anopheles hyrcanus group species are included. eight species belonging to aedes, culex, and uranotaenia were found associated with an. sinensis in rice paddies and a variety of other larval habitats.200516506573
[malaria situation in the people's republic of china in 2003].total 40,681 malaria cases and 129,147 suspected cases with 52 deaths were reported by the case reporting system in 910 counties of 21 provinces/municipality/autonomous region (p/m/a) in 2003, and the annual incidence was 0.39/10000, an increase of 15.3% than that of the last year, which is the third year that malaria incidence consecutively increased since 2001. based on a baseline survey in the project funded by the global fund to fight aids, tuberculosis and malaria (gfatm), the estimated num ...200516566200
relationship of remote sensing normalized differential vegetation index to anopheles density and malaria incidence study the relationship of remote sensing normalized differential vegetation index (ndvi) to anopheles density and malaria incidence rate.200616827184
[malaria situation in the people' s republic of china in 2004].in 2004, 38,972 malaria cases and 106,704 suspected cases with 31 deaths were reported by the annual case reporting system in 1,005 counties of 23 provinces/municipality/autonomous region (p/ m/a) and the annual incidence was 0.38/10 000, a decrease of 4.2% than that of the last year, which is the year that the disease was slightly rolled back after consecutively increased since 2001. as an important development of the case reporting system, the internet reporting system started in 2004, majorit ...200616866130
[cloning and identification of the cdna and genomic dna sequences of the defensin gene of anopheles sinensis].to clone and identify the cdna sequence and genomic dna sequence of anopheles sinensis defensin gene.200616866140
insecticide resistance in vector mosquitoes in china.because of their special behaviour, physiology and close relationship with humans, mosquitoes act as one of the most important vectors of human diseases, such as filariasis, japanese encephalitis, dengue and malaria. the major vector mosquitoes are members of the culex, aedes and anopheles genera. insecticides play important roles in agricultural production and public health, especially in a country with a huge human population, like china. large quantities of four classes of insecticides, organ ...200616953491
study of flying height of culicid species in the northern part of the republic of korea.the vertical distribution of mosquitoes (diptera, culicidae) was evaluated in paju county in northern south korea by using centers for disease control and prevention (cdc) miniature light traps with ultraviolet light and dry ice (co2) as attractants. cdc traps were placed at 1, 3 and 5 m above the ground near rice paddies in a relatively open agricultural ara. traps wer hung on two scaffold towers (6 m height) spaced approximately 300 m aprt. each trap operated 9 nights from august 3 to 16, 2002 ...200617019769
characteristics of the nuclear (18s, 5.8s, 28s and 5s) and mitochondrial (12s and 16s) rrna genes of apis mellifera (insecta: hymenoptera): structure, organization, and retrotransposable an accompanying manuscript to the release of the honey bee genome, we report the entire sequence of the nuclear (18s, 5.8s, 28s and 5s) and mitochondrial (12s and 16s) ribosomal rna (rrna)-encoding gene sequences (rdna) and related internally and externally transcribed spacer regions of apis mellifera (insecta: hymenoptera: apocrita). additionally, we predict secondary structures for the mature rrna molecules based on comparative sequence analyses with other arthropod taxa and reference to re ...200617069639
[malaria situation and evaluation on the control effect in henan province during 1990-2005].to analyze malaria situation and evaluate the effect of control program in henan province during 1990-2005.200617094630
reemerging vivax malaria: changing patterns of annual incidence and control programs in the republic of korea.changing patterns of the reemerging plasmodium vivax malaria in the republic of korea (south korea) during the period 1993 to 2005 are briefly analyzed with emphasis on the control measures used and the effects of meteorological and entomological factors. data were obtained from the communicable diseases monthly reports published by the korea center for disease control and prevention, and webpages of world health organization and united nations. meteorological data of kangwon-do (province) were ...200617170570
estimates of short- and long-term incubation periods of plasmodium vivax malaria in the republic of korea.with the current epidemic of vivax malaria closely associated with the demilitarised zone along the border between north and south korea, it has been suggested that the incubation period tends, in part, to be prolonged. based on the detailed travel history of cases from 2000 to 2003 who reside in non-malarious areas, statistical estimates of the incubation periods were obtained. the data suggest that cases fall into two categories with short- and long-term incubation periods, respectively. of 41 ...200717204297
molecular survey of dirofilaria immitis and dirofilaria repens by direct pcr for wild caught mosquitoes in the republic of mosquito collections using new jersey light traps and black-hole light traps were conducted to determine the potential vectors and the relative mosquito infection rates of dirofilaria immitis and dirofilaria repens in gyeonggi and gangwon provinces, republic of korea, 2005. dirofilaria spp. were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) using species-specific primers for d. immitis and d. repens. minimum field infection rates (mfir) [mfir = (number infected pools/total number of mosquit ...200717644255
a low-cost repellent for malaria vectors in the americas: results of two field trials in guatemala and peru.the cost of mosquito repellents in latin america has discouraged their wider use among the poor. to address this problem, a low-cost repellent was developed that reduces the level of expensive repellent actives by combining them with inexpensive fixatives that appear to slow repellent evaporation. the chosen actives were a mixture of para-menthane-diol (pmd) and lemongrass oil (lg).200717678537
analysis of the population genetic structure of the malaria vector anopheles sinensis in south korea based on mitochondrial sequences.the population genetics of anopheles sinensis, a major malaria vector in south korea, was studied based on the nucleotide sequences of a 238-bp variable region of the mitochondrial control region. three features of genetic variance were observed. first, the taebaek and sobaek mountain ranges may function as genetic barriers between the northern group (ng) and the southern group (sg). these mountain ranges are associated with the subdivision of the population, and significant and unique populatio ...200717690404
malaria prevalence in nias district, north sumatra province, indonesia.the nias district of the north sumatra province of indonesia has long been known to be endemic for malaria. following the economic crisis at the end of 1998 and the subsequent tsunami and earthquake, in december 2004 and march 2005, respectively, the malaria control programme in the area deteriorated. the present study aims to provide baseline data for the establishment of a suitable malaria control programme in the area and to analyse the frequency distribution of drug resistance alleles associ ...200717760967
[factors affecting malaria outbreak in congjiang county of guizhou province].to make a field investigation on the affecting factors of malaria outbreak in a village of congjiang county, guizhou province.200718038784
[malaria epidemic situation in jiangsu province in 2006].in 2006, there were 767 reported malaria cases in jiangsu province with an incidence of 1.07 per thousand and increased by 16.57% in comparison to the previous year. positive rate of blood examination in local febrile patients was 0.08% (293/361 896) but 1.23% (251/204 40) in mobile population (p<0.01). cases with relapses occupied 9.00% of the total. the density of anopheles sinensis was 0.61 per net and increased by 110% more than the year 2005 (0.29/net). it is indicated that the increase of ...200718038793
[investigation of mosquito abundance and composition around the rare birds national nature reserve of yancheng, jiangsu province].to investigate the mosquito abundance and their relative species composition within and outside the rare birds national nature reserve of yancheng, jiangsu province.200718038802
anopheles kleini, anopheles pullus, and anopheles sinensis: potential vectors of plasmodium vivax in the republic of korea.anopheles sinensis wiedemann (63.3%) was the most abundant anopheles mosquito captured at cowshed resting collections in malaria high-risk areas (northern gyeonggi province) near the demilitarized zone (dmz) in korea during 2005, followed by anopheles kleini rueda (24.7%) and anopheles pullus m. yamada (8.7%). at cowshed resting collections in malaria low-risk areas (jeonnam and gyeongnam provinces), an. sinensis accounted for 96.8% of all anopheles spp. collected, followed by an. kleini rueda ( ...200718047210
distribution of anopheles in vietnam, with particular attention to malaria vectors of the anopheles minimus complex.the distribution of anopheline mosquitoes in vietnam was examined, with a particular interest for the two sibling species of the anopheles minimus complex (cellia: myzomyia), an. minimus and anopheles harrisoni, respectively former species a and c. because the morphological identification of both sibling species is difficult and may lead to misidentifications, accurate data on their respective distribution are missing. this is of fundamental importance since the two species seem to exhibit diffe ...200818190697
mathematical models for lymphatic filariasis transmission and control: challenges and prospects. 200818275593
preliminary observation on the gradient distribution of hibernating females of anopheles sinensis and anopheles pullus in the republic of korea.hibernating females of the anopheles hyrcanus complex were collected at 4 different latitudes at the end of the hibernation period in march of 2005 and 2006, and species were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) identification. at paju (37.8 degrees n; average temperature in december february = -3.5 degrees c) 74.6% of the females collected were an. pullus and 22.4% were an. sinensis. at seosan (36.8 degrees n; december-february average temperature = -1.0 degrees c) and buan (35.7 degree ...200818437825
the resting sites and blood-meal sources of anopheles minimus in taiwan.the who declared taiwan free from malaria in 1965, but in 2003 the reporting of two introduced cases in a rural area suggested a possible local transmission of this disease. therefore, understanding the resting sites and the blood sources of anopheles minimus is crucial in order to provide information for implementing vector control strategies.200818538036
dynamics of positional warfare malaria: finland and korea compared.a sudden outbreak of vivax malaria among finnish troops in se-finland and along the front line in hanko peninsula in the southwest occurred in 1941 during world war ii. the common explanation has been an invasion of infective anopheles mosquitoes from the russian troops crossing the front line between finland and soviet union. a revised explanation is presented based on recent studies of finnish malaria.200818778473
ectopic migration of an adult heartworm in a dog with dirofilariasis (case report).a 3-yr-old female mongrel dog was referred to the veterinary teaching hospital of chungnam national university in the republic of korea. an adult heartworm, dirofilaria immitis, was found in the abdominal cavity of the dog during spaying. dirofilariasis in this dog was also diagnosed by modified knott's test, elisa test, and pcr analysis. the present case is the first report on the migration of an adult dog heartworm to the abdominal cavity of a dog in the republic of korea.200818830057
spatial analysis of malaria in anhui province, china.malaria has re-emerged in anhui province, china, and this province was the most seriously affected by malaria during 2005-2006. it is necessary to understand the spatial distribution of malaria cases and to identify highly endemic areas for future public health planning and resource allocation in anhui province.200818847489
a recent survey of mosquito fauna in guangdong province,southern china, with a review of past records [corrected].the southern province of guangdong has long been subject to endemic mosquito-borne diseases. in recent years, this region of china has experienced rapid, extensive economic development involving environmental change, making much of the scant knowledge of its mosquito fauna obsolete. this paper reviews previous mosquito surveys, some of which may be too old to be of relevance to present-day conditions, and presents the results of a recent survey of adult and immature mosquitoes. the main vectors ...200819120964
nonreproductive isolation among four allopatric strains of anopheles sinensis in verify the genetic proximity of anopheles sinensis strains in korea, china, japan, and thailand, we established 5 iso-female lines, and investigated their genetic relationships by analyzing crossing tests and comparing the dna sequences of rdna internal transcribed spacer 2 (its2) and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 (co2). the results of reciprocal and f1-hybrid crosses between thailand form b (x, y2) with japanese form a (x, y1), japanese form b with korean form b, and korean fo ...200819181054
distribution of arboviruses and mosquitoes in northwestern yunnan province, china.from july to september in 2005 and 2006, a survey was conducted to identify mosquito species and mosquito-borne arboviruses at elevations ranging from 900-3280 m between 24 degrees 00' n and 29 degrees 00' n latitude in the northwestern part of yunnan province, china. a total of 54,879 mosquitoes representing 15 species and 4 genera was collected using uv light traps at 59 sites. culex tritaeniorhynchus and anopheles sinensis were the most abundant species. the density of mosquitoes as well as t ...200919196130
molecular genetic characterization of the merozoite surface protein 1 gene of plasmodium vivax from reemerging korean isolates.plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein 1 (pvmsp-1) has been considered a major candidate for the development of an antimalaria vaccine, but the molecule exhibits antigenic diversity among isolates. the extent of genetic polymorphism in the region between interspecies conserved blocks 4 and 5 (icb4 and icb5) of the pvmsp-1 gene was analyzed for 30 korean isolates. two genotypes, sk-a and sk-b, were identified on the basis of amino acid substitution. almost all the amino acid sequences of the ...200919261779
the susceptibility of anopheles lesteri to infection with korean strain of plasmodium vivax.following its recent re-emergence, malaria has gained renewed attention as a serious infectious disease in korea. three species of the hyrcanusgroup, anopheles lesteri, anopheles sinensis and anopheles pullus, have long been suspected malaria vectors. however, opinions about their vector ability are controversial. the present study was designed with the aim of determining the susceptibility of these mosquitoes to a korean isolate of plasmodium vivax. also, an. sinensis is primarily suspected to ...200919284634
[evaluation on malaria situation in areas along yellow river and huaihe river by indirect fluorescent antibody test].to evaluate malaria situation by indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) in 12 villages of six counties along yellow river and huihe river in anhui, henan and hubei provinces.200819288913
anopheles pseudowillmori is the predominant malaria vector in motuo county, tibet autonomous region.malaria is endemic in linzhi prefecture in the tibet autonomous region (tar), but the vector for malaria transmission had never been identified.200919291287
absence of knockdown resistance suggests metabolic resistance in the main malaria vectors of the mekong insecticide resistance may jeopardize the successful malaria control programmes in the mekong region, a large investigation was previously conducted in the mekong countries to assess the susceptibility of the main malaria vectors against ddt and pyrethroid insecticides. it showed that the main vector, anopheles epiroticus, was highly pyrethroid-resistant in the mekong delta, whereas anopheles minimus sensu lato was pyrethroid-resistant in northern vietnam. anopheles dirus sensu stricto showed ...200919400943
efficiency evaluation of nozawa-style black light trap for control of anopheline spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets have achieved some success in controlling anthropophilic and endophagic vectors. however, these methods have relatively low efficacy in korea because anopheles sinensis, the primary malaria vector, is highly zoophilic and exophilic. so, we focused our vector control efforts within livestock enclosures using ultraviolet black light traps as a mechanical control measure. we found that black light traps captured significantly more mosquitoes ...200919488423
geographic distribution and ecology of potential malaria vectors in the republic of korea.environmental geospatial data and adult and larval mosquito collection data for up to 106 sites throughout the republic of korea (rok) were used to develop ecological niche models (enms) of the potential geographic distribution for eight anopheline species known to occur there. the areas predicted suitable for the hyrcanus group species were the most extensive for anopheles sinensis wiedemann, an. kleini rueda, an. belenrae rueda, and an. pullus yamada, intermediate for an. sineroides yamada, an ...200919496442
[the first report of kadipiro virus isolation in china].5 strains of virus isolated from culex tritaeniorhynchus, anopheles sinensis and armigeres subalbatus, which caused cytopathic effect in c6/36 cells, had been obtained in the survey of arboviruses in northwestern yunnan province. china. the virus particles displayed 70 nanometers diameter (n=7) with no envelope but spikes on the surfaces. rna-page of the genomes of the isolates showed 6-5-1 profile. a fragment of the 12th segment sequence was amplified by a pair of specific primers for kadipiro ...200919634758
in silico evidence for the species-specific conservation of mosquito retroposons: implications as a molecular biomarker.mosquitoes are the transmissive vectors for several infectious pathogens that affect man. however, the control of mosquitoes through insecticide and pesticide spraying has proved difficult in the past. we hypothesized that, by virtue of their reported vertical inheritance among mosquitoes, group ii introns - a class of small coding ribonucleic acids (scrnas) - may form a potential species-specific biomarker. structurally, introns are a six-moiety complex. depending on the function of the protein ...200919640272
application of the indirect fluorescent antibody assay in the study of malaria infection in the yangtze river three gorges reservoir, china.china yangtze three gorges project (tgp) is one of the biggest construction projects in the world. the areas around the three gorge dam has a history of tertian malaria and subtertian malaria epidemic, but there are no overall data about malaria epidemics before the completion of the project. the objective of this study was to get a reliable baseline on malaria infection in the yangtze river three gorges reservoir area and to provide reference data for future studies about the impact of the proj ...200919678949
bacillus thuringiensis serovar mogi (flagellar serotype 3a3b3d), a novel serogroup with a mosquitocidal activity.the flagellated vegetative cells of the bacillus thuringiensis strain k4 were agglutinated with the h3 reference antiserum and further, agglutinated with 3b and 3d monospecific factor sera but non-reactive for 3c and 3e factor sera. this creates a new serogroup with flagellar antigenic structure of 3a3b3d: b. thuringiensis serovar mogi. the strain k4 showed high activity against dipteran larvae, anopheles sinensis and culex pipienspallens while no lepidopteran toxicity. it produced ovoidal paras ...200919703461
a locally acquired falciparum malaria via nosocomial transmission in korea.a 57-year old man who was admitted to an emergency room of a tertiary hospital with hemoptysis developed malarial fever 19 days later and then died from severe falciparum malaria 2 days later. he had not traveled outside of korea for over 30 years. through intensive interviews and epidemiological surveys, we found that a foreign patient with a recent history of travel to africa was transferred to the same hospital with severe falciparum malaria. we confirmed through molecular genotyping of the m ...200919724701
impact of insecticide-treated nets on wild pyrethroid resistant anopheles epiroticus population from southern vietnam tested in experimental this study, the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets was evaluated in terms of deterrence, blood-feeding inhibition, induced exophily and mortality on a wild resistant population of anopheles epiroticus in southern vietnam, in order to gain insight into the operational consequences of the insecticide resistance observed in this malaria vector in the mekong delta.200919874581
successful control of lymphatic filariasis in the republic of korea.a successful experience of lymphatic filariasis control in the republic of korea is briefly reviewed. filariasis in the republic of korea was exclusively caused by infection with brugia malayi. over the past several decades from the 1950s to 2006, many investigators exerted their efforts to detection, treatment, and follow-up of filariasis patients in endemic areas, and to control filariasis. mass, combined with selective, treatments with diethylcarbamazine to microfilaria positive persons had b ...200919967079
short report: natural hybrid between anopheles kleini and anopheles sinensis.while analyzing wild mosquitoes caught in paju, south korea, we identified one egg-laying hybrid female between anopheles kleini and anopheles sinensis. additional evidence was obtained by identifying several f(1) progeny and conducting self-crossing between them. sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequence suggested that the maternal origin of the female should be an. sinensis . additionally, observation of only two distinct genotypes of f(1) progeny (double band, hybrid ...200919996431
global status of ddt and its alternatives for use in vector control to prevent disease.i review the status of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (ddt), used for disease vector control, along with current evidence on its benefits and risks in relation to the available alternatives.200920049114
nationwide surveillance of west nile virus targeting mosquitoes and dead birds from april 2004 through march 2007 in japan.we conducted nationwide west nile virus (wnv) surveillance targeting mosquitoes and dead birds to reveal whether the virus and its potential vectors are present in japan. a total of 12 766 mosquitoes and 230 dead birds were collected in april 2004-march 2005 (the 2004-2005 period), 10 755 mosquitoes and 267 dead birds in april 2005-march 2006 (the 2005-2006 period), and 8624 mosquitoes and 245 dead birds in april 2006-march 2007 (the 2006-2007 period). the species of most of the mosquitoes colle ...201120163573
species composition, larval habitats, seasonal occurrence and distribution of potential malaria vectors and associated species of anopheles (diptera: culicidae) from the republic of korea.larval mosquito habitats of potential malaria vectors and related species of anopheles from three provinces (gyeonggi, gyeongsangbuk, chungcheongbuk provinces) of the republic of korea were surveyed in 2007. this study aimed to determine the species composition, seasonal occurrence and distributions of anopheles mosquitoes. satellite derived normalized difference vegetation index data (ndvi) was also used to study the seasonal abundance patterns of anopheles mosquitoes.201020163728
banna virus, china, 1987-2007.banna viruses (bavs) have been isolated from pigs, cattle, ticks, mosquitoes, and human encephalitis patients. we isolated and analyzed 20 bavs newly isolated in china; this finding extends the distribution of bavs from tropical zone to north temperate climates and demonstrate regional variations in bav phylogeny and mosquito species possibly involved in bav transmission.201020202434
mosquito species associated within some western himalayas phytogeographic zones in the garhwal region of india.thirty four species of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) were collected across three phytogeographic zones; tropical (300 to 1000 m), sub tropical (1000 to 2000 m) and temperate (2000 to 3000 m) in the garhwal region of india. they included 5 genera: aedes, anopheles, armigeres, culex and uranotaenia. of these, the immature forms of 23 species were recovered from different breeding habitats. the larval habitats were seepage pools, river beds, rice fields, tanks, forest pools, ditches, streams, roc ...200720233101
malaria vector surveillance in ganghwa-do, a malaria-endemic area in the republic of korea.we investigated the seasonality of anopheles mosquitoes, including its species composition, density, parity, and population densities of mosquitoes infected with the parasite in ganghwa-do (island), a vivax malaria endemic area in the republic of korea. mosquitoes were collected periodically with a dry-ice-tent trap and a blacklight trap during the mosquito season (april-october) in 2008. anopheles sinensis (94.9%) was the most abundant species collected, followed by anopheles belenrae (3.8%), a ...201020333283
presence of two alternative kdr-like mutations, l1014f and l1014s, and a novel mutation, v1010l, in the voltage gated na+ channel of anopheles culicifacies from orissa, india.knockdown resistance in insects resulting from mutation(s) in the voltage gated na+ channel (vgsc) is one of the mechanisms of resistance against ddt and pyrethroids. recently a point mutation leading to leu-to-phe substitution in the vgsc at residue 1014, a most common kdr mutation in insects, was reported in anopheles culicifacies-a major malaria vector in the indian subcontinent. this study reports the presence of two additional amino acid substitutions in the vgsc of an an. culicifacies popu ...201020509922
elimination of malaria risk through integrated combination strategies in a tropical military training island.on the military training facility of tekong island, singapore, a comprehensive vector-borne disease control program was started in end-2006 to reduce mosquito populations and negate the need for anti-malaria chemoprophylaxis. the program was based on 1) preventing importation of malaria through screening of visitors, 2) preventing human-to-mosquito transmission through early case detection and mosquito control, 3) preventing mosquito-to-human transmission through personal protection, and 4) cont ...201020519595
blocking effect of a monoclonal antibody against recombinant pvs25 on sporozoite development in anopheles develop a vaccine to block the transmission of vivax malaria, the gene encoding the ookinete surface protein pvs25 was cloned from a korean malaria patient. the pvs25 gene was 660 bp long, encoding 219 amino acids. it was subcloned into the expression vector pqe30 and expressed in escherichia coli. the expressed recombinant protein, named rpvs25, showed a molecular mass of approximately 25 kda by sds-page analysis. an anti-rpvs25 monoclonal antibody produced in balb/c mice was able to inhibit ...201020554802
molecular epidemiological investigation of plasmodium knowlesi in humans and macaques in singapore.singapore reported its first locally acquired human plasmodium knowlesi infection in 2007, involving a soldier who had undergone training in a forested area where long-tailed macaques are frequently seen. comprehensive disease surveillance and monitoring system that was set up after the initial case detected four additional human p. knowlesi cases in 2007 and one in 2008. all involved military personnel who had undergone training in the forested area, and none had traveled out of singapore 1 mon ...201120586605
validation of ecological niche models for potential malaria vectors in the republic of on molecularly identified adult and larval mosquitoes collected from 104 sites from the republic of korea (rok) in 2007 were used to test the predictive ability of recently reported ecological niche models (enms) for 8 potential malaria vectors. the enms, based on the program maxent and the least presence threshold criterion, predicted 100% of new collection locations for anopheles sinensis, an. belenrae, an. pullus, and an. sineroides; 96% of locations for an. kleini; and 83% for an. leste ...201020649131
[the midgut bacterial flora in lab-reared anopheles sinensis].to screen gram-negative bacteria in the midguts of lab-reared anopheles sinensis at 3 development stages (larva, unfed adult and engorged adult).201020666322
the role of pvs28 in sporozoite development in anopheles sinensis and its longevity in balb/c develop a vivax malaria vaccine for blocking malarial transmission, the ookinete surface protein pvs28 was cloned from korean malaria patients using polymerase chain reaction. the pvs28 gene consists of 726bp and encodes 241 amino acids. it was subcloned into the expression vector pqe30 and expressed in escherichia coli. the expressed recombinant protein, rpvs28, has a molecular weight of about 28 kda in sds-page analysis. a monoclonal antibody against rpvs28 was produced using balb/c mice. i ...201120801117
vectors and malaria transmission in deforested, rural communities in north-central vietnam.malaria is still prevalent in rural communities of central vietnam even though, due to deforestation, the primary vector anopheles dirus is uncommon. in these situations little is known about the secondary vectors which are responsible for maintaining transmission. basic information on the identification of the species in these rural communities is required so that transmission parameters, such as ecology, behaviour and vectorial status can be assigned to the appropriate species.201020846447
the 6th meeting of the global alliance to eliminate lymphatic filariasis: a half-time review of lymphatic filariasis elimination and its integration with the control of other neglected tropical diseases.abstract: the 6th meeting of the global alliance to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (gaelf6) was held 1-3 june, 2010 in seoul, korea, with 150 participants from 38 countries. the year 2010 marks the midpoint between the first gaelf meeting, in 2000, and the world health organization (who) 2020 goal of global elimination of lymphatic filariasis (lf) as a public health problem. the theme of the meeting, "half-time in lf elimination: teaming up with neglected tropical diseases (ntds)," reflected sig ...201020961435
entomologic and molecular investigation into plasmodium vivax transmission in singapore, 2009.singapore has been certified malaria free since november 1982 by the world health organization and despite occasional local transmission, the country has maintained the standing. in 2009, three clusters of malaria cases were reported in singapore.201021029478
geographical, meteorological and vectorial factors related to malaria re-emergence in huang-huai river of central china.malaria still represents a significant public health problem in china, and the cases dramatically increased in the areas along the huang-huai river of central china after 2001. considering spatial aggregation of malaria cases and specific vectors, the geographical, meteorological and vectorial factors were analysed to determine the key factors related to malaria re-emergence in these particular areas.201021092326
malaria transmission and vector behaviour in a forested malaria focus in central vietnam and the implications for vector vietnam, malaria is becoming progressively restricted to specific foci where human and vector characteristics alter the known malaria epidemiology, urging for alternative or adapted control strategies. long-lasting insecticidal hammocks (llih) were designed and introduced in ninh thuan province, south-central vietnam, to control malaria in the specific context of forest malaria. an entomological study in this specific forested environment was conducted to assess the behavioural patterns of fo ...201021182774
molecular taxonomy of members of the anopheles hyrcanus group from thailand and indonesia.during studies of malaria vectors in indonesia and thailand, several specimens identified by field staff as members of the anopheles barbirostris group (diptera: culicidae) were found to belong to the anopheles hyrcanus group, as shown by marked differences in the size of the nuclear rdna second internal transcribed spacer (its2) between the barbirostris (~1500 bp) and hyrcanus (~600 bp) groups. identification of the species concerned required a more detailed study of its2 sequences and subunit ...201121198713
population dynamics of five anopheles species of the hyrcanus group in northern gyeonggi-do, investigate the population densities of potential malaria vectors, anopheles species were collected by light traps in malaria endemic areas, paju and gimpo, gyeonggi-do of korea. five anopheles hyrcanus sibling species (an. sinensis, an. pullus, an. lesteri, an. kleini, and an. belenrae) were identified by pcr. the predominant species, an. pullus was collected during the late spring and mid-summer, while higher population consists of an. sinensis were collected from late summer to early autum ...201021234242
detection of an antibody against plasmodium vivax in residents of gimpo-si, south korea, using an indirect fluorescent antibody test.first reemerged malaria case was reported in 1993 after two decades absent in south korea. thereafter, plasmodium vivax spreads out near demilitarized zone (dmz). this study investigated the prevalence of p. vivax after the malaria transmission season in gimpo-si where adjacent to dmz of south korea. an indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) was performed to evaluate anti-malaria antibodies in blood samples.201121281481
evaluation of octenol and lurex as baits in mosquito magnet pro traps to collect vector mosquitoes in china.the effectiveness of the attractants 1-octen-3-ol (octenol) and l-lactic acid (lurex) on the collection of aedes albopictus, culex tritaeniorhynchus, cx. pipiens pallens, and anopheles sinensis was first evaluated in mosquito magnet pro traps in yamenkou and badachu residential areas, beijing city, and lishui area, zhejiang province, china. the mosquito magnet pro traps baited with octenol collected significantly more ae. albopictus, cx. tritaeniorhynchus, and an. sinensis, but fewer cx. pipiens ...201021290944
newly recognized mosquito-associated viruses in mainland china, in the last two decades.there are four principal arboviruses in mainland china. two kinds of them are mosquito-borne viruses, namely japanese encephalitis virus and dengue virus, which lead to japanese encephalitis, and dengue fever/dengue hemorrhagic fever respectively; the other two are tick-borne viruses, namely tick-borne encephalitis virus and crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (also known as xinjiang hemorrhagic fever virus), which contribute to tick-borne encephalitis and xinjiang hemorrhagic fever respective ...201121314994
next-generation sequencing reveals recent horizontal transfer of a dna transposon between divergent mosquitoes.horizontal transfer of genetic material between complex organisms often involves transposable elements (tes). for example, a dna transposon mariner has been shown to undergo horizontal transfer between different orders of insects and between different phyla of animals. here we report the discovery and characterization of an itmd37d transposon, mj1, in anopheles sinensis. we show that some mj1 elements in aedes aegypti and an. sinensis contain intact open reading frames and share nearly 99% nucle ...201121379317
knockdown resistance (kdr)-like mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel of a malaria vector anopheles stephensi and pcr assays for their detection.knockdown resistance (kdr) in insects, resulting from mutation(s) in the voltage-gated sodium channel (vgsc) gene is one of the mechanisms of resistance against ddt and pyrethroid-group of insecticides. the most common mutation(s) associated with knockdown resistance in insects, including anophelines, has been reported to be present at residue leu1014 in the iis6 transmembrane segment of the vgsc gene. this study reports the presence of two alternative kdr-like mutations, l1014s and l1014f, at t ...201121401946
risk analysis of the re-emergence of plasmodium vivax malaria in japan using a stochastic transmission model.this study analyzed the risk of infection with plasmodium vivax in local residents through a stochastic simulation in which an infected tourist, local resident, or immigrants from an endemic area would visit himi-shi, toyama prefecture, which is a formerly endemic area in japan.201121431796
seasonal prevalence of mosquitoes, including vectors of brugian filariasis, in southern islands of the republic of korea.a survey of mosquitoes, including the vector status of brugia malayi filariasis and their relative larval density, was conducted from 2002 to 2005 at several southern remote islands of jeollanam-do (province), gyeongsangnam-do, and jeju-do, korea, where filariasis was previously endemic. overall, a total of 9 species belonging to 7 genera were collected. ochlerotatus togoi (formerly known as aedes togoi), anopheles (hyrcanus) group, and culex pipiens were the predominant species captured at all ...201121461270
continuity and change of japanese encephalitis virus in toyama prefecture, japan.abstract. to determine the mechanisms of maintenance and evolution of japanese encephalitis virus (jev) in a temperate zone, we attempted to isolate jev from mosquitoes and pigs in toyama prefecture, japan. a total of 87 jevs were isolated from female culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes and pigs during 2005-2009. the prevalence of jev in toyama prefecture was seasonally late in comparison with that of the virus during 1966-1972. furthermore, jevs were isolated after the peak in the number of fema ...201121540378
distribution of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne arboviruses in yunnan province near the china-myanmar-laos border.abstract. economic development and increased tourism in the southern region of yunnan province in china, adjacent to several countries in southeast asia, has increased the likelihood of import and export of vectors and vector-borne diseases. we report the results of surveillance of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne arboviruses along the border of china-myanmar-laos in 2005 and 2006, and information associating several arboviruses with infections and possibly disease in local human populations. seven ...201121540383
isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers from asian malaria mosquito anopheles sinensis (diptera: culicidae).microsatellite-containing region were isolated and characterized in anopheles sinensis, a primary vector of malaria parasites in asia. an enrichment protocol yielded 252 microsatellite sequences. we designed primers to amplify 20 unique microsatellites, 14 of which amplify cleanly and were polymorphic. a survey of 24 individuals showed that 12 loci are highly variable with the number of alleles ranging from two to 11, and expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.116 to 0.903. these markers will be ...200821585971
the dominant anopheles vectors of human malaria in the asia-pacific region: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic precis.abstract: background: the final article in a series of three publications examining the global distribution of 41 dominant vector species (dvs) of malaria is presented here. the first publication examined the dvs from the americas, with the second covering those species present in africa, europe and the middle east. here we discuss the 19 dvs of the asian-pacific region. this region experiences a high diversity of vector species, many occurring sympatrically, which, combined with the occurrence ...201121612587
distribution and larval habitats of anopheles species in northern gyeonggi province, republic of korea.a total of 180 larval collection sites (e.g., rice paddies, marshes, ground pools, ponds, stream margins, and irrigation and drainage ditches) was surveyed within a 2 km radius from warrior base training area, 5 km south of panmunjeom (joint security area, demilitarized zone), gyeonggi province, republic of korea (rok), from may through october, 2007 to characterize larval habitat distributions of members of the anopheles hyrcanus group (an. sinensis, an. lesteri, an. pullus, an. belenrae, an. k ...201121635650
emergence of genotype i of japanese encephalitis virus as the dominant genotype in asia.japanese encephalitis virus (jev), a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen, is one of the major causes of viral encephalitis worldwide. previous phylogenetic studies based on the envelope protein indicated that there are four genotypes, and surveillance data suggest that genotype i is gradually replacing genotype iii as the dominant strain. here we report an evolutionary analysis based on 98 full-length genome sequences of jev, including 67 new samples isolated from humans, pigs, mosquitoes, midges. ...201121697481
population structure of the malaria vector anopheles sinensis (diptera: culicidae) in china: two gene pools inferred by microsatellites.anopheles sinensis is a competent malaria vector in china. an understanding of vector population structure is important to the vector-based malaria control programs. however, there is no adequate data of a. sinensis population genetics available yet.201121799796
meteorological factors-based spatio-temporal mapping and predicting malaria in central china.despite significant reductions in the overall burden of malaria in the 20th century, this disease still represents a significant public health problem in china, especially in central areas. understanding the spatio-temporal distribution of malaria is essential in the planning and implementing of effective control measures. in this study, normalized meteorological factors were incorporated in spatio-temporal models. seven models were established in winbugs software by using bayesian hierarchical ...021896823
discovery of dna viruses in wild-caught mosquitoes using small rna high throughput sequencing.mosquito-borne infectious diseases pose a severe threat to public health in many areas of the world. current methods for pathogen detection and surveillance are usually dependent on prior knowledge of the etiologic agents involved. hence, efficient approaches are required for screening wild mosquito populations to detect known and unknown pathogens.201121949749
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